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# 6.

## 6.003: Signals and Systems

Signals and Systems

Lecture 1
6.003: Signals and Systems

February 2, 2010

Todays handouts: Single package containing Slides for Lecture 1 Subject Information & Calendar Lecturer: Denny Freeman
Instructors: Peter Hagelstein
Rahul Sarpeshkar

## Website: mit.edu/6.003 Text: Signals and Systems Oppenheim and Willsky

February 2, 2010

6.003: Homework
Doing the homework is essential for understanding the content. where subject matter is/isnt learned equivalent to practice in sports or music

## 6.003: Signals and Systems

Collaboration Policy Discussion of concepts in homework is encouraged Sharing of homework or code is not permitted and will be re ported to the COD

Weekly Homework Assignments Conventional Homework Problems plus Engineering Design Problems (Python/Matlab) Firm Deadlines Open Oce Hours ! Stata Basement (32-044) Mondays and Tuesdays, afternoons and early evenings Homework must be submitted in recitation on due date Each student can submit one late homework assignment without penalty. Grades on other late assignments will be multiplied by 0.5 (unless excused by an Instructor, Dean, or Medical Ocial).

6.003 At-A-Glance
Tuesday Feb 2 Feb 9 Feb 16 Feb 23 Mar 2 Mar 9 Mar 16 Mar 23 L1: Signals and Systems L3: Feedback, Cycles, and Modes Presidents Day: Monday Schedule L6: Laplace and Z Transforms L8: Convolution; Impulse Response L10: Bode Diagrams L12: CT Feedback and Control spring Wednesday R1: Continuous & Discrete Systems HW1 R3: Feedback, due Cycles, and Modes HW2 R5: CT Operator due Representations HW3 R7: Laplace and Z due Transforms EX4 Exam 1 no recitation Thursday L2: Discrete-Time Systems L4: CT Operator Representations L5: Second-Order Systems L7: Transform Properties L9: Frequency Response L11: DT Feedback and Control L13: CT Feedback and Control spring L15: CT Fourier Series L17: CT Fourier Transform L19: DT Fourier Transform L20: Fourier Relations L22: Sampling L24: Modulation Breakfast with Sta nals Friday R2: Dierence Equations R4: CT Systems R6: Second-Order Systems R8: Transform Properties R9: Convolution and Freq. Resp. R11: Feedback and Control R13: CT Feedback and Control spring R15: CT Fourier Series R16: CT Fourier Transform R18: DT Fourier Transform R20: Fourier Relations R21: Sampling R23: Modulation Study Period nals

## 6.003: Signals and Systems

Weekly meetings with class representatives help sta understand student perspective learn about teaching

One representative from each section (4 total) Tentatively meet on Thursday afternoon Interested?

HW5 R10: Bode due Diagrams HW6 R12: CT Feedback due and Control spring Spring Week spring

L14: CT Fourier Mar 30 Series Apr 6 Apr 13 Apr 20 L16: CT Fourier Transform L18: DT Fourier Transform Patriots Day Vacation

## HW9 R17: DT Fourier due Transform HW10 R19: Fourier Transforms

Apr 27 L21: Sampling May 4 May 11 May 18 L23: Modulation L25: Applications of 6.003 nals

EX11 Exam 3 due no recitation HW12 R22: Modulation due EX13 R24: Review

## 6.003: Signals and Systems

The Signals and Systems Abstraction
Describe a system (physical, mathematical, or computational) by the way it transforms an input signal into an output signal.

Lecture 1
Example: Mass and Spring

February 2, 2010

x(t)

y(t)

signal in

system

signal out

y(t) t

Example: Tanks
r0 (t)

## Example: Cell Phone System

sound out h1 (t) r1 (t) sound in h2 (t) r0 (t) t tank system r2 (t) r2 (t) t t cell phone system t

sound in

sound out

## Signals and Systems: Widely Applicable

The Signals and Systems approach has broad application: electrical, mechanical, optical, acoustic, biological, nancial, ...
x(t) t r0 (t) h1 (t) r1 (t) h2 (t) r2 (t) sound in cell phone system sound out r0 (t) t tank system r2 (t) t mass & spring system y(t) t

## Signals and Systems: Modular

The representation does not depend upon the physical substrate.

sound in

sound out

E/M cell sound optic sound cell E/M tower tower in phone ber phone out
t

## 6.003: Signals and Systems

Signals and Systems: Hierarchical
Representations of component systems are easily combined. Example: cascade of component systems sound in E/M cell optic cell E/M tower tower ber phone phone sound out

Lecture 1
Signals and Systems
Signals are mathematical functions.

