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A CHALLENGE FOR SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION
DARJA ZAVIŠEK, JELKA ZORN, LILJANA RIHTER, SIMONA Ž. DEMŠAR EDITORS
Darja Zaviršek, Jelka Zorn, Liljana Rihter, Simona Žnidarec Demšar (Eds.) Ethnicity in Eastern Europe: A Challenge for Social Work Education
Published by: University of Ljubljana Faculty of Social Work Topniška 31, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
© Copyright: the Authors and the Publisher, 2007 Editorial Board: Lidija Kunič, Milko Poštrak, Bernard Stritih, Mojca Urek Cover photographs and layout: Dražena Perić Proof reader: Michael C. Jumič
CIP - Kataložni zapis o publikaciji Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Ljubljana 364(4-014) ETHNICITY in Eastern Europe [Elektronski vir] : a challenge for social work education / Darja Zaviršek ... [et al.] editors. - Ljubljana : Fakulteta za socialno delo, 2007. www.fsd.si ISBN 978-961-6569-10-1 1. Zaviršek, Darja 234389760
darja Zaviršek: Pathologized Ethnicities and Meaningful Internationalism
the Colour of soCIAl Work
lena dominelli: Multi-Ethnic Europe: Diversity and the Challenges of ‘Race’, Racism, Ethnicity and Nationalism rosa logar: Gender and Ethnicity in Domestic Violence Prevention and Education dagmar schultz : Resource- and Resilience-oriented Work with Immigrant and Black Patients
19 39 63
ethnICIty As A dIvIdIng tool And “floAtIng” PeoPle
Špela Urh and Simona Žnidarec Demšar: Ethnically Sensitive Social Work with Roma svetlana trbojevik: Macedonian Civil Society as an Active Promoter of Interethnic Relations Ilona Pešatová: Government Measures Aimed at Reducing the Exclusion of Roma in the Czech Republic Miroslav Brkić: Refugees, the Internally Displaced and Deported Persons in Serbia Jelka Zorn: New Borders, New Exclusions
85 107 127 138 161
eduCAtIon And CurrICulA
Christine labonté roset: Ethnicity and Intercultural Practice in Social Work Curricula Milanka Miković and Udžejna Habul: The Effects of Ethnic Divisions on Social Work Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina Eva Anđela Delale and Vanja Branica: Ethnicity in the Curriculum and Research of the Croatian School of Social Work Suzana Bornarova: Promoting Multicultural Education Within and Beyond the Social Work Training in Macedonia Marina Ajduković, Vanja Branica and Lucija Vejmelka: The Male and/or Female Beginnings of Social Work Education in Croatia: An Analysis of Graduation Theses Topics
Jelka Zorn: An Interview with Christine Labonté Roset and Lena Dominelli
258 272 275
This book is the product of the Ethnicity in social work education regional conference, which took place at the Faculty of Social Work of the University of Ljubljana in December, 2006 through the financial support of the Centre for Social Innovation at the Austrian Science and Research Liaison Office (ASO). This conference saw the establishment of the Subregional Network of the Schools of Social Work from Eastern Europe, which is intended to make the region more active within the international social work community and within the International Association of the Schools of Social Work (IASSW). This association has provided enormous support and intellectual encouragement for the development of the social work community in eastern Europe. The editors would like to thank ASO and IASSW for financial support.
Darja Zaviršek, Jelka Zorn, Liljana Rihter, Simona Žnidarec Demšar
Ljubljana, April 9, 2007
it is important to understand and share differences in teaching experiences. and political particularities of this European region. The conference also witnessed the establishment of the SubRegional Network of the Schools of Social Work from the Eastern Europe. linguistic. racism. It presents a variety of concepts and social work perspectives. social. practices. which took place in 2006 at the Faculty of Social Work of the University of Ljubljana. while at the same time taking into account the perspectives of gender and health. This event brought together social work teachers and academics from different regions of Europe. social work with ethnic minorities are terms most often used in this volume to position ethnicity for understanding. multiculturalism. which is intended to make the region more active within the international social work community. Anti-racist social work. Focusing on the social work education. which are often overlooked due to the Cold War ideology and rhetoric. ethnically sensitive social work. The network paves the way for an improved. with an emphasis on the former Yugoslavia. more diverse understanding of the historical. and interpretations of the meaning of social work among different eastern European countries within . as well as a terminological diversity which reflects the individual preferences of each contributor. intercultural social work. ethnic. respecting and acting in regard to diversity.7 Darja Zaviršek Pathologized ethnicities and Meaningful Internationalism About the book and the network This book is one of the very few books from the eastern Europe that addresses issues of ethnicity. and anti-racist social work practice. The chapters of the book arose from discussions at the regional conference “Ethnicity in Social Work Education”.
) (2005). In only a few countries was social work present for a limited period of time before Communists came to power (Romania. where a continuous exchange of information ceased in 1991. there is a handful of countries. where the first social work studies have only recently been established (in 2006). Bohemia and Hungary) or established by Communist leadership (Yugoslavia 1952). and was re-established after the end of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1995. Intensive cooperation took place between 2000 and 2005.1 The Cold War.. 1 2 3 See more about the establishment of the schools of social work in Yugoslavia in Zaviršek (2005). publications. Banja Luka). and the absence of social work education in most eastern European countries until recently were among a number of reasons (language. economic issues and former political regimes) for the under-representation of the schools of social work from eastern Europe in the global social work community. . which rendered those few social work traditions which did exist in this region invisible.8 D A R J A Z AV I R Š E K a broader social and political context. In most eastern European countries. such as Georgia. A similar network of social work teachers and practitioners from Yugoslavia has been created as part of the initiative for the development of social work education in Kosovo at the University of Pristhina (since 2005). and have gone unnoticed by the wider public until just recently. For more about welfare work in Kosovo see Dragidella (2004). professional social work and education were developed only after the political changes that took place between 1989 and 1991.3 These initiatives can be seen as the predecessors of the current Sub-Regional Network of the Schools of Social Work from the Eastern Europe. and involved all schools of social work within the territory of the former Yugoslavia.2 The re-establishment of pre-war contacts among social work teachers and practitioners encouraged the development of the new schools of social work in the Republika Srbska (the Serbian part of Bosnia and Herzegovina). University of Arts. An exception was the rather strong network of schools of social work in Yugoslavia. Today. For more about the network see Hessle and Zaviršek (eds. which was founded in 2000 (Department of Social Work. Their activities. and congresses have remained mostly nationbased.
for instance. madmen. By 1890. A visual culture of “other bodies” was promoted in freak shows. hate. has done a great deal to support the development of the social work community in the eastern Europe. The ethnicity of the other has already become a pathologized ethnicity. 1998). and savages was symbolically linked with femininity and the concept of “other race” was developed. The IASSW. ASO). social exclusion. including financial support for this book (together with the Austrian Science Foundation. The discursive merging of racist and medical theories can be traced all the way to the 19th century. it was impossible to detach the discourse of Anti-semitism from medical pathologization. and the . when the pathological imagery of cripples.FRO M PATHOLOGIZED ETHNICITIES TO MEANINGFUL INTERNATIONALISM 9 The sub-regional network has already led more schools of social work from the eastern Europe to join the International Association of the Schools of Social Work. Pathologized ethnicity The decision to make “ethnicity” one of the first topics for a gathering of social work academics from eastern Europe was a conscious one. which has also welcomed the new sub-regional network. Charcot not only set the tone for treating hysterical women. and today only the “others” have it. medical research sought to prove that people of certain ethnicities were especially prone to disabilities. The famous neurologist Jean M. public exhibitions of “human deformities” ranging from various bodily deformities to dark skin or strange voices. A legacy of prejudice. deaf persons were constructed as oddities. For example. The same is true for the significantly younger European Association of the Schools of Social Work. no one had an ethnicity. At the same time. racist beliefs about the “degenerate nature of Jews” had spread throughout the entire European medical world. but also claimed that the Jews in particular were weak and effeminate by nature and were constantly in danger of going mad and developing mental disorders (Gilman 1993. which will celebrate its 80th anniversary in 2008. At the turn of the century. Under socialism. that is. closely related to Africans (Mirzoeff 1995). with Romany communities being the most ethnicized of all.
known as “Bosančki”. caring workers assisted Bosnian children. especially compared with other social work topics. a “class”. Eastern European Jewish immigrants were seen as the victims and transmitters of this illness into the healthy/developed world. This does not mean that there was no social work practice in the field of ethnicity. such as gender. All these examples show that the idea of cultural superiority relied heavily on medical diagnoses of disability in order to stigmatize. and symbolically “accuse” an ethnic group onto which all the negative values of society had been projected. for instance.). As one might guess. age. when a majority of them were sent back. the category of ethnicity was subsumed under the only socially and analytically acceptable category. a Viennese psychiatrist. The political reason is linked to the fact that in countries with communist/socialist leadership. In Slovenia. ethnicity. particularly the eastern European Jews who had fled from pogroms and poverty and settled in cities of Vienna. Alexander Pilcz. which was supposed to be ensured through the full employment of men and women and a health and pension system. These children received accommodation in private homes and in public care institutions across Slovenia until the 1950s. would overcome all other differences. In Yugoslavia.10 D A R J A Z AV I R Š E K notion of the moral superiority of non-Jews shaped the image of Jews. spatially segregate. Between the 1960s and 1980s. There are several reasons why ethnically sensitive social work and intercultural social work have received almost no attention in the eastern Europe. In the heart of central Europe. The official ideology was based on the premise that class equality. Trieste and London as disabled creatures whose madness could pollute the majority of the European population. thousands of unaccompanied children needed placement and care as a result of the Second World War. who had fled the war in the southern regions (Zorn 2006). assistance was given to unqualified immigrant workers who came to Slovenia from economical less developed parts of Yugoslavia in search of jobs and better wages. this hindered the development of ethnically sensitive social work. Social workers employed in . and religion. invented a new diagnosis called “East Jewish psychosis” (ibid.
The socialist slogan “workers’ protection” focused on workers “without ethnicity”. Social work teachers and practitioners grew up in an environment where it was believed that only the universalistic approach to social work could provide support to those in need.” Here difference implies a threat to the “imagined homogeneity” of society as a “whole”. . Dominelli). During the 1990s. Roma ethnic minorities were the hardest hit. It was believed that not speaking about ethnic differences was a performative act of deleting the unwanted.FRO M PATHOLOGIZED ETHNICITIES TO MEANINGFUL INTERNATIONALISM 11 every large company assisted these immigrants with social housing. Macedonia. and physical ability. the ideology of equality and sameness came to a most brutal end. when ethnic wars in Yugoslavia caught social workers off guard and unprepared to understand racism and offer proper support for refugees. Silence was an act of speaking. and child benefits. One can often hear a social worker from the eastern Europe say: “I don’t make any differences between clients. and at the same time monitored and threatened “alcoholics” and “work-haters”. Generic universalism dominated social work curricula in all eastern European schools which carried out social work training under communism (Croatia. gender. subsidized holidays. social work teachers were unprepared to reflect on concepts of anti-racist social work theory/ practice and to react to and fight back against everyday racism. for me everyone is the same. Serbia. Ethnic wars divided people and changed multiethnic societies into mono-ethnic countries with minorities struggling for their formal and everyday rights (see chapter by Miković and Habul). Still today. which had been familiar in the knowledge of western societies since the 1980s (see chapters by Labonte Roset. a differentiated universalism is only rarely thought to be just as important as treating people as “the same”. Bosnia and Herzegovina). Political censorship prevented the development of curricula which would include theories and methods of social work that recognized multiethnic societies and particular needs of individuals and groups stemming from ethnicity. Slovenia. class. Similarly. One consequence of ethnically undifferentiated social work became obvious much later. A particularistic approach which focused primarily on differences could only enforce them (see chapter by Schultz).
12 D A R J A Z AV I R Š E K because their skills and historically accumulated disadvantages have. While an ever growing number of societies are becoming multiethnic. a social work teacher from Georgia commented that poor persons begging in the streets “are not Georgians. Did the speaker wish to be ethnically specific by pointing out the fact that Roma are among the most economically discriminated people in the country. such as Bosnia and Herzegovina.” A consequence of violent nationalism and racism and the absence of anti-racist theory/practice in curricula can be seen in the fact that the concept of “ethnicity” applies only to minorities and never to members of majority ethnic groups. Some members of ethnic minorities are not even conceptualized as being “among us”. Branica and Vejmelka). They are “on the other side/outside”. in many eastern European countries. “They”. but are nonetheless still viewed as non-citizens. Brkić). asylum centers. in the age of neo-liberalism. During the last decade they gained some formal citizenship rights (see chapter by Peshatova). Or. “’Race’ is externalized as relevant only to the other. as they are spatially segregated in refugee camps. because. certain territories with a history of ethnic diversity. have become homogenized and cleansed societies (see chapter by Miković and Habul). Besides Roma. or did the speaker wish to exclude them from being part of the “whole”? Does merely noting ethnicity place someone on the margine of the societal order. such as the “Erased” of Slovenia and refugees and internally displaced persons in Serbia (see chapters by Zorn.” This remark raises several questions. Even the analysis of the ethnic background of former social work students in Croatia has proven that traditionally multiethnic mixtures of social work students no longer exist (see chapter by Ajduković. . not “we”. have “ethnicity”. to quote Lena Dominelli from this book. on the outskirts of Georgian society? While “they have ethnicity”. but Roma. and detention facilities. Recently. other minorities face both formal and everyday discrimination. the Georgian majority population does not. Trbojevik). Some ethnic groups with the status of non-citizens do not even have an access to social workers. pushed them to the bottom of all economic and social hierarchies (see chapters by Urh and Žnidarec Demšar. social workers only serve “citizens”.
In spite of psychologization and therapeutization tendencies. we can also find fault with it. which were once keen to dominate social work curricula (psychology. why should I visit Roma? I respect their privacy. professional social work achieved greater educational autonomy and independence from adjacent disciplines. many social workers view ethnicity as a pathology per se. pedagogy. sociology. Most social work programs have been developed up to the doctoral level. an “ethnically sensitive approach” generally implies not interfering in the lives of Roma: “If I do not enter into a Slovenian household. much like gender. ethnicity and anti-racist social work theory/practice are still not a common topic in social work curricula (see chapter by Delale and Branica).” As much as we might agree with this statement. whom they often view as social welfare recipients (“they come to us only to get social benefits”). it is normatively expected that they will be covered under different topics. differences in teaching It is obvious that. which is necessary in situations where people experience trans-generational deprivations as individuals and as communities. poverty. which were partially a product of what was once called “educational imperialism” (various western experts coming to teach social work in eastern Europe). Instead of becoming an obvious part of the curriculum. Nevertheless. For other social workers. .FRO M PATHOLOGIZED ETHNICITIES TO MEANINGFUL INTERNATIONALISM 13 For this reason. social work education in the eastern Europe has been growing very quickly and has become academically established within a very short period of time. and with the principle that Romany communities should not be places of state interventions. a socio-biological attribute which in and of itself contains and causes violence. One of the social worker’s most difficult tasks is to understand the fine line between not pathologizing the disadvantaged and acting according to the principle of affirmative action. over the past fifteen years. and illness (see chapter by Logar). For many social workers. having an “ethnic perspective” means little more than “working with Roma”. and that it therefore does not need to be an explicit part of the curricula. psychiatry). The common sense explanation is that many teachers cover topics of diversity.
. They can often provide adequate fieldwork placement for students. disability studies. The former dictate the type of work. When “diversity issues” (anti-racist social work. and can therefore encourage students to learn from everyday life experiences. An interesting hybrid situation can be found in Macedonia. In Slovenia. where social work curriculum do not include vast sections on ethnically sensitive social work. even within new organizational forms and collaborations. “the elderly”.) are not an explicit part of the curricula.. The concept of NGO-ization also includes a post-colonial relationship between the rich and the poor. A positive side of this development is that many NGOs are in fact much closer to the everyday world of people in need than some social work teachers. “youth”. which have been transformed from (feminist) action oriented organisations for women into women’s social services. they are often overlooked and subordinated by more general social work topics. choice of the “project topics”.4 Whereas early NGOs used public space in a political way. project goals etc. provide ethnically sensitive teaching. while the latter remain dependent. Western organizations (often with contested actions and values).5 Instead of political activism. The other side of the same story is the NGO-ization of postsocialist societies. towards NGOs as predominantly service oriented agencies. a concept that focuses on the cultural shift from grassroots NGOs. language. today (the lack of) public space is often transformed into professional/organizationdriven space dominated by professional skills applied to individual persons. but rather social work students are expected to enroll in “parallel education” programs provided for and funded by international humanitarian and private organizations (see chapter by Bornarova). which are thought to include and embrace “everybody”: “family”. this has most obviously occurred among women’s NGOs. which served as agents of social action. Who has not heard the joke about the huge number of western NGOs spread out across all of the eastern Europe? It reminds one of a much older joke. gender inequality etc. and not the school of social work. common throughout 4 5 See the extended history of the term in Stubbs (2007). people employed in “post war NGOs” in the region are expected to deliver services.14 D A R J A Z AV I R Š E K The exact opposite is true.
the privatization of education. The de-montage of state welfare services offers more recourse to the church and catholic priests. and re-masculinization of their profession. social workers in some eastern European countries now face the threat of the de-professionalization. Bornarova. who. and the de-secularization of nation states (just to name a few occurrences) have planted the seeds for initiatives which do not view social work as a social science discipline. and another example worth mentioning is a project in Kosovo which saw international NGOs and humanitarian organizations. Instead of being subsumed by other social science disciplines. . an aunt. Furthermore. a father. a grandmother. one child. whenever resources and jobs are scarce women are more likely to remain unemployed. can compete for any social work job on a equal basis with social workers with a 4 year degree. the de-montage of state welfare services. Much like in the situation in “Tito’s Yugoslavia” following the Second World War. re-catholicization. but rather as an agency for “helping the needy”. a father. Such developments can lead to the de-professionalization of the social work profession and harms the established acknowledgment of social work as an academic discipline. international and local actors carefully waited for the right time “for a shift from humanitarian aid to community development projects” (Soumpasi 2003). and an anthropologist! In the eastern Europe. a niece. All these examples show that social work is taught not only at universities and that there are different ways to teach diversity. a nephew. In Indonesia every family consists of a mother. 6 Thanks to Christine Labonte Roset for reminding us of this joke. where the first social work jobs were given to men who had served in the partisan war or to their relatives. encourage community work within a multiethnic village. a sister-in-law.6 At the same time. The neo-liberalization of everyday life. there have been several examples of good practice. Using a social work perspective. women will be. a grandfather.FRO M PATHOLOGIZED ETHNICITIES TO MEANINGFUL INTERNATIONALISM 15 western Europe. about the “anthropologization” of non-European societies. together with local agents. a grandmother and a member of an NGO. many children. in some countries. Trbojevik). Some of these are described in this book (cf. an uncle. every family consists of a mother.
as Roma or left wing cosmopolitans. They also form alliances with people who are fighting for social justice and share similar values. . They are transgressing the boundaries of nation states and therefore risk being seen. In terms of ethnically sensitive social work. but at social workers who express critical social work ideas. Many practitioners and social work academics face the narrow-mindedness of national contexts and experience everyday violence aimed not only at ethnic and other minorities. the first to be pushed out of the profession. as polluted and dangerous bodies.16 D A R J A Z AV I R Š E K like in all times of scarcity. women will lose yet another space created especially for them. it seems that the internationalization of social work has become especially important in today’s world. like Jews in the past. but as a conscious political strategy of women’s equality and equal participation of some famous pioneers of social work education. For many. understanding and praising diversity can make for quite a heavy work load. This present work is confirmation of that fact. The profession was created by women for women not because they are “the better sex” for this job. If this happens. Meaningful internationalism Though social work has always been internationally oriented. or even as asylum seekers. These social workers and academics search for good practice and comparative research in countries all over the world. internationalism has both become a survival technique and contributed to better practice and critical comparative research within local contexts.
