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Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed during and after the 1960s, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of other genres such as blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical sources. Musically, rock has centred around the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with bass guitar and drums. Typically, rock is song-based music with a 4/4 beat utilizing a versechorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse and common musical characteristics are difficult to define. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis. The dominance of rock by white, male musicians has been seen as one of the key factors shaping the themes explored in rock music. Rock places a higher degree of emphasis on musicianship, live performance, and an ideology of authenticity than pop music. By the late 1960s a number of distinct rock music sub-genres had emerged, including hybrids like blues-rock, folk rock, country rock, and jazz-rock fusion, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock influenced by the counter-cultural psychedelic scene. New genres that emerged from this scene included progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements; glam rock, which highlighted showmanship and visual style, and the diverse and enduring major sub-genre of heavy metal, which emphasized volume, power and speed. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock both intensified and reacted against some of these trends to produce a raw, energetic form of music characterized by overt political and social critiques. Punk was an influence into the 1980s on the subsequent development of other sub-genres, including New Wave, post punk and eventually the alternative rock movement. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop, and indie rock. Further fusion sub-genres have since emerged, including pop punk, rap rock, and rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post punk revival at the beginning of the new
Stylistic origins Cultural origins Rock and roll, electric blues, folk music, country, blues 1950s and 1960s, United Kingdom and United States
Vocals, electric guitar, bass guitar, Typical instruments drums, synthesizer, keyboards Mainstream Extremely high worldwide, since 1950s popularity Derivative forms New Age Music – Synthpop
Subgenres Alternative rock – Art rock – Baroque pop – Beat music – Britpop – Emo – Experimental rock – Garage rock – Glam rock – Grindcore – Group Sounds – Grunge – Hard rock – Heartland rock – Heavy metal – Instrumental rock – Indie rock – Jangle pop – Krautrock – Madchester – PostBritpop – Power pop – Progressive rock – Protopunk – Psychedelia – Punk rock – Rock noir – Soft rock – Southern rock – Surf – Symphonic rock (complete list) Fusion genres Aboriginal rock – Afro-rock – Anatolian rock – Bhangra rock – Blues-rock – Country rock – Flamenco-rock – Folk rock – Funk rock – Glam punk – Indo-rock – Industrial rock – Jazz fusion – Pop rock – Punta rock – Raga rock – Raï rock – Rap rock – Rockabilly – Rockoson – Sambarock – Space rock – Stoner rock – Sufi rock Regional scenes Argentina – Armenia – Australia – Belarus – Belgium – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Brazil – Canada – Chile – China – Colombia – Cuba – Croatia – Denmark – Dominican Republic –
millennium. Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major sub-cultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the "hippie" counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race, sex and drug use, and is often seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
Ecuador – Estonia – Finland – France – Greece – Germany – Hungary – Iceland – India – Indonesia – Ireland – Israel – Italy – Japan – Spanish-speaking world – Latvia – Lithuania – Malaysia – Mexico – Nepal – New Zealand – Norway – Pakistan – Peru – Philippines – Poland – Portugal – Russia – Serbia – Slovenia – Spain – Sweden – Switzerland – Tatar – Thailand – Turkey – Ukraine – United Kingdom – United States – Uruguay – SFR Yugoslavia – Zambia Other topics Backbeat – Rock opera – Rock band – Hall of Fame – Social impact – List of rock music terms
1 Characteristics 2 Background (1950s–early 1960s) 2.1 Rock and roll 2.2 The "in-between years" 2.3 Surf music 3 Emergence (mid- to late 1960s) 3.1 The British Invasion 3.2 Garage rock 3.3 Pop rock 3.4 Blues-rock 3.5 Folk rock 3.6 Psychedelic rock 4 Progression (late 1960s to mid-1970s) 4.1 Roots rock 4.2 Progressive rock 4.3 Jazz rock 4.4 Glam rock 4.5 Soft rock, hard rock and early heavy metal 4.6 Christian rock 5 Punk and its aftermath (mid-1970s to the 1980s) 5.1 Punk rock 5.2 New Wave 5.3 Post-punk 5.4 New waves and genres in heavy metal 5.5 Heartland rock 5.6 The emergence of alternative rock
6 Alternative goes mainstream (the 1990s) 6.1 Grunge 6.2 Britpop 6.3 Post-grunge 6.4 Pop punk 6.5 Indie rock 6.6 Alternative metal, rap rock and nu metal 6.7 Post-Britpop 7 The new millennium (the 2000s) 7.1 Post-hardcore and emo 7.2 Garage rock/post-punk revival 7.3 Contemporary heavy metal, metalcore and retro metal 7.4 Digital electronic rock 8 Social impact 9 See also 10 References 11 External links
The sound of rock is traditionally centered around the electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularization of rock and roll. The sound of the electric guitar in rock music is typically supported by the electric bass guitar pioneered in jazz music in the same era, and percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has often been complemented by the inclusion of others, particularly keyboards such as the piano, Hammond organ and synthesizers. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed a rock band or rock group and typically consists of between two and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist, drummer and occasionally that of keyboard player or other instrumentalist.
Red Hot Chili Peppers in 2006, showing a quartet lineup for a rock band of a lead vocalist, guitarist, bassist, and drummer
Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four. Melodies are often derived from older musical modes, including the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Rock songs from the mid-1960s onwards often used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock. Because of its complex history and tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition."
Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes in additional to romantic love, including sex, rebellion against the establishment, social concerns and life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources, including the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music and rhythm and blues. The predominance of white, male and often middle class musicians in rock music has often been noted and rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young, white and large male audience. As a result it has been seen as articulating the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Since the term rock began to be used in preference to rock and roll from the mid 1960s, it has often been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from which it is often distanced by an emphasis on musicianship, live performance and a focus on serious and progressive themes as part of an ideology of authenticity that is frequently combined with an awareness of the genre's history and development. According to Simon Frith "rock was something more than pop, something more than rock and roll. Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the romantic concept of art as artistic expression, original and sincere". In the new millennium the term rock has sometimes been used as a blanket term including forms such as pop music, reggae music, soul music, and even hip hop, with which it has been influenced but often contrasted through much of its history.
Background (1950s–early 1960s)
Rock and roll
Main article: Rock and roll See also: Origins of rock and roll and Rockabilly The foundations of rock music are in rock and roll, which originated in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s, and quickly spread to much of the rest of the world. Its immediate origins lay in a mixing together of various black musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues and gospel music, with country and western. In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing rhythm and blues music for a multi-racial audience, and is credited with first using the phrase "rock and roll" to describe the music. Debate surrounds which record should be considered the first rock and roll record. One contender is "Rocket 88" by Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats (in fact, Ike Turner and his band The Kings of Rhythm), recorded by Sam Phillips for Sun Records in 1951. Four years later, Bill Haley's "Rock Around the Clock" (1955) became the first rock and roll song to top Billboard magazine's main sales and airplay charts, and opened the door worldwide for this new wave of popular culture.
Elvis Presley in a promotion shot for Jailhouse Rock in 1957
It has been argued that "That's All Right (Mama)" (1954), Elvis Presley's's first single for Sun Records in Memphis, was the first rock and roll record, but, at the same time, Big Joe Turner's "Shake, Rattle & Roll", later covered by Haley, was already at the top of the Billboard R&B charts. Other artists with early rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Fats Domino, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Gene Vincent. Soon rock and roll was the major force in American record sales and crooners, such as Eddie Fisher, Perry Como, and Patti Page, who had dominated the previous decade of popular music, found their access to the pop charts significantly
particularly through the advent of rockabilly. Link Wray. and The Coasters with humorous songs like "Yakety Yak" (1958). including Alan Freed. and Scotty Moore. Jerry Lee Lewis. between the end of the initial period of innovation and what became known in the USA as the "British Invasion". which was usually played and recorded in the mid-1950s by white singers such as Carl Perkins. the death of Buddy Holly. penned by the partnership of Gerry Goffin and Carole . with songs including "The Great Pretender" (1955). in bribery and corruption in promoting individual acts or songs). The rise of girl groups like The Chantels. named after the block in New York where many songwriters were based. The Big Bopper and Richie Valens in a plane crash. Some of the most significant girl group hits were products of the Brill Building Sound. mainly benefiting the career of Chubby Checker. and Soul music The period of the later 1950s and early 1960s. including John Lennon's The Quarrymen. with hits for acts like The Marcels. combining rock and roll with "hillbilly" country music. Rock and roll had not disappeared at the end of the 1950s and some of its energy can be seen in the Twist dance craze of the early '60s. The era also saw the growth in popularity of the electric guitar. In the United Kingdom. including rockabilly. many of which. Acts like The Crows. Commentators have traditionally perceived a decline of rock and roll in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Lonnie Donegan's 1955 hit "Rock Island Line" was a major influence and helped to develop the trend of skiffle music groups throughout the country. Maurice Williams and Shep and the Chubby Checker in 2005 Limelights. which were usually supported with light instrumentation and had its origins in 1930s and '40s African American vocal groups. which included the number 1 hit for the Shirelles "Will You Love Me Tomorrow" in 1960. The "in-between years" Main article: Rock and roll See also: Doo Wop. Rock and roll has been seen as leading to a number of distinct sub-genres. By 1959. prosecutions of Jerry Lee Lewis and Chuck Berry and the breaking of the payola scandal (which implicated major figures. the departure of Elvis for the army. The El Dorados and The Turbans all scored major hits. gave a sense that the initial rock and roll era had come to an end. More recently some authors have emphasised important innovations and trends in this period without which future developments would not have been possible. In contrast doo wop placed an emphasis on multi-part vocal harmonies and meaningless backing lyrics (from which the genre later gained its name). British rock and roll. The Capris. While early rock and roll. ranked among the most successful rock and roll acts of the period.curtailed. moved on to play rock and roll. the retirement of Little Richard to become a preacher. the trad jazz and folk movements brought visiting blues music artists to Britain. and groups like The Platters. saw the greatest commercial success for male and white performers. The Shirelles and The Crystals placed an emphasis on harmonies and polished production that was in contrast to earlier rock and roll. in this era the genre was dominated by black and female artists. Buddy Holly and with the greatest commercial success. has traditionally been seen as an era of hiatus for rock and roll. The Penguins. Elvis Presley. doo wop enjoyed a revival in the same period. and the development of a specifically rock and roll style of playing through such exponents as Chuck Berry. Having died down in the late 1950s.
