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SOCIETY OF ALLIED WEIGHT ENGINEERS, INC.
Serving the Aerospace – Shipbuilding, Land Vehicle and Allied Industries
SAWE Corporate Address P.O. Box 60024, Terminal Annex Los Angeles, CA 90060
RECOMMENDED PRACTICE NUMBER 14
Issued Revised May 22, 2001
Weight Estimating and Margin Manual For Marine Vehicles
Issue No. - .
Prepared by Marine Systems Government - Industry Workshop Society of Allied Weight Engineers in cooperation with the Society of Naval Architect and Marine Engineers (SNAME), Ship Design – 1 Panel
All SAWE technical reports, including standards applied and practices recommended, are advisory only. Their use by anyone engaged in industry or trade is entirely voluntary. There is no agreement to adhere to any SAWE standard or recommended practice, and no commitment to conform to or be guided by any technical report. In formulating and approving technical reports, the SAWE will not investigate or consider patents which may apply to the subject matter. Prospective users of the report are responsible for protecting themselves against liability for infringement of patents.
Notwithstanding the above, if this recommended practice is incorporated into a contract, it shall be binding to the extent specified in the contract.
This Recommended Practice was developed under a joint partnership agreement with the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME), Ship Design-1 Panel and SAWE, Marine Systems, Government – Industry Workshop, and is a product of a cooperative effort by both professional societies. SNAME will issue this document as a SNAME Technical & Research Bulletin (T & R Bulletin # XX). The SAWE Government – Industry Marine Systems Workshop gratefully acknowledges the efforts of the following section authors: Section 3.1 Section 3.2 Section 4.0 Standard Coordinate System Weight Classification Systems Weight and CG Estimating Methods and Procedures Weight and CG Margins Dan Dolan Burt Walker Andy Schuster
Dominick Cimino and Chris Filiopoulos Sebastian Phillips Ray Holland Dominick Cimino
Section 6.0 Section 7.0 Section 8.1
Weight Reporting Requirements Weight Measurement Weight Moment of Inertia/ Gyradius Longitudinal Weight Distribution
Burt Walker and Dominick Cimino
i i .
.......3-3 3........4-4 4................................................................................................... Customary Station 0 at FP ............................4-5 4.4-1 4.4-1 4................................................................3 Military...........4-1 4.......................................................................................................1........1 Basic Weight Estimating.1 Basic Weight Estimating Equation..2 Factoring Methods.......................................................................2 MarAd (U.1 Weight Control Program.............................................2-1 Standard Reference Systems .........2...........................................................................7 Statistical.1................................................................................................. S........................................4 System Knowledge.. S.........1 General .............5-1 5.....................................3.............................1 The Process .........13 Midship Extrapolation Method ..................2 Elements of a Weight Estimate .....................5-2 5.........0 ............4-7 4..3...........................................................4-5 4...................................4-3 4...........................3-1 3....2..3....................................5-1 5..........................3.............8 Volumetric Density..........10 Regulatory Bodies Rules and Industry Design Standards..............5-2 ii 2...S..................................11 Top Down...........................................................3-4 3.....................1................................4-2 4...............4 Algorithm .................................3-3 3..............5-1 5........................2...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4-6 4...............................................................1 Acquisition Margins..............................................2.0 5....................14 Percent Complete .......5 Design History.......5-2 5..............2....................................1........................................................................................2 European Customary Station 0 at A...0 3........1 Weight Control Plan...................................9 Deck Area Function...........5 Baseline ..............................................................................................................................................................2 Commercial..................................3 Weight Classification Systems.................3 Database .................................4 Policy...........................................................................4-3 4..............................4-7 4.............................12 Bottom Up ..4-2 4....................4-4 4..............0.2 Unit Weights .............................4-7 Weight and Center of Gravity Margins ...2................ Navy) ..................................2.....................2..................................4-5 4.......3-4 3..........3 Fractions....4-4 4......................................................0.....4-7 4.4-3 4......2..................................... Commercial) ...........................................................................................4-5 4...........................................................................................................................1-1 1...3..................Table of Contents Page 1.............2...................................2 Calibrated Methods....................4-1 4...........2...............2.................................................................3-5 Weight and CG Estimating Methods and Procedures...................................4-3 4......................0 Introduction......................................................................................1-1 Definition of Terms..3 Other Systems ................................................................1 U.......................................................................................1 ESWBS (U............0 4..........................................4-3 4....3-1 3......................15 Synthesis Programs………………………………………………………..............................................................................4-3 4...................................1........................................................................2.5-1 5.................................................................2...................................................................................................................2...........................4-1 4..2 Service Life Allowances ..........................6 Ratiocination....................................
.................................................8-1 8.............................................................................................0 Acquisition Margins...............................................................................................4......................................1..................................... 8-3 7... Loading Conditions..........................1..........1 Weight Moment of Inertia /Gyradius .......................7-1 7............................................9-1 Appendix: A B C ESWBS 1-Digit and 3-Digit Listing MarAd Weight Classification Listing Inclining Experiment General Guidance iii ..................................................1 Weighing of Material and Equipment .......2 Deadweight Survey/Determination...................1 6..0 9...............6-1 6......7-1 7.3 Inclining Experiment ..........1................5.................................................................................................................................................7-2 Other ............3 Gyradius Estimated Values ..............................................7-2 7.......5-2 Reporting Requirements............................................................6-1 6...8-2 8.............................................................................................................................................................................8-2 8...................................0 References .............1 Weight Moment of Inertia ......................6-2 Weight Measurement ...............................................................................................................................................................2 Longitudinal Weight Distribution ..................................2 Gyradius .............8-2 8............1 Detail Corresponding to Level of Design...........0 8..........8-1 8.2 Margins........................................................
....................................... 5-6 Estimated Gyradius Values for Surface Ships and Submarines...................... Table 2................................................. Figure 3.................................. 5-4 Three Rotational Motions of a ship ................................................................. 8-1 Lightship 22 Station Weight Distribution ......................................................... Table 7............. Figure 5....... Figure 7........ 8-5 List of Tables Table 1.... Isometric view of surface ship with standard U....................................................... Figure 2.................................................... Figure 6................ Weight Estimating Database .... iv ... coordinate system................List of Figures Figure 1......... 5-5 Service Life Allowance Values ........................... 8-4 Table 3......S.................... Figure 4............................................. 3-1 Referenced origins.. 4-1 Weight and KG Risk Assessment ................................................................ 5-5 Risk Consequences ... 5-3 Design Characterization Ratings................................................................................................... 3-2 Acquisition Margin Value Ranges by Ship Design and Construction Phases ............ ...........8-2 Lightship and Full Load Conditions. Table 4... 8-4 Full Load Condition 22 Station Weight Distribution ........................ 3-2 High Level Weight Engineering Process..................... Table 5 Table 6.............................................................
Refer to ASTM F 133293. Throughout this document the term weight is used to represent all the mass properties of a ship or object.0 1-1 . Too. With that in mind. An essential component of an effective weight control program is the weight control plan which is developed by the shipbuilder to control the weight during the design and construction phases.). this paper is viewed by most weight engineers as the formal introduction of the weight control program. in New York City. analyses. It is a program that includes all actions necessary to ensure that a ship’s weight and moments are consistent with approved naval architectural requirements for strength. S. Weight Control of U. Timeliness is considered one of the primary ingredients of a successful weight control program. 1 Numbers in square brackets designate References. Also. S. Standard Practice for Use of SI (Metric) Units in Maritime Applications  1 for conversion factors to convert inch pound quantities to SI (metric) quantities for units. high speed craft and submarines are mentioned in some instances to demonstrate alternative methodologies. customary units are measured in pounds and long tons ( 2. Military practices and conventions are summarized and referenced but not fully documented.1 Weight Control Program The U. These properties include the weight. delivery and into the ship’s service life. analyzing. is synonymous with mass. weight moments and weight moment of inertia. weight in U. construction. 1. and so forth. Weight reporting. KG. moments to trim. in November 1965. often. It is a prime function of the administration and management of any ship design and construction project. and recommending specific corrective action when necessary. weighting. Also. and projecting. stability and performance. Navy’s weight control process was essentially formalized.240 lbs. reporting. S. the submission of weight reports (the act of weight reporting) has been mistaken for weight control. and judgements. moment. detail design.S. calculating. It involves making design decisions. Naval Ships. and to reference sources of weight estimating data for ships and their components for use at various stages of design. list and trim of the ship at periodic times during the various design and construction phases. A SNAME paper. center of gravity. Additionally. is not weight control. The following points paraphrase the essence of a weight control program. by itself. weight is measured in kilograms and metric tonnes (1000 kg). Weight reporting is a necessary part of weight control and provides the best representation of the displacement. as a program. centers of gravity and weight moments of inertia for surface ships. in the middle 1960’s. documented as well as highlighted key elements of the program. Conventions and practices for offshore drill rigs. but are documented only by references. Section 9. It includes estimating.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this Bulletin is to document naval architectural practices and conventions used in the estimation and determination of the weight. presented at the Annual Meeting. throughout this document the term weight as commonly understood in the maritime industry. this manual  is still applicable and is particularly noteworthy when considering the many significant technological engineering advancements that have occurred over the last three decades. Naval ships. as it relates to U. after the test of time (over 35 years).1. Weight control must begin with the earliest phases/milestones of a ship design and keep pace with the ship’s development through transitional design. and in SI units (metric).
4. Examples of a weight control plan can found in References [3. and 5].The weight control plan is an essential part of the overall weight control program. the specific elements of the plan are developed around the contractual requirements and the commitment to the overall mass properties goals and objectives. It may be structured to reflect general approaches to weight control. 1-2 . However. and outlines the type of weight control measures and procedures that are considered in order to meet the established weight control responsibilities. It is general in nature. or outline more aggressive approaches in conjunction with incentives clauses. It is usually required in the contract for the shipbuilder to develop and implement a weight control plan.
reflecting the as built ship including the net effect of contract modifications.e. Acquisition Margins: Acquisition margins are weight and KG allowances included in weight estimates to account for the inherent limits of precision and the undefined variations of component weight and center of gravity that take place during design development and the construction of ships... Agreed Weight and Center of Gravity Estimate: An estimate of light ship weight and centers of gravity data. based on the ship design information (i. the after extremity of the design waterline or the after extremity of the sternpost. mutually agreed upon between the owner and the shipbuilder shortly after award of the shipbuilding contract. into a broad definition of an item of hardware that can be produced and operated in a manner that will satisfy the stated mission. The AP is often placed at the centerline of the rudder stock. This center as it applies to a ship has the conventional meaning used in mechanics. Concept (Basic. and so forth) available at the time of award. Center of Gravity (CG): The center through which all weights which make up the ship and its contents may be assumed to act. Aft Perpendicular (AP): A vertical line intended to denote the after end of a ship’s immersed body. i. It is the baseline for detail design and construction.2. LCG and TCG) are calculated by dividing the sum of each of three moments by the sum of weights. It establishes contractual values for weight and KG and is the baseline for detail design and construction. adjusted for inclining experiment results. drawings. Feasibility) Design: The translation of the owner’s requirements. and other technical data required to establish the contractual base for negotiation of a construction contract with a shipbuilder(s).e. it is the point at which the sum of the moments of all the weights in the ship with reference to any axis through this point is equal to zero. 2-1 . specifications.0 DEFINITION OF TERMS Accepted Weight Estimate (AWE): The AWE defines the weight and center of gravity of a ship that was awarded under a specification type contract using the information that was available at the time of contract award. specifications. As Built Weight and Center of Gravity Estimate: A detailed final estimate of light ship weight and centers of gravity data. Its three coordinates (VCG. or mission requirements. Contract Design: Consist of the preparation and formalization of the drawings. Allocated Baseline Weight Estimate (ABWE): The ABWE is the contractor’s definition of the weight and center of gravity of a ship that was awarded under a performance type contract at the time of hull and propulsion configuration approval.
and similar differences. as well as differing shipbuilding practices. Mass properties: Mass properties are those physical characteristics which define the magnitude. center of gravity location. pitch. and distribution of weight in the ship. omissions and errors in the ship construction drawings. pitch. KG: The height of the ship’s vertical center of gravity as measured from the bottom of the keel (includes keel thickness). and yaw axes. omissions and errors in the accepted weight estimate. Gyradius: The radius of gyration for roll. Detail Design: This work is usually accomplished by the shipbuilder or his agent and primarily involves the preparation of detail working drawings for ship construction. Mid Perpendicular (MP): The halfway reference point between the FP and the AP. outfitting details. location. unknown mill tolerances. historical use and common practice will lead to the retention of the word "weight" for many years as applied to the control of mass properties aboard ships. United States merchant marine. procurement specifications for the purchase of materials and planning for the ship construction. variations between the actual ship and its curves of form. weight moments. Government-Furnished Material Margin: A weight and KG allowance included in the weight estimate to account for increases caused by the growth in Government furnished material during the Detail Design and Building [Engineering and Manufacturing Development] Phase. growth of contractor furnished material. respectively. MarAd: The United States Maritime Administration whose overall mission is to promote the development and maintenance of an adequate. however. and moments of inertia. testing and trials. or yaw is the square root of the quotient of the ship’s weight moment of inertia about the roll. They include weight. divided by the ship’s displacement. The term "mass" is more definitive than the somewhat ambiguous term "weight". and capable of serving as a naval and military auxiliary in time of war or national emergency. well-balanced. Detail Design and Building (or Engineering and Manufacturing Development ) Margin: A weight and KG allowance included in the weight estimate to account for contractor responsible design changes to the current weight due to ship construction drawing development. Longitudinal lever (LCG): The longitudinal lever is the perpendicular distance from a transverse plane through the longitudinal reference of the ship to the center of gravity of an item or group of items. Forward Perpendicular (FP): A vertical line drawn through the point of intersection of the design waterline and the forward extremity of the ship. sufficient to carry the Nation's domestic waterborne commerce and a substantial portion of its waterborne foreign commerce.Contract Modification Margin: A weight and KG allowance included in the weight estimate to account for increases associated with contract modifications issued during the Detail Design and Building [Engineering and Manufacturing Development] Phase. 2-2 .