Ljubljana: Faculty of Social Work. D. Gilman. V. (2004). (1998). UK: Asghate. Zorn. In: Seifert. N. Pilot Project in Kosovo. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.FRO M PATHOLOGIZED ETHNICITIES TO MEANINGFUL INTERNATIONALISM 17 References: Dragidella. .) (2005). Münster: LIT. (2007). Hessle.). Social Work in Europe. Gilman. In: Schilde. Silent Poetry. Soziale Arbeit und Kriegerische Konflikte. Sign. P. (1993). (ed. socialism will do the rest!”. Deafness. J.). and Leskošek. (ed. Zaviršek. Training the Trainers on Tolerance: A Social Work Perspective. Race and Gender. In: Dominelli. S. and Visual Culture in Modern France. K. and Zaviršek. “You will teach them some. L. (2005). Need and Care – Glimpses into the Beginnings of Eastern Europe’s Professional Welfare. Med družbenimi gibanji in političnimi sistemi. 10. R. (1995). N. Sustainable Development in Social Work – The case of a Regional Network in the Balkans. S.und Versöhnungsarbeit in Nachkriegsgebieten: Rahovec/Orahovac im Kosovo. Zgodovina socialnega dela v Sloveniji. Opladen & Bloomfield Hills. Stubbs. Revitalising Communities. Mirzoeff. Neo-liberalisation and NGO-isation. (2003).). D. D. Socialno skrbstvo po drugi svetovni vojni: nova ideologija in stare vrednote. In: Zaviršek.). (eds. (eds. Stockholm: University of Stockholm. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. and Schulte. Jugend. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Love + Marriage = Death And Other Essays on Representing Difference. Barbara Budrich. Soumpasi. (eds. 1: 32-40. D. S. Freud. L. (2006). Aspects of Community Development in Contemporary Croatia: Globalisation.
. status and position dominate the landscape. endangering social cohesion. ethnic groups reflect internal demands for autonomy and self-definition. The discourses the Far Right has perpetrated have focused on scarcity in social resources as a way of engendering fear of strife amongst local populations. racism.1 diversity in europe Europeans have become ethnically diverse for a number of reasons. armed conflicts and people seeking to move out of poverty. the demands 1 This article is based on the third edition of Anti-Racist Social Work. racist social relations will intensify and ethnic strife will be exacerbated. It was issued earlier in 1988 and 1997. These are causing nation-states which were initially predicated on notions of people sharing a unitary identity and submerging their differences in order to create a country to fragment and dissolve in the face of their demands. e. I consider how social workers can understand these developments and engage in creating a more egalitarian world. Europeans can move in this direction if action is taken to do so. These have become increasingly affected by global events including natural disasters. 2007. Additionally. published by Palgrave. But inequalities in wealth. ethnicity and nationalism The European continent has become increasingly multi-ethnic and multi-national.. These inequalities are straining social relations between different ethnic groupings and have led to the growth of the Far Right in many European nations. otherwise.g.19 Lena Dominelli Multi-Ethnic Europe: diversity and the Challenges of ‘race’. In this paper. One of these is linked to migratory movements.
not to suggest that these are biological categories.g. Arabs in France. the destruction of Yugoslavia. These are reflected in: . . particularly those expressed against people of Islamic faith. This reaction exposes the rationing basis of racism. The acceptability of expressing racist thoughts is growing in Europe. Meanwhile.2 Changing Perceptions of racialised social relations and racism Racialised social relations in Europe are evident in all aspects of life. e. or its attempt to exclude ‘black’ people from legitimate access to social resources. . as indicated by the rising popularity of Far Right political groups. culture and ethnicity. In the UK.. Islamophobia in Europe predates 9/11 and the ‘war on terror’. even in countries noted for their ‘tolerance’ of difference. Islamophobia. Muslim Bosnians in the UK. Within nation-states. The Netherlands and UK are now facing the growing popularity of Far Right views on ‘race’. includes a hatred of Islam and a devaluation of the contributions of its adherents to world civilisations. e. By doing so they highlight differences between them and the others. Turks in Germany. as it has become known. white people worry about missing out on social resources if they have to be shared with ‘others’. 2 I use the terms ‘black’ people and ‘white’ people.a growing racism.g. In these. Racist attacks and racist behaviours are increasing..the acceptability of expressing racist thoughts. those defined as ‘black’ are resisting such definitions and rejecting racist configurations of their sense of self.20 LENA DOMINELLI for Basque independence. local white residents refuse to engage with the ‘other’ as an equal with whom resources should be shared. the British National Party succeeded in getting 42 councillors elected during the 2006 local council elections. ‘white’ peoples’ fears of the ‘other’ are exacerbated through social exchanges and encounters that are too fraught by relations of superiority and inferiority for these continue to exist alongside these challenges to them. but to indicate that the former are at the receiving end of racist social relations and the latter as those initiating them. Also.
John Major claimed that 6 Bosnian Muslim families were too many to admit as asylumseekers to the UK. social and cultural attributes such as skin-colour. Muslims from Eastern Europe were ‘white’. phonological or physical characteristics are configured as binaries in which one set is superior to the other. They also succeeded in imposing their views on others through a combina- . dress code. were able to establish their norms as universally applicable and define their characteristics and culture as superior. ‘Race’ is externalised as relevant only to the ‘other’. language.MULTI-ETHNIC EUROPE: DIV ERSITY AND CHALLENGES. In the former. In its various forms. deficient and inferior.the racialisation of all. In this. the Europeans.. Racialisation occurs across all ethnic groups. . White people are not a homogenous group. racism is configured around biological. hair texture. .the presumed homogenity of ’white’ people.. ‘race’ is a socially constructed category. but as de-racialised. but white Europeans see themselves not as racialised. For example.racism encompassing groups other than those labelled ‘black’. eye colour and hair texture were defined as superior to those of darker skinned people with dark hair and eyes. Not all these groups were ‘black’. during colonialism led by European nations. it provides the basis for racism. as a dominant group of people. The others were viewed as deviant. 21 . It can underpin racist behaviour and beliefs or promote egalitarian ones. religion. Defining Key Terms The definition of ‘race’ changes over time as different constellations of social relations are configured by human beings seeking to achieve certain ends. white ethnicities. In its biological form. Consequently. skin colour. but in the mid-1990s. practices and cultural norms that destroy the desire to have equality amongst people. or the enactment of racist policies. Deconstructing whiteness requires us to explore differential privileging along ethnic lines to make sense of how the identities of white people are configured to reflect a hierarchical ordering within and among this category.
Most white people focus on personal racism and fail to understand the other two types. Racism construes the artefacts of everyday life as signifiers that configure ‘race’ through processes of racialisation in order to create binary dyads of superiority and inferiority.22 LENA DOMINELLI tion of consent. Stuart Hall (1992: 338) has defined racism as a ‘set of economic. but as signifiers for those constructed as ‘objects’ (black) and ‘subjects’ (white) in racialised social relations. political and ideological practices through which a dominant group exercises hegemony over subordinate groups’. These dynamics involve both ‘black’ and ‘white’ people in their production and reproduction. which brings together social values and norms in order to define what is socially acceptable in a given society (Dominelli 1988). coercion and conquest. institutional racism that emphasises social policies and practices that are promoted through social institutions. These work through unitary notions of identity grounded in ‘them (different) and us (same)’ dualisms and ‘othering’. Thus. These binaries draw upon taken-for-granted assumptions that feature in normal everyday life practices. A configuration thats sees ‘race’ applying only to ‘them’ means that ‘white’ people do not have to deconstruct ‘whiteness’. let alone the role they play in reinforcing personal racism. I have argued that it occurs through three inter-related and interactive dimensions: personal racism that focuses on individual attitudes. beliefs and behaviour. The terms ‘white’ and ‘black’ should not be understood as being biologically rooted. they internalise racist dynamics and give ‘consent’ to racist social relations without being aware that they are endorsing racism. As a result. and cultural racism. they fail to seem themselves as racialised beings. These result in people undertaking various activities without thinking about their deeper implications or impact upon others. which was based on subjugated groups’ acceptance and internalisation of the views and norms of the dominant group. violence. these dynamics confer agency or “subjectivity” upon those deemed superior. and are privileged by racist social relations. causing them to behave as if they are subjects while others are objects of their ministrations. Additionally. In this way. people who generally .
The figure below demonstrates the interactive dimensions of racism. some key dynamics Racism endure. e. biological racism alongside cultural Personal racism and technological racism. Changing forms of racism Racism changes over time.. However. Anti-Racist Social Work. (2007). 23 perceive themselves as ‘tolerant’ individuals who believe in ‘equality’ between people find it difficult to see how they can be racist and resent being so labelled. L... Third edition.g. London: Palgrave. they can be summarised as follows: Complex Interactive . although earlier forms can co-exist with more recent ones.MULTI-ETHNIC EUROPE: DIV ERSITY AND CHALLENGES. Figure 1: Interactive Dimensions of Racism Personal racism Complex Interactive negotiations Cultural racism Institutional racism Source: Dominelli.
Cultural racism (social values and norms that assign value and worth). Cultural racism focuses on language.e. Racism is a tool for rationing social resources in situations of scarcity. and devalues or disparages those who are different. acts). eye colour and hair texture. Thus. It is crucial to the creation and reproduction of the binary basis of racism.24 LENA DOMINELLI - Racism is a form of social exclusion that racialises people through binary dyads that create hierarchies of value and worth around a superior group and an inferior one. are the same. I define ‘othering’ as the process of differentiating the self from other people by relying on a dualism that defines the self as superior and others as inferior (Dominelli 2002). overlap with and feed off each other to (re)produce existing racist social relations and create new ones. Socio-biological racism or technical racism involves the racialisation of the human genome. . and undermines social cohesion by allocating these to the privileged group.. racism is an important form of social control that hampers society’s capacity to care for others. The belief in a superior set of . prejudices. beliefs. Configuring the ‘Other’ ‘Othering’ is an important part of racist social relations. This process values only those who are like oneself. religion and other cultural attributes.These forms co-exist. i. . DNA. .Contemporary forms of racism include: Biological racism was based on biological phenotypes such as skin-colour.Institutional and cultural racism become structural racism and legitimate racist behaviour on the interpersonal level. Racism is expressed as: Personal racism (individual attitudes. Institutional racism (legislative and administrative policies and practices).
sexual orientation.MULTI-ETHNIC EUROPE: DIV ERSITY AND CHALLENGES.Racialisation as the exercise of power relations..g.Individuals or groups will both configure and be configured by others. the attributes most valued are considered superior and act as the benchmarks or norms whereby the attribute(s) associated with the ‘other’ is judged as inferior. Racialising Others ‘Race’ is an aspect of identity that has an impact on both ‘white’ and ‘black’ peoples. that is.. e. Notions of ‘race’ are used in the process of racialising people and in legitimating racist practices. ‘white’ peoples act as if ‘race’ only involves others. Assimilationist views are also predicated on unitary conceptualisations of the self that form the basis of accepting ‘the other’. class. However. . Because it is socially constructed. gender. on a demand that ‘they’ become like ‘us’. particularly those that set the terms within which different groups or individuals interact within hierarchies of power and oppression. . . 25 beings underpins assimilationist responses to difference. These are interactive and so cannot . These are complex because they are configured through social interactions in which all parties use agency to influence the way in which the relationship will develop and what priorities will gain ascendancy. . In other words. This conceptualisation of social relations between people is central to the ‘technologies of the self’ (Foucault 1991) that reproduce taken-for-granted assumptions about superior attributes through daily practices that are not subjected to analysis and/or criticism. Racialisation processes are predicated on the following: . age.‘Race’ as a social construct. not them. both ‘race’ and the processes whereby racialisation occur can be changed. .Racialisation has many dimensions. disability.In racialisation processes. racialisation is an interactive and negotiated process.Racialisation as a complex process that politicises physical and/or cultural attributes by creating evaluative structures that measure the worth of a particular attribute associated with one group over that of another. Thus..
Racist reactions to difference include: obliterating difference.. All forms of oppression have to be addressed simultaneously. e. ‘White’ people may be unaware of their privileged status. especially if those involved cannot get beyond the ‘feeling guilty for being white’ stage. Some ‘white’ people feel guilty about forms of privileging that cause black people to suffer injustice.e. In Europe. Setting up structures to support racial equality will not be easy. white people are not seen as racialised. Setting up an oppressor/oppressed binary can be self-defeating in promoting anti-racist struggles. while black people are. . ‘White’ people may oppress ‘black’ people on the basis of ‘race’ while being oppressed themselves on the basis of another trait. Privileging Whiteness Privileging whiteness is an integral part of racist social relations. It has a number of important characteristics. i.Racially configured social relations depend on creating a binary dyad of racialised and non-racialised participants. racist reactions to difference There is no single reaction to difference because human beings are actors who exercise agency in their interactions with others: . accepting and celebrating difference. ignoring difference. . namely that: ‘White’ people do not readily acknowledge this privileging. ignoring racism.26 LENA DOMINELLI be thought about as additive or hierarchical in the sense of competing against each other.An individual’s reaction has to be understood in terms of the context in which it occurs and the other social actors involved in it. - .. Deconstructing whiteness is essential to the process of identifying the basis for white privileging and working towards achieving a socially just and equal society. a white woman oppressing a black woman by assuming their experience of sexism is the same.g.
even though the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The growth of Far Right movements in Europe. Racialisation processes privilege whiteness. human rights are reserved for nationals only. Everyday life practices are racialised and racism affects everyone. that is. Included amongst these are demands for immigration controls.. Racialisation processes also involve the derogation of human rights.. Led by the Far Right. the Vlams Blok. In racist dyads.MULTI-ETHNIC EUROPE: DIV ERSITY AND CHALLENGES. This is experienced differentially amongst those encompassed by this category. Racist behaviour violates the human rights of black people. British National Party. The privileging of whiteness is ignored by white people while the disadvantaging of black people is poorly dealt with. Front National. A number of these discourses are currently present in Europe. these discourses are being adopted by other political parties. defines these rights as universal. refugees and asylum seekers. who are falling into line by endorsing many of their demands. is indicative of this. the racialisation of human rights preserves them as a ‘good’ that Westerners bestow on ‘uncivilised’ others. Moreover. This is crucial in the denial of human rights to immigrants. This attitude also renders human rights organisations ineffective because it belies equality in the interactions between those involved or even in their criticisms of each other. racism Interacts and Intersects with other social divisions Racist discourses demonise (im)migrants. black people are ‘othered’ and socially excluded. e. Linking the observance of human rights to citizenship within a particular nation-state means that those from outside that state are not covered. It results in the disparagement of ‘black’ people and assumes a superior human rights record in Western nations that are able to judge all the others from an assumed position of superiority. 27 - The de-racialisation of white people enables white people to think that addressing racist behaviours is an issue for black people. refugees and asylumseekers and endanger European unity. These have become normalised . which was signed by all member countries of the UN..g.
e. class.Muslim women wearing the headscarf or the niqab . As a result. the state’s concern to alleviate insecurities. and language in order to create different and complex experiences of racism both amongst individuals and within the separate groupings that comprise an ethnic group. age. therefore. male-led cultural forms is evident in the resurgence of fundamentalist strands of all religions. immigration legislation has become more punitive and exclusionary. At the same time. disability. and women have seen a loss of hard-won rights. as did Jack Straw in the UK in the autumn of 2006. including reproductive rights. ‘Race’. even within a single ethnicity. and turned it into a signifier of threatening and dangerous difference by linking it to terrorism and difficulties in communication between people. racism has intersected with sexism and gender divisions have become increasingly patriarchal. secular society and individual freedoms. has led to authoritarian responses that threaten liberal. although each of these has its own complex dimensions. . Racism focuses on one aspect of identity – ‘race’ and the associated terms of ethnicity. be erroneous to think of ‘race’ as not interacting with other social divisions to produce highly differentiated experiences of racism. withdrawal of many benefits for asylum seekers in the UK. interacts with and intersects with other social divisions such as gender. however. One example of ethnicity and gender coming together in a racist formulation of its dynamics is the discourse on clothing worn by Muslim women. nationality and culture. The retrenchment of patriarchal. What do such discourses say about tolerance? And what do these say about the non-visual forms of communication that permeate the everyday lives of those who are visually impaired? This is not to argue that such items cannot be used for insurrectionary purposes. sexual orientation. Also. the removal of Roma peoples from their homes in parts of Slovenia.28 LENA DOMINELLI and also accepted by centre-leftist and social democrats. It would. This represents a particular discourse that takes women’s clothing out of the personal sphere of private choice and catapults it into the public arena as a sign of resistance to integration into a Western way of life.racialised it.g. particularly what it defines as national security. religion.. Contemporary politics in Europe have taken a dress code .
MULTI-ETHNIC EUROPE: DIV ERSITY AND CHALLENGES. Thus. Nation-states have responded to this ‘security’ threat with an attack on the civil liberties of both Muslims and non-Muslims. It has ignored power relations that privilege the hegemonic culture over others and enable multiculturalists to assume innocence in their interaction with others. The growth of Muslim ethnicities from many parts of the world – the Middle East. Additionally.. And. and contributed to a new type of racism – Islamophobia. As a new form of racism. some individuals may be mistaken for Islamic terrorists and lose their lives.. as indicated above. Asia. Multiculturalism has traditionally relied on an assumed parity between different cultures. as did Jean Charles de Menezes after the bombings in London in 2005. 29 but to question the stereotypical assumption that this is the main or only way in which such clothing should be viewed. and Eastern Europe have caused a number of European nations to question their integration into the nation-state. the ‘war on terror’ has exacerbated their position and intensified Islamophobia to the point that anyone who holds the Islamic faith or looks to be of Middle Eastern descent is deemed a potential terrorist and treated as a threat. This innocence is now juxtaposed with the dangerous nature of extremist cultures and is central to the dynamics of Islamophobia. a matter of individual and personal preference associated with dress has become redefined as threatening and dangerous. Islamophobia focuses on Islamic religion and cultures and is a contemporary example of what Martin Barker (1981) identified as ‘cultural racism’. The figure below shows the way in which racialised social relations are used to privilege ‘white’ people. They expose the significance of socio-economic discrimi- . where many of them went to work in low-paying jobs in the 1970s. Although discrimination against Muslims from North Africa and Turkey was evident in France and Germany. arguing that national security concerns over-ride these rights. the debates around Muslim women’s headscarves and niqabs have been drawn into these dynamics. Africa. the Maghreb. even though this apparel is seldom worn in the West. or those who are defined as ‘superior’. Muslim peoples’ commitment to maintaining their religious and cultural norms including those of dress have led to increasing tensions between Muslims and non-Muslims.