by the Surfaris. rapid alternate picking. These included The Astronauts. Colorado. including The Ventures. have been seen as influencing the Merseybeat sound. including the close harmonies of doo wop and girl groups. Like Dale and his Del-Tones. At the start of the 1960s. heavily influenced by blues-rock pioneers like Alexis Korner. "Surfin'" in 1962 reached the Billboard top 100 and helped make the surf music craze a national phenomenon. Developing out of rhythm and blues with a re-injection of gospel music and pop. from Sydney. formed in 1961 in Southern California. Kramer. his backing group The Shadows was the most successful group recording instrumentals. Surf music achieved its greatest commercial success as vocal music. Cliff Richard had the first British rock and roll hit with "Move It". The Chantays scored a top ten national hit with "Pipeline" in 1963 and probably the best known surf tune was 1963's "Wipe Out". made a significant contribution to the genre. James Brown. led by pioneers like Ray Charles and Sam Cooke from the mid-1950s. who were the British backing band for Merseybeat singer Billy J. by the early '60s figures like Marvin Gaye. Some historians of music have also pointed to important and innovative technical developments that built on rock and roll in this period. The Atlantics. Minnesota. from Boulder. Aretha Franklin. Indiana. The growing popularity of the genre led groups from other areas to try their hand. who had a number 4 hit with "Surfin Bird" in 1964 and The Rivieras from South Bend. while Motown and Stax/Volt Records were becoming major forces in the record industry. particularly the work of the Beach Boys. Their early albums included both instrumental surf rock (among them covers of music by Dick Dale) and vocal songs. were starting to play with an intensity and drive seldom found in white American acts. from Minneapolis. Surf music Main article: Surf music The instrumental rock and roll pioneered by performers such as Duane Eddy.King. the Challengers. who reached number 5 in 1964 with "California Sun". producing the regional hit "Let's Go Trippin'" in 1961 and launching the surf music craze. most early surf bands were formed in Southern California. All of these elements. helping to accelerate their desegregation. Link Wray. as well as Middle Eastern and Mexican influences. and the elaborate production methods of the Wall of Sound pursued by Phil Spector. and through them the form of later rock music. Australia. the carefully crafted song-writing of the Brill Building Sound and the polished production values of soul. moving on to the more general themes . Also significant was the advent of soul music as a major commercial force. with their hit "Bombora" (1963). drawing on rock and roll and doo wop and the close harmonies of vocal pop acts like the Four Freshmen. Their first chart hit. and The Ventures was developed by Dick Dale who added distinctive "wet" reverb. but The Dakotas. which hit number 2 and number 10 on the Billboard charts in 1965. including the electronic treatment of sound by such innovators as Joe Meek. While rock 'n' roll was fading into lightweight pop and ballads. gained some attention as surf musicians with "Cruel Sea" (1963). particularly the early work of The Beatles. effectively ushering in the sound of British rock. which was later covered by American instrumental surf bands. including the Bel-Airs. The Trashmen. British rock groups at clubs and local dances. Curtis Mayfield and Stevie Wonder were dominating the R&B charts and breaking through into the main pop charts. European instrumental bands around this time generally focused more on the more rock and roll style played by The Shadows. and Eddie & the Showmen. From 1963 the group began to leave surfing behind as subject matter as Brian Wilson became their major composer and producer.
O. Petula Clark. Only the Beach Boys were able to sustain a creative career into the mid-1960s. During the next two years British acts dominated their own and the US charts with Peter and Gordon. Other major acts that were part of the invasion included The Kinks and The Dave Clark Five. Bands like The Animals from Newcastle and Them from Belfast. considerable musical crossover between the two tendencies. They drew on a wide range of American influences including soul.to late 1960s) The British Invasion Main article: British Invasion See also: Beat music and British rhythm and blues By the end of 1962. while York in January 1964 at the early British rhythm and blues acts tended towards less sexually innocent. more beginning of the British aggressive songs. but the only other act to achieve sustained success with the formula were Jan & Dean. which made them. Soon these groups were composing their own material. Invasion however. soon to be followed into the charts by the more rhythm and blues focused acts. rhythm and blues and surf music. including one-hit wonders like Ronny & the Daytonas with "G. drawing an estimated 73 million viewers (at the time a record for an American television program) often is considered a milestone in American pop culture. what would become the British rock scene had started with beat groups like The Beatles. combining US forms of music and infusing it with a high The Beatles arriving in New energy beat. the only American rock or pop act that could rival The Beatles. often adopting an anti-establishment stance. who had a number 1 hit with "Surf City" (co-written with Brian Wilson) in 1963." (1964) and Rip Chords with "Hey Little Cobra". "I Want to Hold Your Hand" was the band's first number 1 hit on the Billboard Hot 100. led by the Beatles. Other vocal surf acts followed. The surf music craze and the careers of almost all surf acts was effectively ended by the arrival of the British Invasion from 1964. Beat bands tended towards "bouncy. By 1963. Emergence (mid. including the highly regarded Pet Sounds in 1966. spending 7 weeks at the top and a total of 15 weeks on the chart. In 1964 the Beatles achieved a breakthrough to mainstream popularity in the United States. beat groups had begun to achieve national success in Britain. Fun. were much more directly influenced by rhythm and blues and later blues music. and particularly those from London like The Rolling Stones and The Yardbirds. Herman's Hermits and The Hollies from Manchester. There was. producing a string of hit singles and albums. initially reinterpreting standard American tunes and playing for dancers. Manfred Mann. The Animals. Gerry & The Pacemakers and The Searchers from Liverpool and Freddie and the Dreamers. T. opening the door for subsequent British .of male adolescence including cars and girl in songs like "Fun. Herman's Hermits. irresistible melodies". Freddie and the Dreamers. which both reached the top ten. The Beatles went on to become the biggest selling rock band of all time and they were followed into the US charts by numerous British bands. and Donovan all having one or more number 1 singles. Fun" (1964) and "California Girls" (1965). arguably. The Troggs. particularly in the early stages. The Rolling Stones. Their first appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show on 9 February. The British Invasion helped internationalize the production of rock and roll. Wayne Fontana and the Mindbenders.
the Remains. who employed a much more aggressive style. The D-Men (later The Fifth Estate) in 1964 The style had been evolving from regional scenes as early as 1958. Washington). Garage rock songs revolved around the traumas of high school life. with songs about "lying girls" being particularly common. "Girl I Got News for You" by Miami's Birdwatchers (1966) and "1–2–5" by Montreal's The Haunted. By 1968 the style largely disappeared from the national charts and at the local level as amateur musicians faced college. leading many (often surf or hot rod groups) to adopt a British Invasion lilt. By 1963. It is generally agreed that garage rock peaked both commercially and artistically around 1966. particularly prevalent in North America in the mid-1960s and so called because of the perception that it was rehearsed in a suburban family garage. Other influential garage bands. These bands began to be labelled punk rock and are now often seen as proto-punk or proto-hard rock. and the Fifth Estate). garage band singles were creeping into the national charts in greater numbers. New styles had evolved to replace garage rock (including blues-rock. They ranged from crude one-chord music (like the Seeds) to near-studio musician quality (including the Knickerbockers. Garage rock Main article: Garage rock Garage rock was a form of amateurish rock music. opening the door for subsequent British (and Irish) performers to achieve international success. Indiana).The British Invasion helped internationalize the production of rock and roll. providing them with a national audience. the Trashmen (Minneapolis) and the Rivieras (South Bend. . There were also regional variations in many parts of the country with flourishing scenes particularly in California and Texas. most were commercial failures. including Paul Revere and the Raiders (Boise). progressive rock and country rock). and cemented the primacy of the rock group. Examples include: "The Witch" by Tacoma's The Sonics (1965). based on guitars and drums and producing their own material as singer-songwriters. never reached the Billboard Hot 100. including Elvis. Despite scores of bands being signed to major or large regional labels. that had dominated the American charts in the late 1950s and '60s. often with growled or shouted vocals that dissolved into incoherent screaming. The British Invasion of 1964–66 greatly influenced garage bands. The Pacific Northwest states of Washington and Oregon had perhaps the most defined regional sound. vocal girl groups and (for a time) the teen idols. such as the Sonics (Tacoma. It dented the careers of established R&B acts like Fats Domino and Chubby Checker and even temporarily derailed the chart success of surviving rock and roll acts. In this early period many bands were heavily influenced by surf rock and there was a cross-pollination between garage rock and frat rock. "Tall Cool One" (1959) by The Wailers and "Louie Louie" by The Kingsmen (1963) are mainstream examples of the genre in its formative stages. Thousands of garage bands were extant in the USA and Canada during the era and hundreds produced regional hits. sometimes viewed as merely a sub-genre of garage rock. and encouraging many more groups to form. In Detroit garage rock stayed alive until the early '70s. The British Invasion also played a major part in the rise of a distinct genre of rock music. work or the draft. with bands like the MC5 and The Stooges. "Where You Gonna Go" by Detroit's Unrelated Segments (1967). In America it arguably spelled the end of instrumental surf music. The lyrics and delivery were more aggressive than was common at the time.
particularly after the tour of Britain by Muddy Waters in 1958. British blues musicians of the late 1950s and early '60s had been inspired by the acoustic playing of figures such as Lead Belly. and pop artists who have used rock music as a basis for their work. The Eric Clapton performing in Barcelona in 1974 . based on the Chicago blues. the impetus was soon taken up by a second wave of bands that drew their inspiration more directly from American blues. Pop-rock has been defined as an "upbeat variety of rock music represented by artists such as Elton John. Paul McCartney. to describe a form that was more commercial." The term power pop was coined by Pete Townshend of The Who in 1966. instrumentation and even lyrical content. Blues-rock Main article: Blues-rock See also: British blues Although the first impact of the British Invasion on American popular music was through beat and R&B based acts. aimed at a youth market. was often associated with particular subcultures (like the counter-culture). but not much used until it was applied to bands like Badfinger in the 1970s. and Robert Johnson. who was a major influence on the Skiffle craze. The Everly Brothers in 2006 Nevertheless much pop and rock music has been very similar in sound. Rod Stewart. which prompted Cyril Davies and guitarist Alexis Korner to form the band Blues Incorporated. often centred around the electric guitar. The Everly Brothers. In contrast rock music was seen as focusing on extended works. Starostin argues that most of what is traditionally called "power pop" falls into the pop rock subgenre and that the lyrical content of pop rock is "normally secondary to the music. Increasingly they adopted a loud amplified sound. self-published music reviewer George Starostin defines it as a subgenre of pop music that uses catchy pop songs that are mostly guitar-based. it was increasingly used in opposition to the term rock music. placed an emphasis on artistic values and "authenticity". or striven for rock "authenticity"." In contrast. ephemeral and accessible. or the form of. including the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds. and Peter Frampton. particularly albums. Chicago. In the aftermath of the British Invasion. but from the mid-1950s it began to be used for a distinct genre. who proved some of the most commercially successful of the period. stressed live performance and instrumental or vocal virtuosity and was often seen as encapsulating progressive developments rather than simply reflecting existing trends. often characterized as a softer alternative to rock and roll. from about 1967. The terms "pop-rock" and "power pop" have been used to describe more commercially successful music that uses elements from. rock music.Pop rock Main article: Pop rock See also: Pop music and Power pop The term pop has been used since the early twentieth century to refer to popular music in general. Throughout its history there have been rock acts that have used elements of pop.