unauthorized changes. Referenced origin: The location of the intersection of the x.) during the ship’s operational lifetime which increase displacement and impact stability. accumulation of paint and deck covering.Molded Baseline: The top surface of the keel plate at its lowest point. Moment : The product of an item’s weight multiplied by the item’s lever arm.g. Preliminary Design: Development of the final ship proportions. power plant type. and unplanned growth (e. systems and weapons which enables sailors and marines to conduct timely and sustained worldwide maritime operations. despite growth throughout its service life. Pitch inertia: The moment of inertia about the transverse axis (y) through the ship's center of gravity. Weight estimate: A weight estimate is a prediction of the weight and location of the center of gravity of the ship at the time of delivery based on the definition of the design at the time the estimate is computed. design. Yaw inertia : The moment of inertia about the vertical axis (z) through the ship’s center of gravity. development. 2-3 . ship alterations). engineering. Several arrangements are often developed for comparison. NAVSEA: The Naval Sea Systems Command whose overall mission is to transform military requirements into naval capabilities through research. Preliminary/Contract Design (or Program Definition and Risk Reduction ) Margins: A weight and KG allowance included in the weight estimate to account for increases associated with design development during the Preliminary/Contract [Program Definition and Risk Reduction] Phase. The purpose of the SLA is to assure that the ship will not exceed its draft and stability limitations. Service Life Allowances (SLAs): Weight and KG allowances included in design to accommodate changes due to both authorized (e. Vertical lever (VCG): The vertical lever is the perpendicular distance from a horizontal plane through the molded baseline of the ship to the center of gravity of an item or group of items. personal belongings. y and z axes referenced to the ship.g. acquisition. Roll inertia : The moment of inertia about the longitudinal axis (x) through the ship’s center of gravity. arrangements. Transverse lever (TCG): The transverse lever is the perpendicular distance from the vertical centerline plane of the ship to the center of gravity of an item or group of items. modernization. maintenance and logistics support of effective ships. see Figure 1. etc. and structural layout that will satisfy the mission requirements.
Besides being the axis for pitch. It is oriented along the centerline of the ship. transverse dimensions are measured along or parallel to this axis. The distance measured transversely along the yaxis from the referenced origin to the ship center of gravity is referred to as the Transverse center of gravity (TCG).0.3. The distance measured longitudinally along the x-axis from the referenced origin to the ship center of gravity is referred to as the Longitudinal center of gravity (LCG). coordinate system 3. running forward and aft. standard axes for surface ships are shown in Figure 1 . Customary – Station 0 at FP Standard Axes The U. 3. It runs vertically and dimensions are measured along or parallel to this axis.1. The yaw axis is the z axis.1 STANDARD REFERENCE SYSTEMS U.2 Center of Gravity The distance measured vertically along the z axis from the referenced origin to the ship center of gravity is referred to as the Vertical center of gravity (VCG). Longitudinal dimensions are measured along or parallel to this axis. The pitch axis is the y-axis.S. The roll axis for surface ships is the x-axis.1. It runs transversely port and starboard.S. Figure 1 Isometric view of surface ship with standard U. 3-1 .S.1 3.
that the origin can also be referenced to the ship’s mid perpendicular (MP) or the aft perpendicular (AP). This is given as the vertical (z). For LCG the sign convention should be positive for all items aft of the referenced origin and negative for those forward.3 Referenced Origin The location of the center of gravity of a surface ship is defined relative to the three axes shown in Figures 1. The VCG should have a sign convention of positive for items above the referenced origin and negative for those below.1. It is recognized. However. however. The recommended referenced origin for a surface ship is the intersection of the ship’s forward perpendicular (FP). This data is sufficient to calculate the total weight and center of gravity of the ship by simply adding the weights and moments of the item’s center of gravity about the referenced origin.1.4 Calculation The weight estimate for a ship at any stage in the design is composed of a finite number of items. For TCG the sign convention should be positive for all items on the port side and negative for those on the starboard side.3. the ship’s centerline plane and the ship’s baseline. these LCG and TCG sign conventions are not an adopted standard in the marine industry at this time. longitudinal (x) and transverse (y) distance of the center of gravity from the defined referenced origin. The weight of each of these items is included in the estimate along with the location of the item’s center of gravity (CG). Figure 2 Referenced origins 3. 3-2 . Distances are measured along the three axes from a referenced origin as shown in Figure 2.
3 Weight Classification Systems The weight classification system is a method by which all weight estimates are functionally organized. margins and loads. 3. machinery and equipment. mission equipment. For weight estimates and reports.2 3. 3. and to assure completeness.3. auxiliary systems. The system and subsystem components of a ship design are generally classified in a one and three digit hierarchical numeric system. A common term used in weight engineering is “weight group. The recommended referenced origin for a European surface ship is the intersection of the ship’s aft perpendicular (AP). For LCG the sign convention should be positive for all items forward of the referenced origin and negative for those aft. the referenced origin can be changed as needed depending on the design or the shipyard. that the origin can also be referenced to the ship’s mid perpendicular (MP) or the forward perpendicular (FP). Additionally. however. The VCG should have a sign convention of positive for items above the referenced origin and negative for those below. The following classification systems are those most commonly used in today’s weight engineering environment for the design of naval and commercial ship design programs.2. It is recognized. comparison to previous designs. the ship’s centerline plane and the ship’s baseline. and similarly for the other groups. For TCG the sign convention should be positive for all items on the starboard side and negative for those on the port side. The summation of weights and moments for all of the three digit elements that begin with the number 1 is the total for Group 1.1 European Customary – Station 0 at AP Standard Axes The standard axes for surface ships using European practice are basically the same as the U. a group is the first character or digit of the multi digit system. The weight estimate for the ship design will be summarized by an estimate of lightship.” Group is a fundamental unit of ship classification.S. the weight classification system provides guidance and definition at a system and subsystem level and aids in the preparation of a complete and accurate estimate.2. The weight classification system provides the naval architect or weight engineer with a format for organizing weight data that will be in a consistent format. except for the longitudinal reference origin and transverse sign convention.. equipment and components of the ship in a structured order to facilitate weight estimating. The basic weight group definition of a ship design is represented by the ship’s structure. identified by one numeric digit or an alphabetic designator. The system allows for the grouping of materials. 3-3 .. Although the AP is normally used. outfit and furnishing. acquisition margins and loads.2 Referenced Origin The location of the center of gravity of a surface ship is defined relative to the three axes shown in Figure 2. Weight estimates will generally be categorized by one of several type of Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) or weight classification systems.
For weight reporting purposes.3. Commercial) Weight estimates and reports prepared for U. S. 3-4 . Navy) The Expanded Ship Work Breakdown Structure (ESWBS)  is a five digit functional classification system. the weight classification is a hierarchical numeric system.S. There are nine one-digit groups in the ESWBS weight classification system that comprises the weight estimate . and M) represents the projected ship design in Condition A (Lightship w/ Margins). The MarAd weight classification system is comprised of the three major groupings below: Hull Structure Outfit Machinery Weight Codes 0-0 to 9-9 Weight Codes 10-0 to 19-9 Weight Codes 20-0 to 29-9 Appendix B provides a complete listing of the MarAd weight classification system. S. commercial ship designs are classified in accordance with the MarAd weight classification system . Departure Full The ESWBS groups (1-7.3. 3. The ESWBS group F (loads) added to the projected lightship results in Condition D (departure full load). Other unique loading conditions may added and defined by other lettrs. The fourth and fifth single digit classification levels are used to incorporate the functions that support maintenance and repair needs. Acquisition Loads. As previously mentioned. only the first three digits of this system apply.2 MarAd (U.1 ESWBS (U. The ESWBS 1-digit groups represent the system level and the subsystem level is defined by the ESWBS 3-digit elements. They are as follows: ESWBS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M F Description Hull Structure Propulsion Plant Electric Plant Command and Surveillance Auxiliary Systems Outfit and Furnishings Armament Margins.3. Appendix A provides a complete listing of the ESWBS 1-digit groups and 3-digit elements.
where mission related lightship equipment and outfit is substituted for armament in Group. A similar classification system to the ESWBS is commonly developed for non-naval ships.S.3. This system is similar in content to that of the ESWBS system. Navy small craft designs are classified in accordance with the weight classification system for U.3 Other Systems Weight estimates and reports prepared for U.S. Navy small craft . 3-5 .3.
As the detailed design is developed. the weight of paint on the ship may be estimated using factors because it may not be cost effective to do surface area calculations. The purpose of the weight control process is to insure that the ship will be delivered within the naval architecture limits of the hull design. Estimating methods may be used as a check of the reasonableness of detailed weight calculations.1 The Process The weight estimate is the first step in a process to predict the final weight of the ship design in a weight control process. During the ship weighing or inclining experiment. The weight is confirmed by weighing individual components.1.0 WEIGHT AND CG ESTIMATING METHODS AND PROCEDURES 4.0.4. the final detailed weight estimate is refined to include new information.1 Weight Control The weight estimate must be done in the context of the ship design process as governed by a sound weight control program. All of these examples employ the same principals of weight estimating.1 Basic Weight Estimating 4.2 Elements of Weight Estimating All weight estimating methods are done in the context of an organization and there must be certain elements in place to insure that the weight estimating effort will be successful. assemblies and eventually the whole ship. 4. A weight control program describes how the weight will be controlled to be within the naval architectural limits of the ship and the implied accuracy of 4-1 .0. 4. During detail design. The final weight of the ship is predicted using estimating methods presented in this chapter. a surveyor may estimate the weight of stores in a storeroom based on the available volume and a stowage factor. however it is used in all phases of the process. Figure 3 – High Level Weight Engineering Process Estimate Calculate Weigh Weight Control Weight Estimating is usually associated with the initial prediction of the final ship weight. The final weight of the ship is monitored through a weight control process during all the different stages of design and construction.
It is very easy to either spend too much effort or too little effort in preparing a weight estimate at any point in the ship design process. components and materials is invaluable when creating a weight estimate. The information in the database may be used as parents for a new ship. he suggests that for major proposals an alternate method should be used to estimate each component or group. and mass inertia. both methods should be calibrated against a known ship or component.estimate at each design stage. The basic characteristics are listed below in the table below. 4. During detail design and construction. or a complete software storage. or as similar components for a ship.1.1. During early stage ship design. Table 1 – Weight Estimating Database Type Ships Contents Naval Architecture Characteristics Weight Reports System diagrams Specifications Photographs Test Reports ASTM or Mil Standards Vendor Catalogs Vendor Drawings Equipment Specifications Test records Records of weighing Specifications Catalogs Tables of Unit Weights or densities Records of weights Examples Magazine articles Sister ships Pervious designs studies Technical papers Component Machinery Outfitting Materials Steel plate Piping Insulation Paint SAWE’s Weight Engineers Handbook  4-2 . or by a line item adjudication of the differences between the current ship weight estimate to a similar design.3 Database A database of ship designs. The database can be as simple as an organized set of files on various subjects. Conversely.2 Calibrated Methods A weight estimate should not be given to an internal or external customer without validating its accuracy by some independent means. 4. methods that are appropriate for early stage design may not be appropriate for the detail design phase. However. Staton  describes this as reasonability checking and states that “Some method of checking results should be part of any analyses. This can be done by using complimentary methods such as the top down method and the bottom up methods described below for the same design. the design manager may be interested in a weight that is accurate within +/5 % of the final weight.” While he provides several methods to quickly check weight. retrieval and analysis program. the weight of an assembly or module may need to be more accurately estimated for the safety of the personnel lifting it with a crane. center of gravity.
drawings. joiner bulkheads.2. system. to establish a common basis of understanding of the weight engineering process. designing. The weight estimator must be able to interpret specifications. and system specifications. Typically one thinks of a unit weight of an outfitting item such as a chair and then just counts the number of chairs to determine their weight. 4.4. An alternative might be to determine unit weights for all the furniture. or component. This knowledge is invaluable when an expert opinion is required for checking a weight estimate for reasonableness.1. Each design office will have its own format and method to document the basis of the estimate. The trick to weight estimating is determining the unit weight and the number of units in the final ship design before the system engineers have completed the design. and how the data was manipulated into an estimate. In fact some shipyards use training programs as described by Shamburger  and Staton . and arrangement of the subject of the estimate.3 Fractions The fraction methods use a ratio between a proposed and known system. or validation test reports of estimating software. 4.5 Design History The weight estimate must be documented so that someone can check the estimate for reasonableness and so that it can be used as a basis of estimates for future projects. or operating ships. and the accuracy of the system definition at the time of the estimate.2. The number of units is dependent on what is used for a unit weight. 4. and the operations of the ship. The design history should include the reference for the baseline. There are several basic methods to define the unit weight of which three are described below.4 System Knowledge The weight estimator should have a working knowledge of the function. 4-3 . and parent information. 4.2 Unit Weights The unit weight methods use a constant weight for a single item or portion of an item.2 Factoring Methods 4. Of course diversity in the make-up of a weight estimating group is a great benefit.1. In many design offices weight engineers are senior personnel who have spent time building. such as engineering calculation or department procedures.4 Algorithm The algorithm methods use equations based on one or more variables to describe the weight of the ship. The uncertainty of the weight estimate is based on the estimating method.2.1 Basic Weight Estimating Equation The weight estimating equation is simply a unit weight multiplied by the number of units plus an uncertainty.2. and auxiliary machinery required for each passenger onboard a passenger ship. 4. The weight estimator must be familiar with the entire design and building process.