Anti-Oppressive Social Work Theory and Practice.30 LENA DOMINELLI nation (low pay and status). . in social work. emotional and sexual violence against individuals and families. London: Palgrave. in parliament (some European nation-states exclude non-nationals from voting). (2002). whether in the judiciary system. in financial institutions. for keeping ‘black’ people in their place. political exclusion. L. or as captains of industry. unless they are servicing their own ethnic groups in the retail sector. Figure 2: Controlling Racialised Relations racialising Privilege socio-economic discrimination Political and Cultural Marginalisation Attacking Children racialised Power relations Isolation and Intimidation verbal threats sexual and Physical Assaults emotional Abuse Source: Dominelli. Numerous studies have highlighted the lack of progress made by ‘black’ people in social institutions. including children. the use of physical.
This has been identified in common parlance as ‘You don’t belong here’ and people are encouraged to maintain their social distance from one another. that is. In Europe. This is where the binaries of ‘othering’ are shown to rely upon essentialised and unitary identities that privilege those belonging to the dominant or hegemonic group. religion. On the level of the nation-state. these can be categorised as follows: Segregation. This has been a popular approach to newcomers to Europe. culture or other social attributes. these have varied from the oppressive rejection of anyone who was ‘different’ to the inclusion of everyone. it encourages divisions without bringing people together except on the most superficial levels.. 31 responses to racism Responses to racism change over time. Multiculturalism and pluralism were seen as possible ways of achieving . Its most extreme form was practised as apartheid. whether it is language. Part of the difficulty is that it also draws upon physiological differences. They are invited to join the body politic by ‘Becoming like us’. Assimilation. particularly in South Africa.MULTI-ETHNIC EUROPE: DIV ERSITY AND CHALLENGES. The cultural competence approach is an offshoot of multiculturalism and suffers from similar shortcomings. Multiculturalism. into an egalitarian framework of social relations. through which the ‘other’ is judged. This can also lead to the creation of new stereotypes. Integration. multiculturalists essentialise identity and treat it as fixed and immutable. as multiculturalism does not address power disparities between different cultural groups. However. regardless of difference.. depending on the actors involved and their objectives in any particular social interaction. Moreover. the original inhabitants of the continent. which become racialised as barriers to assimilation because there is little that the other person can do about them. Different groups to co-exist with one another. This includes a demand that the other person lose their distinctive differences. This approach relies on an acceptance of the cultural differences that exist between different ethnic groups and can be justified as the ‘We’re human beings too’ motif.
but in fact does not. Anti-racism. Black. However. These approaches have much in common with anti-racist ones. Interculturalism. as in the adage. which situate people within particular possibilities of belonging. it fails to address power disparities. Those who favour egalitarian responses to racism believe that it is possible to promote equality between people and eradicate racism as one form of oppression. This approach claims that ‘We’re human beings too’ in an attempt to bring people’s universal humanity into use in eradicating racism. like multiculturalism. Those advocating this position also seek to establish an egalitarian society where the ‘race’ which a person is associated with would become irrelevant. . the politics of legitimation. These also aim to eradicate racist social relations. Several of these discourses can co-exist in any given place. ‘This is our land too’. It enjoins people to ‘Share this land’ and live and work together for the betterment of all.32 LENA DOMINELLI this. It aims to get people to understand different cultures and interact with one another on the basis of an equality that is assumed to exist. These focused on sharing social space and the territory encompassed by the nation-state. It focuses on the idea that racism is socially constructed and that it can be destroyed through action on both the collective and individual level. but they expound the voices of people who have been at the receiving end of racism and so are based on experiential knowledge of the damage that racism causes. Egalitarianism that values diversity. Anti-racist discourses seek to eradicate racist social relations by exposing the dynamics of racism and their variations over time and convincing people who share their views to take action to achieve this end. and of interaction between nation-states and the sovereignty to which each lays claim. Belonging to a known geographical entity is an important part of identity formation. I have tried to depict these discourses as important constituents of ‘narratives of place and space’ (Dominelli 2007). Asian and Afri-centric perspectives. It is currently the method that the European Union favours in encouraging dialogue amongst those in different ethnic groups.
33 Figure 3: Narratives of Place and Space You don’t belong here Let’s share this land narratives of Place and space This is our land too You can’t get us Become like us We’re human beings too along without Source: Dominelli. Third Edition.. L. (2007). Anti-Racist Social Work. . London: Palgrave..MULTI-ETHNIC EUROPE: DIV ERSITY AND CHALLENGES.
These essentialise identities by treating them as unitary and fixed. The use of a universalism that enables social workers to ignore difference. The fear of being labelled ‘racist’ if they question cultural practices. either individually or collectively. The ways in which racist practices are produced in and through social work practice can be itemised as follows: Institutional and cultural racism can implicate social workers in racist practices. and results in their treating everyone alike.34 LENA DOMINELLI racist social relations in social Work Practice Social workers have been implicated in creating and reinforcing racist social relations.e. their attitudes and beliefs. through rationing resources that indirectly exclude those from a particular ethnic or religious group. i. This is because they focus largely on their value system and personal racism. They are also afraid to admit they do not know about or understand a particular culture and resist asking the individual concerned about it. only their clients. The use of essentialised or unitary concepts of identity that often stereotype service users. e. The use of culturally inappropriate services. - - Social workers draw upon stereotypes of who people are and what they do.. Along with stereotypes. they fail to use their professional judgment in determining responses to particular situations. social workers rely on fixed identities to determine eligibility for services and in doing so ignore the uniqueness of the individual and his/her specific needs. social work responses to refugees are . For example.. When working in this mode. Sometimes this is termed the ‘one size fits all’ approach. despite the fact that they perceive their profession as ‘tolerant’.g. cultural and institutional racism is considered that this state of affairs becomes evident. This is known as the colour-blind approach. The failure to think of identity issues as concerning them. often to the detriment of those they serve. It is only when the interaction between personal.
This approach increases the pressures on scarce local resources and exacerbates ethnic conflict between those already there and the newcomers.Understand how racist dynamics structure social relations of inequality in both the profession and society. .To engage in anti-racist behaviour. . this task is undertaken by the National Asylum Seekers Service (NASS). Social workers are likely to feel disempowered in such situations and fail to take up opportunities to protest against such bureaucratic criteria by linking up with others who also question their appropriateness. Additionally. the murder of an asylum seeker in Glasgow. so - . ..Be committed to egalitarian social relations and ending inequalities and oppression of all types.Understand their own positionality and contribution to social injustice. Instead. In the UK. social workers are unable to house refugees in communities where they have pre-existing links with others in their ethnic grouping or organisations that can assist them in carving out new lives in a new country. they can provide evidence of hardship that can be used in advocacy work. which disperses them into various parts of the country. Anti-racist social Workers’ responses Social workers must challenge their own racist practices and contribute to critiques of those operating in the society in general. e. These tensions can also lead to death. limited resources and stereotypical assumptions.MULTI-ETHNIC EUROPE: DIV ERSITY AND CHALLENGES.g. Guided by bureaucratic criteria. social workers have to: ... usually in deprived communities inhabited by poor white people.Organise and mobilise as a profession in order to gain a seat at those ‘tables’ where human well-being is being discussed. they often deny refugees the help they desperately need. . 35 based on unitary identities of what is needed and who is involved in a particular ethnic group. Social workers are well-placed to play critical roles in eradicating racist social relations within their profession and broader society because they are committed to equality and social justice.
This will involve many players – practitioners. advocating the elimination of racism. Assisting individuals trying to value diversity and build bridges across difference. Conclusions Racism is endemic throughout Europe. Social workers have a contribution to make to this struggle. The complexities of racist social relations and the exclusion of ‘black’ people at so many levels require action at many levels – local. They also have to become fully involved in getting rid of racism in their own practices. It’s eradication will require a serious programme of action across the continent. Advocating structural change and helping to mobilise communities in anti-racist directions. Dialogue with policy makers to ensure that the social resources and public commitment required to end oppression are available.36 LENA DOMINELLI - that they could serve as advocates and present data about the disastrous impact of inequality on peoples’ lives. both individually and as professionals. national and international. Social workers cannot eradicate racist social relations in society on their own. and becoming involved in alliances with others working for its eradication. citizenship-based notion of entitle- - - . They can take steps in this direction by: Using an egalitarian value system to move discourses away from ‘you don’t belong here’ to ‘let’s share this land’ in their work with diverse minority ethnic groups. Their contribution involves understanding how racist social dynamics work. policymakers and ordinary people. Working for a human rights. Showing and promoting the interdependence that exists among all residents living in a locality and highlighting the fact that they have a vested interest in ensuring a good quality of life for all. Help to organise and mobilise service users to play a major role in ending oppression.
national and international levels . e. If they can engage in broad alliances – at local. 37 ment that is not rooted in the exclusivity of the nation-state. .MULTI-ETHNIC EUROPE: DIV ERSITY AND CHALLENGES. advocating a global citizenship and portable welfare payments.g.it may be possible to celebrate an egalitarian social order throughout the world....
L. T. Dominelli. First published in 1988 and second edition published in 1997.. London: Palgrave.. London: Palgrave/ Macmillan. M. Anti-Oppressive Social Work Theory and Practice. (eds. Technologies of the Self.38 LENA DOMINELLI References Dominelli. Cambridge: Polity Press. In: Martin.). S.). . (2007). (1991). Hutton. (2002).. London: Tavistock. Gutman. The Question of Cultural Identity. Third edition. D. Anti-Racist Social Work. P. L. Hall. (1992). McGrew. Held. Modernity and its Futures. Foucault. L. Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault. In: Hall. (eds.. S. H.
seeing as the cases of violence which became known to the public were only the tip of the iceberg. It includes acts that inflict physical. The report entitled Violence and Health. mostly husbands and common law partners (Wiener Interventionsstelle gegen Gewalt in der Familie 2006). In all regions of the world. published by the World Health Organization (2002). it can thus be defined as gender violence. For a long time the extent of this violence could only be estimated. coercion and other deprivations of liberty” (United Nations 1992. women experience violence at the hand of their partners or male family members. Para 6). and approximately 95% of the perpetrators are male family members. Over the past decade. contains 48 studies on the prevalence of violence against women. mental or sexual harm or suffering. these show that between 10 and 69% of women (depending on the country in question) have been affected by physical violence – they have been abused by a .39 Rosa Logar gender and ethnicity in domestic violence Prevention and education Introduction: Domestic Violence as a Gender Based Violence According to the United Nations definition. Because of the clearly gendered nature of the problem. the extent of violence against women was revealed through large-scale studies drawn up in several countries. this article focuses on domestic violence against women. around 92% of the victims of domestic violence are female. Data shows that domestic violence disproportionately affects women. According to police statistics from Vienna. gender-based violence is “violence that is directed against a woman because she is a woman or that affects women disproportionately. threats of such acts.
development. and women from Bulgaria and Romania before 2007. is the global economic process known as “globalization”. “tourists”.Questions of Concepts and Definitions The classification of women into categories such as immigrant or ethnic minority is questionable and cannot stem from characteristics of the women concerned. According to the new UN in-depth study on all forms of violence “violence against women persists in every country of the world as a pervasive violation of human rights and a major impediment to achieving gender equality.40 ROSA LOGAR spouse/partner at least once in their life. and economic developments. or undesired migration that has to be prevented. GA 2006: 9). in the public or private sphere. and peace” (United Nations. political. “guest workers”. Immigrant and ethnic Minority Women . even though they still do not enjoy the same rights as citizens of the “old” members of the EU. Women and Youth BMFSF 2004a). The first representative study. An example of this is the recent enlargement of the European Union by the inclusion of several former eastern European countries. While women leave their countries of origin and emigrate to other countries for a number of reasons. the only reason for the West’s clear political tendency to differentiate between “good migration”. “immigrants”. 25%) have been physically or sexually abused by a partner (Federal Ministry for Family Affairs. categorized according to their purpose for entering the EU territory. An important .000 women respondents. they are “EU citizens”. migration desired and needed by “receiving” countries. “victims of trafficking”. conducted in Germany with more than 10. “illegal immigrants”. that is. The Secretary-General has stated that as long as violence against women continues. “asylum seekers”. in peacetime or in times of conflict. Today. were considered “foreigners” within the EU. and “bad migration”. whether perpetrated by the State or its agents or by family members or strangers. found that approximately one out of four women (i. and labelled according to legal guidelines as “third country nationals”. Women arriving from these countries before 2004. Senior Citizens. “refugees”.e. etc. we cannot claim to be making real progress towards equality. Such violence is unacceptable. but rather from changing social constructions based on historical.
Immigrant women.. It is not possible to critically explore the multi-faceted issues surrounding ethnicity and immigration or ethnicity and gender within the space of this article (cf. Neither group is homogeneous. this implies a strategic understanding that a majority is culturally homogeneous and constitutes “one ethnicity”. There is also a growing tendency to attribute a new significance to “culture” and “religion” as constitutive factors. I use the term “immigrant women” to describe women who have immigrated to a country (including so called “legal” immigrants as well as women without papers. The category “ethnicity” is mainly attributed to “minorities” (ethnic minorities) while the “majority” would appear to lack ethnicity or ethnicities. immigrant women married to men belonging to the ethnic majority. Nonetheless. while political and economical factors are often overlooked. This short analysis serves only to point out the need to question the meaning of categories such as “immigrants” or “ethnic minorities”. and refugees) and the term “minority women” for women from various ethnic groups within a country who did not immigrate recently. The key unifying factor of these groups is. thus making them second class citizens or even “non-citizens” or “illegal persons” with no rights at all. women asylum seekers.GENDER AND ETHNICITY IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVENTION. for example. The group most deprived of basic human . Andall 2003). 41 instrument for differentiating between “good” and “bad” migration is the creation of immigration laws which determine who falls into each category and result in control of “migration flow”. In this article. Immigration laws create different groups of people that are entitled to fewer rights than national citizens. as already stated. The basic human rights of immigrants are often not safeguarded in the country where they live. can be broken down into many different groups: immigrant women married to immigrant men. that applied laws basically deny them almost all rights. refugee women. These concepts also differ in individual European countries. etc. immigrant women with or without citizenship in the country of immigration.. it is necessary to address the groups of women concerned and at the same time to try to avoid discriminatory labelling or the use of questionable concepts. asylum seeking women married to asylum seeking men.
racism. are also quite vulnerable. often experience structural violence. 52% of women seeking support and shelter in Austrian women’s shelters were Austrian. (Verein Autonome Österreichische Frauenhäuser 2006). health care. Violence against Immigrant and Minority Women: Multiple dependencies and forms of violence Although sufficient research on the prevalence of spousal or family violence against immigrant and minority women has yet to be conducted. racial violence. Immigrant women married to immigrant men dependent on residence status and immigrant women married to men belonging to the ethnic majority in the early stage of marriage. Unequal access to political power. Senior Citizens. Structural violence and manifested violence are highly interdependent. who are completely dependent on their husbands. Women and Youth BMFSF 2004a). and 18% of women of non-Austrian nationality came from south-eastern European countries. some evidence indicating that immigrant women experience violence more often than other women does exist (Federal Ministry for Family Affairs. In 2005. Women’s shelters and other services for women who have been victims of violence are often frequented by immigrant women. discrimination. Galtung (1975) defines structural violence as any constraint on human potential due to economic and political structures. as well as minority women. and violence are immigrant women without papers. As . asylum seeking women have a rather precarious status. Furthermore. Immigrant women. resources. and other forms of violence. education. but must be interpreted carefully. In Austria. which can include domestic violence. for instance. hate crimes. asylum seekers are not entitled to a work permit. These figures hint at a greater frequency of violence in immigrant families. or legal recourse constitute forms of structural violence. and prostitution is the only option for women who wish to earn money legally.42 ROSA LOGAR rights and thus most vulnerable to exploitation. 48% belonged to other nationalities. without placing blame on “cultures” or “religions”. because structural violence often produces direct violence.
