Emotions are the way one feels about oneself and others. Emotions are inner feelings we have about ourselves, other people and situations. Emotions influence the way one learns, thinks and interacts with others. Emotions are especially intense during early childhood. This is time of disequilibrium when children are “out of focus” in the sense that they are easily aroused to emotional outbursts and as a result, are difficult to live with and guide. While this is rule of the major part of early childhood, it is especially true of children aged 2 ½ to 3 ½ and 5 ½ to 6 ½. Although any emotion may be heightened in the sense that it occurs more frequently and more intensely than is normal for that particular individual, heightened emotionality in early childhood is characterized by temper tantrums, intense fears, and unreasonable outbursts of jealousy. Part of the intense emotionality of children at this age may be traced to fatigue due to strenuous and prolonged play, rebellion against taking naps, and the fact that they may eat too little. Much of the heightened emotionality characteristic of this age is psychological rather than physiological in origin. Most young children feel that they are capable of doing more than their parents will permit them to do and revolt against the restrictions placed upon them. In addition, they become angry when they find they are incapable of doing what they think they can do easily and successfully. Even more important, children whose parents expect them to measure up to unrealistically high standards will experience more emotional tension than children whose parents are more realistic in their expectations.
Common Emotional Patterns
Young children experience most of the emotions normally experienced by adults. However, the stimuli that give rise to them and the ways in which children express these emotions are markedly different. Fear-related emotional patterns- worry, anxiety and embarrassment are not listed. They normally do not become important emotions until late childhood, when contacts with peers and adults outside the home become more frequent and more pronounced than they were in early childhood. Please refer to annexed Box 5.4 Notes on Motor Skills refer to pg 22 – 29; Notes on Social development refer to pg 69-90
COGNITIVE means to become acquainted with. Cognitive development focuses on how children learn and process information. It is the development of the thinking and organizing systems of the mind. It involves language, mental imagery, thinking, reasoning, problem solving, and memory development. By general consensus, Jean Piaget stands as the central
This stage. which continues to be useful to contemporary child educators. and how the changes reflect an interesting series of structured stages. Although Piaget set clear stages of cognitive development. which follows the Concrete Operational stage. reason logically and draw conclusions from the information available. This stage.5 Cognitive Development For the question on moral development do not forget to start by defining Moral Development. Please refer to Pg 80-88
. It is characterized by acquisition of the ability to think abstractly. The fact is that the child will not reach any of these stages without proper education. as well as apply all these processes to hypothetical situations. commences at around 12 years of age (puberty) and continues into adulthood. and values. He developed a whole field of cognitive development. according to Piaget. and can only do. Contrary to the animal. During this stage the young adult is able to understand such things as love. how thinking changes from infancy to adolescence. Further notes on cognitive development refer to pg 7 onwards of your book CPECE Area of Study 1: Professional studies Part 2: Domains of Development 2. in addition to a drive to explore their world. logical proofs. Concrete operational stage (years 7–11) The Concrete operational stage is the third of four stages of cognitive development in Piaget's theory. occurs between the ages of 7 and 11 years and is characterized by the appropriate use of logic Formal operational stage (years 12 and up) The formal operational period is the fourth and final of the periods of cognitive development in Piaget's theory. His theory concerns how the child thinks. proposes that there are four distinct.theorist in contemporary child study. "shades of gray". observed regularities in children’s performances that no one has noted before him. which follows the Preoperational stage. the human being only knows. what he/she has learned. Preoperational Period (years 2–7) The Preoperational stage is the second of four stages of cognitive development. increasingly sophisticated stages of mental representation that children pass through on their way to an adult level of intelligence Sensorimotor period (years 0–2) Infants are born with a set of congenital reflexes that allow them to float in the heavily dense world. first developed by Jean Piaget. The Theory of Cognitive Development. he omitted to say that cognitive development is not an automatic process. By observing sequences of play.