February 2, 2010

## independent variable = time dependent variable = voltage, ow rate, sound pressure

x(t) t
mass & spring system

y(t) t

r0 (t)

r2 (t) t
tank system

Composite system
t

sound in

## cell phone system

sound out
sound in cell phone system sound out

Component and composite systems have the same form, and are analyzed with same methods.

## Signals and Systems

continuous time (CT) and discrete time (DT) x(t) x[n]

## Signals and Systems

Sampling: converting CT signals to DT

x(t)

x[n] = x(nT )

10

10

n 0T 2T 4T 6T 8T 10T t 0 2 4 6 8 10 n

Many physical systems operate in continuous time. mass and spring leaky tank
Digital computations are done in discrete time.
state machines: given the current input and current state, what is the next output and next state.

T = sampling interval

Important for computational manipulation of physical data. digital representations of audio signals (e.g., MP3)
digital representations of pictures (e.g., JPEG)

## Signals and Systems

Reconstruction: converting DT signals to CT zero-order hold

## Signals and Systems

Reconstruction: converting DT signals to CT piecewise linear

x[n]

x(t)

x[n]

x(t)

10

2T 4T 6T 8T 10T

10

2T 4T 6T 8T 10T

T = sampling interval

T = sampling interval

## 6.003: Signals and Systems

Check Yourself
Computer generated speech (by Robert Donovan) f (t)

Lecture 1
Check Yourself
y
250

February 2, 2010

f (x, y)

250

250

250

Listen to the following four manipulated signals: f1 (t), f2 (t), f3 (t), f4 (t). How many of the following relations are true? f1 (t) = f (2t) f2 (t) = f (t) f3 (t) = f (2t) f4 (t) = 2f (t)

y
250

## How many images match the expressions beneath them? y y

250 250

250

250

250

250

250

250

250

250

250

f1 (x, y) = f (2x, y) ?

f2 (x, y) = f (2x250, y) ?

f3 (x, y) = f (x250, y) ?

## The Signals and Systems Abstraction

Describe a system (physical, mathematical, or computational) by the way it transforms an input signal into an output signal.

## Example System: Leaky Tank

Formulate a mathematical description of this system. r0 (t)

h1 (t)

r1 (t)

signal in

system

signal out

Check Yourself

## Example System: Leaky Tank

Formulate a mathematical description of this system.

The holes in each of the following tanks have equal size. Which tank has the largest leak rate r1 (t)?

r0 (t)

h1 (t)

r1 (t)

3. 4.

## Example System: Leaky Tank

Formulate a mathematical description of this system. r0 (t)

Lecture 1
Check Yourself

February 2, 2010

What are the dimensions of constant of proportionality C? dr1 (t) = C r0 (t) r1 (t) dt r1 (t)

h1 (t)

## Assume linear leaking: Assume water is conserved: Solve:

r1 (t) h1 (t)
dh1 (t) r0 (t) r1 (t)
dt dr1 (t) r0 (t) r1 (t) dt

Check Yourself

## Analysis of the Leaky Tank

Call the constant of proportionality 1/ .

## Then is called the time constant of the system.

dr1 (t) r0 (t) r1 (t) = dt Assume that the tank is initially empty, and then water enters at a constant rate r0 (t) = 1. Determine the output rate r1 (t).

1. 2.

r1 (t)

time (seconds) 1 3. 4. Explain the shape of this curve mathematically. Explain the shape of this curve physically. 2 3

## Leaky Tanks and Capacitors

Although derived for a leaky tank, this sort of model can be used to represent a variety of physical systems. Water accumulates in a leaky tank. r0 (t)

## h1 (t) Charge accumulates in a capacitor. ii C + v io

r1 (t)

i io dv = i ii io dt C

analogous to

dh r0 r1 dt

Spring 2010