Abusive husbands know that their wives fear being forced to leave the country should they leave them. where they will never see them again. In times of separation or divorce. forced to kneel before their husbands and wash their feet or provide sexual favours on command and subject to other forms of exploitation and violence. and isolated occurrences of abuse are rare. Gartner 1992). The danger of repeated offences is great in cases of domestic violence. Additionally. 43 stated above. The danger of severe violence and murder is also high for . Immigrant women suffer from many forms of physical. are also grounds for violence as well as barriers to leaving a violent spouse. but rather by economic factors. Immigrant women are often completely dependent on their husbands. factors such as multiple dependency.GENDER AND ETHNICITY IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVENTION. or threats that their children will be kidnapped and taken abroad.. which is often not caused by “culture” or “traditional” practices. and acts of serious violence are committed when victims attempt to leave their abusers. it is safer. Ironically.. making it difficult or impossible for them to leave. they experience unique forms of violence such as threats of deportation if they report abuse to the police. and abuse this dependency by treating them badly. psychological and material violence. Sometimes their passports and other papers are taken away. women who are in the process of ending a relationship run the greatest risk of being killed by their partners (Crawford. which is turning away immigrants in ever greater numbers. disadvantages. and poverty create a greater potential for violence and weaken the possibility of leaving a violent spouse/partner. to stay in a violent relationship than to end it. such as responsibility for the functioning and “honour” of the family. discrimination. especially in the first years of marriage. the chances of violence tend to increase: the majority of murders. According to a Canadian study on murders of women by family members. Young immigrant and minority women may face the threat of a forced marriage. so to speak. Very strict patriarchal or religious norms. in particular the poor and uneducated. Sometimes immigrant women married to men belonging to the ethnic majority are treated like slaves. attempted murders. Marriage is often the only legal way to immigrate to “fortress Europe”.
states in its conclusion: In this report.44 ROSA LOGAR immigrant women trying to leave their abusive husbands. A research project conducted in Scandinavian countries. and states are bound under international as well as national law to take action. Carter et al. Women’s NGOs and services play an important role in empowering immigrant women. and punish acts of violence. . state obligations to Prevent violence Against Women Violence against women is not a “private affair”. as the report title indicates. 2006: 38). denied access to legal solutions due to the insecurity of their residence status” (Humphreys. […] many of these women inhabit an effectively lawless space. paragraph II). we have used the women’s narratives to illustrate how abused foreign women are literally trapped between law and life. The European research project CAHRV has also reached the conclusion that “Despite minimal data across Europe. but a public and political problem. investigate. it is clear that immigrant women experience greater exclusion and hugely reduced access to legal solutions for violence. which included interviews with immigrant women who had been victims of violence. Immigrant and minority women therefore require intensive and adequate support in order to be able to leave a violent relationship. The Council of Europe has determined that “states have an obligation to exercise due diligence to prevent. Other important instruments for the prevention of violence against immigrant women are independent residence permits and access to social benefits and the labour market (Berlin Institute for Comparative Social Research 2004). Or they can leave their abusive husbands and hope to be among the few elected who are granted residence permits – both potentially life-threatening options (The Danish Research Centre on Gender Equality 2005: 63). The women can either choose to stay in violent marriages until becoming eligible for permanent residence. and provide protection to victims” (Council of Europe 2002. Acts of violence constitute human rights violations. whether those acts are perpetrated by the state or private persons.
development and peace”. tradition or religious consideration to avoid their obligations with respect to its elimination.T. and her two children.T. as well as other women and children in similar situations. the CEDAW Committee stated that the Hungarian Government had indeed violated the rights of Ms. States should pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating violence against women” (United Nations 1993. In its decision.. In 2003. claiming that the Hungarian Government had violated her rights by failing to protect her from further violence and provide adequate help (United Nations 2005).(2002)5. 45 The UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993) states that “states should condemn violence against women and should not invoke any custom. as well as women’s organizations. “violence against women is an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality. The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) (United Nations 1979) and its recommendations oblige member states to implement effective measures to end all forms of violence and discrimination against women.org/womenwatch/ daw/cedaw/protocol/decisions-views/A. This is a programme for the implementation of the results of the Fourth World Conference on Women. which gave individual women.un.-v-Hungary-2-2003.. and ordered the state to take immediate action to protect and support Ms. filed a complaint with the CEDAW Committee. Article 4). A. vs. such as Recommendation Rec. A. Ms.GENDER AND ETHNICITY IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVENTION. a Hungarian woman who had been physically abused by her husband for many years. as one of twelve critical areas for concern. A. A. The CEDAW Convention was substantially reinforced by its Optional Protocol (United Nations 1999). the right to file complaints. According to this document.T.1 The theme of violence against women was included in the Platform for Action (United Nations 1995).. The Council of Europe has issued a number of important recommendations pertaining to violence against women and domestic violence. see http://www. member states consequently adopted a catalogue of measures to eliminate all forms of violence against women.pdf . which deals with protecting 1 CEDAW Decision of 26 January 2005.T.T. Hungary. held in Beijing in 1995.
with an emphasis on drawing up proposals for action. where needed. granting immigrant women who have been/are victims of domestic violence an independent right to residence in order to enable them to leave their violent husbands without having to leave the host country” (Council of Europe 2002. women’s shelters. A Task Force to Combat Violence against Women consisting of eight international experts was set up to prevent and combat violence against women. At the Third Summit of Heads of State and Governments of the Council of Europe Member States. Today these services play an important role in the field of social work and are funded by local and regional governments. and counselling centres have been established in all the provinces. The recommendations state that member states should “consider. which is to be implemented in 2007. help lines. The three elements of the Domestic Violence Law are: . held in Warsaw in May 2005. The law consists of three elements. and will have the possibility of staying in their own home. Austria enacted the Domestic Violence Law to improve the prevention of domestic violence and enhance support for victims (Logar 2005). the Austrian state and Prevention of gender violence In Austria. the European Council adopted an Action Plan including a Pan-European Campaign to Combat Violence against Women. women’s NGOs have created important services to support women victims of domestic violence and their children: over the past decades. In 1997. The Task Force prepared a blue print for the campaign (Council of Europe 2006) and will be in charge of evaluating progress at the national level and establishing instruments for quantifying developments at the pan-European level. paragraph 59). as in many other European countries. which were mutually developed and coordinated. including Domestic Violence. the vast majority of victims are women) are to receive comprehensive protection against violence and extensive support. Victims of domestic violence (as stated above.46 ROSA LOGAR women against violence.
a total of more than 32. as women in immigrant families are often socially and eco- .000 evictions were carried out. They are run by women’s NGOs and funded by the Ministry of the Interior and the Minister for Women’s Affairs. This is probably due less to a growth in violence and more to the fact that the new legal measures have been more frequently adopted by the police. rather than waiting for victims to take action and seek help. Intervention Centres for the support of victims of domestic violence were established in all nine Austrian provinces. Statistics show that the number of evictions and restraining orders in Austria has risen from year to year. The law also protects immigrant women who have been victims of domestic violence. The first evaluation found that the law’s goal to break the circle of violence through police expulsion of the perpetrator and to support the victim of violence through intervention centres could be achieved in most cases.. Nonetheless. almost all women who remained with a violent spouse/ partner reported that their spouse had ceased his violent behaviour for a short time following police intervention. but later became violent again (Haller 2002). Support for victims. 2. The new legal regulations are an efficient measure for improving protection against domestic violence and send an important message (Dearing. Eviction and restraining orders issued by the police for a duration of 10 or 20 days. The police are required to send a report to the local intervention centre within 24 hours of the every intervention. and the coordination of interventions by newly established Intervention Centres. contact the victim and offer support. violence prevention measures. does not offer sufficient protection. The Centres follow a pro-active approach and. 47 1..GENDER AND ETHNICITY IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVENTION. 3. It is absolutely necessary to offer active support. Within the first nine and a half years. In the second study. continuous support for victims is crucial. as victims of domestic violence are often too afraid or too depressed to seek help. Haller 2000). The law alone. however. Long-term protection by means of a protective temporary injunction under civil law (3 months and more).
They react more positively to services like women’s shelters. However. because only then do they stand a realistic chance of leaving the abusive husband and living a life free of violence (Arbeitsgruppe Migrantinnen und Gewalt 2003). Women and Youth BMFSF 2004b). According to research conducted in Germany. WAVE-Network 2004. Senior Citizens. immigrant women are often unfamiliar with the legal situation and structure of society. such as the loss of residence status. should they turn to the police or other institutions within the justice system. Practice has also shown that immigrant women tend to have little trust in authorities and fear negative consequences for their families. Tiroler Frauenhaus/Frauen gegen VerGEWALtTigung 2001. and insecure legal status determine if. Immigrant and ethnic minority women are less likely to access statutory services (Rai. proactive services that reach out to women and provide counselling in different languages are particularly important and suitable for immigrant women who have recently moved to the country and know little about their rights and opportunities (Federal Ministry for Family Affairs. immigrant and minority women . 2006). Thiara 1997). Multiple discrimination. it is difficult and sometimes impossible for them to understand the system of social services. where they can stay anonymously without being registered by authorities. how. almost no research on the implementation of standards has been conducted. standards in social Work Practice and education to support Women who have been victims of violence Guidelines for social work practice have been developed by special agencies like women’s shelters and services for immigrant women and also by feminist scholars in social work studies (Logar 2000. disadvantages.48 ROSA LOGAR nomically dependent on an abusive spouse/partner. Furthermore. Austrian women’s NGOs therefore demand that immigrant women obtain a residence permit and work permit independently of their husbands. and where immigrant women experiencing violence can seek help. Because of such a situation.
In any case.GENDER AND ETHNICITY IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVENTION. or representing the interests of women in legal settings.. not a profession. . Women’s services usually provide this kind of support. or both. 2006). Greater efforts must be made to ensure that all immigrant and minority women who experience violence have access to services. It is always the perpetrator who is responsible”). 49 should be treated as more susceptible to repeated violence by their partners/spouses. and it 2 The term advocacy in this context describes activities. standards of good Practice in supporting Immigrant and Minority Women The question to be asked is what kind of support do immigrant and minority women need and what can be regarded as adequate service. Survivors of violence need services that provide support during the crisis situation and on a long-term basis. he/she can be a social worker or other professional. They have fewer options and opportunities to seek help and are less likely to receive adequate help. This is a serious social problem and a violation of the right to protection from violence. In attempting to remain neutral about violence. The following guidelines and principles for good practice are based on the work of women’s services and their long-standing practice of supporting women who have been victims of violence (VAWE-Network 2004. which would accompany them through all relevant processes and coordinate interventions.. the emphasis is on (human) rights and entitlements. significant changes in policy and also in social work practice are needed in Austria and in other European countries. In order to change this highly problematic situation. it can imply supporting and empowering women to secure their rights. one runs the risk of tolerating it. and reflects the view that all forms of violence against women are human rights violations. Advocacy for women who have been victims of violence Countering violence means adopting a clear stance and condemning violence against women in all its forms (“There is no excuse for violence. and services aimed particularly at immigrant women must be established. Advocacy2 can have a number of meanings. and does not imply that the person working as an advocate has to have a legal profession.
are viewed as pathological cases. Building a relationship of trust Building a consistent relationship is important because it enables women who have been victims of violence to develop a feeling of trust and to open up and talk about their experiences. It is crucial to regard women as agents for change and experts on their own .50 ROSA LOGAR should become standard procedure for every survivor of violence to be supported by a women’s advocate. Survivors seeking help should never be asked to offer proof of the violence they have suffered. and short term interventions do not provide adequate support. consequently. Survivors of violence should not be labelled “ill” or “distressed”. Advocates must have an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of violence against women in the family and of the complex fears and dependencies it creates. The aim of any kind of support should be to overcome powerlessness and to empower women so that they can lead a selfdetermined life. Violence leaves marks not only on the body. Personal weakness is often the consequence of exposure to violence. Protection and safety Safety must be given top priority in all agencies providing services to women who have been victims of domestic violence and their children. Empowerment Being a victim of domestic violence means living through the traumatic experience of being powerless and at the mercy of a violent spouse. Risk assessment and practical safety planning which would guarantee that the immediate safety needs of women and their children are met should be a mainstay of support for women who have been victims of violence. but also on the mind and self-esteem. which would further weaken their position. and to respond with the utmost respect and without prejudice. It takes time to build a relationship of trust. something that is far from easy. Emotional support is needed as well as practical support. It is important to listen carefully. to believe. Some approaches to work with abused women go astray by interpreting this weakness as characteristic of women who.
Special knowledge Advocates supporting immigrant and minority women have to be specially trained and able to assess the situation of such women. Very often. . It is important to let a woman know that she is the only person in a position to decide and that her decision will be respected. 51 situation. The aim of an intervention is to stop the violence. however. they must be aware of the loss women experience when leaving or fleeing their country of origin. The right to self-determination is an important principle. How long a woman stays in a shelter and whether or not she permanently separates from her spouse is solely up to her. Some think that a woman should separate from the abuser. others tell her to give him another chance. Right to self-determination It is important to respect a woman’s right to make decisions about her own life. Matching Services Some immigrant and minority women might prefer to be supported by someone of their own background when seeking help.GENDER AND ETHNICITY IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVENTION. which consequently enables them to develop better strategies for overcoming violence. advocates have to have special and detailed knowledge about immigration laws and how they affect immigrant women in order to be able to assess the immigration status of clients and avoid measures that would jeopardize their status. In any case. Such advice. Women who have been victims of violence need support to reflect on their situation and understand how their spouse was able to exert power over them. can put even more pressure on a woman and turn out to not be helpful at all. services for women who have been victims of violence should employ advocates with diverse cultural backgrounds and language skills in order to be able to meet the different needs of clients. friends.. people are often disappointed or even annoyed if a woman does not follow their advice. or even social service professionals try to tell a woman what to do. for instance. not to end a relationship. relatives. Unfortunately. Furthermore.. They also have to be sensitive to different cultural beliefs and norms that might affect women seeking help. and others might not.
Unfortunately. especially for women with little or no income. Support for children Children are always affected by violence against their mothers. It follows that violence against women is also violence against children. Services free of charge Support services for women who have been victims of violence and their children should be free of charge. Furthermore. They also have to be able to support clients in this respect and to respond to and fight against racist violence. Raising awareness Raising awareness is an important element of preventing violence against women. such as: how to find ones way though the city. criminal act. how to find a kindergarten or language course. It is important to listen carefully to each individual woman in order to find out what she wants. especially those who have just recently moved to a country. it is important to spread knowledge within the communities about the rights of and services for women who have been victims of violence so that community members will be able to support and assist women in crisis situations. It is necessary to address different communities using appropriate means of communication in order to send the message that violence against women is an unacceptable. Some women. Fighting racism Services providing support to immigrant and minority women must be aware of the racist tendencies and racist violence that exist in society and its institutions and how these might affect their clients. tailored information and support Not all women seeking support have the same needs. This ensures that women and children in need can receive support regardless of their financial status. how to call the police. This possibility must be addressed. etc.52 ROSA LOGAR Comprehensive. Racism can become part of institutional practices in social work by discriminating against immigrant and minority women seeking help. they are often forgotten victims because few agencies and services are aware of . how to use public transport. how to get children to school. how social agencies work. either directly or indirectly. need support in every-day life skills.
. 53 their needs. Women should also have the right to receive counselling and support without having to reveal their identity. as a package serving the needs of both mother and child.. Women’s organisations have developed the principle of women helping women as a core concept for empowering women who have been victims of violence. Support for children has become an integral part of service in women’s shelters. Victims suffer from being in a weak position and from having lost faith in their own abilities and strength.GENDER AND ETHNICITY IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVENTION. Institutions such as homeless shelters are not appropriate for survivors of violence (WAVE-Network 2004).. Exceptions should and must be made if the life and health of women or children are at stake (i. This is also reflected in the structure of shelters. in which women not only work on the grass roots level. which would make it possible to accept the help offered. Therefore.e. and help lines. Confidentiality and anonymity In order to protect a woman’s rights and integrity. which is often the only source of support for children. acute danger from the violent spouse. . but not all services meet this standard. suicide attempts. Support for children has to be organized in a family-friendly way. Therefore it is important for them to receive support and help from female staff with experience in this field. it is necessary that she be able to decide which personal information will be passed on to others. Women supporting women and specialised services Abused women suffer greatly because they have been dominated and abused by their male partners. Women’s services must therefore provide a model that enables women to realize their own ability to lead an active and self-determined life. or women abusing their children). but also manage the organisation. This structure empowers women and children and helps them to rethink and overcome stereotyped gender roles. Counselling and support for children should be offered parallel to help for mothers. an agency should not pass on any information to others without the woman’s consent. women’s crisis centres. This makes it possible to strengthen the mother-child relationship and the non-violent family system.
regardless of their nationality or ethnicity. but should focus mainly on providing direction and not place too many limits on the individual freedom of clients. should be entitled to financial and social support in order to have a real chance to leave a violent spouse or fa- . instead. regulations are necessary. They are not seen as the mere objects of interventions. In several countries. Mullender. Accountability and quality of services Services are accountable to service users. clients. The activities and the conduct of services must be transparent and comprehensible. but as important stakeholders whose opinions regarding the quality of service are crucial to the organisation. It is important for services to be democratically structured and for service users to have the right to be involved in the provision and evaluation of services (Hague. but not exclusively. police and justice system agencies have introduced guidelines that give women who have been victims of violence the right to be interviewed by a female officer. The participation and involvement of women and children is especially important in shelters and other services where women and children reside for extended lengths of time. to the organisation and its members. Women’s shelters should not be institutions in which women’s lives are dominated and controlled.54 ROSA LOGAR Male-dominated services such as the police should seek to increase the number of female staff and make sure that victims of violence are served by trained female officers. Alternatives to violence All women who have been victims of violence. Immigrant women who have been victims of violence should also have the right to specially trained female interpreters when testifying to the police or in court. provided by female staff. and to society in general. Police and prosecutor’s services have been successful in addressing this problem by introducing specialised units where services are also. The power of an abusive husband and father should not be replaced by the power of an institution. Power must be handled carefully. or patients is a core principle in modern quality management concepts. Aris 2003). women and children should be included in decision-making processes. The involvement of customers.
GENDER AND ETHNICITY IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVENTION. etc. Financial support to install safety devices. In most European countries. as well as national. a ban on the deportation of victims of violence. re-entry into the job market. have been implemented in social work practice has been conducted. Humanitarian visas for survivors of violence without proper documentation. Such an assessment would make it possible to improve services. Women in women’s shelters often cannot leave because of a lack of affordable housing. little evaluative research on whether standards of support for women who have been victims of violence. among other things: • • • • • • • • Financial aid without lengthy administrative procedures. Political asylum for women facing violence in their home countries. Efficient housing programmes. and local governments. In some countries.. especially for immigrant and minority women. which would make it possible to assess whether services adequately meet the needs of immigrant and minority women. should therefore provide comprehensive financial and social support to all victims of domestic violence. they have been integrated into social work training (see next chapter). These issues should be dealt with using a multi-disciplinary perspective. including immigrant and minority women. This should include. regional.. Free legal aid and support in applying for protection orders and enforcing claims in civil and criminal proceedings. which would include theoretical knowledge . There is certainly a need for more research in this field. As mentioned above. Communities. Support in securing a sustainable living (education and training programmes.). these standards have been developed in practice by women’s services. 55 ther and to live a life without violence. gender violence in social Work education The issues of gender violence and the intersection of gender and ethnicity should be integrated into social work education as part of the curriculum. Immigrant women should have the right to reside independent of their husbands. as well as access to the labour market.