The time applied to the estimate for each change must be determined so that small changes do not use as much effort per pound of change as a large change or one that has a significant effect on ship stability. Although the method is a useful starting point in a ship design process. Ray . Redmond . Straubinger  of NAVSEA presented a detailed description of the method in a paper. 4. While spreadsheets are commonly used today to complete the regression analysis. etc. new technologies or special features that are not common to both the parent and current ship designs are not accurately scaled. Typically.2. and Robbins . Both sources give scaling fractions for the Ship Work Breakdown Structure commonly used on naval surface ships. logarithmic. it does have its limitations. polynomial. The scaling fraction is usually based on a parameter such as ship length. and it has been automated in more complex programs such as those described by Aasen . Ideally. These tests are not required for many marine craft. engine rating.5 Baseline The Baseline method is the most commonly used method for estimating the weight of a new ship design. the inclining experiment or a lightship survey of the parent ship should be used. the parent weight estimate may have been made for a sister ship which was an offshore supply vessel while the new design maybe an anchor handling supply vessel that is exactly the same except it has bigger engines and is outfitted with anchor handling gear. This method is easy to automate with common tools such as a spreadsheet. 4.7 Statistical This method develops an algorithm to describe the weight of a system or weight group based on a regression analysis of multiple parent ship design designs. graphical methods can also be used as described by Scott 4-4 .6 Ratiocination (scaling) This is the second most common method used to estimate the weight of ship. It assumes that the same principles of distortion used to define the ship’s lines in the naval architecture used to create the new ship from a parent ship. The regression analysis can be linear. or exponential. For example. a lead ship of a class or a sister ship built for another owner is used as a bench mark on which changes are added. The weight engineer will use the latest information available for the parent ship as a baseline. The ratiocination-based weight estimate should be corrected for these attributes. can be applied to weight estimating. This method is also known as the Plus and Minus method as described by Hogg . beam.2.2.4. Several authors have documented various algorithms used by this method. which has been repeated in the SAWE Weight Engineers Handbook . Foreign navies also use the method as described by Orton . The parent ship design history will be compared to the specifications and arrangements of the new design to determine the impact of any weight changes. Specifically. The method multiplies a parent ship system weight by a scaling factor to create the current ship system weight estimate. so the original weight estimate may need to be used. The new ship weight estimate is the parent ship weight plus all the changes.
In practical terms. Typically. The density fractions can be either derived from previous ship designs. depending on the method used to estimate the vertical center of gravity. The Root-Mean-Square sum of these uncertainties is an estimate of the uncertainty of the entire weight estimate as described by Kern . or from government and industry guidelines.9 Deck Area Fraction This method multiplies a weight fraction by the deck area of a space to predict the weight of the contents. 4. The mass gyradius is usually 33% of the span of the space along each principal axis. Penny . 6 feet or zero feet.10 Regulatory Bodies Rules and Industry Design Standards This method uses the hull structure and equipment specification standards found in government and industry standards to estimate the size from which a weight and center of gravity can be developed. The vertical center of gravity is assumed to be either at the center of the space above the deck. These equations and assumptions of standard practices are used as a basis of parametric equations.2. Lamb . By using several parents as a baseline. Johnson . the molded volume of the tank is calculated first. such as spreadsheets. 3 feet above the molded deck height for contents that are accessed by personnel who are standing or at the molded deck height for deck coverings. Along the vertical axis the span may be either the full height of the space. a berthing space. For example a regression equation for hull steel weight might be developed based on the cubic number of set of parent ships. 4. The longitudinal and transverse centers of gravity are assumed to be located at the center of the deck area in the plan form. and then it is multiplied by a series of density fractions to cover structural deductions and the density of seawater. 4-5 . The mass gyradius of the contents is usually estimated at 33% of the span of the space along each principal axis. or from a simple calculation. This same method can be applied to a storeroom. weight groups with the highest uncertainty need a closer look. or an engine room. The method is extremely labor intensive because the weight estimates of the parent ship must all be normalized to same indexing system.  Schneekluth  and others. A more common example is the prediction of the ballast water capacity of a tank. This method is very common and is described by Hogg .2.2. and a regression equation is required for each mass property considered. The equations derived from this method can be used in automated weight estimating software. this method allows the estimator to see trends that may not be apparent in the ratiocination method. Classification society guidelines contain equations for determining the minimum scantling sizes for structure and components. The center of gravity of the estimated weight is normally assumed to be at the volumetric center of the space. 4.and in Chapter 18 of SAWE Weight Engineers Handbook . The uncertainty of the polynomial equation to exactly predict the hull steel weight for a specific cubic number can be calculated as described by Staton  and Aasen . Watson.8 Volumetric Density This method multiplies a density fraction by the volume of a space to predict the weight of the contents.
and auxiliaries).11 Top Down This method begins with the total ship weight or design displacement developed from lines plan or from a limiting displacement study. The minimum thickness of the shell plating can therefore be determined. shafting. 4-6 . Care should be taken to insure that the algorithms developed by this method are applicable to the ship under consideration. the whole ship weight is added up. The parent weight estimates used for developing the weight fraction must all be subdivided. This method can give a very quick estimate of a whole ship.e. gears. when the weight is allocated to the lowest practical the individual weights are checked by using other methods for specific components. it will capture a value for all weight groups based on past practices. It is very difficult to estimate the weight of specific components specified by the owner into the estimate in a reliable manner. Application of classification society standards may prove to be erroneous. the classification rules and industry standards often define the minimum size and number of components required on board.e. Shipyard standard practices define preferred stiffener spacing which defines the unsupported span of the shell plating. bulkheads. Next the weight is allocated down to next tier in each weight group. However. For example. Finally. and the weight estimated based on the surface area using the deck area fraction method described above. Additionally. decks. 4. The advantage of a Top Down approach is that it is system focused. In the case of hull structure it would be allocated down to the shell. Since it is based on previous ship designs. deck house etc. Once the lowest level of weights has been checked and corrected for reasonableness and insertion of specific components. foundation. For example. Ferreiro describes a detailed comparison of design standards on the concept design weight of estimate in detail. Johnsen presents a fine an example of this method applied to tanker design weight estimates. to do this successfully the lowest level of a propulsion system weight estimate must be subdivided between the components specified by the owner (i. without spending time on details that may not be known to the responsible design engineer at this early design stage. propulsion diesel) and the remaining system (i. the classification society rules for a commercial ship may be interchangeable.2. and redeveloped. These values can be used to estimate the weight of these components based on standard purchasing practices at the shipyard. machinery and outfitting first (as in the MARAD system ). The total weight and centers of gravity are allocated to various weight groups according to estimating fractions. since these standards are based on similar risk and load assumptions. The global and local structural dimensions that are usually available at any stage of the design process define the hydrostatic head of a tank or shell plating. The fractions are developed from statistical studies of similar ships.For example the plate thickness is sized as a function of the hydrostatic head and the unsupported span of the plate. the classification society rules define the minimum size and length of anchor chain onboard. The weight is allocated down the hierarchical tree of the work breakdown system by starting with hull.
The weight engineer estimates the amount of the system or change installed on the ship at a point in time.2. and stern sections of the hulls as fractions of the midship section are multiplied by the respective lengths. Hogg  describes this method as fundamental method to estimate hull structural weight. structure and down the line with each design module until convergence has been obtaining for the design. 4. and manning and payloads. propeller.12 Bottom Up This method develops an estimate of the weight at the lowest level of work breakdown system. 4. resistance. The method can be applied to any structural or machinery item that has a varying by similar prismatic shape. with the input of a few primary design requirements. concept. The method describes the fraction of the whole weight estimate that has been installed or removed. The software gets convergence on the hull geometry via several methods then in proceeds to the hull subdivision module. This method is complimentary to the top down method. Specifically. a preliminary inboard profile can be created and an initial size defined. These are very sophisticated computer programs that integrate all engineering disciplines to predict ship physical and performance characteristics based on mission requirements. and feasibility studies for most new designs.14 Percent Complete This method is used to develop a launch weight estimate or an estimate of the weight to complete at the time of lightship survey. The synthesis is made up of several modules that develop the initial concept design: hull geometry. A detail description of these programs is beyond the scope and intent of this document but they work basically on the synthesis concept. machinery. 4-7 .4.2. The method is similar to multiplying the sectional area curve by a weight per foot over the entire length. An algorithm that describes the bow.15 Synthesis Programs Synthesis programs are used to produce Random-Order-Magnitude. Different estimating methods are used for each line item at the lowest level of the work breakdown system.2. appendages. The weight module produces an initial weight based on a specific weight classification along with VCG and LCG estimations. The bottom up method is a useful for checking the reasonableness of the top down method and vice versa. area and volume. 4.2. etc. weights. hull subdivision. This fraction is applied to the complete system to develop the current weight. These individual values are summed up the hierarchical tree to develop the total ship weight. in that its weakness tends to be the top down’s strengths and vice versa. midship. Typically these are proprietary programs that rely on existing databanks (which include weight) for each ship type to produce the initial concept.13 Midship Extrapolation Method This is a fraction method that uses the unit weight of the midship section to estimate the steel weight of the weight of the entire hull. hull structure. based on the information available at the time.
corporate approach to weight control.3. building methods and practices. whether excessive or insufficient which can result in unrealistic projections of ship displacement and KG at delivery and can either increase shipbuilding costs related to ship size or result in expensive corrective measures.2 Commercial For commercial applications the margin values vary depending upon the ship. KG. acquisition weight and KG margins are essential elements of the design practice. unknowns. Margin values for the specified margin accounts should be developed using a structured and systematic method which assigns design risk (based on previous design experience) to the state of the design based on a set of standard design characterization factors. Maritime Administration (MarAd ). 5. and other considerations that can affect the weight control program. Navy Surface Ships) the margin values vary depending upon a variety of circumstances and are discussed below. S. margin allocations should always be developed in line with the following considerations: • • • Historical patterns of refinement and growth as reflected in weight estimates during the progress of a design and during shipbuilding.e. and trim of the ship at delivery. Cimino  describes a methodology for margin selection that utilizes a set of typical design characterization factors used to select margins.S. They should be developed after careful consideration of the weight control process. indeterminates and complexities. design and construction process. S. These factors tie in statistically with historical margin growth to produce margin values that are unique to the design and typically fall within the mean and mean plus one standard deviation range. These factors are subjective and unique within each organization.3 Military For Military applications (i. Consideration of each ship design requires individual consideration of its unique features. U. a value of 3% for weight and 3% for KG is usually recommended.. Regardless of whether the ships are for commercial or military applications. 5-1 . weight and KG margins are an important element of the displacement and KG projections for a ship design. To achieve this. as a Detail Design and Building Margin.1 WEIGHT AND CENTER OF GRAVITY MARGINS General Weight and KG margin values are needed for all ship designs in order to ensure that the estimated displacement and KG values as originally projected during the initial conceptual phase of the ship design are met at delivery.5.1 Acquisition Margins U. For U. Avoiding injudicious application of margins. Naval ship design practice utilizes the concept of a predicted baseline weight estimate that reflects the displacement. However.0 5. list. 5. 5.
Acquisition weight and KG margins should be selected within the ranges of Table 2 for feasibility stage design. conversions or modernizations. normally including speed and endurance. However. 5-2 . Other performance characteristics. for the individual margin accounts. design studies reflecting radical hull forms.• Acquisition strategy and policies which can deviate substantially from previous practices and design requirements and as a result can significantly impact margins. These acquisition margins are provided for each ship design phase to account for increases associated with design development and the building process.32 Service Life Allowances Service life Allowances are also required for weight and KG since experience has shown that the displacement and KG of a naval ship tends to increase during commissioned service. exotic hull materials.1 Acquisition Margins Acquisition margins shall be applied to all ship designs such as: new. These allowances are intended to provide for reasonable growth during the ship's service life without unacceptable compromise of the principal naval architectural characteristics. both at delivery and at the end of the predicted service life. or on a case basis as indicated by the Navy where major impact on mass properties of the ship is indicated. reserve buoyancy. While feasibility studies only require a single overall margin allocation for weight and one for KG. the selection range is used as a guide in determining the appropriate margin selection. or major subsystems which are in the early developmental stages may require larger margin allocations. Performance characteristics. rational deviations from the values shown may be considered. which must be satisfied at the end of a new ship's service life. and the assumption of risk. and stability. notably those characteristics relating to the specific performance of hull strength. as acquisition programs develop they require more definitive weight and KG margins allocations for each phase of the design to account for increases associated with design development and building during those phases.4.4 Policy Acquisition Margins and Service Life Allowances shall be selected and applied as follows: 5. For example. will be identified by dialogue with the appropriate Sponsor. the degree of definition of developmental systems incorporated. the concurrence for the selected values shall be obtained via the Sponsor. The amount of margin to be provided must be determined and included in feasibility (or Concept Exploration ) studies. In special cases. They should be tailored to the specifics of the design and shall reflect aspects such as the uniqueness of the design. incorporating items identical to previous designs may require smaller margin allocations. Conversely. will be satisfied at delivery and are permitted to degrade as service life growth occurs. predictions for these characteristics. For any deviation from these values. and later. modified repeats. 5. or the feasibility study that defines the weight and moment impacts of conversions or modernizations. 5. will be prepared and reported in the Preliminary and Contract Design (or Program Definition and Risk Reduction ) Reports. However.
