Thermodynamics Chemistry Project By:Mohammad.Rehan .


[18] The qualified term 'statistical thermodynamics' refers to descriptions of bodies and processes in terms of the atomic constitution of matter. The macroscopic state variables of thermodynamics have been recognized in the course of empirical work in physics and chemistry. Of particular interest are cyclic processes.[12][22] There are two fundamental kinds of entity in thermodynamics.. and then gradually beginning to further consider non-equilibrium systems.. and that in terms of cyclic processes of a system. Thermodynamics is built on the study of energy transfers that can be strictly resolved into two distinct components.[21] The rapid atomic mechanisms mediate the macroscopic changes that are of interest for thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics. the atomic states effectively visit all of their accessible range.Introduction The plain term 'thermodynamics' refers to macroscopic description of bodies and processes. because they quickly bring the system near enough to thermodynamic equilibrium. in the time frame of the process of interest. A thermodynamic system can be defined in terms of its states.[17] "Any reference to atomic constitution is foreign to . it is necessary that the atomic mechanisms of the process fall into just two classes: those so rapid that.[13] A thermodynamic system can also be defined in terms of the processes which it can undergo. thermodynamics and statistical mechanics cannot be applied. and those so slow that their effects can be neglected in the time frame of the process of interest. thermodynamics". starting with a focus on cyclic processes and thermodynamic equilibrium. that in terms of states of a system.[19][20] Thermodynamic equilibrium is one of the most important concepts for thermodynamics. states of a system. The present article takes a gradual approach to the subject. the systems consist of many subsystems at different temperatures and pressures. explicitly specified in terms of macroscopic physical and chemical variables which describe its macroscopic properties. In this way. heat and work. such as heat engines or refrigerators. This was the way of the founders of thermodynamics in the first three quarters of the nineteenth century. This separation of time scales of atomic processes is a theme that recurs throughout the subject. "When intermediate rates are present. and processes of a system. This allows two fundamental approaches to thermodynamic reasoning."[21] The intermediate rate atomic processes do not bring the system near enough to thermodynamic equilibrium in the time frame of the macroscopic process of interest. a thermodynamic system is a macroscopic physical object. Thermodynamics is a practical science and also deals with these inhomogeneous dynamic systems provided the thermodynamical parameters are well-defined. As the systems and processes of interest are taken further from thermodynamic equilibrium. specified by macroscopic variables. their thermodynamical study becomes a little more involved but also of much more practical value. In many important cases. . Basic for thermodynamics are the concepts of system and surroundings. For thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics to apply to a process in a body.

Because of this likeness. though this term can have a wider meaning.including Van't hHoff law of lowering of vapour pressure. until the equllibirium conditions are established. also often it is also referred to by the term 'statistical mechanics'. It also helps in predicting how far a physical or chemical change can occur procced. 3. Such explanation is called statistical thermodynamics. 2.can be derived from the laws of thermodynamics. the resulting pressure being established much more rapidly than any imposed change of volume or temperature. Thermodynamic facts can often be explained by viewing macroscopic objects as assemblies of very many microscopic or atomic objects that obey Hamiltonian dynamics.[28] Scope of Thermodynamics 1. the objects of each species being all alike. can be related to one another through equations of state or characteristic equations.phase rule and distribudtion law . referring to 'microscopic objects'. pressure and concentration.[27] This is another expression of the concept of separation of time scales of atomic processes mentioned above. Most of the important laws of physical industry chemistry.[23][24][25][26] They express the constitutive peculiarities of the material of the system. statistical methods can be used to account for the macroscopic properties of the thermodynamic system in terms of the properties of the microscopic species. An example of a thermodynamic surrounding is a heat bath. A classical material can usually be described by a function that makes pressure dependent on volume and temperature. It tells whether a particular physical or chemical change can occur under a given set of conditions of temperature. Classical thermodynamics is characterized by its study of materials that have equations of state that express relations between mechanical variables and temperature that are reached much more rapidly than any changes in the surroundings. which is considered to be held at a prescribed temperature. . The macroscopic variables of a thermodynamic system in thermodynamic equilibrium. in which temperature is well defined.[12][28][29] The microscopic or atomic objects exist in species. such as economic quantities. regardless of the interactions it might have with the system. that do not obey Hamiltonian dynamics.The surroundings of a thermodynamic system are other thermodynamic systems that can interact with it.

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