Research into whether and how the subject of gender violence and ethnicity has been integrated into social work studies in Europe is still lacking. Experience has shown that one semester is not enough to deal with this complex problem and that the issue of ethnicity and violence is easily overlooked.). application of the law. however. Methods and counselling skills for confronting violent men. social work. elements . The theoretical background of the problem (causes. The Council requires that all 46 Member States “include in the basic training programmes of members of the police force. International law and international documents on gender violence. Violence against women is integrated into the study at the departments of social work at the Viennese University for Applied Sciences. students usually have a one semester course on the issue of gender specific violence. Victims’ strategies for dealing with violence. Danger assessment and safety planning. victims’ needs.methods and counselling skills. impact.56 ROSA LOGAR as well as skills and methods for supporting immigrant and minority women who have been victims of violence. Working with victims . This course is mandatory. Legal measures for the protection from violence. The impact of violence on children. Instead of learning about issues concerning violence against women within other subjects (human sciences. Course contents include: • • • • • • • • • • • Self-reflection of the students’ own experiences with violence. Social work education has an important role in eliminating all forms of violence against women and in implementing international laws and obligations such as the Council of Europe’s Recommendations on Violence against Women (Council of Europe 2002). in only two of the three departments. law. Multi-agency work methods. etc. judicial personnel and the medical and social fields. Issues of ethnicity and gender violence. prevalence). consequences. The author of this article has developed teaching materials for this subject (Logar 2000) and teaches classes on gender violence and social work interventions in two departments of social work at the University for Applied Sciences in Vienna.
information and training so as to give them the means to detect and manage crisis situations and improve the manner in which victims are received. through better laws. ..coe. they are also victims of silence. Secretary General of the Council of Europe. as well as all other forms of violence affecting women” and “include in the vocational training programmes of these personnel. more shelters. which is to be carried out in all European Council Member States until March 2008. in Madrid). help and empower.GENDER AND ETHNICITY IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVENTION. This could also be a way to join the Council of Europe’s Stop Domestic Violence Against Women campaign. it is meant to do something about it. victims of indifference and victims of neglect.int/stopviolence. Eighteen months from now. It is safe to assume that not all social work study programs in European countries have already fulfilled their obligation to integrate the subject of gender violence into their studies. This is what the Council of Europe Campaign is determined to change. more help and above all by prevention. 57 concerning the treatment of domestic violence. An important step that has yet to be taken by university departments of social work is the review of curricula and inclusion of the issue of gender violence into social work study programmes. They are not helpless and weak. […] This Campaign is not launched merely to talk about domestic violence. but they are often let down.3 According to Terry Davis.. The key words are inform. better counselling. paragraph 8 and 9). 3 For more information on the campaign see the Council of Europe website: www. (Speech held at the Launching Conference of the Council of Europe Campaign in November 2006. we must be able to look back and say we have made a difference. but by the positive and quantifiable changes which our campaign helps to bring about in the lives of women suffering from abuse. Its ultimate success will not be measured by the number of seminars or declarations. the campaign should bring about concrete change for women who have been victims of violence: Women suffering from domestic violence are not only victims of abuse. listened to and counselled” (Council of Europe 2002. We must not let down these victims of a widespread abuse of human rights.
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and resilience.who as patients/clients or as subordinate colleagues find themselves in a relationship of dependence. which accepts the Other in her/his way of being an ever present perception of the patient as an individual against the background of her/his group affiliation empathy. appreciation of the Other1.whose social mobility differs from that of members of the majority group on account of discrimination . Inter-cultural competency can be defined as the ability to communicate appropriately and successfully with persons: whose first language is different from the language of the country in which they live and/or . devaluing treatment. .). and the ability to question oneself regarding one’s own prejudice Sibel Koray of the Institute for Youth Psychiatry of the city of Essen writes (2000: 23) “It is important to consider that inter-cultural competency does not have to do only with background knowledge on culture.61 Dagmar Schultz resource. Appropriate and successful forms of communication and behaviour include: 1 a respectful attitude. religion. allow a patronizing stance. or treat the Other as an exotic person.S.“inter-cultural” or “trans-cultural competencies”. and further specifics of immigrant families. It requires specific knowledge and sensitivity on the part of the personnel . which does not leave room for condescending. Inter-cultural competency is nothing but a gradual enhancement of the ability of social interaction” (translated by D. A very crucial – culture specific – aspect is the attitude one has toward the Other… an attitude which accepts and respects the Other in her/his way of being.oriented Work with Immigrant and black Patients The treatment of patients of immigrant background presents a unique challenge to psychiatric institutions. and that it does not suffice to speak the language of the Other.who have grown up with a different culture and/or .
when I look back on those 21 years. It relates specifically to the ability of persons to deal actively with adverse circumstances. which counteracts the tendency to regard persons who are assigned to a (frequently discriminated) minority as victims (implicitly serving one’s own upgrading). which covers physical. as well as material and social/ family-related resources. to master life crises by resorting to personal and socially mediated resources and using them for one’s own development. lifelong process that takes place between the individual and his/her environment. long phases of unemployment. professional and earned resources. (see Hermann 2005). psychological. and often of their profession and cultural identity. An examination of resources usually also brings about a “personal revalorization and strengthening” (Klemenz in Sobczyk 2006). Resources are to be understood as a comprehensive concept. and increase one’s readiness to deal with problems (Sobczyk 2006). In addition. cognitive. immigrants have to deal with the loss of their native country and language.” What matters. In the words of a Turkish nurse interviewed in our study: “My work in the ward has shown me. This article expands the inter. that the stranger is always thought to be very much in need of help. therefore. etc. Resilience is an interactive. Immigrants . such circumstances may include serious illness. is that one adopts a differentiating perspective and an attitude which makes it possible to explore and activate resources and resilience without being governed by prejudice and acquired notions. even though this person has many abilities. the loss of loved ones. they must also deal with the “Otherness” ascribed to them.62 D A G M A R S C H U LT Z - acknowledging the limits of one’s own knowledge being aware of the possible effects of one’s own socio-cultural identity on interaction with the patient (APA 1995). A mediated valorisation and emphasis on strengths can support a positive relationship.or trans-cultural approach through an emphasis on resource-oriented work. reduce resistance. Black Germans as well as immigrants can potentially develop a great degree of staying power and learn to quickly assess situations and persons in order to survive in a society in which they often face hostility.
immigrant/white German/Afro-German. The following contribution illustrates and discusses how the importance of the personal strengths of immigrant patients is perceived and handled by the personnel in psychiatric institutions and attempts to discern those factors that can contribute to a resource. I spoke with doctors and nurses. as well as two immigrant clients at 14 extra-clinical institutions (assisted living institutions. All questions permitted open answers. and finally the number of the page where the given quotation can be found. The following evaluation is based on a qualitative analysis based on categories. I also interviewed a psychologist.. so as to be able to examine the relevance or irrelevance of these traits to the content of the responses. The fact that a person is in a psychiatric institution should not give rise to the assumption that she/he is not endowed with such abilities and strengths. At the hospitals.and resilience-oriented therapy. social workers and psychologists. This is followed by the interviewee’s personal code. both male and female.ORIENTATED WORK. The extra-clinical institutions are begin with numbers instead of letters. transitional establishments. The interviews were carried out using a structured questionnaire. Using a database program. I interviewed 28 persons at five large Berlin hospitals and at the day clinic of one of these hospitals. F designates the day clinic. a female social worker and a female physical therapist. counselling and therapy centres).AND RESILIENCE. 63 frequently show a more or less voluntarily appropriated risk propensity and an ability to confront new challenges and difficulties. I have subdivided individual professional groups according to traits such as female/male. Students of the Free University and the Alice-Salomon-Fachhochschule for Social Work and Social Pedagogic interviewed directors.RESOURCE.. It is based on a qualitative study which was intended to demonstrate problems and procedures pertaining to the psychiatric care of immigrants and Black Germans in Berlin institutions. on the Methodology of the study In 2002. The code in parenthesis after the quotations signifies the following: the letters A-E designate the hospitals used in this survey. .
1997) have thoroughly shown how the experience of immigration and ethnic discrimination in receiving countries – experienced as formal. Zarifoglu 1994. 7 female nurses of foreign descent (FMP). The authors refer to Anglo-American literature and their own case studies: The culturally “naive” doctor regards ethnic-cultural affiliation as irrelevant and fails to explore significant data pertaining to the individual’s social background. Zeiler. which relate to the ethnicity and immigration of the patient as well as to the circumstances of life in the immigration country … Difficult psychotherapeutic problems arise when objective discrimination (which the patient struggles against) and neurotic experience intertwine. 1 female German social worker (FMS). Such experiences are. “usually hidden from the (German) doctor – out of shame. 2 male doctors of foreign descent (MMA). and also through the ascription of unwanted or refusal of desired social identity – can result in the deformation of personality development and in a disturbed psychic disposition (Zeiler. Zeiler 1995: 159). 1 German male nurse (MDP). discrimination and daily racism as Illness-inducing factors Zarifoglu and Zeiler (1995. Zarifoglu 1994).64 D A G M A R S C H U LT Z Clinics and the day clinic: 7 male German doctors (MDA). Extra-clinical institutions: 4 male German social workers (MDS). 2 female German social workers (FDS). as Zarifoglu and Zeiler write. pride and politeness or out of a need to emphasize conformity with the social norms of the guest country” (Zarifoglu. 2 male social workers of foreign descent (MMS). the therapist must . structural restriction and informal daily devaluation. 1 male psychologist of foreign descent (MMPs). 1 female physical therapist of foreign descent (FMK). 2 male Afro-German doctors (AafA). 2 male clients of foreign descent (MMKl). 3 female doctors of foreign descent (FMA). 1 female psychologist of foreign descent (FMPs). In this case. 1 male psychologist of foreign descent (MMPs).
which would confirm a causal relationship. such as in the longitudinal study conducted by developmental psychologist Emmy E. Resilience has become a concept which encompasses the entire life cycle (Hermann 2005). research on resilience is very important (see e. Since then.g. Grünke 2003. Welter-Enderlin. 313).g. who for 40 years accompanied approximately 700 children born in 1955 into difficult social conditions on the island of Kauai (Hawaii) (Werner. ability to change perspective. and especially longitudinal studies. resilience as a Possible resource In this context. Studies with children have demonstrated that a stable relationship with at least one person of reference as well as role models. Recent research has also pointed out the link between ethnic discrimination and psychic illness (e. flexibility. Carter 2007). Masten. inventiveness. Neighbors. . scholars and politicians are largely aware that discrimination and racist experiences have detrimental effects on physical and psychic health.AND RESILIENCE. These factors should play a key role in the (follow-up) treatment of immigrant patients. Karlsen. sociability. Zarifoglu 1997: 308. Walsh 1998.RESOURCE. several studies with children have been completed in Germany (e. The results of resilience research emphasise those personality traits which can serve as protective factors. such as personal responsibility. Resilience research initially focused on children. Nazroo 2002. and a social network play a decisive role in the development of resilience (compare above citations). Werner and her colleague Ruth Smith. Despite a lack of rigorous cross-sectional. Hildenbrand 2006). Lösel. Additional factors pertain to one’s surroundings. and has also gained significance in the fields of psychotherapy and trauma research because it can contribute to an understanding of coping and the activation of the self-healing process (salutogenesis). reliable adults. Williams.. seeking solutions. Powell 2003. Jackson 2003.ORIENTATED WORK.g.. Werner 1999). Smith 1989. perseverance. 65 first and foremost acknowledge the actual problematic social situation before engaging in therapeutic efforts (Zeiler. Wustmann 2004). Bender 1994. acceptance of crises.
Focusing on potential strengths is important for several reasons: A resource-oriented approach in psychiatric treatment and clinical social work can: .encourage self-confidence and the healing motivation of the patient. The normal and the stigmatized are not persons but rather perspectives. Yet not all migrants go through the same process.further the personnels’ self-reflection of prejudice and stereotypical views. is associated with the reaction of normal persons in interaction with stigmatized persons. These are produced in social situations during mixed contacts on account of the unrealized norms which in all likelihood have an effect on the encounter” (ibid: 170). One of the main hypotheses of the stigma theory. but rather comes to bear in a continuous two-role-process. which they could activate during the healing process? An announcement of research on immigrants and minorities issued by The Institute of Psychiatry of King’s College. . Stigma management is a general part of society.e. .positively influence the attitude of the personnel toward patients. and that even if some rudimentary awareness exists. . Our second hypothesis states that a positive attitude and expectations regarding potential strengths and abilities of this kind are beneficial to therapeutic work. London (2004) states that “understanding the relationship of mental illness to migration is necessary as migration is and can be a very stress-inducing phenomenon. coping strategies in dealing with discrimination and stigmatization. According to Cyrus: “Stigma does not primarily comprise individuals who are divided into two groups. which occurs wherever there are identity norms (ibid: 160). i. it is not necessarily integrated into therapeutic practice. The clinician needs to be aware of coping strategies as well as resilience among migrants.66 D A G M A R S C H U LT Z With immigrant persons and Black Germans an additional question arises: To what extent have individuals developed stigma management2 (self-positioning in regards to the categories of “normal” and “different”). in which each individual participates in both roles. at least in some contexts and some life phases. The views of the interviewees about the possible resources and poten2 Stigma management is the “situation of the stigmatized person and her reaction to the position in which she/he finds her/himself” (Cyrus 1997: 156).” Our first hypothesis is that the possible strengths and abilities of immigrant and Black German patients are frequently not (sufficiently) supported and emphasized.
not to mention Germans. 6). however. how this person could endure all this. especially in psychiatry. often of an existential kind. that is incredibly strong. they do not have to fight . Many. A need or ability to endure continuous pressure. First. I have patients from ex-Yugoslavia or Turkish patients who found this pressure too much to bear. Toughness and staying power are primary qualities A female doctor from Croatia emphasized toughness: It is not necessarily strength.. and a matter of surviving well. 8). and nearly all interviewees could confirm the benefits of such strengths for resource-oriented therapeutical work only after being asked a second time. 67 tial for resilience in patients are presented in the following sections. presented an initial failure to understand the question. They have to be successful in some way.AND RESILIENCE. to go anywhere. of the children surviving well … poor psycho-social conditions in the country of origin bring about stamina. they have this pressure and that is bad. This is not always taken into consideration. For instance. 9MMPs. constitutes a special challenge in the eyes of one female Spanish physiotherapist. to adjust to the new situation and to continue wanting to live. and it is twice as much pressure as the others feel. one would otherwise be broken and not find the strength to migrate (E.RESOURCE. but toughness. Also the will to live.. It is a matter of survival. A male Indian psychologist stressed staying power: . 2FMA. indifferent assessment. then there’s a difficulty with the language... they have to fight for their residency. Where have personnel observed the special strengths of immigrant patients? A majority of interviewees confirm existing strengths. a challenge which is not sufficiently taken into account in psychiatry: Yes. one has to spend twice as much energy. and only a few gave a negative or neutral. One really should adopt this strength or learn it from them” (F. my God. but those who were born here and simply are used to this society and this stress – they have everything. The same doctor gave an affirmative response when asked whether this would be useful in the treatment process.ORIENTATED WORK. Sometimes you think. that is extremely strong in them.
who can also grow with the difficulties they experience. 26MDA. Or the future is so uncertain that one would just as soon throw up one’s arms. “… to make do with very little…” (8FMPs. It is this pressure. 7). yet they endure it or have developed an attitude towards it that allows them to manage some way or another (F. you resurface.68 D A G M A R S C H U LT Z for residency status. 24MafA. Further characteristics mentioned are courage. “a more intensive family solidarity. find an apartment. and when you have endured this pressure. Germans often reason that it may be better to place a person in a therapeutic living commune or the older ones into a nursing home. 7). always serve as a resource. but they made it. setting out for a foreign place. 6-7). They are frequently enterprising or relatively courageous persons. 33-34). who have gone through so much that you would think they’d be crushed. one should think about that more. But it can also. to manage many different situations. Flexibility and patience are qualities pointed out by a male AfroGerman doctor: …the outlook on life. patience (A. A female white German nurse also considers family solidarity strength: There often exists a strong cohesion.” A male white German doctor emphasizes: That is often an enormous resource and a greater readiness of the family to keep an ill person in the family. I believe (A. or you drown (F. get a work permit. the family is available for . Of course. They think or argue that the care is better in an institution (A. 6). 8MDA. 26MDA. risk propensity and sensitivity. sensitivity can also change into something like over-sensitivity or a paranoid attitude or withdrawal and mistrust. 7FMK. a rich network. not being so demanding. the ability to improvise. A male white German doctor: Many immigrants I have met – at least that is my impression – are of a certain character. A female Czech psychotherapist in an extra-clinical institution stressed the capacity of families. in the individual case. you float on the water like oil. A male white German doctor identifies an ability to manage situations which often seem unendurable: It’s true. There are people in such a migrant situation. Several interviewees mentioned family solidarity as an important resource. 5).
that is.. Also. but it can harm me or the patient.RESOURCE. what you can and can’t ask for. even though that person has many abilities. they know e. 11). But the prejudice of earlier times is transferred to the new generation. which public administrative offices to deal with. that the stranger is always considered very much in need of help. imposed on them. One reason is that we do not communicate enough with each other.g. Each statement also contains a certain appeal or signal. because it was a matter of survival in some situations (4MDS. they also speak the language very well.ORIENTATED WORK. A female Mexican doctor defines abilities of social interaction: And then people who grow up with different cultures are also more open. I am also of the opinion that – no matter how ill a person may be – this connection to these resources has to be restored again and again. that one simply does not reflect enough (E. For example. when I look back at those 21 years. 69 everyone if there is a problem. Whereby the (second) generation is much more communicative. If they are accepted. in regards to the therapeutic team. I find that most immigrants are well informed about the legal aspects. this may not seem so bad. 11FMA. 4). 14-16). certain behaviours … clients who have learned how to make themselves clearly understood very well.AND RESILIENCE.’ But when I see in the papers that she was born here. 6FMP. which professional social workers do not have. social law. they also have good social strategies and are popular in groups (D.. A male white German social worker at an extra-clinical institution identified a knowledge of the legal situation and the ability to assert oneself as strengths: Yes. if a patient comes – let’s say. and that is frequently based on their own experiences. 4). Another aspect which was mentioned is the ability to turn a (supposed) weakness into strength. You really speak German well. A male white German doctor: . it is definitely a strength to know your legal situation. Capacities which are not recognized or acknowledged were stressed by an experienced female Turkish nurse who called for more communication and reflection on the part of the personnel: Of course. 10FDP. That is a strength which I have experienced (D. in her traditional outfit – they say: ‘Oh. and I notice. why should she not speak German well? Well. My work in the ward has shown me.
23 MAfA.g. by participating in a self-help group. in his own complexity. Stigma management through emphasizing Otherness (Zeiler. The onlooker’s observation. The male white German director of an extra-clinical institution denies the significance of ethnic difference and argues: Well. whether you deny it or positively acknowledge it (E. the dark skinned have such and such characteristics. DA. To attach it to something like that. however. is nonetheless remarkable. this Nigerian patient who is extremely goodlooking. that whole discussion. A female Mexican doctor pointed out the benefit of the “ethnic factor”: There are persons who play with their background when it has advantages. the eroticisation of the person. 7-8). one can also. no… (9MDI. which could serve to unite universalistic and particularistic interests. that is. if you have a weakness. Zarifoglu 1994: 102) is expressed in the following case. such and such traits. When we make . one can withdraw. That always is the situation. 11FMA. 11). I am not schizophrenic but I hear voices and I admit that… They turn a weakness into strength by admitting that they have a certain problem. a male Afro-German doctor arrived at the following conclusion: Yes. It could be an advantage (B. This also plays a role in ethnicity. you simply have to fight more to assert yourself … transform this weakness into strength. and whether “indigenous beauties” might display the same sort of behaviour. or the yellow ones have such and such. 5. I would not go that far. 13-14). This example leads on to wonder whether the “ethnic factor” is at play in such situations. e. Referring to personal experiences. she has in a way taken advantage of her ethnic factor. e. gain a new identity as someone who hears voices and says. Such seductive behaviour also exists (D. 6-7).g.70 D A G M A R S C H U LT Z As a schizophrenic. or who completely deny the idea. The lack of an inter-cultural perspective. A male white German nursing director reduces the resources of immigrants to communication: I can’t think of anything specific in that regard. is apparent in the following statements of interviewees who cannot relate to the idea of the special strengths of immigrants and minority members. The human being is already pretty broken in his peculiarity. well.