8 4. The method also provides a means of assessing the risk of variation from the selected margin values.8 2.5 Total Acquisition Margins Specific Margin accounts: Preliminary and Contract Design Detail Design and Building Contract Modification Government Furnished Material a. Characterization of design uncertainty is never precise. The aforementioned design characterizations are related statistically to historical margin growths to produce margin values that are unique to the design and consistent with past results. 2.Table 2 – Acquisition Margin Value Ranges by Ship Design and Construction Phases Percentage of Displacement of the Light Ship Condition Mean +1 Standard Mean Deviation Total Acquisition Margin 6. Procurement margins (i.0 17.1 5. excluding ballast. The total acquisition margin values are developed by characterizing the design and applying the individual margin accounts as they would be applied during a design .7 0. Contract Modifications and GFM) are applied simultaneously to the resulting Preliminary/Contract Design weight estimate.e. and so for any characterization a range of margin values corresponding to the mean and the mean plus one c. A risk assessment method may provide a general guidance of the adequacy of already selected margin values. For subsequent design phases.1 1.5 0. 5-3 .7 Percentage of KG of the Light Ship Condition Mean 4.8 Mean +1 Standard Deviation 14.7 1.4 0. Risk is defined as the probability that the margin used will exceed the margin selected.1 0.1 6. Detail Design and Building. The cumulative effects.3 0.4 9. margin values are based on the previous values of lightship plus the margins allocated to the previous design phase.2 4. Preliminary/Contract design margins are applied to the lightship baseline weight estimate.9 0.5 Specific Margin accounts: Preliminary and Contract Design Detail Design and Building Contract Modification GovernmentFurnished Material 0. using the mean and mean plus one standard deviation are the ranges that are shown for total acquisition margin.4 The value ranges shown for Total Acquisition Margin are not developed using the statistical or arithmetic combination of the individual margin accounts. b.
. margin not fully used).e. The margin values are expressed as a percentage of Light Ship weight and KG. moderate and high) to the programmatic risk mitigation necessary. Weight and KG risk assessment curves for these values have been developed based on the statistical analysis and design characterizations as mentioned above. Table 3 defines the values for the characterization ratings. Once the appropriate total margin values have been selected a level-of.confidence (or risk) may be associated by using Figure 4.. is considered to have an associated risk that can be mitigated with various weight control programs. and shown in Figure 4.e. low. The selection of margin values with high risk must be fully justified and appropriate risk mitigation instituted. Figure 4 – Weight and KG Risk Assessment WEIGHT RISK RATING 5 4 3 2 1 0 HIGH 5 MARGIN VALUES (% of Light Ship) MARGIN VALUES (% of Light Ship) MODERATE 10 15 LOW 20 25 KG RISK RATING 5 4 3 2 1 0 HIGH 5 MODERATE 10 LOW 15 20 5-4 . Table 4 relates the three general levels of risk (i..e. margin exceeded) and a 16% chance of the estimated value being underestimated (i. This design uncertainty corresponds approximately to a risk of at most 50% chance of the estimated value being exceeded (i.standard deviation in the distribution of the statistical data. The curves display the values of characterization ratings between 1 and 5 and the associated margin risk lines at the lower bound (16% chance of the margin being exceeded) and at the higher bound (50% chance of the margin being exceeded).
As the values in Table 5 are based on a service life of 20 years (30 years for carriers and large deck amphibious warfare ships). and other risk mitigation measures. Risk can be controlled by an effective weight control program that would involve incentives. and stability characteristics established for the class. SLAs are allocated according to the ship type and the values shown on Table 5. 5-5 . each U. The increase in SLAs should be evaluated on a case basis until there is data to update Table 5. 5. Safe design with very little uncertainty and applying standard weight control and reporting procedures. when delivered. might involve redesigns and schedule impacts. service life allowances). Navy surface ship shall be capable of accommodating the anticipated growth of weight and KG during its service life without compromise of the hull strength.2 Service Life Allowances SLAs shall be included in all new and modified repeat designs such that. The weight and KG values in Table 5 are based on historical growth data for the ship types noted. S. These are the minimum values that must be provided in new construction ships.4. Not-to-Exceed values.Design Characterization Ratings RATING 1 2 3 4 5 DESIGN CHARACTERIZATION Developmental design/High level of uncertainty New concept design/Some significant level of uncertainty Similar design with major changes/Some level of uncertainty Similar design with minor changes/Little level of uncertainty Follow design with minor changes/Almost no uncertainty Table 4 – Risk Consequences RISK ASSESSMENT HIGH MODERATE LOW RISK CONSEQUENCES Design might not meet safety limits (subdivision. an increased SLA may be required for ships with longer projected service lives.Table 3. Extreme weight control measures will be required. strength. reserve buoyancy.
Weight and/or moment compensation requirements for any alteration which unacceptably degrades the remaining stability or reserve buoyancy allowances shall be identified.0) 0.30 0.e. the remaining service life.0 5. center of gravity.. and other mission critical performance parameters.5 7. Other 4. shall be highlighted in appropriate Sponsor presentations. For ships designed to carry liquid cargo the cargo tanks shall be considered filled to 95% of the total net volume of each tank designed to carry petroleum products and 100% of the total net volume of each tank designed to carry cargo potable water or cargo reserve feed water.. For SWATH or other unique hull form designs. Carriers 3.0) (0.15 0.0 0. with supporting rationale. For ships designed to carry dry cargo (i. 5-6 . SLA requirements for major modernization’s and conversions shall be assessed on a case basis. 5. the minimum SLAs for weight and KG shall also be based on Table 4 for the applicable ship type.5 Contracting Practices When a design agent or builder accepts a contract for the design and construction of a ship. Amphibious warfare ship types a. The results of this analysis shall be highlighted to the appropriate sponsor. Auxiliary ship types 5.5) 0. A study taking into account the age of the ship. In addition.5) (0. payload.0 5. Special ships and craft Notes: a b KG b Meters (Feet) (Percent (%) 10. These values. the full load departure condition will include the notional dry cargo load out. Combatants 2.76 0.5) Weight percentage based on the predicted full load departure displacement at delivery KG values based on the predicted full load departure KG at delivery SLAs are generally depleted during the service life of a ship. For a surface ship these values are usually a combination of displacement (deadweight). shall be performed to determine a specific recommendation for the modernization/conversion.30 (1. Depletion of the SLA and the status of each ship with respect to its naval architectural limits shall be monitored throughout the ship's active service.5) (1. auxiliary and amphibious ships).Table 5 – Service Life Allowance Values Weight a Ship Type: 1. an analysis shall be conducted to determine the center of anticipated SLA growth for KG. speed. the available weight and KG growth potential. etc.76 (2. he assumes a contractual responsibility for delivering a ship that meets the mass properties related performance. trim.15 (2. list.0 7.5 5. along with rationale for values used. Large deck b.
since it includes contractual along with guidance drawings. If the above values cannot be met based on the definition of the contract design package. Four types of basic acquisition approaches are discussed below: a. U. The goal of this type of procurement is to have the bidder demonstrate that a ship can be delivered at or below the NTE values before award of the contract.e. The AWE values for full load displacement and vertical center of gravity above bottom of keel (KG) are the baseline of measuring Contractor responsibility within the meaning of this clause. Navy Surface Ships) contracting practices are dependent on the acquisition strategy. ship specifications. Below is an example of a Standard Contract Clause for Weight Control which may be tailored to suit the specific acquisition strategy of the contract: “In accordance with the procedures set forth in section xxx of the Specifications. The aforementioned AWE values shall be equal or less than the NTE values: 5-7 .5. Navy controlled design. the bidder than should define the actions and associated costs needed to achieve the NTE values. technical manuals. The other goal of this policy is to have an Accepted Weight Estimate (AWE) soon after contract award. design data sheets. This weight estimate is prepared by utilizing the design data package which represents the contract design. 5. S. Contract drawings define the geometry. Piping and wiring diagrams are such drawings. The mechanism that demonstrates the bidder’s ability to achieve the NTE values is the requirement to submit an independent weight estimate with the bid response. a general outline and approach is discussed in Reference . Also. and certain lists and schedules of Government Furnished Equipment. S. and major structure of the design. while not providing weight data directly. are useful in preparing such data. They are engineering drawings from which ship construction drawings are developed. Section 6. In addition.. However. liquidated damages may be included in the contract clause to establish the level of compensation due to the Navy should the NTE values be surpassed. arrangement.2 Military ship acquisition practices Military (i. and loading factors. This package contains Not-to-Exceed (NTE) weight and KG values developed by the U. the Contractor shall enter into agreement with the Government as to the Accepted Weight Estimate (AWE) for the ship(s) under this contract. and such an agreement shall be set forth in a Supplemental Agreement.1 Commercial ship acquisition practices Commercial contracting practices are dependent on the Owner’s and the shipbuilder’s contractual agreement. therefore it excludes any Government-initiated changes.5. The independent weight estimate should represent the bidder’s detail design and construction methods and practices. manufacturer’s catalogs.5. and vendor catalogs to prepare the independent weight estimate. Ship acquisitions are controlled by the Navy when the Navy releases a design data package as part of the bidding process. additional information may be used from standard drawings. Navy and are included as part of the contract. Guidance drawings. The establishment of the AWE is the contractual basis which is used to determine margin depletion responsibility and essentially measures the contractor’s weight control performance. component lists.
” Also.xx feet In the event an agreement on the AWE cannot be reached within four months after contract award of this contract.2 –R Procurement This is the newest procurement approach established under Acquisition Reform. payload. speed endurance. Weight estimating and control requirements will be included in the procurement specification. Therefore in recognition of the above. The Allocated Baseline Weight Estimate must satisfactorily show that the ship as proposed will meet the specified performance and be delivered within specified service life allowances. The effect of this approach to weight control and service life allowances is currently under evaluation. as determined above exceed the NTE values: Weight – For each whole xx ton increment in excess of the NTE displacement set forth in paragraph (a) of this clause. etc. A preferred concept is selected for program initiation and moves forward through the design development and production process. the Contractor shall pay to the Government xxxxx dollars up to a maximum of xxxxxxx dollars. KG – For each whole xx. b. c. The parties also recognize and agree that it is virtually impossible and completely impracticable to establish actual damages which would be suffered by the Government for the failure of the Contractor to deliver the ship(s) within the NTE values. In this approach the Government describes the system (ship) objectives and the minimum acceptable requirements (thresholds) for operational performance of the system. the parties hereto have specifically agreed to and established the following schedule of liquidated damages as a reasonable forecast of the potential damages which would arise in the event that the Contractor responsible does not meet the full load displacement and/or KG. In such cases a Board is established that defines the evaluation period. 5-8 . DoD Regulation 5000.xx foot increment in excess of the NTE vertical center value set forth in paragraph (a) of this clause. In addition the Government may offer monetary incentives for measures that the Contractor has undertaken that are considered above the performance of the contract to develop some performance area specified by the government. list and trim requirements are set forth in the Specifications. the NTE values become the AWE values. the Contractor shall pay to the Government xxxxxxx dollars up to a maximum of xxxxxxx dollars. Submittal and approval dates for the Allocated Baseline Weight Estimate will be specified in the pertinent Contract Data Requirement List (CDRL) to coincide with the submittal of the hull and propulsion configurations. expected performance level. In lieu of the AWE an Allocated Baseline Weight Estimate will be generated by the appropriate shipbuilders and will be submitted with the hull and propulsion configurations for approval by the NAVY.. and available monetary award for that period.Contractor responsible Full Load Displacement Contractor responsible KG xxxxxxx long tons xx.) the required Service Life Allowances will also be specified. Acquisition based on performance-type specifications For ships acquired using performance-type specifications (e.g.
5-9 ..e. where a design exists which has been built. i. a shipbuilder’s weight estimate will be required at the time of contract award. Examples of this type include standard barges and certain standard commercial ships and craft.d. Other types of acquisition For those acquisitions where neither of the above pertains.
the weight report is continuously updated to ensure that the final estimate is as close as possible to the actual weight and maintained within the vessel’s naval architectural limits. They may also be required by the contract. As the design spiral converges. These reports are described. Supplementary reports. The level of detail in the weight report will follow the level of detail in the design. weights can be modified. 6. Navy categorizes weight reports into . 6-1 . cargo capacity. which are prepared by the contractor for their own use or at the request of NAVSEA. the weights will provide a ball park figure which will be used to approximate propulsion. added or subtracted very easily. manning requirements. in detail.6. This procedure will save time as the design is refined and hull size and scantlings are finalized. c. If the spreadsheet is properly prepared. The weight report is used to track the total lightship weight and centers of the ship and aids in the design process to determine if the ships hull form and size correlates to the lightship weight. which are weight and moment reports of government furnished materials. etc. These weight values will be approximate and can be based on several sources including similar ship designs and weight per area of steel structure. Standard reports. three categories: a. These reports may be specified by the contract and may be required to be submitted at various stages in the design. At this level. the weight report will most likely contain weight estimates at the ESWBS one digit level. which include weight and moment data for a completed ship. the weight estimates for all of the ship’s components must be integrated into a weight report. The method should be able to accommodate changes in weights as well as the addition of new weights.g.) to allow automatic recalculation of the weight and center when either the size or type of member is changed. in Reference .0 REPORTING REQUIREMENTS As the design progress progresses.1 Detail Corresponding to Level of Design When a design commences. separate weight reports can also be produced for a proposed alteration to structure or equipment. In the early stages of design. lb/sq. They may be required by the contract. b. The U S. ft. approximate cost. Special reports.. A good tool in the development of a weight report is a computer spreadsheet program. a method is established for weight reporting. lb/lineal ft. In addition to the final weight report. Structural components and distributed materials should always be calculated on a weight per standard unit basis (e.
