SPSS 1 Research Methods

A statistician is a person who didn’t have enough charisma to be an accountant
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Outlining the Questionnaire

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Identify the topics to be measured based on the information needs Order the topics in a sequence that will be meaningful to the respondents Draft sample questions and compose typical scales for each topic area Organise the items into sections in a logical sequence Compose a rough questionnaire draft outline to serve as a model

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dependent clauses to short phrases where possible 3 .Guidelines for Expressing Questions • • • • • FOCUS – Every question on a questionnaire should focus directly on a single specific issue or topic BREVITY – Short questions are less subject to error on the part of both interviewer and respondent CLARITY – Demands that virtually everyone interprets the question in exactly the same way VOCABULARY – Use words in the core vocabulary of virtually all respondents and limit vocabulary to words the least sophisticated respondent will know GRAMMAR – Use simple sentences and change long.

Multiple-Choice Question Single Response Please indicate your voting intentions _ The Conversation Party _ The Favour Party _ The Literal-Demagogue Party Multiple Response Please check ANY brand of washing powder that you’ve tried _ Superclean _ Ultrasteril 4 .

Likert Scale For each statement. please pick a number from the scale to show how much you agree or disagree and jot it in the space in front of the item SCALE 1 = Strongly Agree 2 = Agree 3 = Neutral 4 = Disagree 5 = Strongly Disagree _ Air Pollution is a serious problem in this community _ British producers of eucalyptus-flavoured dog biscuits have benefited from EU membership 5 .

Verbal Frequency Scale For each statement. please pick a number from the scale to show how often you do each of the things listed when food shopping SCALE 1 = Always 2 = Often 3 = Sometimes 4 = Rarely 5 = Never _ Check the unit pricing sticker for the item before choosing _ Look at the nutritional labeling on food before buying it _ Watch the price of each item as it’s scanned at the checkout 6 .

Semantic Differential Scale Please check a space on each line to show your opinion of this service Economical ___:___:___:___:___:____: Extravagant 1 2 3 4 5 6 High-Tech ___:___:___:___:___:____: Low-Tech 1 2 3 4 5 6 Reliable Safe 7 ___:___:___:___:___:____: Unreliable 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 ___:___:___:___:___:____: Dangerous .

Data analysis: what do we want?       Want Want Want Want Want Want to to to to to to obtain a measurement infer a result about the “population” make a comparison prove a change has taken place show an association between things demonstrate a causal connection 8 .

Techniques for comparisons of individuals across the same measure Groups Level of measurement nominal Two-sample chi-square test Mann-Whitney U test Independent-samples t-test ordinal interval/ ratio nominal Two K-sample chi-square test Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA Three or more 9 Level of measurement ordinal interval/ ratio One-way ANOVA .

Techniques for comparisons of individuals across different measures Groups Level of measurement nominal McNemar test Paired-samples sign test Paired-samples t-test ordinal interval/ ratio nominal Two Cochran’s Q test Friedman’s two-way ANOVA Three or more 10 Level of measurement ordinal interval/ ratio t-test for all pairs .

Techniques for measures of association INDEPENDENT nominal /ordinal D E P E N D E N T 11 Nominal / ordinal interval / ratio Contingency Table Analysis (Cross-Tabs) Discriminant Analysis interval / ratio Analysis of Variance Paired t-test Regression Analysis Correlation Analysis .

Role of Theory in Marketing Dissertations      Numerous dissertations just collect data Marketing must develop and test theories Theory is how researchers choose to organize their knowledge Theory must guide your research Logical steps are not always logical 12 .

aims to capture the key idea of the concept Operational definition aims to translate the concept into observable events by specifying what must be done 13 .Nature of measurement       What do we want to measure? Concept: abstractions formed from observation Construct: concepts that have been invented for scientific purposes Think about the construct of brand loyalty Conceptual definition defines a concept in term of other concepts.

How to do good research     Data sets become your best friend You are the only expert on your topic A good researcher can always use the data Think about the results before you collect the data 14 .

0.05 Null hypothesis is rejected: smaller than 0. Sig.95 or 0. Sig.Hypothesis testing: Level of significance      Levels of significance: 0. 0.05.20 15 .02.007 Null hypothesis is accepted: more than 0.01 and 0. 0.g. 0. 0.002 or 0.05 (default in SPSS) p=0.10.001 Most common 0.g.05 e.05 e.000. 0.

Measure differences: Chi-Square To Compare groups (nominal data) use ChiSquare  Use Chi-Square in the Crosstabs procedure  Cell frequencies must be more than 5 >Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs  16 .

0. There is a difference between men and women (Sig.Chi-Square Example: null hypothesis: There is no difference between men and women in relation to family status men women  Married 13% 41%  single 36% 22%  Divorced 51% 37% Significance 0.000) 17 .000  Null hypothesis is rejected.

There is a difference between normal scheme members and club 500 members (Sig. 0.Chi-Square  Example: null hypothesis: There is no difference between normal scheme members and club 500 members in relation to their family status Null hypothesis is rejected.000) 18 .

Measure Differences: t-Test To Compare 2 groups (interval data) use t-Test >Analyze > Compare Means > IndependentSamples T-Test  19 .

0.000) 20 .t-Test Example: null hypothesis: There is no difference between normal scheme members and club 500 members in importance of Foodcentres  Null hypothesis is rejected. There is a difference between normal scheme members and club 500 members in importance of Foodcentres (Sig.

0.Measure Differences: ANOVA To Compare 3 or more groups (interval data) use ANOVA >Analyze > Compare Means > One-Way ANOVA   Example: null hypothesis: There is no difference between different age groups in terms of fairness Null hypothesis is rejected.000) 21 . There is a difference between different age groups in terms of fairness (Sig.

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