8-9).RESOURCE. It assumes a perfect treatment system. and feel that. usually formed by the media. I have experienced that one can offend the patient by excluding and culturally pigeon-holing him. Do you believe that this is the case? (C. we definitely ask about those . I also stress these as resources. when you find yourself in a conversation. A person is a political being and when you . Such an attitude does not only prevent the perception of strengths. one labels the person in that way. 9MPs. This means that the patient is actually more advanced than the normal German who has grown up in a protected situation. you are confronted above all with your own projections. … as a Turkish immigrant or whatever. 15FMA. but also hinders an identification and understanding of certain behaviours as stigma management. 6).ORIENTATED WORK. Perhaps he wants to belong. with your own imagination.which negative experiences have the person had. how has he tried to cope with them (E. yes. how he has dealt with those experiences. that the doctor really can see. How do the personnel assess the benefit of strengths as a resource in treatment? When asked whether he draws upon capacities for staying power and adaptation during the therapy process. 4MMA. in relation to other cultural affiliations. asking copatients for help to make ourselves understood … (B. A female doctor from a Syrian background doubts the abilities of doctors and the quality of the treatment system: This presupposes that the doctor has to recognize that the patient has acquired these abilities. When I work with patients with such experiences. we primarily use language resources. Those are inner strengths they can use to build themselves up (F. an encounter. a male Indian psychologist replied: Those are positive resources. perhaps he does not see himself as not belonging. but from the perspective of critical (self-) reflection concerning cultural ascription: You cannot extract yourself as a psychiatrist and. and that the doctor must be even more advanced. 20MDP. 71 use of resources. A male Turkish doctor considers it important to find out about the coping strategies of patients: The coping strategies which they have developed in such a difficult situation. 13-14). sense.AND RESILIENCE.. and reaching a conclusion is difficult. 5-8) The quality of treatment is also questioned by a male white German doctor..
rejects a stereotyping concept of culture and advocates an individualistic concept of culture which emphasizes socio-cultural competencies. but only the cleaning woman. the insecurity. it may not be experienced positively” (D. it is not even a matter of adequate treatment. That is non-treatment. 12MDA. aggression. and the doctor has no time and cannot deal with a different cultural context etc. you do not have any time for that. 3-4). attitudes which limit the development of mutual trust and genuine interest in activating resources: Many therapists do not what to get too close to the patient. the transferral. his life. potential capacities to integrate experiences from different cultural and social contexts (Griese 2005). i. Where can resources. 31). which can potentially become effective in treatment. In the following quotation he explains the insecurity of the therapist and the need for distance. the insecurity may increase. b) via the cultural context – may possibly create a greater distance for me. be found? The interviewees mention the following strengths and abilities: 3 toughness and perseverance endurance According to this doctor. The deep fear of contaminating oneself at some point… the closeness of the patient. …The impaired communication a) via language. commiserating. The illness is also repulsive. The question then is.3 With this statement this doctor. 2. 12MDS. 12MDA. All of that unloads itself upon the therapist with each patient. 12). who in another instance speaks of “members of assumed other cultures”. and I can also experience this as something positive (D. 34.72 D A G M A R S C H U LT Z push someone out of the community.e. a standpoint described as follows by Zeiler and Zarifoglu (1994: 103): “Ethnocentric prejudice fulfils the function of distancing oneself from the patient with a foreign cultural identity”. . In some peripheral hospitals you do not have time for psychiatric treatment” (D. but of non-treatment: “When there is no interpreter. not wanting to commiserate. If that is additionally combined with another cultural context. how we can manage to treat the majority of these patients is at all? When you look at the personnel situation in peripheral clinics today. He therefore confirms the theoretical view that the (ethnocentric) prejudice of psychiatric professionals serves to provide a cognitive structure and – apparently – provide security in psychiatric practice.
If resilience is defined as the psychic power to resist and as the “ability to skilfully deal with strain without damaging oneself” (Eichenberg 2006: 7) or as the capacity to “emerge from the most adverse conditions in life with greater strength and resources than before” (Walsh in Eichenberg 2006: 7). and if closely examined they may become apparent in the present crisis situation. a breakdown which may result in hospitalization could very well be one step in the struggle for survival. you cannot ever expect that a person is doing well consistently and in any situation. one should not necessarily assume that they do not exist. a sort of coping strategy. capacity to adopt another perspective. A person may have mastered situations in the past using these abilities. that is. How else could one interpret the fact that an immigrant overcomes psychosis or depression when confronted with an environment in which professional helpers and co-patients neither speak his/her language nor are familiar with his/her reality and cultural background? Furthermore.. readiness to adapt.AND RESILIENCE. A mental breakdown is not.RESOURCE. selfcontrol. . one would not expect to discover it in a patient in a psychiatric institution.ORIENTATED WORK. Here we can find correlations with traits which have been mentioned in research on resilience.. necessarily evidence of a lack of resilience. even though persons demonstrate resilient capacities in their behaviour. however. activity instead of assuming the role of the victim. ingenuity. such as: independence. 73 - the ability to deal with conditions which often seem unbearable flexibility and patience courage and risk propensity sensitivity family solidarity knowledge of the legal situation the ability to assert oneself the ability to socially interact the ability to turn a (supposed) weakness into a strength. According to Masten and Powell (2003). perseverance. Resilience is not a character trait. If patients do not outwardly display these traits.
cooperation with extra-clinical psychologists of foreign descent.reflection of racism/discrimination as possible causes of illness . A willingness to communicate with immigrants and black people in one’s personal and professional environment can be very helpful.acknowledgement of religion as a possible key factor during the course of the illness and the healing process . it is important to develop sensitivity to the self-identification and sensitivities of patients.working with relatives and persons of references .openness to culture-specific forms of treatment .inter-cultural teams .a. This is confirmed by a female Turkish nurse: .openness to other forms of perception of and coping with illness . 3-4). This can be a difficult process for professional helpers.cooperation with extra-clinical community groups .special therapeutic groups for immigrants . They have to become conscious of their own internalized attitudes and images.adequate language communication .integration of patient resources in the sense of empowerment .content-related exchange within the inter-cultural team . At the same time. As one of the interviewee states: Not all immigrants want to be identified as such (s.74 D A G M A R S C H U LT Z In the following section I would like to elaborate some aspects of content and structure which could further and support a resource-oriented approach and the resilience of clients. Reflection of one’s own position and expectations It is obvious that a reflection of one’s own culturally determined attitudes is very important.special extra-clinical centres for immigrants . D. 12 MDA. I would like to list some factors mentioned by interviewees in other contexts: . What can contribute to the resource-oriented treatment of immigrants and black germans? Before examining several of the points in greater detail.reflection of one’s own position and expectations .
We sometimes talk with our hands and feet. just as there are many young kids who are going through an identity crisis and simply deny that they have a foreign passport. but I see the danger especially with that position. but there are also patients who absolutely do not want you to permanently disclose that they are Blacks or that they have dark skin. There is always this idea that someone who speaks with us in our first language also understands us in a different way. and so they feel somewhat relieved.AND RESILIENCE. none of the institutions provide a prayer room for Muslims). but communication is still easier than when the patient converses with German personnel (B. that language is also always connected to their mentality. so that these patients slowly turn away from the hospital and finally end up in the religious or supernatural realm. black hair. however. Opinions vary concerning the tolerance/acceptance of alternative treatment methods which patients want to initiate themselves. Language is necessary. For example.g.ORIENTATED WORK. Sometimes it is not good that skin colour assumes such an important role. 12-13). but my first language is German and I want you to deal with me in German’. describes experiences with patients who attach great importance to treatment by a doctor of foreign descent: Of course... to see this and to respect it (E. This is frequently the case. The same is true of Blacks. This is rarely transferred to the therapeutic or purely functional structural level (e. so they trust us more. strangely enough even when patients speak German fluently. such as . 75 There are patients who want you to consider their immigrant/minority status. 21MMA. a divine or spiritual agent can assume the role of a psychological parent. and therefore we naturally have to speak German with each other. The interviewees to a large extent support the acknowledgement of spiritual ties. specifically when they do not concern themselves with the cultural aspects. 1FMK. Acknowledgement of religion as a possible key factor in the course of the illness and the healing process Respect for religious beliefs and practices are certainly an important part of a resource-oriented approach. A male Turkish doctor. or whatever. ‘I do not speak another foreign language. saying. People should have their needs met.RESOURCE. patients who speak a different language which we do not understand still tend to prefer to be treated by a foreign doctor because they reason that his mentality is more familiar than the German mentality. And it is up to us to find this balance. the primary concern of doctors who have grown up here in Germany is to treat the sick patient just like everyone else. Surprisingly. 10).
The acknowledgement and the application of certain abilities of immigrant patients furthers their self-esteem. 4). If the person is a believer and has a firm conviction that he needs spiritual assistance from a priest or a hodja. there are differences in quality. to tolerate or accept the wishes of the patients without proclaiming religion or spirituality as a healing and resilience producing power. and promotes active involvement. for example. Some of the interviewees expressed a strong disapproval of “parallel” or “two-way treatment”. Adequate language communication and content-related exchange within the inter-cultural teams It can be stated that communication in the first language is extremely important for persons who do not speak German well.4 This attitude is expressed in the following quotations: When the patient holds on to his magic and says that it means something to him.76 D A G M A R S C H U LT Z contact with healers who use “black magic” or with hodjas. 1FMP. There is a tendency. Members of the team who do not belong to the majority culture convey trust and support even when they do not belong to the same culture or speak the same language. The integration of resources of patients in the sense of empowerment Richard Sagor (2003) speaks of “CBUPO-persons”. potency. 12MDA. after repeated visits. it was harmful to the person would I possibly question whether it is appropriate. The content-related exchange within the intercultural team serves as continued education and is important for daily and therapeutic interaction with patients (Schultz 2007). optimism. why would you want to change his decision (D. usefulness. that does not matter (E. 9). which form a part of resilience. . 11). 4MMA. I myself feel that I do not have the right to forbid that (F. however. 4 (October 1999). belonging. MDA. while others take a neutral stance. 27. Special Issue Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counselling Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations. which stands for competence. in order for them to unfold the personality characteristics cited above. 4 As to the significance of a spiritual dimension in psychotherapy see Journal of Multicultural Counselling and Development. one could say. I cannot. Only if I had the feeling that. I think we cannot refuse that. 9). whether it is the Bible or the Quran. Everyone needs some support. tell a German that he has no business going to the pastoral care of the hospital” (E. Concerning hodjas. as opposed to fatalism. but I would try it in any case.
B. Working with relatives and persons of reference Work with relatives differs in intensity. which has led several Turkish nurses and immigrant psychologists to conclude that there is a great need for a place of refuge for immigrants once they are out of the hospital (F. One reason is the lack of personnel who speak foreign languages. 22).AND RESILIENCE. Assistance with language communication can be used in this sense. Concerning special incentives for immigrants.ORIENTATED WORK. The majority of doctors argue that special incentives for immigrant patients would promote separatism instead of integration. . the head physician of a hospital with a high percentage of Turkish patients argues: My approach is integration. who can participate in the therapy groups. 18FMP. and to my knowledge there are no groups for other languages.. because they “do not feel at ease there”. As we have seen. Day clinics are accessible primarily to immigrants with a good knowledge of German. 11. the personnel regard family solidarity as an important resource. 2004). For Turkish patients. 1MMPs. Nor are there any psychosis seminars for immigrants and their relatives who speak Turkish or other languages. who do not speak German well. this is practised only to a limited extent. 6FMPm7. we again find the dualistic perspective of universalism vs. Hence the few groups that do exist are led by Turkish psychologists working on a fee basis. particularism. 77 and readiness for integration. Special therapeutic groups and extra-clinical centres for immigrants Focus groups for immigrant patients are rare in the institutions we examined. Immigrants rarely if ever visit extra-clinical centres where ex-patients and other persons in need can meet. which are held in German. For example. According to our study.. which is not present for instance in the United States (see Schultz 2003. although it would not be appropriate to involve patients as interpreters for therapeutic talks. Results of research on resilience confirm this aspect of healing and expand it insofar as persons of reference who do not belong to the family should be included in the therapeutic plan and process. I offer therapy as far as possible in German. This kind of empowerment can be mediated by assigning certain tasks which imply responsibility.RESOURCE.
Cooperation with extra-clinical psychologists of foreign descent Such cooperation would support the development of persons of reference and role models and stabilization following the hospital stay(s).78 D A G M A R S C H U LT Z there is a group led by a Turkish psychologist. This remains a Germanlanguage institution. it requires institutional transformations and an expansion of continued education and professional training. 25MDA. Atik 2007 and Gün 2007). Occupational therapy.and resilience. because financial bottlenecks and a lack of time and personnel often cause reforms to be abandoned even before the planning phase has been completed. If over a third of our patients are Turkish. which. these are dependent upon political agents. This opinion is also expressed by other interviewees. That would result in tensions. we are expected to become a Turkish hospital. I try to avoid a concentration of Turks in a ward. This contradicts an approach which would reflect cultures and potentially further resilience. is offered in German. Wohlfart 2007. That is why we do not offer any therapy directed towards sub-groups (A. and which would take into account the significance of persons of reference and social networks. see Ozankan. which are therapeutically unfavourable. as we have seen. already partially exists.oriented treatment demands the willingness of medical personnel. Rare exceptions in Germany are the Centre for Inter-Cultural Psychiatry and Supervision (ZIPP) at the Institute for Trans-Cultural Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of the Charité Berlin (see Wohlfart. Knowledge of research on resilience and its discussion could contribute to a scientific justification of this concept and a commitment to patient-oriented structural and program reforms. Conclusion Reaping the potential of resource. This also leads one to wonder how we can expect mentally ill patients to integrate if this is not achieved even in the majority society. On the other hand. 2). Zaumseil 2006. though in a milder form. etc. .
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consequently. Examples of the everyday life of Roma will serve to illustrate the effects of discrimination. A critical view of the social and political situation of the Roma community will elucidate the mechanisms which produce ethnic boundaries and. discriminatory practices. “us” is a point from which we judge and value everything else (Kuhar 2006: 147). During our fieldwork. Ethnic boundaries are produced by dominant racist and romanticized discourse about those who “belong” and those who do not. which show that there are still many obstacles to be faced before the Roma population achieve inclusion and respect. Josipovič 2006: 10). Discrimination against Roma is not merely a product of individual intolerance. This article will draw attention to the ideological function of prejudice and present concrete examples of the asymmetry of power and discrimination in regards to the Roma population. it is also the result of exclusionist political strategies. Racist thinking in turn provides a basis for activities which result in the social and political disqualification of the Roma population. In this paper we would also like to open a discussion about social work practice with minority ethnic groups.83 Špela Urh and Simona Žnidarec Demšar ethnically sensitive social Work with roma Introduction “Ethnicity” and “culture” are not natural characteristics of people and communities. we . The dominant discourse constantly refers to the binary opposition of “us” and “them”. The authors are both qualified teachers of social work and have been active advocates of Roma rights for several years. but rather constructs through which we define differences among ourselves and label those who resemble us and those who differ from us (Šumi.
and students. the right to a representative in the national parliament). Students have the opportunity to learn ethnically sensitive social work in the classroom and in the field. however. The former grants Roma municipal representation on the local political level. the right to local self-government. Bosniaks. Macedonians etc. mentors. do exist: the Local Government Act from 2002 and Equal Treatment Act from 2004. and members of the Roma ethnic group in the municipality of Grosuplje view it as a success. some guidelines of ethically sensitive social work practices will be discussed. Croats. and discrimination is often the consequence of institutional racism and the social worker’s non-reflective attitude. In the conclusion of this paper. and the community approach. ethnicity issues. apart from Roma. while the latter elaborates ethnic membership as a personal circumstance. the right to use national symbols. because of which no individual or community can be dis- .) but none. Albanians. The control element in social work with ethnic minority clients is far more often present than with those who belong to the dominant population. the Contextualization of the Conditions of the roma Community in slovenia There are many ethnic groups in Slovenia (Serbs. Two clear exceptions. The Faculty of Social Work has developed an innovative project based on anti-racist perspectives. even from other social workers. This project has been under way for four years now. Situations where Roma are not treated equally are common even in social work. whereas the Roma community has the status of a minority ethnic community and no special rights. have been granted special minority status and minority rights.84 ŠPELA URH AND SIMONA ŽNIDAREC DEMŠAR met with rather negative reactions. which often views Roma as social deviants who are not willing to adjust to the dominant system. only Italians and Hungarians have been acknowledged as national minorities and granted special status (which implies privileges such as the right to use their own language in administrative and educational institutions and courts. Slovenia has no laws concerning the country’s ethnic groups.
from 2001 and 2002. Public discourse often portrays Roma as a special group with specific anthropological. their minority rights still remained undefined. A bill addressing the situation of Roma is being prepared. but many Roma fear that this measure will actually worsen their situation and will result in even greater exclusion and control. much like the political and human rights guaranteed to all people by the state. from the Politics of exclusion to tolerated Inequality Globalization has an impact on social security. Roma do not perceive themselves as being any different from the rest of society. come and see for a day. One of the authors of this text has also heard similar statements. “We do not have any special habits. This universalistic perception sheds light on the contradictory position of Roma in Slovenia – although the state has declared them to be an “ethnic community”. Roma are always the “other” – nomads with an ethnically specific way of life and culture. More and more. ethnic. Although the dominant population has its own perception of Roma. health care. a marginal deviant group. The research from 2001 also pointed out some of the problems that Roma children face. etc. we do not differ in anything” (Škerl 2006). Two Minority Reports of The Open Society Institute. and also escalates and legitimises inequality (Ramesh 1999). national statistics show that most of them are unemployed. employment. for instance. this is producing situations where inequality is tolerated and goes unsanctioned (Leskošek 2005a: 247). Only the Local Government Act (2002).ETHNICALLY SENSITIVE SOCIAL WORK WITH ROMA 85 criminated against. education. she would often ask Roma individuals about their specific ethnic identity and cul- . in practice this protection becomes indirect. however. socio-political representation. directly protects the “ethnic” rights of Roma. stay with us and observe us. Many Roma live in poor conditions and are without running water and electricity. and cultural characteristics (Šumi. many are sent to special schools for children with disabilities because of their inadequate knowledge of the Slovene language. Josipovič 2006: 10). Exclusion and discrimination are evident in many sectors – housing. Unfortunately. have illustrated these problems in greater detail.