6-2 . approximations. are very difficult to estimate and it is likely that only approximate values will be available. It will contain assumptions. The loading condition calculations will be used to determine the stability of the ship and the hull stresses as well as the draft and trim at each condition. 6. It is impossible to account for every piece of material added to the ship or to precisely estimate the weight of all weight groups. and to select the optimum propulsion plant. In this estimate. At this level.2 Margins. the weight estimate will be used to determine the stability of the ship. Loading Conditions The weight report is an estimate of all the weights included in the lightship weight of the ship. the weight report will be refined. The RORO ship should have a larger VCG margin to ensure that the vessel will meet stability requirements when completed. The goal for this is an estimate of the actual lightship weight of the vessel within a few percent. wiring. furniture etc. The proper margins to be used should be determined based on experience. the weight report is often at the ESWBS three digit element level. on a particular tanker design in which stability is not an issue. omissions and errors. including allowances for coatings. the weight report should include certain margins to account for these inaccuracies and to act as safety factors. At the preliminary design level. For example. the hull stresses. and the impact the particular margin will have on the design. They will also be sent to the Coast Guard and classification societies as proof that the vessel meets the applicable stability requirements.As the design continues and more details are added. auxiliary machinery etc. evaluation of the accuracy of the weight estimate. the margin added to VCG would not be as critical as on a RORO ship design which barely meets the stability criteria. Many weight groups such as piping. When the design reaches the contract or detail design level there is enough information to produce a final weight report. The loading conditions are calculated by starting with the lightship weight estimate and adding all other deadweights present for the particular condition. Therefore. The Final Weight Report must include loading conditions which are calculated to correspond to each condition in the Trim and Stability Manual. every piece of equipment and structure is accounted for.
mill tolerance. mill tolerance. one of the essential elements in the program is the actual weighing of material and equipment. and the type of vessel being constructed. endurance.S. The credibility and confidence of the weight estimates and reports depend on accuracy.1 WEIGHT MEASUREMENT Weighing of Material and Equipment . The following identifies the requirement for actual weighing of material and equipment in support of a comprehensive weight control program for all surface ships: 7. stability. subcontractors or vendors to submit information on the current weight and center of gravity of all major assemblies. A comprehensive weight control program is made up of many facets. and welding. will be forwarded with the Final Weight Report. such as for estimating and calculating paint. trim. sheathing. to provide unit weight data. and welding factors shall be forwarded with the Bidders Independent Weight Estimate or Preliminary Allocated Baseline Weight Estimate. electrical cable and the components and equipment less than 500 pounds. The final values for paint. strength. and welding factors. those contracts that contain Not. The actual weights for materials. An estimate of weight and center of gravity in the proposal. based on current ship information. The actual weight of all components and equipment greater than 500 pounds (unless otherwise specified). Historically. and equipment. piping. components.0 7. less than 500 pounds. The amount of actual weighing on a given contract depends on the degree in which shipbuilders implement their weight control program. most ships constructed for the U. b. and impose liquidated damages and incentives for weight and KG promote shipbuilders to initiate and maintain a strong weight control program. material and components provide the most accurate weight data.1. 7-1 . list.To-Exceed limits for weight and KG. and actual scale weights of equipment. as determined by the contractor. Navy require a weight control program that ensures that the ship’s weight and moments be consistent with its naval architectural limits for displacement. the contractor shall substantiate these values by supplying background information (current and historical). It is suggested that information be submitted by subcontractors or vendors in the following sequence: a. both Contractor and Government furnished. through acquisition documents. For example. the contractor shall require. liquidated damages and/or incentives assigned to the contract. the available Weight and KG Design and Build Margin. The calculated weight and center of gravity when the design is completed. and performance (such as speed. fittings or components to be installed on the ship. mill tolerance. and seakeeping) . In addition. Some of the major factors that influence full implementation of weight control are: the shipbuilders' confidence in the Accepted Weight Estimate or the Allocated Baseline Weight Estimate. to minimize the amount of actual weight determination at the shipbuilding site. Historical background information on paint. shall be determined on a selective or sampling basis. Where factors or percentages are utilized. structural plates and shapes.7. shall be determined through accurate scale weighing along with the estimation or calculation of centers of gravity.1. equipment. Potential candidates for actual weight determination on a selective basis include such items as insulation.
This weight control process imposes reduced plate thickness tolerances and verifies through plate weighing and measuring that each plate is produced within a specified mill tolerance. y. An inclining experiment consists of moving one or more known large weights across the ship. they are marked “heavy” or “light” and during actual ship construction the “heavy” plates are placed lower in ship construction. The estimated center of gravity shall be determined for all major equipment and submitted with the estimated weight. The z axis is generally measured from a reference point on the bottom of the equipment and referred to as the Vertical Center of Gravity (VCG). The inclining coordinator. measuring the angle of list produced. The actual weight and calculated center of gravity when the fabrication or assembly is completed. The x-axis is generally measured from a reference point on the rear of the equipment and is referred to as the Longitudinal Center of Gravity (LCG). It is the means of actually weighing a vessel and measuring its center of gravity. The location of the equipment center of gravity shall be defined relative to the standard three axis coordinate system x. Equipment that is symmetrical requires no calculations for the axis of symmetry. 7.3. and z. Conducting an accurate inclining experiment requires much coordination.25 percent of the applied load and shall be sized at seventy-five percent of the item being weighed. As plates are weighed. Shipbuilders have experienced negative mill tolerance through this technique which also includes a system of plate sorting that actually enhances the KG of the ship under construction. The procedures for a deadweight survey are the same as for an inclining experiment except that inclining weights are not used and no observations and calculations are made for vertical locations of inventory items. This process actually requires the steel maker to replace over-gauge plates at the steel mill.2. 7. NAVSEA or USCG may authorize a deadweight survey in lieu of an inclining experiment on sister ships where a satisfactory inclining experiment has been performed and approved for the lead ship.  7. usually a Naval Architect. and the longitudinal and transverse coordinates of the center of gravity. KG. The inclining experiment is used to determine compliance with the requirements of the Weight Control Program and to provide a baseline for data concerning weight and center of gravity for use in all considerations of stability. The weighing equipment (load cells) shall be accurate to 0. resulting in significant weight savings. cooperation and teamwork.3 Inclining Experiment . 7.c.1.2 Deadweight Survey/Lightship Determination. The calculated center of gravity will be based on 100 percent of components. . must be attentive to the details of the 7-2 . The y-axis is generally measured from a reference point on the centerline of the equipment and is referred to as the Transverse Center of Gravity (TCG). The estimated Center of gravity shall be obtained by the summation of moments about each axis including a minimum of eighty percent of the weight of the subcomponents for the equipment. and free surface. . a procedure employed by some shipbuilders in their arsenal of weight control techniques is a steel plate weighing inspection process. The inclining experiment represents a key aspect of weight control and weight measurement. These commonly used terms refer to determining only displacement. Additionally.1. reading drafts and surveying the compartments and tanks onboard the ship. GM.
prove or disprove the weight estimate has been the basis for many hours of discussion. Also. checking for discontinuities in free surface and waterplane characteristics. It should also be noted that the Internationa l Convention on Safety of Life at Sea requires that “every passenger or cargo vessel shall be inclined on completion”  while other vessels are to be inclined as defined and directed by the ship specification. venting air out of full tanks. and validation normally comes in the form of another repeated experiment.” “let’s get this over with.experiment. All ships should be inclined to a standard of accuracy that not only verifies the contractual requirements of the Weight Control Program but is an experiment that can be validated. it is generally accepted by most shipbuilders that the accuracy of an inclining experiment is 0. The accuracy of an inclining experiment and the many thoughts about how to validate the experiment to compare. 7-3 .50(+/-) percent of displacement. ASTM F 132192. Standard Guide for Conducting a Stability Test (Lightship Survey and Inclining Experiment) to Determine the Light Ship Displacement and Center of Gravity of a Vessel  describes the general procedures for conducting a Stability Test. and reviewing the curves of form.” “this is costing money and holding up ship production. weighing and covering the inclining blocks prior to the test. ensuring the bilge has been pumped clean and dry. the inclining coordinator invariably will be reminded that “we need to expedite this. tank tables and other reference documents for consistency of reference systems. He must be willing to follow up with such things as checking that cross connect valves are closed. Along with all the preplanning inclining meetings. Each regulatory agency has it’s own detailed requirements for conducting an inclining experiment.25 feet (+/-) for KG and within 0. verifying inclining station communications.” So there will be a need to overcome the resistance of people who inadvertently may compromise the accuracy of the experiment.
since the weight estimate contains the weight of the item rather than the mass. Ultimately. The three rotational axes for motions are shown in Figure 5. Figure 5: Three Rotational Motions of a Ship 8-1 .8.0 OTHER 8. and vertical z axis for yaw. then the proper gyradius will result. While the inertia used in these calculations is referred to as the weight moment of inertia (expressed in units of weight times foot squared). S. Naval ships. the use of weight moment of inertia is appropriate in lieu of mass moment of inertia. It also contains a comparative analysis of calculated weight moment of inertia values among the U. transverse y-axis for pitch. If the calculation is done consistently using weight.1 Weight Moment of Inertia/Gyradius The weight moment of inertia of a ship is calculated about the longitudinal x-axis for roll. However. as well as the results of a sensitivity analysis on their relationship. it is normally expressed in terms of mass moment of inertia. the value being determined in the analysis is the gyradius which does not have units containing mass or weight. Reference  documents the methodology used in calculating and projecting weight moment of inertia/gyradius values.
8% DDG 51 ARS 52 FFG 60 CG 62 MCM 1 LHD 2 CVN 73 LPD 17 8-2 .4% 25.9% 24.2% 40.0% 40.5% PITCH (%L) 25. K) Mathematically.1.3 Gyradius Estimated Values In early stages of a ship design the weight estimates lacks sufficient detail to estimate or project gyradii values.4% 25. For submarines. 8. normally full load. but reflect the ship types and type of hull form. Table 6.3% 25. Estimated Gyradius Values for Surface Ships and Submarines • SURFACE SHIPS ROLL (%B) 38. is defined as the weight of the item times the square of the distance from the item's center of gravity to the ship’s center of gravity.1% 42. Also. Table 6.1.3% 25.2% 23. 8. Therefore. The item weight moment of inertia (Io ).2% 25.2% 24.5% 36. is provided as guidance in the selection of the appropriate gyradii values for surface ships and submarines.3% 24. oriented in the same direction as the ship’s axes.4% 23. pitch and yaw. the values are expressed in terms of a tolerance (+/-) based on a one standard deviation of the ship data studied. For further details with regard to estimating weight moment of inertia/gyradius values about the three rotational axes.6% 23.4% 38. Where I is the weight moment of inertia about a particular axis and ∆ is the total displacement (weight) of the ship. Reference  documents the methodology used in estimating and projecting gyradii values. below. is calculated relative to the center of gravity of the item about its own axes. These values correlate with the “rules of thumb” method.6% 23. see Reference . the weight moment of inertia is calculated relative to the submarine’s center of gravity in either a specified submerged or surfaced loading condition.The total weight moment of inertia (I) for a ship is the sum of the item weight moment s of inertia and the transference weight moments of inertia. The transference weight moment of inertia (It).9% 40. The weight moment of inertia for a surface ship is determined relative to its own center of gravity in a specified loading condition.2 Gyradius The gyradius ( is calculated about the three rotational axes: roll.1% 24. K = I ∆ by definition.9% 36.8% YAW (%L) 25. 8. estimating the gyradii values using the “rules of thumb” method is an acceptable approach.1 . The inertias of each item must first be calculated and then summed to give the total ship inertia.1% 24.1 Weight Moment of Inertia The weight moment of inertia consists of the summation of the transference inertia (It) and item inertia (Io ).
3% 25. it is believed that the data represented in these plots can be of some value to the naval architect or weight engineer in developing an early stage design weight distribution for the purpose of structural hogging and sagging calculations.5% 24. CONVENTIONAL HULLS FORMS TOLERANCES (+/-) TAGOS 19 TAGOS 23 LCAC 24 MEAN.0% 25.7% 0.6% 1.8% 30.7% 26. SURFACE SHIPS TOLERANCES (+/-) 38. The vertical scale represented in Figures 6 and 7 indicate the percentage of weight at each station for lightship and full load condition.3% 43.0% 24.4% 36.7% 34.7% 32. 8-3 . UNCONVENTIONAL HULLS FORMS TOLERANCES (+/-) MEAN. The weight and LCG of each element is calculated in the form of a series of trapezoids or rectangles and summarized as a weight curve for lightship and full load condition.5% 27.4% YAW (%L) 22.9% 24.7% 0.9% 23.8% 2.4% 27. Each element of weight and its longitudinal center of gravity (LCG) is summed to produce the ship’s longitudinal weight distribution. SUBMARINES TOLERANCES (+/-) ROLL (%B) 37.1% 43.2% 39.2% PITCH (%L) 22.7% 26.7% 23.7% 34.8% 29. The weight distribution curve is a graphic representation of the weight of the ship plotted as ton per foot (or any other desired units) on a vertical scale versus the length of the ship on a horizontal scale.2 Longitudinal Weight Distribution One of the byproducts of the weight estimate is a longitudinal weight distribution.2% 4.2% 25.6% 1.9% 28. A weight distribution is normally developed for both the ships’ lightship and full load conditions.7% 2.5% 30.0% 8. respectively.9% 24.3% 24.0% 25.0% 24.4% 36.5% 3.7% 26.4% “RULE OF THUMB” 40.1% 39. At various stations there are some wide variances between the ship types based on configuration.9% 2.9% 7.3% 24.6% 29.3% 25. Figures 6 and 7 represent a recent study of longitudinal weight distribution of ships of varying classes and types. however.3% • SUBMARINES LSV NSURFACE SSN 756 NSURFACE SSBN 737 NSURFACE SSN 756 NSUBMERGES SSBN 737 NSUBMERGES MEAN.9% 36.0% 1. The longitudinal distribution is usually based on the 20 station spacing between the ships’ FP and AP or between main transverse bulkheads.MEAN.3% 3.