 The genre was continued in the 1970s by figures such as George Thorogood and Pat Travers. Dylan had begun to reach a mainstream audience with hits including "Blowin' in the Wind" (1963) and "Masters of War" (1963). utilising traditional music and new compositions in a traditional style. which would later be a major element of progressive rock. In America the genre was pioneered by figures such as Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger and often identified with progressive or labor politics. formed Peter Green's Fleetwood Mac. Johnny Winter. whose guitar virtuosity and showmanship would be among the most emulated of the decade. The other key focus for British blues was around John Mayall who formed the Bluesbreakers. which brought "protest songs" to a wider public. In the late '60s Jeff Beck. whose members included Eric Clapton (after his departure from The Yardbirds) and later Peter Green. By the 1970s blues-rock had become heavier and more riff-based. and the lines between blues-rock and hard rock "were barely visible". Green. were expansions on traditional blues songs. Blind Faith and Derek and the Dominos. followed by an extensive solo career that helped bring blues-rock into the mainstream. Blues-rock bands from the southern states. and ZZ Top. exemplified by the work of Led Zeppelin and Deep Purple. In the early sixties figures such as Joan Baez and Bob Dylan had come to the fore in this movement as singer-songwriters. who went on to form The ew Yardbirds which rapidly became Led Zeppelin. particularly on the British scene (except perhaps for the advent of groups such as Status Quo and Foghat who moved towards a form of high energy and repetitive boogie rock). Many of the songs on their first three albums. Lynyrd Skynyrd. the scene that had developed out of the American folk music revival had grown to a major movement. playing long. but the genre began to take off in the mid-'60s as acts developed a sound similar to British blues musicians. as bands began recording rock-style albums. In America blues-rock had been pioneered in the early 1960s by guitarist Lonnie Mack. Janis Joplin. The band involved and inspired many of the figures of the subsequent British blues boom. who enjoyed some of the greatest commercial success in the genre. From about 1967 bands like Cream and The Jimi Hendrix Experience had begun to move away from purely blues-based music into psychedelia. incorporated country elements into their style to produce distinctive Southern rock. bands became focused on heavy metal innovation. also an alumnus of the Yardbirds. The Jeff Beck Group. The Jimi Hendrix Experience and Band of Gypsys. The J. considered one of the seminal British blues recordings and the sound of which was much emulated in both Britain and the United States. Eric Clapton went on to form supergroups Cream. moved blues-rock in the direction of heavy rock with his band. but. Key acts included Paul Butterfield (whose band acted like Mayall's Bluesbreakers in Britain as a starting point for many successful musicians). involved improvisations. combining blues standards and forms with rock instrumentation and emphasis. Folk rock Main article: Folk rock See also: Electric folk By the 1960s.in 1974 guitarist Alexis Korner to form the band Blues Incorporated. like Allman Brothers Band. . and occasionally later in their careers. The last Yardbirds guitarist was Jimmy Page. the early Jefferson Airplane. including members of the Rolling Stones and Cream. Particularly significant was the release of Blues Breakers with Eric Clapton (Beano) album (1966). and blues-rock began to slip out of the mainstream. Canned Heat. along with the Bluesbreaker's rhythm section Mick Fleetwood and John McVie. Early blues-rock bands often emulated jazz. Geils Band and Jimi Hendrix with his power trios. usually on acoustic instruments.
bringing in elements of psychedelia. which became a major element in the sound of the genre. which was the first commercially successful folk song to be recorded with rock and roll instrumentation and the Beatles "I'm a Loser" (1964). with the New York-based Holy Modal Rounders using the term in their 1964 recording of "Hesitation Blues". the Byrds adopted rock instrumentation. where it led acts like The Mamas & the Papas and Crosby. The first group to advertise themselves as psychedelic rock were the 13th Floor Elevators from Texas. Steeleye Span and The Albion Band. However. with "I Feel Fine" using guitar feedback. in late 1965 the Rubber Soul album included the use of a sitar on "Norwegian Wood" and they employed backmasking on their 1966 single B-side "Rain" and other tracks that appeared on their Revolver album later that year. Folk rock reached its peak of commercial popularity in the period 1967–68. which turn prompted Irish groups like Horslips and Scottish acts like the JSD Band. The Beatles introduced many of the major elements of the psychedelic sound to audiences in this period. This electric folk was taken up by bands including Pentangle. These acts directly influenced British performers like Donovan and Fairport Convention. producing an album that made their direction clear. much to the outrage of many folk purists. with his "Like a Rolling Stone" becoming a US hit single. although beginning to influence each other.but. The Great Society and . Country Joe and the Fish. Folk rock particularly took off in California. the protest song and concepts of "authenticity". at the end of 1965. where it spawned performers including The Lovin' Spoonful and Simon and Garfunkel. including Dylan and the Byrds. before many acts moved off in a variety of directions. and in New York. including drums and 12-string Rickenbacker guitars. the hybridization of folk and rock has been seen as having a major influence on the development of rock music. Later that year Dylan adopted electric instruments. to use their traditional music to create a brand of Celtic rock in the early 1970s. who began to develop country rock. Spencer's Feat and later Five Hand Reel. often with mutually exclusive audiences. In 1969 Fairport Convention abandoned their mixture of American covers and Dylan-influenced songs to play traditional English folk music on electric instruments. and helping to develop the ideas of the singer-songwriter. Stills and Nash to move to electric instrumentation. Psychedelic rock Main article: Psychedelic rock Psychedelic music's LSD-inspired vibe began in the folk scene. Early attempts to combine elements of folk and rock included the Animals "House of the Rising Sun" (1964). with The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators the following year. The psychedelic life style had already developed in San Francisco and particularly prominent products of the scene were The Grateful Dead. Tambourine Man" which topped the charts in 1965. arguably the first Beatles song to be influenced directly by Dylan. rock and folk music had remained largely separate genres. with the latter's acoustic "The Sounds of Silence" (1965) being remixed with rock instruments to be the first of many hits. Psychedelic rock particularly took off in California's emerging music scene as groups followed the Byrds from folk to folk rock from 1965. With members who had been part of the cafe-based folk scene in Los Angeles. The folk rock Joan Baez and Bob Dylan in 1963 movement is usually thought to have taken off with The Byrds' recording of Dylan's "Mr.
to be among the most successful and influential bands of the late 1960s. The same movement saw the beginning of the recording careers of Californian solo artists like Ry Cooder. These trends climaxed in the 1969 Woodstock festival. The Byrds rapidly progressed from purely folk rock in 1966 with their single "Eight Miles High". Gregorian chant and world music influences to songs including "Still I'm Sad" (1965) and "Over Under Sideways Down" (1966). Traffic and Soft Machine. Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys. Key recordings included Jefferson Airplane's Surrealistic Pillow and The Doors' Strange Days. The same year saw Donovan's folk-influenced hit album Sunshine Superman. country and blues. which saw performances by most of the major psychedelic acts. considered one of the first psychedelic pop records. Pink Floyd produced what is usually seen as their best Dutch TV in 1967 psychedelic work The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. adding up-tempo improvised "rave ups". Other acts that followed the back-to-basics trend were the Canadian group The Band and the Californian-based Creedence Clearwater Revival. whose extended guitar-heavy jams became a key feature of psychedelia. increasingly moved into psychedelic territory. both of which mixed basic rock and roll with folk. who. including the controversial track "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" and the Rolling Stones responded later that year with Their Satanic Jimi Hendrix performing on Majesties Request. This. the Jimi Hendrix Experience and Cream broke up before the end of the decade and many surviving acts moved away from psychedelia into more back-to-basics "roots rock". leading to the creation of country rock and Southern rock. Peter Green of Fleetwood Mac and Syd Barrett of Pink Floyd were early "acid casualties". Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. with Jeff Beck as their guitarist. whose single "I Can See for Miles" delved into psychedelic territory. the latter helping to make major American stars of Jimi Hendrix and The Who. have been seen as creating the genre of country folk. The Great Society and Jefferson Airplane. to a more basic form of rock and roll that incorporated its original influences. and subsequent more clearly country-influenced albums. In America the Summer of Love was prefaced by the Human Be-In event and reached its peak at the Monterey Pop Festival. a route pursued by a number of. Psychedelic rock reached its apogee in the last years of the decade. From 1966 the UK underground scene based in North London. 1967 saw the Beatles release their definitive psychedelic statement in Sgt.prominent products of the scene were The Grateful Dead. widely taken to be a reference to drug use. or riff laden heavy rock. In 1966 Bob Dylan went to Nashville to record the album Blonde on Blonde. Country Joe and the Fish. and influenced the . particularly country and folk music. largely acoustic. but by the end of the decade psychedelic rock was in retreat. as well as the débuts of blues rock bands Cream and The Jimi Hendrix Experience. supported new acts including Pink Floyd. the wider experimentation of progressive rock. Progression (late 1960s to mid-1970s) Roots rock Main article: Roots rock See also: Country rock and Southern rock Roots rock is the term now used to describe a move away from what some saw as the excesses of the psychedelic scene. In Britain arguably the most influential band in the genre were The Yardbirds. folk musicians. Bonnie Raitt and Lowell George. Brian Jones of the Rolling Stones.