It is obvious. that ethnicity is always constructed in interactions between at least two groups who consider themselves to be different.86 ŠPELA URH AND SIMONA ŽNIDAREC DEMŠAR ture.” Such interpretations give the impression that Roma possess inherently different characteristics. A distant. you tell us what Roma culture is” or “We do all the things the same as you do. different and uncivilized. Roma take advantage of the system and it seems that they are the one who abuse this opportunity. ignorant. Media representations often reproduce binary oppositions (Kuhar 2006: 149): “Roma are eligible for social benefits. a racist mentality provides a basis for activities which result in the social and political disqualification of the Roma population. Roma are therefore problematic. . Roma are often portrayed as bad. the Slovene ombudsman. In Slovenia there are many mechanisms for the inclusion of Roma. and not us. yet in practice these often produce their exclusion. Žnidarec Demšar (2005). A member of Roma community once remarked: “You study this. Accepting intolerance as a subjective and indefinable category can easily distract us from the exclusionary nature of policies. and how exactly they differ from others. on the other hand. we have the same wedding rituals… we just live in poor conditions. Šumi and Josipovič (2006: 10) believe that public discourse of this kind produces a situation where actual problems go unnoticed. One could get the impression that non-Roma know Roma better than Roma know themselves. and many acts of discrimination have confirmed this statement. as Barth (1969) has said. “We”.1 Matjaž Hanžek (2005: 8). as well as the conditionality of human rights. Essed (in Zaviršek 2005: 27) points out that personal racism cannot have serious effects unless it is common and expresses collective power. civilized and unproblematic. the answers she received seem to indicate an uncertain identification with Roma culture and identity. the endless passing of responsibility for resolving issues. In this case. or openly intolerant attitude towards Roma is justified by the supposed superiority of the majority and legitimises their exploitation and complaints. and the personal hardship of Roma. therefore they do not want to be employed. 1 More on the excluding mechanisms of inclusion see Urh. claims that Roma represent constant dislike within Slovene society. patronising. are good. we cook the same food.” Alenka Janko Spreizer (2002) has also met with similar responses. even though we are eligible for the same benefits.
Grosuplje is the only municipality that has 2 3 More on the “othering” discourse see Zaviršek (2000). where a Roma family was forced to leave their home because authorities yielded to the demands and aggression (threats of physical violence. Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia. rejection or even persecution. on one hand. Kovačič (2005: 180-181) points out that our relation with so-called “others” ranges from tolerance. privileges and discrimination that affect the Roma community. expulsion. 51/2002. These assumed differences between cultures and the binary relations they bring about create ethnic boundaries among Roma and dominant. It chose to legitimize a belief about the differences between Roma and non-Roma and acknowledged the need to shield the “better” and exclude the “worse”. distance. while on the other its ideological divisions create prejudice. The Local Government Act. Public discourse creates cultural racism by popularizing cultural differences which are assumed to exist between people of Roma origin and the Slovene majority. non-Roma culture. such as disregard. which is said to produce inequality. which results in various acts of discrimination. This incident and the government’s reaction (the family was removed instead of protected) provide clear examples of this government’s racist policies. social disqualification of the family. The paradox of modern society is that. A revised Local Government Act (2002)3 defines 20 municipalities in Slovenia and grants Roma the right to a local political representative. The continuous production of differences between different communities leads to the spread of intolerance and the justification of human rights violations. and ignorance to more open forms of dislike. including the recent incident in the village of Ambrus. roma as victims of Prejudice The following examples serve to emphasize the power relations.ETHNICALLY SENSITIVE SOCIAL WORK WITH ROMA 87 The “othering”2 discourse (binary oppositions between “us” and “them”) is becoming more tense. . justification of discriminatory attitude towards the family) of the local population. it is strictly opposed to discrimination. Several incidents have played this out.
is coordinated and are allowed to function freely. the issue has strayed into more or less irrelevant discussions. those who have violated their rights will be sanc- . Instead of assuring the implementation of political rights. electricity and water for free – a student has to arrange all these things for himself. Potential victims of intolerance and discrimination should have recourse to their rights and should be able to believe that the violation of those rights is held to be illegal and that. The prejudice that exists within local authority mechanisms. the Roma of Grosuplje are still without a representative in the town council. We have no Roma town councillor and we are not going to have one! We gave them houses. The problem deepens when the potential victims of discrimination and intolerance can no longer rely on legal protection. such as whether the mayor and town council of Grosuplje should be dismissed. The residents’ imaginary statements (the municipality still opposes the appointment of a Roma councillor) confirm Leskošek’s finding (2005b: 92) that the principle of solidarity no longer imply the provision of a decent life for all people. Roma is too nice a word for them – we have problems with Gypsies (Hanonina 2006). as Ule (2005: 27) points out. Some basic conclusions can be drawn from an analysis (Žnidarec Demšar 2006) which highlights the discrepancy between legislation and the everyday life of Roma in Grosuplje.88 ŠPELA URH AND SIMONA ŽNIDAREC DEMŠAR violated this act. which creates and discredits the “other”. Hate speech in public discussions. but can quickly become the uniting factor of the mob and eventually turn into an instrument of aggression which serves to justify discrimination and casts out the threatened group. but a united front in the common fight against foreigners within the national body. and which can be discerned in the open denial of the right of Roma to have their own representative in the council of the municipality of Grosuplje. as well as the prejudice of local residents. which. legitimises prejudice. This is an obvious example of passing the buck when it comes to remedying violations of Roma rights: the matter has been tossed around to various state institutions. meanwhile. in extreme cases. might at first seem harmless. leaving them to their “own devices”.
we will put additional strain on already existing ethnic conflict and will continue to display hatred towards them. prevented the move. In the field of education it is interesting that until recently the prevalent public discourse praised the importance of educating 4 After 1991. This is exactly what the local majority. In one case. because the majority has been determining their living area since 19914. who was employed at a Housing Agency in Slovenia. and the family believe it was only because of their Roma origin. new owners demanded the removal of Roma people.ETHNICALLY SENSITIVE SOCIAL WORK WITH ROMA 89 tioned. as well as the conditionality of equality are constants in the life of Roma. The discrepancy between legislation and everyday life. . as majority discourse calls them. The authors emphasise that real estate ownership is at the heart of the problem. when procedures for denationalisation began. despite their alleged wish to “civilise” Roma. putting them at the top of the list of candidates for a housing change). a Roma family from Grosuplje wanted to rent a flat in the centre of town in order to escape their poor living conditions. This meant that they lived on foreign land without the permission of the land owners and without any documents for their houses. The above example makes it clear that human rights are constantly becoming more conditional and. and should receive priority whenever we wish to resolve an ethnic conflict. and not just the will of Roma individuals. As long as we maintain a situation that forces Roma into the position of unequal citizens without ownership rights. will not tolerate. who illegally lived on private land. Before this the government did nothing to systematically address the problem of land titles. uttered by an influential figure from the local community. left to the whims of those who claim the right to interpret them. this occurs every time a Roma wishes give up his/her alleged characteristics. This social worker. Ghettoes are simply easier to control. They were rejected by the owners. do not have the option of choosing their location of residence. This case shows how the possibility of living outside the deprived area comes down to acceptance or rejection by the majority. for instance. One social worker’s experience illustrates the influence and power of the majority. but a single threat. as Leskošek (2005a: 247) has found. Roma. As Šumi and Josipovič (2006: 11) have pointed out. and “civilise” himself/herself. tried to move a Roma family into an empty flat (the family met the criteria of the housing agency.
Until we implement tolerance. In public discourse Roma are often portrayed as secondclass citizens or treated like foreigners. but society has devised a new mechanism to maintain the distinction between Roma and the dominant group. This involves obvious differences in the quality of education of Roma and non-Roma children and the glorification of the knowledge of the latter. 2002) has shown that the Roma ethnic group. and does not even pay survival wages. ethnically sensitive social Work Practices – Challenge or Illusion? A good deal of research at the national level (for example Open Society Institute 2001. let alone for Roma” are often heard.90 ŠPELA URH AND SIMONA ŽNIDAREC DEMŠAR Roma and reproached their lack of education. These examples have shown how continuous emphasis on the differences between people leads to the spread intolerance and the acceptability of human rights violations. as the Slovene ombudsman once wrote (Hanžek 2005: 7). Nowadays. who often receive only low paying jobs. Clichés such as “There is no work for Slovenes. The relationship between tolerance and human rights is. as the media and political discourse often call it. we cannot achieve respect for human rights. which is temporary and offers no job security. mutual in a truly democratic society. active employment measures aimed at improving the employment situation of Roma in Slovenia often have the opposite effect. is not given equal treatment and provided with services which would suit their needs. this is particularly noticeable in the area of employment. more and more Roma children are attending school. Furthermore. Paradoxically. however. they are viewed as social deviants who are not . as well as other ethnic groups in Slovenia. Eriksen (2002: 28) warns that dominant groups often use an ethnic division of labour to justify the exploitation of minorities. A commitment to human rights is a key element of tolerant behaviour. The government’s solution to the “Roma employment problem”. is often “public work”.
2001b. This approach needs to be adopted in countries which comprise a variety of ethnic groups with different cultures. It is not our intent to claim that social workers who act to the detriment of members of ethnic groups are racists.” Traditional social work neglects the ethnic and “racial” dimension of social problems. remains . and this has. “[T]here can. according to the definition offered by Dominelli (1988) and Thompson (2001a. Social workers are often perceived as racists just because they work in a racist environment. Social workers work within a larger socio-political context.” therefore “be no neutral territory. cultural and structural level.” (Thompson 2001b: 70) Many social workers consider themselves sympathetic merely because of their professional duties and find it difficult to acknowledge their own personal racism. Ethnically sensitive social work is based on the idea of recognizing the cultural needs and particularities of an ethnic group. and languages (a majority of western countries). Thompson 2001a. There is a greater control element in social work with clients from ethnic groups than in social work with clients who are members of the dominant group. Thompson (2001b: 72) has described such social work as a “vehicle for further discrimination and oppression. led to intentionally or unintentionally racist social work practices. through acts of omission or control. 2001b). Payne 2005). however. as well as on anti-racist principles which are constantly cautious of discrimination and oppression (Thompson 2001b. The question of exposing differences. operates simultaneously on the personal. 2001b.ETHNICALLY SENSITIVE SOCIAL WORK WITH ROMA 91 willing to adjust to the dominant system. Patel 2001) needs to be included in the social work educational system. Razack 2002). religions. which confers upon them certain power in relation to other people. 2002. Payne 2005. they lack an understanding of anti-racist social work practices. In order to achieve more reflective practices in social work. however. Thompson believes that social work which is unaware of its potential for discrimination and oppression is “dangerous social work” (ibid. the ethnically sensitive approach (Husband 1995.: 73). Thompson 2001a. Racism. the actions of social workers must be examined within broader cultural and structural contexts (Dominelli 1988.
Thompson 2001a. . Conversely. An understanding of social work with minority ethnic group members defines social workers as those who work to bring about social change and challenge the status quo. has produced many contradictions within social work . power relations. This approach also takes into consideration the position of those who have the power to define and analyse problems. I take away their benefits.92 ŠPELA URH AND SIMONA ŽNIDAREC DEMŠAR to be addressed. Social work is often seen as a profession whose practitioners maintain current socio-political structures. We must therefore be critical of practices which do not challenge the current system. These mechanisms are often based on stereotypical assumptions and. impossible. This can be seen in one social worker’s statement: I’ve been facing Roma problems for many years now. Roma service users are therefore often deprived of services which would meet their needs. cultural background and other personal circumstances. hidden discriminatory practices. which advocates the equal treatment of all people regardless of their sex. 2001b). The concept of anti-racism also serves as a basis for the ethnically sensitive social work practices. on segregational and assimilative approaches toward Roma. This is how I would define social work with Roma. particularly in social work practice. Also. reflects upon his/her implicit and explicit racist responses on the personal.. They are confronted with a package of services that is defined by experts who happen to belong to the dominant majority. who has adopted antiracist social work principles. in recent times. particular experiences where ethnicity plays a key role are crucial when ethnic sensitivity is considered and felt to be important in ensuring services which suit people’s needs. stigmatization etc. For this reason a universalistic perspective.it makes discussions of inequality. I work to ensure their benefits. ideologies). The ethnically responsible social worker. cultural and structural level (Dominelli 1988. age. in cases when Roma parents don’t send their children to school. and as such have certain powers and act in accordance with certain structural mechanisms (laws. strategies. Social workers are “institutional actors”. Ethnic studies are critical of constructing ethnic boundaries that produce negative discrimination against minority groups.
In addition. Despite the fact that an anti-discriminatory code of ethics5 is already embedded in the Code of Ethics of the Slovenian Association of Social Workers. skin colour. In other words. asylum seekers. 2001b). if needed. Thompson (2002) 5 - The work of a social worker has to be anti-discriminatory. cultural needs and particularities of ethnic groups. . This is more or less a clear confirmation of the fact that racism in social work does in fact exist. claiming that all social work is/should be antidiscriminatory. which means: she/he will not exclude. this ethical code in and of itself is unable to provide the services which users need. omit or oppress on the grounds of race. it encourages social workers to understand “ethnic reality” (Devore.she/he will pay attention to all violations of this principle. religious or ideological orientation. influence colleagues at work on organizational policy and. Some would question the development of specific tools for social work with ethnic groups.ETHNICALLY SENSITIVE SOCIAL WORK WITH ROMA 93 toward ethnically sensitive Practices Critical examinations of social work in Slovenia have raised doubts as to whether social work education has taken steps to counteract racist practices. especially personal racism. notify the public (Article 6. Devore 2001. The professional responsibilities of social workers should be fulfilled in a manner which is anti-discriminatory and empowering for all service users. sexual. Research from the last few years has emphasised a lack of anti-oppressive skills in social workers who work with Roma. Thompson 2001a. an ethnically sensitive approach must be implemented into social work with members of different cultures or origins (for example Husband 1995. and refugees.she/he will not refuse collaboration in procedures that reflect the above mentioned principle. Woolfe 1991) as well as respect for the dignity and individuality of service users and would allow us to steer clear of stereotyping. intellectual or physical disabilities. . gender. material or social status. The Association of Social Workers in Slovenia). . Ethnically sensitive social work emphasises the cultural values. potential social stigma. This would promote sensitivity to cultural and ethnic diversity (Malahleka. life style. It would result in reflective practices and prevent individual and institutional racism from going unchecked. When addressing issues of ethnicity. national background or ethnicity. Schlesinger in Payne 2005).
no electricity. The municipality of Grosuplje is unique in that it refuses to comply with the law which guarantees Roma a political representative on the local level. The Faculty of social work in Ljubljana has recently drawn attention to such issues and has. and institutional level (Dominelli 1995). Local social workers informed them of the inadequate living conditions of Roma (no running water. an ethnically sensitive approach and anti-racist theory had to be internalized. their overall goal is to establish social relationships with Roma in everyday life. cultural. students are encouraged to recognize and eradicate their own racism. which would in turn lead to greater inclusion and a higher standard of living. Students were the first to research the needs of people in this municipality. this could lead to changes that directly tackle racism on the individual. few individuals are employed.94 ŠPELA URH AND SIMONA ŽNIDAREC DEMŠAR also recognizes the need for anti-racist responses. Students work together with Roma from Grosuplje. developed a project which combines research and practical skills in the field and which is intended to give students ethnically sensitive learning experience. By reading the prescribed literature and conversing with Roma in the field they learn to value . Contact with Roma and the information the students collected gave them the impression that no one in Grosuplje really cares about Roma. over the last 4 years. Work in the classroom and in the field is carried out in the following manner: first. with the vast majority living on welfare. First. They are expected to identify with anti-racist perspectives on the personal and professional level (challenging racist comments. An anti-racist perspective demands an examination of the position of oppressed groups. cottages on foreign land). This was a call for students to get involved and put their knowledge of community social work to use in order to provide support for the Roma community. actions. and attitudes). Students also found that Roma rarely participate in community activities. This project is based on an awareness of the social exclusion that Roma face in everyday life and the fact that this exclusion stems from powerful stereotypical images within Slovene society. Due to employer prejudice. these social workers claimed that Roma are socially excluded and deprived of a quality life.