2 11502.1 15916.9 40461.4 25073.The weight of lightship and full load condition of the ships used in this study are as follows: Table 7: Lightship and Full Load Conditions Lightship ( LTons) Full Load Cond.6 16317.0 874.6 40420.6 6855.8 28026.6 8797. ( LTons) 827.0 17219.1 Ship MHC 51 DDG 65 LSD 50 LPD 17 LHD 2 TAO DH 204 Figure 6: Lightship 22-Station Weight Distribution 8-4 .
Figure 7 Full Load Condition 22-Station Weight Distribution 8-5 .
1986. 9. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. December 1997. Paper No. 1988. Ed. 1977. Shamburger. Expanded Ship Work Breakdown Structure for all Ships and Ship/Combat Systems. Straubinger. 2441. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. 6.L. Revision Issue No.. and Fighera. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. 16. W. and Filiopoulis. 1996. Staton. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. Fundamentals of Naval Surface Ship Weight Estimating. 13. 1999.. 1996. Maritime Administration Classification of Merchant Ship Weights. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. Standard Guided for Weight Control Technical Requirements for Surface Ships. Naval Ship Engineering Center – Norfolk Division.K. 1192. D. in November 1965. 11.. June 5. Curran. F133293. SNAME. Volume 1. 5. 1997. Navy Small Craft. ASTM.. NAVSEA S9009-AB-GTP-010. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. 1655. 1998 17. SHIPWEIGHT : a Windows Program for Estimation for Estimation of Ship Weights. Standard Practice for Use of SI (Metric) Units in Maritime Applications. No. N. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. Cimino. 12. ASTM. C. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. Aasen. 7. NAVSEA.G. D. Weight Engineers Handbook. Department of Transportation. Stability and Strength. S9096-AA-WCM-010/(U)WT CNTRL. Training of Mass Properties Engineers. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. S9040-AA-IDX-010/SWBS 5D and S9040-AA-IDX-020/SWBS 5D (Volumes I and II). B. presented at the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers’ Annual Meeting. Recommended Practice No.C. 2466. Policy for Weight and Vertical Center of Gravity Above Bottom of Keel (KG) Margin for Surface Ships. F1808-97. republished by NAVSEA. Weight Control Technical Requirements for Surface Ships. Paper No. R.. J. Paper No. 1533. February 1985. C. 15. Standard Coordinate System for Reporting Mass Properties of Surface Ships and Submarines. Approval pending. Paper No. 1978.A. R. Weight Classification for U. 13. January 1985. May 21. 1985 14. in New York City. W. February 1985. 3. 8.. Recommended Practice Number 12. Paper No. E. Weight Control of Naval Ships. NAVSEAINST 9096. No.. No. Introduction to Aircraft Weight Engineering. Total Ship Weight Management Computer Program for Today’s and Tomorrow’s Application. Hogg. 9-1 . MARAD. V..6B.0 REFERENCES 1. 4.. Principles of Naval Architecture. 2.9.S. Ray. 1983. Methodology to Qualify and Quantify Preliminary Ship Design Weight Estimates. 10.
29. Paper No. Cimino. 2 August 1996.. 19 May 1997. Hagen. 1491. and Novelli. 30. “Weight Engineering. A Statistical Approach to Naval Ship Weight Estimating. Scott. Orton. 19.Chapter 096 .F. Redmond. North East Coast Institute of Engineers & Shipbuilders. Paper No. Watson. London. Riiser. Butterworth & Co. Transactions. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. 1983. D. 1984. Johnsen.. ISBN 0408-02790-8. P.. and Stonehouse. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. L. See also: • Ferreiro. P. Paper No. 1238... March 1986 25.M.. Paper No. D. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. Penny. No. 21. 1978. Derivation of a Fuselage Weight Estimating Relationship. February 1993.2-R. Lamb.M. 2356. I. 23. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. 27. E. F1321-92. M. L. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. NAVSEA. 1991. 22. B.W. ASTM. Boberg.D. Naval Ships’ Weight Moment of Inertia ( A Comparative Analysis). 5000. 15 March 1996. Cimino. D. Department of Defense Regulation No. 1537. Gilfillan. Ship Design for Efficiency and Economy. Offshore Technology Conference. 1970. 1977. Filiopoulos. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. Paper No.18.. W.” Journal of the Society of Allied Weight Engineers. Paper No.W. Destroyer Synthesis Computer Algorithm (DESCA). 1987. Vol. Transactions. P. 1237. T.. 20 May 1991. Schneekluth.A. H. R. London. Parametric Study of Steel Weight of Large Oil Tankers. Volume 101-2. • Mandatory Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition Programs and Major Automated Information System Acquisition Programs. Society of Allied Weight Engineers. Weight and KG Margin Analysis of Naval Surface Ships. Ltd. Ship Weight Estimates using Computerized Ratiocination. J. 1978 28.. C.Weights and Stability. Paper No.. 1971. • Naval Ships’ Technical Manual . Society of Allied Weight Engineers. P. 1602. A. Institute of Marine Engineers & Marine Media Management. Preliminary Design of Semi-Submersibles. Merchant Ship Types. S09086C6-STM-010/CH-096 R1. Robbins II.. Standard Guide for Conducting a Stability Test (Lightship Survey and Inclining Experiment) to Determine the Light Ship Displacement and Center of Gravity of a Vessel. J. 24. Royal Institute of Naval Architects. R. 20.G. H. A Comparative Study of US and UK Frigate Design...H.C. Fall 1989. Kern. 9-2 .. 860.. M. • Munro-Smith. M. Paper No. Royal Navy Surface Ship Weight Division. Some Ship Design Methods.. 99. Merchant Ship Weight Estimation. 26... Redmond. 2013... 1975.
Two Model Weight Control Plan for Ships Accepted Weight Estimates. November 1986.8. No. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. • T&R Bulletin 7-1. Draft Standard. International Standards Organization. ISO/WD 15140. 9-3 .• Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries – Offshore Structures – Weight Control During Engineering and Construction. February 1998. • Powell. 1958. ASTM F 1547-99.. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. • Standard Guide Listing Relevant Standards and Publications for Commercial Shipbuilding. New England Section paper. Estimation of Machinery Weights. S. C.
APPENDIX A ESWBS 1-DIGIT AND 3-DIGIT LISTING .
SURFACE SHIP AND SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSE SUBMARINE NONPRESSURE HULL LIFT SYSTEM FLEXIBLE SKIRTS AND SEALS HULL STRUCTURAL BULKHEADS LONGITUDINAL STRUCTURAL BULKHEADS TRANSVERSE STRUCTURAL BULKHEADS TRUNKS AND ENCLOSURES BULKHEADS IN TORPEDO PROTECTION SYSTEM SUBMARINE HARD TANKS SUBMARINE SOFT TANKS HULL DECKS MAIN DECK 2ND DECK 3RD DECK 4TH DECK 5TH DECK AND DECKS BELOW 01 HULL DECK (FORECASTLE AND POOP DECKS) 02 HULL DECK 03 HULL DECK 04 HULL DECK AND HULL DECKS ABOVE HULL PLATFORMS AND FLATS 1ST PLATFORM 2ND PLATFORM 3RD PLATFORM 4TH PLATFORM 5TH PLATFORM FLATS DECK HOUSE STRUCTURE DECKHOUSE STRUCTURE TO FIRST LEVEL 1ST DECKHOUSE LEVEL 2ND DECKHOUSE LEVEL 3RD DECKHOUSE LEVEL 4TH DECKHOUSE LEVEL 5TH DECKHOUSE LEVEL 6TH DECKHOUSE LEVEL 7TH DECKHOUSE LEVEL 8TH DECKHOUSE LEVEL AND ABOVE SPECIAL STRUCTURES STRUCTURAL CASTINGS. FORGINGS. SURFACE SHIP AND SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL SHELL PLATING. SUBMARINE NONPRESSURE HULL INNER BOTTOM SHELL APPENDAGES STANCHIONS LONGIT. AND EQUIV. FRAMING.EXPANDED SHIP WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (ESWBS) THREE DIGIT SUMMARIES ESWBS 1 100 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 163 164 TITLE GROUP 1 HULL STRUCTURE HULL STRUCTURE. WELDMENTS SEA CHESTS BALLISTIC PLATING Appendix A-1 . GENERAL SHELL AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURE SHELL PLATING. SURF SHIP AND SUBMARINE PRESSURE HULL TRANSV. FRAMING.
KINGPOSTS. AND BUOYANCY UNITS COMPARTMENT TESTING ERECTION OF SUB SECTIONS (PROGRESS REPORT ONLY) FREE FLOODING LIQUIDS HULL REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS GROUP 2 PROPULSION PLANT PROPULSION PLANT. GENERAL ENERGY GENERATING SYSTEMS (NUCLEAR) (RESERVED) NUCLEAR STEAM GENERATOR REACTORS REACTOR COOLANT SYSTEM REACTOR COOLANT SERVICE SYSTEMS REACTOR PLANT AUXILIARY SYSTEMS NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION RADIATION SHIELDING (PRIMARY) RADIATION SHIELDING (SECONDARY) ENERGY GENERATING SYSTEMS (NONNUCLEAR) PROPULSION BOILERS GAS GENERATORS MAIN PROPULSION BATTERIES MAIN PROPULSION FUEL CELLS PROPULSION UNITS PROPULSION STEAM TURBINES PROPULSION STEAM ENGINES PROPULSION INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES PROPULSION GAS TURBINES ELECTRIC PROPULSION SELFCONTAINED PROPULSION SYSTEMS AUXILIARY PROPULSION DEVICES SECONDARY PROPULSION EMERGENCY PROPULSION TRANSMISSION AND PROPULSOR SYSTEMS PROPULSION REDUCTION GEARS PROPULSION CLUTCHES AND COUPLINGS Appendix A-2 . FIXED OR FLUID.ESWBS 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 190 191 192 195 198 199 2 200 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 TITLE SONAR DOMES SPONSONS HULL STRUCTURAL CLOSURES DECKHOUSE STRUCTURAL CLOSURES SPECIAL PURPOSE CLOSURES AND STRUCTURES MASTS. TOWERS. AND SERVICE PLATFORMS MASTS. TETRAPODS KINGPOSTS AND SUPPORT FRAMES SERVICE PLATFORMS FOUNDATIONS HULL STRUCTURE FOUNDATIONS PROPULSION PLANT FOUNDATIONS ELECTRIC PLANT FOUNDATIONS COMMAND AND SURVEILLANCE FOUNDATIONS AUXILIARY SYSTEMS FOUNDATIONS OUTFIT AND FURNISHINGS FOUNDATIONS ARMAMENT FOUNDATIONS SPECIAL PURPOSE SYSTEMS BALLAST.