Emmylou Harris. In 1968 Gram Parsons recorded Safe at Home with the International Submarine Band. but was sustained the 1980s with acts like . Later that year he joined the Byrds for Sweetheart of the Rodeo (1968). including: the Everly Brothers. The founders of Southern rock are usually thought to be the Allman Brothers Band. producing albums that included Hotel California (1976). former Monkee Mike Nesmith who formed the First National Band. Their successors included the fusion/progressive instrumentalists Dixie Dregs. arguably the first true country-rock album. with its Bach inspired introduction. and forms. Poco and Long Road out of Eden Tour New Riders of the Purple Sage. who moved towards rock music. the genre began to fade in popularity in the late 1970s. had pioneered the inclusion of harpsichords. Poco and Stone Canyon Band). The Byrds continued in the same vein. The Dillards were. Molly Hatchet and The Marshall Tucker Band. From the mid-1960s The Left Banke. The Rolling Stones and The Beach Boys. a country act. Linda Ronstadt and the Eagles (made up of members of the Burritos. who developed a distinctive sound. the Beau Brummels and the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band. but Parsons left to be joined by another ex-Byrds member Chris Hillman in forming The Flying Burrito Brothers who helped establish the respectability and parameters of the genre. Some performers also enjoyed a renaissance by adopting country sounds. Progressive rock Main article: Progressive rock See also: Electronic rock and Kraut rock Progressive rock.38 Special. generally considered one of the most influential recordings in the genre. before Parsons departed to pursue a solo career. and Neil Young. largely derived from blues rock. a term sometimes used interchangeably with art rock. After the loss of original members of the Allmans and Lynyrd Skynyrd. wind and string sections on their recordings to produce a form of Baroque rock and can be heard in singles like Procol Harum's "A Whiter Shade of Pale" (1967). song types. jazz-leaning Wet Willie and (incorporating elements of R&B and gospel) the Ozark Mountain Daredevils. The Beatles. soul. unusually. the more country-influenced Outlaws.work of established performers such as the Rolling Stones' Beggar's Banquet (1968) and the Beatles' Let It Be (1970). The most successful act to follow them were Lynyrd Skynyrd. was an attempt to move beyond established musical formulas by experimenting with different instruments. who helped establish the "Good ol' boy" image of the sub-genre and the general shape of 1970s guitar rock. but incorporating elements of boogie. The Eagles during their 2008-2009 where it was adopted by bands including Hearts and Flowers. with artist including the Doobie Brothers. who emerged as one of the most successful rock acts of all time. Country rock was particularly popular in the Californian music scene. one-time teen idol Rick Nelson who became the frontman for the Stone Canyon Band. The greatest commercial success for country rock came in the 1970s. The Moody Blues used a full orchestra on . and country in the early 1970s.
progressive rock was increasingly dismissed as pretentious and overblown. for the Virgin Records label. Instrumental rock was particularly significant in continental Europe. toward more expansive hard rock. through jazz influences. but distinctly English. Sweat and Tears. seen as a masterpiece of the genre. which mixed powerful guitar riffs and mellotron. Ultravox and Simple Minds. The American brand of prog rock varied from the eclectic and innovative Frank Zappa. Yes. but some. and Pink Floyd. Captain Beefheart and Blood. along with the work of Brian Eno (for a time the keyboard player with Roxy Music). including Genesis. The instrumental strand of the genre resulted in albums like Mike Oldfield's Tubular Bells (1973). while songs with lyrics were sometimes conceptual. Foreigner. managed to produce top ten singles at home and break the American market. The Pretty Things' SF Sorrow (1968). Most British bands depended on a relatively small cult following. Genesis and Jethro Tull. becoming one of the best-selling albums of all time. with jazz and symphonic music. is often taken as the key recording in progressive rock. ELP. Renaissance.Prog-rock band Yes performing in concert in Indianapolis in 1977 their album Days of Future Passed (1967) and subsequently created orchestral sounds with synthesisers. Some bands which emerged in the aftermath of punk. Gong. would be replaced by more economical rock festivals as major live venues in the 1990s. Tangerine Dream. Hatfield and the North. Jazz rock . regularly scored top ten albums with successful accompanying worldwide tours. all demonstrated a prog rock influence and while ranking among the most commercially successful acts of the 1970s. with Yes showcasing the skills of both guitarist Steve Howe and keyboard player Rick Wakeman. who also moved away from psychedelia after the departure of Syd Barrett in 1968. Many bands broke up. Their synthesiser-heavy "Kraut rock". issuing in the era of pomp or arena rock. These. In the Court of the Crimson King. the first record. There was an emphasis on instrumental virtuosity. to more pop rock orientated bands like Boston. showed the influence of prog. Kansas. evolved into a high-concept band featuring the three-octave voice of Annie Haslam. would be a major influence on subsequent synth rock. beside British bands Supertramp and ELO. helping the widespread adoption of the genre in the early 1970s among existing blues-rock and psychedelic bands. Instrumentals were common. Greater commercial success was enjoyed by Pink Floyd. which became a mainstay of the genre. and National Health. Jethro Tull and Genesis both pursued very different. brands of music. or based in fantasy and science fiction. King Crimson's 1969 début album. as well as their more usually recognized punk influences. The vibrant Canterbury scene saw acts following Soft Machine from psychedelia. keyboards and synthesisers were a frequent edition to the established rock format of guitars. The Who's Tommy (1969) and The Kinks' Arthur (Or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire) (1969) introduced the format of rock operas and opened the door to concept albums. with Dark Side of the Moon (1973). including Pink Floyd. which would last until the costs of complex shows (often with theatrical staging and special effects). bass and drums in subsequent progressive rock. often telling an epic story or tackling a grand overarching theme. while Emerson. including Caravan. Classical orchestration. but a handful. as well as newly formed acts. abstract. Lake & Palmer were a supergroup who produced some of the genre's most technically demanding work. and worldwide hit. Can and Faust to circumvent the language barrier. such as Siouxsie and the Banshees. Journey and Styx. allowing bands like Kraftwerk. With the advent of punk rock and technological changes in the late 1970s. formed in 1969 by ex-Yardbirds Jim McCarty and Keith Relf.
Blood. who. From the psychedelic rock and the Canterbury scenes came Soft Machine. Often highlighted as the first true jazz-rock recording is the only album by the relatively obscure New York-based The Free Spirits with Out of Sight and Sound (1966). ranging from 1930s Hollywood glamor. The first group of bands to self-consciously use the label were R&B oriented white rock bands that made use of jazzy horn sections. makeup. through 1950s pin-up sex appeal. had emerged from the British jazz scene. beside extensive use of theatrics. but acts like Steely Dan. who had renamed his folk duo to T. Visually it was a mesh of various styles. and many of its leading figures. In Britain the sub-genre of blues rock.Main article: Jazz rock In the late 1960s jazz rock emerged as a distinct sub-genre out of the blues rock. science fiction. particularly influenced by the work of Hendrix. mixing the power of rock with the musical complexity and improvisational elements of jazz. Many early US rock and roll musicians had begun in jazz and carried some of these elements into the new music. to ancient and occult mysticism and mythology. varying between the simple rock and roll revivalism of figures like Alvin Stardust to the complex art rock of Roxy Music. The genre began to fade in the late 1970s. Jaco Pastorius of Glam rock Main article: Glam rock Glam rock emerged out of the English psychedelic and art rock scenes of the late 1960s and can be seen as both an extension of and reaction against those trends. like Ginger Baker and Jack Bruce of Cream. produced one of the artistically successfully fusions of the two genres. It was a major influence on subsequent rock-influenced jazz artists. Rex and taken up electric instruments by the end of the 1960s. Frank Zappa and Joni Mitchell recorded significant jazz-influenced albums in this period. pre-war Cabaret theatrics. like Electric Flag. included Nucleus and the Graham Bond and John Mayall spin-off Colosseum. with Miles Davis. as a mellower form of fusion began to take its audience. Glam is most noted for its sexual and gender ambiguity and representations of androgyny. Perhaps the most critically acclaimed fusion came from the jazz side of the equation. . it has been suggested. David Bowie during the Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders Tour The origins of glam rock are associated with Marc Bolan. It was prefigured by the showmanship and gender identity manipulation of American acts such as The Cockettes and Alice Cooper. incorporating rock instrumentation into his sound for the album Bitches Brew (1970). including Herbie Hancock. to make use of the Weather Report in 1980 tonal and improvisational aspects of jazz. psychedelic and progressive rock scenes. Chick Corea and Weather Report. and can be seen as much as a fashion as a musical sub-genre. hairstyles. Musically diverse. manifesting itself in outrageous clothes. British acts to emerge in the same period from the blues scene. and it has continued to be an major influence on rock music. Victorian literary and symbolist styles. and platform-soled boots. Sweat and Tears and Chicago. to become some of the most commercially successful acts of the later 1960s and early 1970s.
Roy Wood's Wizzard and Sparks. Existing acts. It reached its commercial peak in the mid. In the UK the term glitter rock was most often used to refer to the extreme version of glam pursued by Gary Glitter and his support musicians the Glitter Band. Rex and taken up electric instruments by the end of the 1960s. These . From the late 1960s the term heavy metal began to be used to describe some hard rock played with even more volume and intensity. Key acts included British Invasion bands like The Who and The Kinks. Mud and Alvin Stardust. hard rock and early heavy metal Main articles: Soft rock. hard rock was more often derived from blues-rock and was Led Zeppelin live at Chicago Stadium played louder and with more intensity. very few of these musicians were able to make a serious impact in the United States. Hard rock. Aerosmith and AC/DC. Thin Lizzy. often known as "glitter rock" and with a darker lyrical content than their British counterparts. Glam has since enjoyed sporadic modest revivals through bands such as Chainsaw Kittens. David Bowie developed his Ziggy Stardust persona. in 1972 Soft rock. for a time. even the Rolling Stones. It was also a direct influence on acts that rose to prominence later. who between them achieved eighteen top ten singles in the UK between 1972 and 1976. also adopted glam styles. Major artists included Carole King. and was more likely to be used with distortion and other effects. both as a rhythm instrument using simple repetitive riffs and as a solo lead instrument. incorporating elements of professional make up.folk duo to T. as well as psychedelic era performers like Cream. From 1971. which helped end the fashion for glam from about 1976. While highly successful in the single charts in the UK. some not usually considered central to the genre. It often emphasised the in January 1975 electric guitar.to late '70s with acts like Billy Joel. Elton John. and Heavy metal music From the late 1960s it became common to divide mainstream rock music into soft and hard rock. Slade. Often cited as the moment of inception is his appearance on the UK TV programme Top of the Pops in December 1970 wearing glitter. A second wave of glam rock acts. Deep Purple brought in symphonic and medieval interests from their progressive rock phrase and Black Sabbath introduced facets of the gothic and modal harmony. mime and performance into his act. Cat Stevens and James Taylor. helping to produce a "darker" sound. Hard rock-influenced bands that enjoyed international success in the later 1970s included Queen. Led Zeppelin added elements of fantasy to their riff laden blues-rock. New York Dolls and Jobriath. Soft rock was often derived from folk rock. whose Rumours (1977) was the best selling album of the decade. The term was first used in music in Steppenwolf's "Born to be Wild" (1967) and began to be associated with pioneer bands like Boston's Blue Cheer and Michigan's Grand Funk Railroad. and less directly on the formation of gothic rock and glam metal as well as on punk rock. The Darkness and in R n' B crossover act Prince. Bowie was the major exception becoming an international superstar and prompting the adoption of glam styles among acts like Lou Reed. using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies. including Suzi Quatro. America and the reformed Fleetwood Mac. Iggy Pop. Sweet. dominated the British single charts from about 1974 to 1976. first as an adjective and by the early 1970s as a noun. including Rod Stewart. In contrast. including Kiss and Adam Ant. These performers were soon followed in the style by acts including Roxy Music. By 1970 three key British bands had developed the characteristic sounds and styles which would help shape the sub-genre. already a minor star. to perform what would be his first number 1 single "Ride a White Swan". Jimi Hendrix and The Jeff Beck Group. Queen and. Mott the Hoople.
in New York City. preferring to be seen as groups who were also Christians. Despite a lack of airplay and very little presence on the singles charts. and Blue Öyster Cult from the US. who have condemned it as immoral. with many bands self-producing their recordings and distributing them through informal channels. usually seen as the first major "star" of Christian rock. acts such as the Ramones and Patti Smith. expressing youthful rebellion and characterized by distinctive clothing styles and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies. Punk quickly. They created fast. Punk and its aftermath (mid-1970s to the 1980s) Punk rock Main article: Punk rock See also: Protopunk and Hardcore punk Punk rock was developed between 1974 and 1976 in the United States and the United Kingdom. who achieved considerable mainstream success in the 1980s. The genre has been particularly popular in the United States. From the 1990s there were increasing numbers of acts who attempted to avoid the Christian band label. though briefly. Ted Nugent. including P.O. These elements were taken up by a "second generation" of heavy metal bands into the late 1970s. An associated punk subculture emerged. including: Judas Priest. For the most part. punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream.D and Collective Soul. including figures such as the American gospel-to-pop crossover artist Amy Grant and the British singer Cliff Richard. anti-establishment lyrics. By late 1976. UFO. Motörhead and Rainbow from Britain. Since the 1980s Christian rock performers have gained mainstream success. Christian rock began to develop in the late 1960s. particularly among adolescent working-class males in North America and Europe. Punk embraces a DIY (do it yourself) ethic. .Sabbath introduced facets of the gothic and modal harmony. became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. while Stryper on stage in 1986 other bands and artists are closely linked to independent music. Rooted in garage rock and other forms of what is now known as protopunk music. hard-edged music. However. all marking the expansion in popularity of the sub-genre. Many Christian rock performers have ties to the contemporary Christian music scene. particularly out of the Jesus movement beginning in Southern California. Christian rock Main article: Christian rock Rock has been criticized by some Christian religious leaders. punk rock bands eschewed the perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. and the Sex Pistols and The Clash. Rush from Canada and Scorpions from Germany. was more controversial. were recognized as the vanguard of a new musical movement. Kiss. strippeddown instrumentation. anti-Christian and even demonic. in London. and emerged as a sub-genre in the 1970s with artists like Larry Norman. helping to produce a "darker" sound. and often political. While these artists were largely acceptable in Christian communities the adoption of heavy rock and glam metal styles by bands like Petra and Stryper. The following year saw punk rock spreading around the world. typically with short songs. late-1970s heavy metal built a considerable following.
performing in 1976 ew Wave Main article: ew Wave music See also: ew Romantics and Synthpop Although punk rock was a significant social and musical phenomenon. whose "Money for Nothing" gently poked fun at the . recognized the potential of the more accessible New Wave acts and began aggressively signing and marketing any band that could claim a remote connection to punk or New Wave. while "skinny tie" bands exemplified by The Knack. Duran Duran. Patti Smith. punk rock continues to have a strong underground following. A Flock of Seagulls. This period coincided with the rise of MTV and led to a great deal of exposure for this brand of synthpop. Ultravox. Culture Club. or American radio airplay (as the radio scene continued to be dominated by mainstream formats such as disco and album-oriented rock). giving rise to New Wave. such as D-beat (a distortion-heavy subgenre influenced by the UK band Discharge). anarcho-punk (such as Crass). began as punk acts and moved into more commercial territory. and crust punk. such as The Cars. in some quarters the description "New Wave" Deborah Harry from the band began to be used to differentiate these less overtly punk bands. This has resulted in several evolved strains of hardcore punk. faster. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk also pursued a broad range of other variations. Many of these bands. more aggressive styles such as hardcore and Oi! had become the predominant mode of punk rock. influenced by Kraftwerk. and The Go-Go's can be seen as pop bands marketed as New Wave. and Gary Numan. Blondie. most obviously Dire Straits'. creating what has been characterised as a second British Invasion. Some more traditional rock bands adapted to the video age and profited from MTV's airplay. grindcore (such as Napalm Death).styles and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies. sometimes using the synthesizer to replace all other instruments. performing at Maple Leaf Record executives. By the beginning of the 1980s. Between 1982 and 1985. or the photogenic Blondie. Talk Talk and the Eurythmics. used the New Wave movement as the springboard for relatively long and critically successful careers. including The Police. Since punk rock's initial popularity in the 1970s and the renewed interest created by the punk revival of the 1990s. such as Talking Heads. other existing acts. arty approach. post-punk and the alternative rock movement. who had been mostly mystified by the punk Gardens in Toronto in 1977 movement. Punk rock had attracted devotees from the art and collegiate world and soon bands sporting a more literate. and Devo began to infiltrate the punk scene. it achieved less in the way of record sales (being distributed by small specialty labels such as Stiff Records). British New Wave went in the direction of such New Romantics as Spandau Ballet. David Bowie. The Pretenders and Elvis Costello.
 Post-punk Main article: Post-punk See also: Gothic rock and Industrial music If hardcore most directly pursued the stripped down aesthetic of punk. who placed less emphasis on art than their US counterparts and more on the dark emotional qualities of their music. Bands like Siouxsie and the Banshees. ew waves and genres in heavy metal Main article: Heavy metal music See also: WOBHM. including The Fall. moved increasingly in this direction to found Gothic rock. Part of the reaction saw the popularity of bands like Motörhead. The Mekons. using a variety of electronic and sampling techniques that emulated the sound of industrial production and which would develop into a variety of forms of post-industrial music in the 1980s. who incorporated elements of religious imagery together with political commentary into their often anthemic music. The Pop Group. Siouxsie and the Banshees and Joy Division. Devo. and by the late 1980s had become one of the biggest bands in the world. who had . Bauhaus. Frank Zappa and Captain Beefheart. The second generation of British post-punk bands that broke through in the early 1980s. heavy metal suffered a hiatus in the face of the punk movement in the mid-1970s. Similar emotional territory was pursued by Australian acts like The Birthday Party and Nick Cave. Early contributors to the genre included the US bands Pere Ubu. Echo and the Bunnymen and Teardrop Explodes. despite the fact that it had helped make them international stars. Major influences beside punk bands were The Velvet Underground. Arguably the most successful band to emerge from post-punk was Ireland's U2. post-punk emerged in the later 1970s and early '80s as its more artistic and challenging side. whose "Money for Nothing" gently poked fun at the station. DNA and Sonic Youth. and The Sisters of Mercy. most obviously Dire Straits'. and New Wave came to represent its commercial wing. Members of Bauhaus and Joy Division explored new stylistic territory as Love and Rockets and New Order respectively. Glam metal. The Cure. it declined as a movement in the mid-1980s as acts disbanded or moved off to explore other musical areas. and Extreme metal Although many established bands continued to perform and record. and the New York based no wave scene which placed an emphasis on performance. which had become the basis of a major sub-culture by the early 1980s. tended to move away from dark sonic landscapes.and profited from MTV's airplay. Although many post-punk bands continued to record and perform. Another early post-punk movement was the industrial music developed by British bands Throbbing Gristle and Cabaret Voltaire. including bands such as James Chance and the Contortions. but it has continued to influence the development of rock music and has been seen as a major element in the creation of the alternative rock movement. but in general guitar-oriented rock was commercially eclipsed. The Who. The Residents and Talking Heads. and New Yorkbased Suicide. U2 performing at Madison Square Garden in November 2005 The first wave of British post-punk included Gang of Four.