ESWBS 243 244 245 246 247 248 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 290 298 299 3 300 310 311 312 313 314 320 321 322 323 324 325 330 331 332 340 341 342 343 390 398 399 4 400 410 411 412 413
TITLE PROPULSION SHAFTING PROPULSION SHAFT BEARINGS PROPULSORS PROPULSOR SHROUDS AND DUCTS WATER JET PROPULSORS LIFT SYSTEM FANS AND DUCTING PROPULSION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (EXCEPT FUEL/LUBE) COMBUSTION AIR SYSTEM PROPULSION CONTROL SYSTEM MAIN STEAM PIPING SYSTEM CONDENSERS AND AIR EJECTORS FEED AND CONDENSATE SYSTEM CIRCULATING AND COOLING SEA WATER SYSTEM RESERVE FEED AND TRANSFER SYSTEM HP STEAM DRAIN SYSTEM UPTAKES (INNER CASING) PROPULSION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (FUEL AND LUBE OIL) FUEL SERVICE SYSTEM MAIN PROPULSION LUBE OIL SYSTEM SHAFT LUBE OIL SYSTEM (SUBMARINES) LUBE OIL FILL, TRANSFER, AND PURIFICATION SPECIAL PURPOSE SYSTEMS PROPULSION PLANT OPERATING FLUIDS PROPULSION PLANT REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS GROUP 3 ELECTRIC PLANT ELECTRIC PLANT, GENERAL ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION SHIP SERVICE POWER GENERATION EMERGENCY GENERATORS BATTERIES AND SERVICE FACILITIES POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS SHIP SERVICE POWER CABLE EMERGENCY POWER CABLE SYSTEM CASUALTY POWER CABLE SYSTEM SWITCHGEAR AND PANELS ARC FAULT DETECTOR (AFD) SYSTEMS LIGHTING SYSTEM LIGHTING DISTRIBUTION LIGHTING FIXTURES POWER GENERATION SUPPORT SYSTEMS SSTG LUBE OIL DIESEL SUPPORT SYSTEMS TURBINE SUPPORT SYSTEMS SPECIAL PURPOSE SYSTEMS ELECTRIC PLANT OPERATING FLUIDS ELECTRIC PLANT REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS GROUP 4 COMMAND & SURVEILLANCE COMMAND AND SURVEILLANCE, GENERAL COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEMS DATA DISPLAY GROUP DATA PROCESSING GROUP DIGITAL DATA SWITCHBOARDS
ESWBS 414 415 417 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 468 469 470 471 472 473 474
TITLE INTERFACE EQUIPMENT DIGITAL DATA COMMUNICATIONS COMMAND AND CONTROL ANALOG SWITCHBOARDS NAVIGATION SYSTEMS NONELECTRICAL/NONELECTRONIC NAVIGATION AIDS ELECTRICAL NAVIGATION AIDS (INCL NAVIG. LIGHTS) ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION SYSTEMS ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION SYSTEMS, ACOUSTICAL PERISCOPES ELECTRICAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS NAVIGATION CONTROL MONITORING INTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS SWITCHBOARDS FOR INTERIOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS TELEPHONE SYSTEMS ANNOUNCING SYSTEMS ENTERTAINMENT AND TRAINING SYSTEMS VOICE TUBES AND MESSAGE PASSING SYSTEMS ALARM, SAFETY, AND WARNING SYSTEMS INDICATING, ORDER, AND METERING SYSTEMS CONSOLIDATED CONTROL AND DISPLAY SYSTEMS RECORDING AND TELEVISION SYSTEMS EXTERIOR COMMUNICATIONS RADIO SYSTEMS UNDERWATER SYSTEMS VISUAL AND AUDIBLE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS TELEMETRY SYSTEMS TELETYPE AND FACSIMILE SYSTEMS SECURITY EQUIPMENT SYSTEMS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS, SURFACE AND AIR SURFACE SURVEILLANCE RADAR SYSTEMS 2D AIR RADAR SYSTEMS 3D AIR RADAR SYSTEMS AIRCRAFT CONTROL RADAR SYSTEMS IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS MULTIFUNCTION RADAR SYSTEMS INFRARED SURVEILLANCE AND TRACKING SYSTEMS AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND TRACKING SYSTEMS SPACE VEHICLE ELECTRONIC TRACKING SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS (UNDERWATER) ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE SONAR PASSIVE SURVEILLANCE SONAR MULTIPLE MODE SURVEILLANCE SONAR ACOUSTIC ANALYSIS SYSTEMS BATHYTHERMOGRAPH AIRBORNE MULTIPURPOSE SHIP EQUIPMENT SYSTEMS SURFACE SHIP COMBAT SYSTEMS SUBMARINE COMBAT SYSTEMS COUNTERMEASURE SYSTEMS ACTIVE EW (INCL COMBINATION ACTIVE/PASSIVE) PASSIVE ECM UNDERWATER COUNTERMEASURES DECOY SYSTEMS
ESWBS 475 476 480 481 482 483 484 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 498 499 5 500 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 520 521 522 523 524 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 549 550 551 552
TITLE DEGAUSSING SYSTEMS MINE COUNTERMEASURE SYSTEMS FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS GUN FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS MISSILE FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS UNDERWATER FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS INTEGRATED FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS WEAPON SYSTEMS SWITCHBOARDS SPECIAL PURPOSE SYSTEMS ELECTRONIC TEST, CHECKOUT, AND MONITORING EQUIPMENT FLIGHT CONTROL AND INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEMS AUTOMATED DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS (NONCOMBAT) METEOROLOGICAL SYSTEMS SPECIAL PURPOSE INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS COMMAND AND SURVEILLANCE OPERATING FLUIDS COMMAND AND SURV. REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS GROUP 5 AUXILIARY SYSTEMS AUXILIARY SYSTEMS, GENERAL CLIMATE CONTROL COMPARTMENT HEATING SYSTEM VENTILATION SYSTEM MACHINERY SPACE VENTILATION SYSTEM AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AIR REVITALIZATION SYSTEMS (SUBMARINES) REFRIGERATION SYSTEM AUXILIARY BOILERS AND OTHER HEAT SOURCES SEA WATER SYSTEMS FIREMAIN AND FLUSHING (SEA WATER) SYSTEM SPRINKLER SYSTEM WASHDOWN SYSTEM AUXILIARY SEA WATER SYSTEM SCUPPERS AND DECK DRAINS FIREMAIN ACTUATED SERVICES OTHER PLUMBING DRAINAGE DRAINAGE AND BALLASTING SYSTEM FRESH WATER SYSTEMS DISTILLING PLANT COOLING WATER POTABLE WATER AUXILIARY STEAM AND DRAINS WITHIN MACHINERY BOX AUXILIARY STEAM AND DRAINS OUTSIDE MACHINERY BOX AUXILIARY FRESH WATER COOLING FUELS AND LUBRICANTS, HANDLING AND STORAGE SHIP FUEL AND FUEL COMPENSATING SYSTEM AVIATION AND GENERAL PURPOSE FUELS AVIATION AND GENERAL PURPOSE LUBRICATING OIL LIQUID CARGO TANK HEATING AUXILIARY LUBRICATION SYSTEMS SPECIAL FUEL AND LUBRICANTS, HANDLING AND STOWAGE AIR, GAS, AND MISCELLANEOUS FLUID SYSTEMS COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS COMPRESSED GASES
FIXED PORTLIGHTS. AND WINDOWS Appendix A-6 . HANDLING SYS. CARGO SPECIAL PIPING SYSTEMS SHIP CONTROL SYSTEMS STEERING AND DIVING CONTROL SYSTEMS RUDDER HOVERING AND DEPTH CONTROL (SUBMARINE) TRIM AND DRAIN SYSTEMS (SUBMARINES) TRIM AND HEEL SYSTEMS (SURFACE SHIPS) DIVING PLANES AND STABILIZING FINS (SUBMARINES) STRUT AND FOIL SYSTEMS MANEUVERING SYSTEMS REPLENISHMENT SYSTEMS REPLENISHMENTATSEA SYSTEMS SHIP STORES AND EQUIPMENT HANDLING SYSTEMS CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS VERTICAL REPLENISHMENT SYSTEMS VEHICLE HANDLING AND STOWAGE SYSTEMS MECHANICAL HANDLING SYSTEMS ANCHOR HANDLING AND STOWAGE SYSTEMS MOORING AND TOWING SYSTEMS BOATS. STANCHIONS. BOAT HANDLING AND STOWAGE SYSTEMS LANDING CRAFT HANDLING AND STOWAGE SYSTEMS ELEVATING AND RETRACTING GEAR AIRCRAFT RECOVERY SUPPORT SYSTEMS AIRCRAFT LAUNCH SUPPORT SYSTEMS AIRCRAFT HANDLING.ESWBS 553 554 555 556 557 558 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 570 571 572 573 574 575 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 6 600 610 611 612 613 620 621 622 623 624 625 TITLE O2 N2 SYSTEM MAIN BALLAST TANK BLOW AND LIST CONTROL SYSTEM FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS HYDRAULIC FLUID SYSTEM LIQUID GASES. GENERAL SHIP FITTINGS HULL FITTINGS RAILS. LAUNCHING AND HANDLING FOR UNDERWATER SYS. SALVAGE. AND LIFELINES RIGGING AND CANVAS HULL COMPARTMENTATION NONSTRUCTURAL BULKHEADS FLOOR PLATES AND GRATINGS LADDERS NONSTRUCTURAL CLOSURES AIRPORTS. FOR DIVER AND SUBMERSIBLE VEHICLES SALVAGE SUPPORT SYSTEMS AUXILIARY SYSTEMS OPERATING FLUIDS AUXILIARY SYSTEMS REPAIR PARTS AND TOOLS GROUP 6 OUTFIT & FURNISHINGS OUTFIT AND FURNISHINGS. SERVICING AND STOWAGE MISCELLANEOUS MECHANICAL HANDLING SYSTEMS SPECIAL PURPOSE SYSTEMS SCIENTIFIC AND OCEAN ENGINEERING SYSTEMS SWIMMER AND DIVER SUPPORT AND PROTECTION SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEMS SUBMARINE RESCUE. AND SURVIVAL SYSTEMS TOWING.
ROCKET. TEMPERATURE CONTROL MISSILE MONITORING. GENERAL GUNS AND AMMUNITION GUNS AMMUNITION HANDLING AMMUNITION STOWAGE MISSILES AND ROCKETS LAUNCHING DEVICES (MISSILES AND ROCKETS) MISSILE. EQUIP) STOWAGE SPACES LOCKERS AND SPECIAL STOWAGE STOREROOMS AND ISSUE ROOMS CARGO STOWAGE SPECIAL PURPOSE SYSTEMS TRANSMISSION LOSS TREATMENT OUTFIT AND FURNISHINGS OPERATING FLUIDS OUTFIT AND FURNISH. REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS GROUP 7 ARMAMENT ARMAMENT. AND GUIDANCE CAPSULE HANDLING SYS. TEST AREAS (INCL PORTABLE TOOLS. MISSILE AND ROCKET STOWAGE MISSILE HYDRAULICS MISSILE GAS MISSILE COMPENSATING MISSILE LAUNCHER CONTROL MISSILE HEATING. LABS.ESWBS 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 660 661 662 663 664 665 670 671 672 673 690 691 698 699 7 700 710 711 712 713 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 TITLE PRESERVATIVES AND COVERINGS PAINTING ZINC AND METALLIC COATINGS CATHODIC PROTECTION DECK COVERING HULL INSULATION HULL DAMPING SHEATHING REFRIGERATED SPACES RADIATION SHIELDING LIVING SPACES OFFICER BERTHING AND MESSING SPACES NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER BERTHING AND MESSING SPACES ENLISTED PERSONNEL BERTHING AND MESSING SPACES SANITARY SPACES AND FIXTURES LEISURE AND COMMUNITY SPACES SERVICE SPACES COMMISSARY SPACES MEDICAL SPACES DENTAL SPACES UTILITY SPACES LAUNDRY SPACES TRASH DISPOSAL SPACES WORKING SPACES OFFICES MACHINERY CONTROL CENTERS FURNISHINGS ELECTRONICS CONTROL CENTERS FURNISHINGS DAMAGE CONTROL STATIONS WORKSHOPS. TEST AND ALIGNMENT Appendix A-7 . COOLING.
LOADS LOADS (FULL LOAD CONDITION) SHIPS FORCE. UPPER STAGES AIRCRAFT RELATED WEAPONS ELEVATORS. FORCE. TROOPS AND PASSENGERS SHIPS OFFICERS SHIPS NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS SHIPS ENLISTED MEN MARINES TROOPS AIR WING PERSONNEL OTHER PERSONNEL MISSION RELATED EXPENDABLES AND SYSTEMS SHIP AMMUNITION (FOR USE BY SHIP ON WHICH STOWED) ORDNANCE DELIVERY SYSTEMS AMMUNITION ORDNANCE DELIVERY SYSTEMS ORDNANCE REPAIR PARTS (SHIP AMMO) ORDNANCE REPAIR PARTS (ORDNANCE DELIVERY SYS. AMPHIB. TEST AND ALIGNMENT SMALL ARMS AND PYROTECHNICS SMALL ARMS AND PYROTECHNIC LAUNCHING DEVICES SMALL ARMS AND PYROTECHNIC HANDLING SMALL ARMS AND PYROTECHNIC STOWAGE CARGO MUNITIONS CARGO MUNITIONS HANDLING CARGO MUNITIONS STOWAGE AIRCRAFT RELATED WEAPONS AIRCRAFT RELATED WEAPONS HANDLING AIRCRAFT RELATED WEAPONS STOWAGE AIRCRAFT RELATED WEAPONS ELEVATORS. HYDRAULICS SPECIAL PURPOSE SYSTEMS SPECIAL WEAPONS HANDLING SPECIAL WEAPONS STOWAGE MISCELLANEOUS ORDNANCE SPACES ARMAMENT OPERATING FLUIDS ARMAMENT REPAIR PARTS AND SPECIAL TOOLS GROUP F FULL LOAD.ESWBS 730 731 732 733 740 741 742 743 750 751 752 753 754 755 760 761 762 763 770 772 773 780 782 783 784 785 786 790 792 793 797 798 799 F F00 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16 F19 F20 F21 F22 F23 F24 F25 F26 F29 TITLE MINES MINE LAUNCHING DEVICES MINE HANDLING MINE STOWAGE DEPTH CHARGES DEPTH CHARGE LAUNCHING DEVICES DEPTH CHARGE HANDLING DEPTH CHARGE STOWAGE TORPEDOES TORPEDO TUBES TORPEDO HANDLING TORPEDO STOWAGE SUBMARINE TORPEDO EJECTION TORPEDO SUPPORT. LOWER STAGES AIRCRAFT RELATED WEAPONS. AMMO) ORDNANCE DELIVERY SYSTEMS SUPPORT EQUIPMENT SPECIAL MISSION RELATED SYSTEMS AND EXPENDABLES Appendix A-8 .
CRYOGENIC AND LIQUIFIED GAS CARGO. LIQUIDS (NON FUEL TYPE) CARGO. MISCELLANEOUS SEA WATER BALLAST (SUBMARINES) MAIN BALLAST WATER (SUBMARINES) VARIABLE BALLAST WATER (SUBMARINES) RESIDUAL WATER (SUBMARINES) GROUP M ACQUISITION MARGINS MARGINS CONTRACTOR CONTROLLED MARGINS DESIGN AND BUILDING MARGIN BUILDING MARGIN (RESERVED) GOVERNMENT CONTROLLED MARGIN (SURFACE SHIP) PRELIMINARY DESIGN MARGIN (SURFACE SHIP) CONTRACT DESIGN MARGIN (SURFACE SHIP) CONTRACT MODIFICATION MARGIN (SURFACE SHIP) GEM MARGIN (SURFACE SHIP) FUTURE GROWTH MARGIN (SURFACE SHIP) SERVICE LIFE MARGIN (SURFACE SHIP) NUCLEAR MACHINERY MARGIN (SURFACE SHIP) GOVERNMENT CONTROLLED MARGIN STATUS (SUBMARINES) PRELIMINARY DESIGN MARGIN (SUBMARINE) CONTRACT DESIGN MARGIN (SUBMARINE) NAVSHIPS DEVELOPMENT MARGIN (SUBMARINE) NUCLEAR MACHINERY MARGIN (SUBMARINE) Appendix A-9 .ESWBS F30 F31 F32 F33 F39 F40 F41 F42 F43 F44 F45 F46 F49 F50 F51 F52 F53 F54 F55 F56 F59 F60 F61 F62 F63 F64 F65 F66 F67 F69 F70 F71 F72 F73 M M00 M10 M11 M12 M20 M21 M22 M23 M24 M25 M26 M27 M30 M31 M32 M33 M34 TITLE STORES PROVISIONS AND PERSONNEL STORES GENERAL STORES MARINES STORES (FOR SHIP'S COMPLEMENT) SPECIAL STORES FUELS AND LUBRICANTS DIESEL FUEL JP5 GASOLINE DISTILLATE FUEL NAVY STANDARD FUEL OIL (NSFO) LUBRICATING OIL SPECIAL FUELS AND LUBRICANTS LIQUIDS AND GASES (NON FUEL TYPE) SEA WATER FRESH WATER RESERVE FEED WATER HYDRAULIC FLUID SANITARY TANK LIQUID GAS (NON FUEL TYPE) MISCELLANEOUS LIQUIDS (NON FUEL TYPE) CARGO CARGO. FUELS AND LUBRICANTS CARGO. ORDNANCE AND ORDNANCE DELIVERY SYSTEMS CARGO. GASES CARGO. AMPHIBIOUS ASSAULT SYSTEMS CARGO. STORES CARGO.