based on the clubs of L. including thrash metal. Saint Vitus and Trouble. a metal scene began to develop in Southern California from the late 1970s. Megadeth. complemented by downtuned. Ratt. Diamond Head. highly distorted guitars and extremely fast double bass percussion. which developed in the US from the style known as speed metal.A. many of which began to enjoy considerable success in the USA. Power metal emerged in Europe in the late 1980s as a reaction to the harshness of death and black metal and was established by Germany's Helloween. who combined a melodic approach with thrash's speed and energy. anthemic choruses. By the mid-1980s bands were beginning to emerge from the L. In the late 1980s metal fragmented into several subgenres. Black metal. These bands were soon followed by acts including Iron Maiden. Florida's Death and the Bay Area's Possessed emphasized lyrical elements of blasphemy.S. emphasizing melody. Switzerland's Hellhammer and Celtic Frost. Bathory were particularly important in inspiring the further sub-genres of Viking metal and folk metal. Randy Rhoads and Yngwie Malmsteen also became Iron Maiden. one of the central bands established virtuosos. and Jane's Addiction. gory language. and Judas Priest.. largely removing the remaining elements of blues music. The lyrics of these glam metal bands characteristically emphasized hedonism and wild behavior and musically were distinguished by rapid-fire shred guitar solos. poporiented approach. who had adopted a punk sensibility. and a relatively melodic. Italy's Rhapsody of Fire. and W.'s Sunset Strip and including such bands as Quiet Riot. while acts such as Florida's Kamelot. down-tuned guitars. under the influence of hardcore punk. with low-register guitar riffs typically overlaid by shredding leads. slowed down the music.P." high-pitched screaming. and Slayer. Heartland rock . In the same period Eddie Van Halen established himself as a metal guitar virtuoso after his band's self-titled 1978 album. particularly Guns N' Roses. scene that pursued a less glam image and a rawer sound. This change of direction was compared to punk and in the late 1970s became known as the New Wave of British Heavy Metal (NWOBHM). It was popularised by the "Big Four of Thrash": Metallica. influenced by Gothic rock. Finland's Nightwish. who emerged with their major label debut othing's Shocking. but was often intentionally lo-fi in production and placed greater emphasis on satanic and pagan themes.punk movement in the mid-1970s. diabolism and millenarianism. In contrast to other subgenres Doom metal. Anthrax. and Sweden's Bathory. Lyrics often expressed nihilistic views or deal with social issues using visceral. Def Leppard and Venom. particularly influenced by the bands Venom and Slayer. Saxon. the following year. who. Mötley Crüe. Vardis. a 'thicker' or 'heavier' sound and a sepulchral mood. Death metal developed out of thrash. England's DragonForce and Florida's Iced Earth have a sound indebted to NWOBHM. had many similarities in sound to death metal. associated with what would be known as the in the New Wave of British Heavy neoclassical metal style.A. sometimes employing orchestras and opera singers. Metal in 2006 Inspired by NWOBHM and Van Halen's success. breaking through with the chart-topping Appetite for Destruction (1987). and Russia's Catharsis feature a keyboard-based "symphonic" sound. who created a stripped down sound. with vocals usually delivered as guttural "death growls.A. along with similarly styled acts such as New York's Twisted Sister. incorporated the theatrics (and sometimes makeup) of glam rock acts like Alice Cooper and Kiss. again influenced by Venom and pioneered by Denmark's Mercyful Fate. from their 1978 album Stained Class. with bands like England's Pagan Altar and Witchfinder General and the United States' Pentagram. Part of the reaction saw the popularity of bands like Motörhead.
and Shoegaze The term alternative rock was coined in the early 1980s to describe rock artists who did not fit into the mainstream genres of the time. Led by figures who had initially been identified with punk and New Wave. It can also be heard as an influence on artists as diverse as Billy Joel. The term heartland rock was first used to describe Midwestern arena rock groups like Kansas. along with less widely known acts such as Southside Bruce Springsteen in East Johnny and the Asbury Jukes and Joe Grushecky and the Houserockers. with Springsteen's Born in the USA (1984). The Jesus and Mary Chain. it was most strongly influenced by acts such as Bob Dylan. Creedence Clearwater Revival and Van Morrison. Dream pop. The Byrds. country and rock and roll. and a concern with the lives of ordinary. as rock music in general. College rock. and blue collar and white working class themes in particular. often find themselves labeled alt-country. Bob Seger. . Hüsker Dü. developed in the second half of the 1970s. Many heartland rock artists continue to record today with critical and commercial success. Artists were largely confined to independent record labels. and The Smiths. New Order. Steve Earle and more gentle singer/songwriters such as Bruce Hornsby. together with the arrival of artists including John Mellencamp. touring. REO Speedwagon and Styx. often dwelling on issues of social disintegration and isolation. characterized by a straightforward musical style. such as Missouri's Bottle Rockets and Illinois' Uncle Tupelo. although their works have become more personal and experimental and no longer fit easily into a single genre. beside a form of goodtime rock and roll revivalism.E. Alternative bands were linked by their collective debt to punk rock. topping the charts worldwide and spawning a series of top ten singles. but which came to be associated with a more socially concerned form of roots rock more directly influenced by folk. Bands dubbed "alternative" had no unified style.. Jane's Addiction. through hardcore. Tom Petty and John Mellencamp. but were all seen as distinct from mainstream music. and the Pixies. Heartland rock faded away as a recognized genre by the early 1990s. New Wave or the post-punk movements. Exemplified by the commercial success of singer songwriters Bruce Springsteen. artistic and influential peak in the mid-1980s. building an extensive underground music scene based on college radio. blue collar American people. and in the UK The Cure. and word-of-mouth. The emergence of alternative rock Main article: Alternative rock See also: Jangle pop. Sonic Youth. Indie pop. Kid Rock and The Killers. it was Berlin in 1988 partly a reaction to post-industrial urban decline in the East and Mid-West. and the basic rock of '60s garage and the Rolling Stones.Main article: Heartland rock American working-class oriented heartland rock. and as heartland's artists turned to more personal works. and Tom Petty. most notably Bruce Springsteen. The genre reached its commercial. fanzines.M. It has been seen as an American Midwest and Rust Belt counterpart to West Coast country rock and the Southern rock of the American South. Newer artists whose music would perhaps have been labelled heartland rock had it been released in the 1970s or 1980s. Important alternative rock bands of the 1980s in the US included R. lost influence with younger audiences.
associated with the early recordings of R.M. Bogshed. and The Smiths. bands in Washington state (particularly in the Seattle area) formed a new style of rock which sharply contrasted with the mainstream music of the time. and college rock. but by the end of the decade indie or dream pop like Primal Scream. but the band refused to employ traditional corporate promotion and marketing mechanisms. The popular breakthrough of these grunge bands prompted Rolling Stone to nickname Seattle "the new Liverpool. evermind was more melodic than its predecessors. the Melvins and Skin Yard pioneered the genre. was a successful alternative such as 10. they exerted a considerable influence on the generation of musicians who came of age in the '80s and ended up breaking through to mainstream success in the 1990s. bringing alternative rock into the mainstream. grunge remained largely a local phenomenon until 1991. including acts R. during the 1980s included jangle pop. and made heavy use of guitar distortion. although it was also known for its dark humor and parodies of commercial rock. Particularly vibrant was the Madchester scene. the Inspiral Carpets. fanzines. and the Boo Radleys. Lush. Soundgarden's Badmotorfinger and Alice in Chains' Dirt. achieved mainstream success. along with the Temple of the Dog album featuring members of Pearl Jam and Soundgarden. During 1991 and 1992. and often concerned themes such as social alienation and entrapment. who actively rebelled against the over-groomed images of popular artists. became among the 100 top selling albums. which incorporated the ringing guitars of mid1960s pop and rock. However.E.M. . Bands such as Green River. The developing genre came to be known as "grunge". while a second influx of acts moved to the city in the hope of success. with the exceptions of R.000 Maniacs and The Feelies. The lyrics were typically apathetic and angst-filled. Soundgarden. Styles of alternative rock in the U. other grunge albums such as Pearl Jam's Ten. Nirvana (pictured here in 1992) popularized grunge worldwide. Alternative goes mainstream (the 1990s) Grunge Main article: Grunge Disaffected by commercialized and highly produced pop and rock in the mid-1980s. Half Man Half Biscuit and The Wedding Present. used to describe alternative bands that began in the college circuit and college radio. but despite a lack of spectacular album sales. Few of these early bands. and what were dubbed shoegaze bands like My Bloody Valentine.E.S.E. Chapterhouse. a term descriptive of the dirty sound of the music and the unkempt appearance of most musicians. The next decade would see the success of grunge in the United States and Britpop in the United Kingdom. touring. and Stone Roses." Major record labels signed most of the remaining grunge bands in Seattle. produced such bands as Happy Mondays. with Mudhoney becoming the most successful by the end of the decade.M. Grunge fused elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal into a single sound. In the UK Gothic rock rock band in the 1980s was dominant in the early 1980s. fuzz and feedback. and word-of-mouth. when Nirvana‘s evermind became a huge success thanks to the lead single "Smells Like Teen Spirit".. Ride.underground music scene based on college radio.
based. Post-grunge bands emulated their attitudes and music. with bands like Los Angeles' Audioslave. the genre began to decline. Britpop was varied in style. but with Oasis achieving greater long-term and international success. Supergrass and Elastica. Pulp. the movement had largely fallen apart by the end of the decade. including The Boo Radleys. The movement has been seen partly as a reaction against various U. who were soon joined by others including Oasis. Britpop Main article: Britpop Britpop emerged from the British alternative rock scene of the early 1990s and was characterised by bands particularly influenced by British guitar music of the 1960s and 1970s. of the Seattle grunge bands. From 1994. but the sub-genre was marked by a broadening of the geographical base of grunge. directly influencing a third generation of Britpop bands. or a cynical response to an "authentic" rock movement. particularly the grunge phenomenon and as a reassertion of a British rock identity. The term post-grunge was meant to be pejorative. were able to spread their commercial success overseas. Ocean Colour Scene and Cast. However. Post-grunge Main article: Post-grunge The term post-grunge was coined for the generation of bands that followed the emergence into the mainstream. alternative metal or hard rock. with the death of Kurt Cobain and the subsequent break-up of Nirvana in 1994. Britpop groups brought British alternative rock into the mainstream and formed the backbone of a larger British cultural movement known as Cool Britannia. who produced a series of top ten albums and singles. particularly Blur and Oasis. and Georgia's Collective Soul and . touring problems for Pearl Jam and the departure of Alice in Chains' lead singer Layne Staley in 1996. like Candlebox. The Smiths were a major influence. former Nirvana drummer Dave Grohl's new band. partly to be overshadowed by Britpop and more commercial sounding post-grunge. beside lyrics with particularly British concerns and the adoption of the iconography of the 1960s British Invasion. while a second influx of acts moved to the city in the hope of success. were from Seattle. but with a more radio-friendly commercially oriented sound. For a while the contest between Blur and Oasis was built by the popular press into "The Battle of Britpop".S. musical and cultural trends in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Foo Fighters performing an acoustic show in 2007 Some post-grunge bands. including the symbols of British identity previously utilised by the mods. helped popularize the genre and define its parameters. suggesting that they were simply musically derivative. which had dissolved in the early 1990s. pop-punk.the remaining grunge bands in Seattle. and subsequent hiatus. especially to the United States. It was launched around 1992 with releases by groups such as Suede and Blur. as were bands of the Madchester scene. the Foo Fighters. initially won by Blur. but often used Oasis performing in 2005 catchy tunes and hooks. Often they worked through the major labels and came to incorporate diverse influences from jangle pop. Although its more popular bands.
 By the mid-1990s. labelled as post-grunge. They were soon followed by the eponymous début from Weezer. Post rock. In 1994 Green Day moved to a major label Green Day performing in 2009 and produced the album Dookie. The All-American Rejects and Fall Out Boy. A second wave of pop punk was spearheaded by Blink-182. Those bands following the less commercial contours of the scene were increasingly referred to by the label indie. Space rock. with bands like Los Angeles' Audioslave. Indie rock Main article: Indie rock See also: Riot Grrrl. and the more hardcore-influenced elements of alternative rock in the 1980s. Later pop-punk bands. Sadcore. Weezer and Green Day. narratives and romantic songs. Pop-punk tends to use power-pop melodies and chord changes with speedy punk tempos and loud guitars. Seether and 3 Doors Down. including Rancid. and were followed in this vein by new acts including Shinedown. followed by bands such as Good Charlotte. Lo-fi music. who all cemented post-grunge as one of the most commercially viable sub-genres of the late 1990s. . and Georgia's Collective Soul and beyond the US to Australia's Silverchair and Britain's Bush. abandoning most of the angst and anger of the original movement for more conventional anthems. This success opened the door for the multiplatinum sales of metallic punk band The Offspring with Smash (1994). had a sound that has been described as closer to 1980s hardcore. including two number ones in the US. while relying on touring. leading to a series of hit singles. while retaining the speed. Punk music provided the inspiration for some California-based bands on independent labels in the early 1990s. Math rock. Bands like Creed and Nickelback took post-grunge into the 21st century with considerable commercial success. also became a multi-platinum hit. with their breakthrough album Enema of the State (1999). female solo artist Alanis Morissette's 1995 album Jagged Little Pill. while still achieving considerable commercial success. Pop punk Main article: Pop punk The origins of 1990s pop punk can be seen in the more song-oriented bands of the 1970s punk movement like The Buzzcocks and The Clash. Bowling for Soup and Sum 41. This first wave of pop punk reached its commercial peak with Green Day's imrod (1997) and The Offspring's Americana (1998). the term alternative began to lose its meaning. post-grunge and pop-punk. which found a new. They characteristically attempted to retain control of their careers by releasing albums on their own or small independent labels. largely teenage. commercially successful New Wave acts such as The Jam and The Undertones. Pennywise. which spawned three top ten singles in the US. including Simple Plan. some of the attitude and even the look of 1970s punk. audience and proved a surprise diamond-selling success. who made use of humour in their videos and had a more radio-friendly tone to their music. and Baroque pop In the 1980s the terms indie rock and alternative rock were used interchangeably. Although male bands predominated. particularly grunge and then Britpop.the geographical base of grunge. as elements of the movement began to attract mainstream interest.
The Fat Boys. with drone heavy and minimalist acts like Spaceman 3. Rap metal. Early alternative metal bands mixed a wide variety of genres with hardcore and heavy metal sensibilities. Soundgarden and Corrosion of Conformity using garage punk.I. In contrast. Rap rock. . Spectrum and Spiritualized. Belle and Sebastian and Rufus Wainright. Linked by an ethos more than a musical approach. developed by acts like Polvo and Chavez. ethos and was spearheaded by Beck. but virtually unknown outside them. Rappers who sampled rock songs included Ice-T. word-of-mouth. and later groups including Flying Saucer Attack. but gained a wider audience after grunge broke into the mainstream in the early 1990s. Stereolab. Detroit rapper Esham became known for his "acid rap" style. as well as leading to more dense and complex. guitar-based math rock. the two bands created out of its split. It has been noted that indie rock has a relatively high proportion of female artists compared with preceding rock genres. Hip hop had gained attention from rock acts in the early 1980s. while Biohazard and Faith No More turned to hip hop and rap. to punk-folk singers such as Ani DiFranco. pioneered by Bark Psychosis and taken up by acts such as Tortoise. a tendency exemplified by the development of feminist-informed Riot Grrrl music. Lo-fi eschewed polished recording techniques for a D. and u metal Alternative metal emerged from the hardcore scene of alternative rock in the US in the later 1980s. which fused rapping with a sound that was often based in rock and heavy metal. Public Enemy and Whodini. including The Clash with "The Magnificent Seven" (1981) and Blondie with "Rapture" (1981). an experimental style influenced by jazz and electronic music.albums on their own or small independent labels. Sepultura and White Zombie creating groove metal. were included under the umbrella of indie. from hardedged. The work of Talk Talk and Slint helped inspire both post rock. Ministry and Nine Inch Nails influenced by industrial music. By the end of the 1990s many recognisable sub-genres. flourishing with bands with enough popularity to survive inside the respective country. Linkin Park performing in 2009 The Jesus Lizard and Helmet mixing noise-rock. LL Cool J. Godspeed You Black Emperor! and Quickspace. the 2006 indie rock movement encompassed a wide range of styles. and airplay on independent or college radio stations for Lo-fi indie rock band Pavement in promotion. with artists like Arcade Fire. Early crossover acts included Run DMC and the Beastie Boys. while relying on touring. while the revival of Baroque pop reacted against lo-fi and experimental music by placing an emphasis on melody and classical instrumentation. Alternative metal. grunge-influenced bands like The Cranberries and Superchunk. Monster Magnet moving into psychedelia. rap rock and nu metal Main article: Heavy metal music See also: Alternative metal. Many countries have developed an extensive local indie scene. Sebadoh and Pavement. through do-it-yourself experimental bands like Pavement. Sadcore emphasised pain and suffering through melodic use of acoustic and electronic instrumentation in the music of bands like American Music Club and Red House Painters. most with their origins in the late '80s alternative movement. Pantera. The mixing of thrash metal and rap was pioneered by Anthrax on their 1987 comedy-influenced single "I'm the Man". Space rock looked back to progressive roots. with acts like Jane's Addiction and Primus utilizing prog-rock. and Laika.Y.
 This paved the way for the success of existing bands like 24-7 Spyz and Living Colour. Post-Britpop bands have been seen as presenting the image of the rock star as an ordinary person and their increasingly melodic music was criticised for being bland or derivative.O. In 2001. including postColdplay in 2008 grunge. and Papa Roach's second album Lovehatetragedy. which contained a mix of grunge. rap and turntable scratching.1987 comedy-influenced single "I'm the Man". did not sell as well as their previous releases.O. and Staind. Faith No More broke into the mainstream with their single "Epic'. beside a greater willingness to engage with the American press and fans. metal. achieved much wider international success than most of the Britpop groups that had preceded them. which has also been seen as a reaction to their introspective brand of rock. may have helped some of them in achieving international success. spawned a wave of successful bands like Linkin Park. Slipknot's Iowa and Linkin Park's Hybrid Theory. This. who were often classified as rap metal or nu metal. by 2002 there were signs that nu metal's mainstream popularity was weakening. particularly the Beatles. Many of these bands tended to mix elements of British traditional rock (or British trad rock). with American influences. However. whose major label début Infest became a platinum hit. Post-Britpop Main article: Post-Britpop From about 1997. nu metal reached its peak with albums like Staind's Break the Cycle. Among the first wave of performers to gain mainstream success as rap rock were 311. the themes of their music tended to be less parochially centred on British. post-grunge/hard rock band Godsmack and Papa Roach. Stereophonics from Performance and Cocktails (1999). punk. and were some of the most commercially successful acts of the late 1990s and early 2000s. often seen as the first truly successful combination of heavy metal with rap. Drawn from across the United Kingdom (with several important bands emerging from the north of England. while nu metal bands were played more infrequently on rock radio stations and MTV began focusing on pop punk and emo. English and London life and more introspective than had been the case with Britpop at its height. Wales and Northern Ireland). Rolling Stones and Small Faces. Korn's long awaited fifth album Untouchables. Travis from The Man Who (1999). Feeder from Echo Park (2001) and particularly Coldplay from their debut album Parachutes (2000). many bands have changed to a more conventional hard rock or heavy metal music sound.D. . A more metallic sound . arguably providing a launchpad for the subsequent garage rock or post-punk revival.nu metal . Later in the decade this style. emerging bands began to avoid the Britpop label while still producing music derived from it.was pursued by bands including Limp Bizkit. P. as dissatisfaction grew with the concept of Cool Britannia. Since then. Post-Britpop bands like The Verve with Urban Hymns (1997). who all fused rock and hip hop among other influences. and Kid Rock. New bands also emerged like Disturbed. Bloodhound Gang. and Britpop as a movement began to dissolve. Korn and Slipknot. P.D's Satellite. the first of which are the best-selling band of the genre. In 1990. Scotland. and new acts including Rage Against the Machine and Red Hot Chili Peppers. Radiohead from OK Computer (1997).