MBT (SUBMARINE) LEAD CORRECTION. EXTERNAL (SUBMARINE) STEEL. MET (SUBMARINE) LEAD CORRECTION.ESWBS M35 M36 M37 M40 M41 M42 M43 M44 M45 M46 M47 M48 TITLE FUTURE GROWTH MARGIN (SUBMARINE) STABILITY LEAD STATUS (SUBMARINE) TRIMMING LEAD STATUS (SUBMARINE) BALLAST STATUS (SUBMARINE) LEAD. INTERNAL (SUBMARINE) STEEL. OTHER THEN MET (SUBMARINE) Appendix A-10 . INTERNAL (SUBMARINE) LEAD. MET (SUBMARINE) STEEL. EXTERNAL (SUBMARINE) LEAD.
APPENDIX B MARAD WEIGHT CLASSIFICATION LISTING .
B. and O.B.B. framing in 1.W. W.T. and O. W. bhds Nonstructural bhds Trunks structural Trunks nonstructural Stair enclosures Hatch coamings Drill Wells / Leg Wells Bulkheads and Trunks Riveting and Welding 9-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Miscellaneous Houses Stack Enclosure Superstructures SUB TOTAL GROUPS 0 THROUGH 8 Riveting and Welding Welding Mill Tolerance Center vertical keel Trans. Long.T. Trans. bhds Long.T. Trans. bhds .T.HULL STRUCTURE (Group 0-9) CODE 0-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Forgings and Castings 1-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Shell Plating 2-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Framing 3-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Deck Plating and Beams 4-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Main trans. W.T. framing in 1. bhds Structural N. framing outside 1.T. Hull Castings ITEM CODE 5-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pillars and Girders Inner Bottom Plating Platform Deck Sponsons Cantilevers Cofferdam Flats & Floors Helicopter Platform Miscel laneous Flats and Floors Stability Column Support Legs Protective Covers / Barriers Pillars and Girders ITEM Appendix B-1 . Framing in peaks Transom and cants Web frames Long'l Girder Ring Long'l Stringer Ring 7-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Foundations Flat Plate keel Shell plating Bulwarks Bilge keels Boss plating Rubbing strips and fenders Sea Chests / Skin coolers Skegs Thruster Tunnels / Wells 6-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hull Miscellaneous Main Engine Foundations Boiler Foundations Auxiliary Machine Foundations Shaft Stools Foundations Miscellaneous Foundations Cryogenic / Chemical Foundations Stem casting Stern frame casting Boss casting Shaft struts Misc.
Doors Manholes and Scuttles Airports. or W.T. Cargo Sys. Windows and Lights Hatches and Ports O.OUTFIT (Group 10 – 19) CODE 10-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Structure Steel in Outfit 11-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Deck Castings. Steel Doors Skylights and Companions Movable Ramps 17-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Steward's Outfit / Defense Fire Det. and Fresh Water System Fuel Oil Transfer System Vents. Steel Booms Steel Hatch Covers and Beams Steel Stairways Steel Sheet Metal Work Drill Derricks Self-Unloading Booms CODE 15-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Anchors. Inert/ Nitrogen System Hydraulic System Piping Deck Machinery Steer. Sec. Doors Hinged W. System Heating System Ventilation Natural Ventilation Mechanical Refrigerating Systems Plumbing Fixtures and Drains National Defense ITEM Steel Masts. Deck Tile Cement and Misc. Cryogenic Contain. and Ext. Kingposts .T.T. Lines Boats and Boat Handling Rigging and Blocks Canvas Work Miscellaneous Deck Outfit Underwater Support Equipment Exterior Paint Interior Paint Tank Paint Special Coatings Deck Outfit Galley and Pantry Equipment Utility Space Equipment Steward's Outfit ITEM Lights. Coverings Carpenter Work and Decking 14-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Special Insulation Insulation in Quarters Fire Insulation Joiner Work Joiner Decks Decorative Joiner Work Accommodation Ladder Interior Joiner Work Furniture 19-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hull Engineering Bilge and Ballast System Cargo Oil System Deck Steam and Ex. etc. Tug / Barge Connections Hull Attachments 12-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sliding W. Plant (ship use) Stabilizers Thrusters Bulk Unloading Miscellaneous Machinery Appendix B-2 . N. Cryogenic Contain. Gear and Rudder Communicating System Electric Plant Dumb Waiters and Elevators Auxiliary Boiler Distiller.W. Chains. Sounding and Overflows Cryogenic / Chem. / Lashings Prim. Ramps 13-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Wooden Masts and Spars Wood Hatch Covers Hold Ceiling and Sparring Miscellaneous Carpenter Work Wood Decks Wood Houses Composition Deck Covering Sheet / Block Deck Tile Ceramic / Misc. Doors Hatches. Mooring Fittings Mast and Spar Forgings Rails and Stanchions Ladders Miscellaneous Hull Fittings Ratproofing Guide Struc.T. System Fire Mains San.T.
2028) Oil (Gr. 22-0 1 2 3 4 Evaporator System 23-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Shafting and Propellers 24-0 1 2 3 Lubricating Oil System 25-0 1 2 3 4 Air System Service Compressed Air Serv Sys.O. . Service System LNG Boil Off System ITEM Appendix B-3 .O. Oil System Miscellaneous Engine Oil Tanks 29-0 1 2 3 4 Liquids in Machinery Shafting Bearings and Stern Tube Propellers Miscellaneous Shafting Parts Shafting and Propeller Spares 28-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Miscellaneous Liquids in Machinery (Gr.MACHINERY (Group 20-29) CODE 20-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Main Propulsion Turbine Drain and LeakOff System Main Reduction Gears Main Condenser Main Air Ejector Main Circulating System ITEM CODE 26-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Main Propulsion Units 21-0 1 2 3 Feed and Condensate Equip. Starting Air System Scavenger Air System Lube. 1219) Water (Gr. 2028) Makeup Feed System Contaminated System Salt Water Eva p. System Steam Piping Access Work Shop Lifting and Handling Gear Machinery Space Ventilation Machinery Space Fixtures Spare Parts Miscellaneous Instruments and Gages Feed Heaters Feed and Condensate System 27-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Boilers and F. System Main Steam Piping Auxiliary Steam Piping Exhaust and Escape Piping Steam Drain System Whistles Boilers Fuel Oil Burners Soot Blowers Boiler Draft System Automatic Combustion Control Stacks and Uptakes F.
APPENDIX C INCLINING EXPERIMENT GENERAL GUIDANCE .
DNV. provided that calculations for free-surface effect can be calculated accurately. The surveys take advantage of the most accurate weight information available and in some cases require actual weighing of individual components. this may include actually moping of tanks. all valves must be closed to prevent any transfer of liquids.S. etc. Whereas a full tank means that the sounding is above the top of the tank. The information from the surveys will be used in the development of the inclining report. care must be exercised in the determination of the liquids in tanks and their associated free surface effect on the test. a deadweight survey or an inclining experiment is performed prior to any sea trials. The liquid below the suction has been removed through whatever means. a careful review of the piping systems must be performed to determine crossconnect piping. 7 The following paragraphs relate to actions that should be addressed in planning for the experiment: 1. Weight surveys including estimates of weight and the longitudinal. Navy. The ship’s trim and list should be as near to zero as practicable for the test to avoid having to make adjustments to the tank capacity and curves of form data. therefore the inclining procedure and schedule of events should be submitted for their review at least thirty days prior to the event.) to officially witness the experiment. the ship should be as near complete as practicable for the test. air escapes are required at the highest point of the tank and heeling of the ship is necessary to assist in the removal of air while filling the tanks.Inclining Experiment General Guidance The following represents general guidance when planning as well as conducting an inclining experiment: • An inclining experiment is the only satisfactory method of accurately determining the location of the center of gravity of a ship. and in some cases where ship stability is in question. 3. Simply stated.. 2. transverse and vertical center of gravity locations must be conducted.6. In most cases there is a requirement for the technical office (U. Ideally. the moments that will result from the relocation of these items must be recorded. or other construction material that is not part of lightship but may be onboard ship at the time of the inclining experiment. The accuracy of the inclining experiment is improved when the ship is as nearly complete as practicable. In addition. Appendix C-1 .S. Coast Guard. Owner. a survey for items of lightship (weights to relocate) that are onboard but not in their final position must be identified. American Bureau of Shipping. Additionally. Another survey of (weights to add) is performed to determine all items which are part of the lightship but have not been put onboard. An empty tank literally means that the tank is empty. The survey of (weights to deduct) is to determine the amount of foreign material such as scaffolding. A thorough cleaning of the ship should be conducted prior to the experiment. To prevent air pockets in tanks. U. and therefore the inclining experiment should be conducted toward the end of the construction period. Additionally. It is common practice to use concrete leveling blocks for this purpose. In general. tanks that must contain liquid should be between 20 and 80 percent full. tanks should be either completely full or completely empty for the experiment.
the reading to the nearest one-quarter of an inch will equate to over 38 tons displacement. with a heavy plumb bob damped in a trough filled with heavy weight oil. The lengths of the pendulums or u-tubes should be measured and recorded. The most common device for measuring the angle of list is a pendulum constructed of a fine wire such as piano wire. At this point the ship should be breasted out and basically free floating (all lines slack). and after draft marks at the time of the inclining. therefore. Navy Technical Manual on weights and stability addresses the accuracy of reading drafts as “Draft readings should be taken to the nearest one-quarter of an inch. • The following reflects a condensed version of the events of an inclining experiment: 1. 5.4. All doors and hatches are secured in their normally open or closed position. Some shipbuilders have developed a draft reading device made up of a clear tube with a hole in the bottom and a scale inside to help dampen out wave action. it is important to note that the ship should be allowed sufficient time to settleout after each block movement. The U. A survey of weights to add. Specific gravity of the liquids in the tanks should be taken and recorded. When reading measurements. weights to deduct and weights to relocate is needed because it is the nature of ship construction to have unexpected changes in the day to day condition of the ship. Another device. doors. and those onboard should stay in an assigned location during the experiment. All tanks and voids should be sounded just prior to starting the experiment and also after the experiment. and the gangways. of sufficient length. A larger ship such as the LHD Wasp Class. The displacement of the vessel is determined by reading the draft marks. In addition. crane booms and boats should be secured to prevent swinging during the experiment. fenders. one quarter of an inch equates to over 13 tons displacement. the position of the pendulum wire installation should be verified to ensure that the wire hangs from a knife edge to ensure a free swing of the wire. a u-tube made of clear vinyl or plastic and filled with water affixed to vertical battens is installed transversely port to starboard. 6. whereas. When reading drafts. Efforts should be made to reduce the number of people aboard during the test.”6 The importance of weight measurement accuracy can be further emphasized by comparing a typical Navy destroyer’s tons per inch of draft (TPI). and construction lines should be clear of the ship. S. All spaces should be included in the survey. the test should be delayed until the winds subside. they should be taken simultaneously from boats located on the port and starboard sides. 7. Wind forces effect the accuracy of the test and it is recommended that should wind forces exceed 10 knots. it is important that the installation of the draft marks on the vessel be certified prior to the inclining experiment. Readings are to be taken from the forward. including voids and spaces reported as empty. amidships. A horizontal batten is attached to each trough for recording pendulum deflections. The inclining experiment for some shipyards begins around midnight in an attempt to take advantage of typically calmer wind and sea conditions. Appendix C-2 . All mooring lines should be well slacked while inclining measurements are being taken.
a novice should not be placed in a position to read and record the markings of the battens. After the ship is determined ready for the test. Appendix C-3 . all personnel onboard are instructed to remain in their assigned inclining experiment locations.2. all six battens are marked simultaneously to a zero point before any block movement takes place. 3. A straight line plot is desired. The inclining coordinator at this point shall announce the inclining experiment is complete. Water samples should also be taken at this time from various locations and depths along the side of the ship to determine slip water density. After each block movement. etc. whereas variations in the straight line plot may indicate that conditions (wind. If the plot is satisfactory. measurements are recorded and the tangents of the angles of inclination are plotted against the moments of the inclining weights. The next step of the experiment is to measure the inclination. and after the ship has stabilized from the block movement. Three draft readings are taken. since this task normally requires experience and practice to become proficient. Readings from all stations are taken simultaneously and marked on the battens. the reading should be taken at the midpoint of the motion. The distance each block is moved is measured from its initial position and recorded. A plot other than a straight line should be investigated. A minimum of two movements to starboard and two to port are required. individually at each of the three draft mark locations. 5. incorrect pendulum or utube measurement. plot sheets and other data needed to complete the inclining report. After each block movement. First. the port and starboard readings should be taken simultaneously. incorrect block weight. To maintain accuracy of the experiment. all battens are to be collected for verification of markings. The last step of the experiment is to take one final set of tank soundings. the signal to read the measurement of the inclination is given. and after checking in some cases some of the points of the plot may be discarded. 4. If the ship maintains some level of residual motion.) may have adversely influenced the experiment.
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