 Only after the breakthrough of grunge and pop punk into the mainstream did emo come to wider attention with the success of Weezer's Pinkerton (1996) album. releasing work by Rites of Spring. not least for their overtly anti-commercial stance. Finch. The Get Up Kids. The term emo has been applied by critics and journalists to a variety of artists. Jawbreaker and Weezer. From First to Last and Emery and . even when they protest the label. Around this time. barking style. Texas Is the Reason. Late 1990s bands drew on the work of Fugazi.C. in the early-to-mid 1980s. particularly in the Chicago and Washington. adopting longer song formats. Bands that formed in the 1990s included Thursday. initially as "emocore". The mid-'90s sound of emo was defined by bands like Jawbreaker and Sunny Day Real Estate who incorporated elements of grunge and more melodic rock. and Poison the Well. D. emo scene. The early emo scene operated as an underground. Braid. the last formed by Ian MacKaye. From the late 1980s they were followed by bands including Quicksand. The new emo had a much more mainstream sound then in the 90s and a far greater appeal amongst adolescents than its earlier incarnations. more complex musical structures and sometimes more melodic lyrics. gaining a fanbase among alternative rock followers. including The Promise Ring. D. a new wave of post-hardcore bands began to emerge onto the scene that incorporated more pop punk and alternative rock styles into their music. Joan of Arc. Thrice. Members of Fugazi performing in 2002 Emo also emerged from the hardcore scene in 1980s Washington.C areas. SDRE. Hawthorne Heights. Nation of Ulysses and Fugazi.. including multi-platinum acts such as Fall Out Boy and My Chemical Romance and disparate groups such as Paramore and Panic at the Disco. A number of these bands were seen as a more aggressive offshoot of emo and given the often vague label of screamo. which utilised pop punk. By 2003 post-hardcore bands had also caught the attention of major labels and began to enjoy mainstream success in the album charts. Senses Fail. Existing bands that moved on from hardcore included Fugazi. becoming associated with fashion. use of the term emo expanded beyond the musical genre. a hairstyle and any music that expressed emotion. whose Dischord Records became a major centre for the emerging D. Jets to Brazil and most successfully Jimmy Eat World.C. Emo broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s with the platinum-selling success of Jimmy Eat World's Bleed American (2001) and Dashboard Confessional's The Places You Have Come to Fear the Most (2003). but influenced by post-punk. with bands that were inspired by the do-it-yourself ethics and guitar-heavy music of hardcore punk. Girls Against Boys and The Jesus Lizard. including The Used. and by the end of the millennium it was one of the more popular indie styles in the US.The new millennium (the 2000s) Post-hardcore and emo Main articles: Post-Hardcore and Emo See also: Screamo Post-hardcore developed in the US. At the same time. The style was pioneered by bands Rites of Spring and Embrace. Dag Nasty. used as a term to describe bands who favored expressive vocals over the more common abrasive. Fugazi emerged as the definitive early emo band. with short-lived bands releasing small-run vinyl records on tiny independent labels.
including The Used. By the new millennium Scandinavia had emerged as one of the areas producing innovative and successful bands. including Finnish band Children of Bodom. emerged into the mainstream. particularly in continental Europe. with their third album White Blood Cells (2001). from Detroit. Yeah Yeah Yeahs and The Rapture. They were variously characterised as part of a garage rock. . Contemporary heavy metal. The commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands: The Strokes. and The Vines from Australia with Highly Evolved (2002). Germany's Blind Guardian and Sweden's HammerFall. There had been attempts to revive garage rock and elements of punk in the 1980s and 1990s and by 2000 scenes had grown up in several countries. Hawthorne Heights. Senses Fail. regional or national success. Franz Ferdinand and Placebo from the UK. British bands like Funeral For A Friend. metalcore and retro metal Main article: Heavy metal music See also: Metalcore and ew Wave of American Heavy Metal Metal remained popular in the 2000s. their unity as a genre has been disputed. The Blackout and Enter Shikari also made headway. The (International) Noise Conspiracy from Sweden. Elsewhere. while Belgium. The Killers. other lesserknown acts such as Billy Childish and The Buff Medways from Britain. Interpol and Kings of Leon from the US. post-punk or New Wave revival.8's from Japan. They were christened by the media as the "The" bands. Established continental metal bands that placed multiple albums in the top 20 of the German charts between 2003 and 2008. The Dirtbombs and The Detroit Cobras and that of New York Radio 4. cited diverse influences (from traditional blues. Holland and especially Germany were the most significant markets. Bloc Party. Norwegian act Dimmu Borgir. through New Wave to The Strokes performing in 2006 grunge). and the Oblivians from Memphis enjoyed underground. who emerged from the New York club scene with their début album Is This It (2001). Editors. and dubbed "The saviours of rock 'n' roll". The Detroit rock scene included The Von Bondies. The 5. The Hives from Sweden after their compilation album Your ew Favourite Band (2001). Arctic Monkeys. The Libertines.7. and adopted differing styles of dress. A second wave of bands that managed to gain international recognition as a result of the movement included Black Rebel Motorcycle Club. From First to Last and Emery and Canadian bands Silverstein and Alexisonfire. The White Stripes. Electric Six.6. Because the bands came from across the globe. Garage rock/post-punk revival Main articles: Garage rock revival and Post-punk revival In the early 2000s. a new group of bands that played a stripped down and back-to-basics version of guitar rock. Jet from Australia and The Datsuns and The D4 from New Zealand. leading to accusations of hype.
as computer technology became more accessible and music software advanced. respectively. drawing on New York hardcore. performing at the 2007 Masters of Rock festival and Sweden's HammerFall. and Australia's Wolfmother. it became possible to create high quality music using little more than a single laptop computer. with a related blend of metal styles. helping to inspire a move away from the Nu Metal of the early 2000s and a return to riffs and guitar solos. mixing a variety of indie sounds with electronic music. from Wales. and Mastodon. Bullet for My Valentine. Lali Puna from Germany and The Postal Service. Metalcore bands have received prominent slots at Ozzfest and the Download Festival.Guardian Children of Bodom. was sufficiently popular for Killswitch Engage's The End of Heartache and Shadows Fall's The War Within to debut at number 21 and number 20. Lamb of God. who played in a progressive/sludge style. melodic metalcore. It was rooted in the crossover thrash style developed two decades earlier by bands such as Suicidal Tendencies. with acts including Broadcast from the UK. who have released both metalcore and straight-ahead thrash albums. influenced by melodic death metal. and Stormtroopers of Death and remained an underground phenomenon through the 1990s. It was pioneered by  . and ew rave In the 2000s. techno. Indie electronic. dance-punk and new rave. originally an American hybrid of thrash metal and hardcore punk. reached number 2 on the Billboard charts in 2009 with Wrath. The success of these bands and others such as Trivium. which had begun in the early '90s with bands like Stereolab and Disco Inferno. Gaspard Augé and Xavier de Rosnay of Justice in 2001 Indie electronic. By 2004. drew heavily on the work of Black Sabbath and Pentagram. Sweden's Witchcraft. Digital electronic rock Main article: Electronic rock See also: Laptronica.S. emerged as a commercial force in the mid-2000s. Justice from France. The Sword's Age of Winters (2006). dubbed by some critics the "New Wave of American Heavy Metal". inspired claims of a metal revival in the United States. including indie electronic. The Electroclash sub-genre began in New York at the end of the 1990s. on the Billboard album chart. and new forms of performance such as laptronica and live coding. This resulted in a massive increase in the amount of home-produced electronic music available to the general public via the expanding internet. California's High on Fire. Biohazard and Machine Head. Electroclash. Dance-punk. combining synth pop. These techniques also began to be used by existing bands. took off in the new millennium as the new digital technology developed. Metalcore. largely produced on small independent labels. and British charts with Scream Aim Fire (2008). broke into the top 5 in both the U. while Witchcraft added elements of folk and psychedelic rock and Wolfmother's self-titled 2005 debut album combined elements of the sounds of Deep Purple and Led Zeppelin. Its roots have been traced to the music of acts like Pantera. electroclash. and by developing genres that mixed rock with digital techniques and sounds. thrash metal and punk. as with industrial rock act Nine Inch Nails' album Year Zero (2007). The term "retro-metal" has been applied to such bands as Texas-based The Sword. and Ratatat from the US. punk and performance art. Dirty Rotten Imbeciles.
and rock music in general has been noted and criticised for facilitating greater sexual freedom. particularly among New York acts such as Liars. Late of the Pier. but it was revived among some bands of the garage rock/post-punk revival in the early years of the new millennium. Rock has been credited with changing attitudes to race by opening up African-American culture to white audiences. Different sub-genres of rock were adopted by. While rock music has absorbed many influences and introduced Western audiences to different musical traditions. which. as well as expressing divergent views on sexuality and gender. When an international rock culture developed. while successfully raising awareness of world poverty and funds for aid. which revolved around US rock and roll. civil rights. mixing post-punk sounds with disco and funk. Rock fashions have been seen as combining elements of different cultures and periods. The counter-culture of the 1960s was closely associated with psychedelic rock. rock has been accused of appropriating and exploiting that culture. Chicks on Speed. fashion and social attitudes. The mid-1970s punk subculture began in the US. In the 1950s and 1960s. Test Icicles and Shitdisco. it was able to supplant cinema as the major sources of fashion influence. the identity of a large number of sub-cultures. justice and the environment. Rock music inherited the folk tradition of protest song. the Goth and Emo subcultures grew. Social impact Main article: Social effects of rock music The worldwide popularity of rock music meant that it became a major influence on culture. Rock has also been associated with various forms of drug use. through the LSD linked with psychedelic rock in the late 1960s and early 1970s. British youths adopted the Teddy Boy and Rockers subcultures. including the stimulants taken by some mods in the early to mid-1960s. religion. which has been seen as elevating image above substance. Out of the punk scene. the global spread of rock music has been interpreted as a form of cultural imperialism. Peaches. a look which spread worldwide. forming a scene with a similar visual aesthetic to earlier rave music. respectively. followers of rock music have often mistrusted the world of fashion. all of which have been eulogised in song. for providing a stage for selfaggrandisement and increased profits for the rock stars involved. The Rapture and Radio 4. but at the same time. both of which presented distinctive visual styles. New Young Pony Club. have also been criticised (along with similar events). but rapidly faded as a recognisable genre. joined by dance-oriented acts who adopted rock sounds such as Out Hud. In Britain the combination of indie with dance-punk was dubbed new rave in publicity for The Klaxons and the term was picked up and applied by the NME to bands including Trash Fashion. making political statements on subjects such as war. Dance-punk. Hadouken!. It gained international attention at the beginning of the new millennium and spread to scenes in London and Berlin. and pursued by artists including Felix da Housecat. . poverty. and sometimes to cannabis. but it was given a distinctive look by British designer Vivian Westwood. had developed in the 1980s. cocaine and heroin.I-F with their track "Space Invaders Are Smoking Grass" (1998). Paradoxically. Political activism reached a mainstream peak with the "Do They Know It's Christmas?" single (1984) and Live Aid concert for Ethiopia in 1985. and Ladytron. The 1969 Woodstock Festival was seen as a celebration of the countercultural lifestyle. and became central to.
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