Striving to guarantee Roma minority status would bring them respect on the formal level. 1995. Lane 1999. .Educational strategies. A focus on the violation of Roma rights can contribute to a greater awareness of their position in society. and promoting Roma culture in the broader community. . in particular. they are not crucial to the improvement of the Roma situation. and. As somebody commented: I find this celebration ridiculous. Thompson 2002).Economic emancipation. I cannot think about . organizing Roma cultural events. Programs for preserving and celebrating Roma culture might strengthen Roma identity and self-esteem. Devore 2001) and the anti-racist perspective (Dominelli 1988. Parents. Fighting employer discrimination and promoting positive Roma employment strategies can help. Many wish to improve the situation and living conditions of Roma using various strategies (Schuringa 2005: 25): . The project is based on two theoretical viewpoints – the ethnically sensitive approach (Malahleka. . Weil 2005). 1995. therefore affirmative action is in line with their anti-discriminatory perspectives. Roma represent a minority in local and national politics.Culture and identity. Though such activities can be valuable. so it is not realistic to expect changes without their active participation. Income and financial stability are two important factors of the well being of every person. I do not want to put my child on a stage and make a fool of my family. Many are convinced that Roma can improve their conditions only if they are well educated and therefore easier to integrate into society. It follows the method of community social work (Kahn 1994. they contribute to the development of positive minority identities. .ETHNICALLY SENSITIVE SOCIAL WORK WITH ROMA 95 cultural differences. Woolfe 1991. should also be involved in their children’s education. When they take action by writing positive media responses. Their work is based on an awareness of the disadvantaged position of Roma.Political strategies. a community development approach. Rothman 2001.Human rights. however.
however. According to Schuringa. they provide education for Roma by opening preschool programs. upon whom certain programs are imposed. April 9. Activities involving the cooperation of students and Roma are a key element of the project. For example. - Assimilation strategies. So-called “Roma experts” attempt to force upon Roma their own ideas of what is beneficial for them and urge them to get involved. Their strategies follow a “fix the situation” model. supporters. and translators. Many organizations have developed programmes aimed at helping Roma. and consider themselves to be an integral part of the solution. The active participation of Roma individuals is crucial to project work. (personal interview with a member of a Roma community at the International Roma day celebration in Črnomelj. The main goal of the project is to provide support for activities which Roma themselves define as important. support for school children and protection against the intolerance of the majority. The overall project is based on the community social work method and its principles. the advantage of this approach is that Roma themselves see the benefits it provides. analysing and planning). that they are fully integrated into actions aimed at improving their living conditions . employment. where we asses the existing situation and identify the desired changes. an “enabling” approach that views Roma as subjects. We begin with a research phase. Students receive the relevant information from . Schuringa (2005) emphasises the community development method.96 ŠPELA URH AND SIMONA ŽNIDAREC DEMŠAR ‘culture’ while my house is without running water and electricity. has not led us to neglect the needs of individuals. 2003). In opposition to these strategies. essentially. advocates. informers. begin to feel capable and responsible. This “providing” approach puts Roma in the position of clients and passive recipients. A focus on the collective needs of the community. This means. they solve housing problems by building new houses. In this way Roma become active participants in the first phase of the project (thinking. students often serve as providers. It turned out that the needs of Roma in this particular municipality were more or less similar to those in other Roma settings: electricity and running water.from planning to implementation and evaluation.
which implies the acquisition and activation of power. community. as well as the social. comprise a set of attitudes and behaviours that outsiders use when engaging locals (Keough in Weil 2005). As Chambers (in Weil 2005: 269) has pointed out. anti-racist theory. It is therefore based on ideas and methods of participatory community work which. Prilleltensky 2005). organization. advocacy and self-advocacy. participation in action groups for decision making. tasks. who work from a position of power as “experts” on Roma problems. analyse all aspects of conditions that present problems which require solutions. The project respects the individual. critical reflection enables project workers to notice the racist practices of local workers. the people who are living it. and responsibilities. This type of practice requires a strong commitment to democratic principles. Zimmerman in Nelson. and community social work methods are: • an understanding of local history. It also influences public opinion and encourages people to value diversity. economic and other circumstances of the Roma community. rights. “No one can know reality as well as the people on the ground. develop resources. It refers to both processes and outcomes that occur on individual. negotiation). critical thinking. The focus is on active dialogue. and increased resources.” The project team believes in local competence and acts with the conviction that local persons have the capacity to identify complex conditions. organizational and community levels by emphasising motivation and training for self-organization. This project is also based on empowerment. and also talk to the whole community. Students of social work are in the position of co-workers particularly because locals are treated as “experts on Roma problems”. far from being mere exercises. who act from a position of power. the project is based on a transparent division of roles. organizational. cultural. Finally. Project workers maintain an equal partner relationship. Accordingly. This makes it necessary to respect local knowledge. efficacy. and societal levels (Prilleltensky. and take action. The advantages of an ethnically sensitive approach. This project allows for a high degree of active participation from members of the Roma community in all phases (providing. assertiveness. an .ETHNICALLY SENSITIVE SOCIAL WORK WITH ROMA 97 key Roma individuals.
etc. in particular those that stress their constant need for support. • community-based social work skills. primary schools). expectations and interests of Roma in Grosuplje. employment offices. with a particular emphasis on cultural differentiation. • partnership with members of the ethnic group. officials. educational support for Roma children and Roma women. This way.). raising public awareness about Roma living standards. role playing for meetings with social workers.98 ŠPELA URH AND SIMONA ŽNIDAREC DEMŠAR understanding of the obstacles that Roma face in everyday life. Because it recognizes a specific context. seeing as not all Roma require the same support. The project’s many working goals are a reflection of the actual needs. activities for children to do in their spare time.).encouraging local municipal services to establish a dialogue with the Roma community (social services. The project’s overall aim is to challenge the mechanisms that contribute to stereotypical perceptions of Roma in society. the project can counter the universalistic approach which has resulted from social workers’ nonreflective. social skills training (preparation for job interviews. etc. • an realization of the specific changes that must to occur if the Roma ethnic group is to achieve equal opportunities. students will want to influence their pupils’ stereotypes and stress the effects of racist practices in the everyday life of the oppressed group. guaranteed basic living standards. The last intervention on this list is a valuable part of the project. human rights. • challenging racist practices and challenging the status quo. The project therefore recognizes the following working goals: • • • • • • • • the mobilization of the Roma ethnic group in Grosuplje: support for Roma rights as citizens on the community level (the right to a local political representative. imaginary. The idea is to initiate discussions about differences in society. and cultural activities (positive media representation) promoting discussions about tolerance and diversity in local primary schools. . Individual differences must be taken into the consideration. networking . perceptions of Roma.
the Gypsies are gonna get you!’ We feared them because they were seen as dangerous. It’s not easy to motivate students to get involved. which seek to maintain the status quo instead of challenging it. etc. as thieves etc. It is obvious that talking about one’s own racial prejudice is difficult. students feel that hands-on social work education. It is critical that social work overcomes these forms of prejudice and gets an idea of people’s actual needs and everyday life (a student of social work involved in this project. and certainly something that most students would rather avoid. Also. more respectful attitudes and approaches to ethnic groups. the project is their first opportunity to develop different. as opposed to a traditional learning environment. Exclusionary policies are reflected in state strategies concerning the Roma “ethnic community”. it is intended to contribute to a positive identity for Roma in the municipality. Although students do feel some discomfort at the beginning of the discussions. This project is notoriously difficult because of its theoretical and practical complexity. Conclusion The reasons for the social exclusion of Roma do not lie in their characteristics. I believe knowledge about cultural minorities and an understanding of the discrimination they face are crucial to social work. In the end. allows them to integrate in-depth theoretical knowledge with practical skills gained through an ethnically sensitive approach. is one of the “actors” responsible for challenging circumstances which lead to exclusion and inequality.ETHNICALLY SENSITIVE SOCIAL WORK WITH ROMA 99 Different events on the local level are planned. they are a crucial step towards thinking and acting in an anti-racist manner. Also. May 2006). though each year more and more students participate. such as round table discussions. and to raise awareness of what being deprived actually means in today’s world. When I was a child. ethnicity and “race” issues are sensitive subjects. The goal of these activities is to present the local community with a “true picture” of living conditions from the perspective of the oppressed. but stem from living conditions over which they have little or no control. An awareness of the stereotyping of members of ethnic groups is also very important. my parents often said to me ‘If you don’t behave. Social work. workshops in schools. celebrations for International Roma Day. as a helping profession. social . Plus. For many of them.
living conditions etc. . and does so by taking specific dimensions (ethnicity. they will take giants steps towards transforming an institution that has become marred by a reputation for bureaucratic indifference. ethnically sensitive social work focuses on services that will meet the needs of users. When social services will begin to fight against deprivation and exclusion and encourage members of minority ethnic groups to actively engage in the social work process.) into account. In response. and on the other aims at producing active social workers. experiences. Ethnically sensitive social work also promotes the full participation of service users.100 ŠPELA URH AND SIMONA ŽNIDAREC DEMŠAR work practices are often based on traditional models. from the initial definition of problems to the final evaluation of the work done. it lays stress on individual support for members of the Roma ethnicity. On one hand. age.
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Separate from the state and market sectors. These changes have played a vital role in the democratization process. community centers.105 Svetlana Trbojevik Macedonian Civil society as an Active Promoter of Interethnic relations Introduction A broad definition of civil society states that it is one of three sectors that make up society. comprehensive studies have been carried out. Civil society is mostly organized by non-government organizations: there are 5. 56 non-government organizations (hereafter referred to as NGO’s) have included the improvement of inter-ethnic relations in their mission statements. but rather took a form of informal gatherings. The changes that took place after Macedonia gained its independence have created circumstances which made the acceptance of civil society possible.312. no detailed. Neighborhood societies. civil society ensures “the active participation of citizens outside of elections”. and family groups are . a vast number of organizations have emerged in the third sector. As a result. The only available sources are monographic works on the activities and establishment of certain citizens organizations (Vrangelovski 2002). Of this 5.312 such organizations in Macedonia. Despite a long and intensive tradition of self organization. the historical and legal background of Macedonian Civil society Research of the development of civil society in Macedonia is rather lacking. An active and free civil society is a necessary element of representative democratic systems and is responsible for holding governments accountable for their actions. the activities of civil society in Macedonia were not formally structured.
The first legal document pertaining to association to appear in socialist Yugoslavia was the decision of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of 1945. and agreements was introduced (ibid. Croats and Slovenes. In the years that followed (1946. other laws pertaining to particular social interests were passed. when the law for associations. and 1 Anti-fascist Council of the People’s Liberation of Yugoslavia. etc. 1947). and professional institutions. public gatherings. Macedonia did not have its own legal framework. . Professional and craft organizations greatly influenced the development of national. but relied on the legal systems of its rulers. and literature societies. and family breakdown (Donevska. this law was amended. These included the fire protection law.). Gerovska 2003). A more general legal framework was established after 1931.106 SVETLANA TRBOJEVIK some of the ways in which civil society has informally addressed negative social phenomena such as poverty. cultural. It finally disappeared in 1965. The 1946 Constitution guaranteed the right to free association. These included Liberation Movement associations. Serbian laws for public gatherings and associations from 1891 came into force. including Macedonia. With the fall of the Turkish Empire and the establishment of the Kingdom of Serbs. all of which focused on developing Macedonian national identity and emancipation. In the period of the Young-Turks revolution. The establishment of both bourgeois and workers’ parties was also an important factor in the development of citizens organizations in Macedonia (Vrangelovski 2002). gatherings. Apart from the general law. church-school communities. which legalized the establishment and functioning of associations. which represents a turning point for early Macedonian civil society organizations. hunting laws. The 1974 Constitution laid the groundwork for a new association law which granted citizens the constitutional right to freedom of assembly. when a new federal law was passed and adequate laws were adopted in all the republics. laws pertaining to the Red Cross. The first organized forms within Macedonian civil society appear with the Young-Turkish revolution (1908-1912). addiction. The first law pertaining to associations was passed at the Third Assembly of AVNOJ1 in the same year.
registered. participation. Vrangelovski 2002). The following analysis of the structure of civil society is based on the Register of Civil Organizations of Macedonia. neighborhood groups or local community groups. civil organizations and societies became legal categories.. religious organizations. the structure of the Civil society For the majority of people. but on the benefits they present to the general public. Number of organizations registered in the Court Register of Macedonia. Apart from NGO’s.5092 of the 5. The 1998 citizens associations and foundations law regulates the conditions and processes by which the work of citizens organizations can be establishing. (Ilievski 2006. Hauss 2003).). district organizations. using criteria such as: type of services rendered (groups for public pressure. The Constitution of Macedonia from 1991 guarantees basic human rights. including the freedom to join associations. (Donevska 2006. First. . With the Constitution of 1974. they became an integral part of the political system (ibid. The complexity of civil society makes its structure difficult to define. self-help groups. the most comprehensive data base of its kind. interest groups. service. With the Constitution of 1963. etc. and terminated. orientation (voluntary.. 107 demonstrations. informal self-help networks.3123 officially registered organizations. civil society incorporates different social movements. Civil associations can be classified in a number of ways. intermediary organization). etc. empowerment). the Register divides civil society in two main 2 3 Number of organizations in the Register of the Civil Organizations in Macedonia. which was created by the Macedonian Center for International Cooperation in 2003. This Register includes only 1. civil society is limited to nongovernment organizations which cover a wide range of formally or informally organized interactions among individuals. research organizations.MACEDONIAN CIVIL SOCIETY AS AN ACTIVE PROMOTER. Laws passed in 1991 and 1998 pertaining to social organizations and citizens associations expanded the activities of citizens organizations by stating that these are not only based on the interests of their members.
Organizations often face difficulties in rallying local financial support and contributions (Simon 2001). international cooperation. and will take force in January 2007. It is highly particularized. Though a large number of registered organizations exist. In order to speed up democratization. entrepreneurship and economy. human rights. rural development. The primary problem stems from a tradition of self-help within the domain of families or villages. persons with special needs. leaving little time or resources that could be invested in voluntary work. ecology. financial services. senior citizens. voluntary. This is primarily due to the fact that this sector is largely funded by donations and incapable of sustaining itself. and charitable organizations. meaning that many organizations are entirely made up of members of a single ethnicity (European Agency for Reconstruction 2006). sports. Lack of citizen concern and self responsibility is also a major obstacle in the development civil society and. consequently. health and healthcare. education and science.4 As a result. development civil society. Groups often operate within a clear ethnic framework. international donors have allocat4 A new law on donations and the sponsorship of public institutions has been adopted. and so does not stimulate philanthropic contributions to NGO’s. hobbies and recreation.108 SVETLANA TRBOJEVIK groups based on their place of origin: domestic and international. cultural differences. social and humanitarian organizations. as there are many small-scale organizations aimed at very limited target groups. not all of these can be described as active. of non-government. . children. The second problem is that poor economic conditions have forced the majority of Macedonians to focus on their daily survival. Domestic organizations are then subdivided into various categories based on their target (risk) groups and domain (area of intervention) which are: democracy and rule of law. many organizations that operate in Macedonia are internationally or externally funded. professional organizations and others. culture and the arts. youth and students. Finally. Macedonia has no law that would provide tax breaks or exemptions to donors. and other citizens organizations (Macedonian Center for International Cooperation 2003). women.
international religious organizations and local organization incentives. UNICEF. which are intended to stimulate civil society. UNAIDS and UNMIK. foundations (international and domestic). Fraenkel 2002). Instead of promoting cohesion around common causes (including conflict prevention). United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). international financial institutions. 5 UNDP. These resource providers can be divided into five categories: inter-government funds (UN and EU funds). The UNDP regularly recruits members of civil society as advisers and consultants in discussions about local development priorities and strategies.Mapping of the Civil Society in collaboration with the Civil Society Index Research (CIVICUS). actors in civil society assist in monitoring the implementation of development priorities at the local level. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). UNDP has worked with civil society on the following projects: . The UNPREDEP was the first mission of UN in Macedonia and played an important role in the country’s development of civil society by laying the ground for a pluralistic political scene based on the democratic principles (Sokalski 1999). OHCHR. donors The sustainability of Macedonian civil society has for the most part been made possible by promoters of democratic stabilization in south-east Europe. WHO. struggling for funds in order to keep their members employed (Broughton. . Furthermore. I will give an overview of the most important donors involved in Macedonian civil society. The United Nations is represented in Macedonia by the 11 organizations that form the extended UN family. 109 ed money to seed NGO’s. World Bank.. and OHCHR (Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights).MACEDONIAN CIVIL SOCIETY AS AN ACTIVE PROMOTER.5 UN funding of civil society has helped to further inter-ethnic relations through missions such as United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).. however. IOM. UNHCR. government funds (domestic and foreign government funds). IMF. FAO. NGO’s seem to have become competitors.
. which directly focuses on civil society and inter-ethnic relations.Public Awareness Campaigns.110 SVETLANA TRBOJEVIK . Some of its activities focused on strengthening civil society. In the Republic of Macedonia. OHCHR is completing a mid-term Comprehensive Technical Cooperation Program in the field of human rights. and civil society. . held by one person (Government of the Republic of Macedonia 2006).Community Mobilization on Environmental Issues in cooperation with the Global Environmental Facility (this program provides opportunities for more direct cooperation with civil society in the fields of biodiversity. It brings children from different ethnic backgrounds together for educational and social activities. The European Union is the largest donor in the Republic of Macedonia. and international waters). concurrent with Macedonia’s medium-term perspectives for becoming a member the European Union.Establishment of a Citizens Association which intends to revitalize and spur rural development in former crisis areas. . The development assistance provided by the European Union could be generally broken down into three time periods: The post-independence period from 1990-2001 is marked by attempts to assist the restoration of regional stability through the . is the Babylon project. UNICEF has implemented programs in cooperation with national and international partners and civil society. and to assist in the establishment of Farmers’ Associations. international organizations. One such program. OHCHR’s mission is to protect and promote human rights for all people. Since 2005. This program was implemented in cooperation with several local NGO’s. climate change. both functions have been united into a single office. The European Union in Macedonia is represented both by the European Union Special Representative and the Delegation of the European Commission. The program began in 2002 and was implemented with the close cooperation and consultation of partners in the government.Partnership for Job Creation encourages municipalities to interact closely with the private sector and business associations (Government of the Republic of Macedonia 2006).
ECHO programs provided complementary activities in the field of community services. Local infrastructure projects may indirectly (though intentionally) contribute to greater inter-ethnic cooperation through the cooperation of different municipalities. More specifically. 111 ECHO6. and thus established the European Agency for Reconstruction. . and economic transition and EU integration. rather than selective. and also as a response to the new needs of the countries of the western Balkans. OBNOVA provides assistance in reconstruction and rehabilitation. The Republic of Macedonia will be supported with financial assistance through a new Instrument for Pre-Accession as part of the New Financial Perspective. The EU pre-accession period 2007-2013. PHARE provides institutional building support and cross border cooperation with Greece. the CARDS Program. institutional. The stabilization and association period 2001-2006. For this reason. The ECHO and PHARE programs also affected civil society. Through the CARDS program the European Commission has funded post-conflict confidence building measures and projects promoting inter-ethnic co-operation. With the CARDS program in place. the stabilization and association process was consolidated into one body. Previous regulations had led to a lack of coordination and an accumulation of problems.. Parts of the PHARE program were also intended to assist the development of environmental NGO’s. Since 1999. seeks to assist the government in promoting human and minority rights by creating a solid base for an organized and influential civil society within the broader framework of a more stable democracy. as one of the main outlets for the EU assistance. CARDS is important because it includes an NGO strengthening program. alignment with Acquis and for preparation 6 7 8 ECHO provides humanitarian aid. the CARDS national program. During this period the focus of assistance shifted from physical reconstruction to support for political. the European Commission wanted to have a harmonized and coordinated approach to assistance in the region.. PHARE7 and OBNOVA8 programs. Assistance to the Republic of Macedonia will be focused on institution building for full. ECHO assistance has included activities designed to build confidence through the provision of community services aimed especially at children and youth.MACEDONIAN CIVIL SOCIETY AS AN ACTIVE PROMOTER.
liaison offices and other representatives of foreign governments.Swiss Embassy supports dialog between the state and civil society.United States of America focuses on the development of democratic institutions in Macedonia. . a successful inter-ethnic Kindergarten and Youth TV project which was implemented with European and US support.British Embassy. . Swedish Committee. inter-ethnic relations and civil society. Apart from financial support from foreign governments. The World Bank and Council of Europe Development Bank allocate resources to the Macedonian civil sector. working through Fredric Ebert (supporting the Federation of Trade Unions).Austrian Development Cooperation. . the Macedonian government has begun to modestly support civil society by sponsoring advertising campaigns.Swedish Embassy's assistance has been distributed between SIDA.Kingdom of Norway through its Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Embassy is committed to financing projects of Macedonian NGO's. which focus on strengthening the rule of law and civil society.World Bank has developed a Country Assistance Strategy or . .the embassy of Federal Republic of Germany.112 SVETLANA TRBOJEVIK for managing EU funds following membership. and Konrad Adenauer Foundation. . and Women to Women. Some donors in the Macedonian civil sector which contribute to the improvement of inter-ethnic relations are: . which focuses mainly on capacity building. Foreign government funds are distributed through embassies. . Olof Palmer International Centre. Nauman Foundation. . Other important programs in the area of inter-ethnic relations are the Search for Common Ground. A government commission formed for this purpose selects the organizations and the Ministry of Finance is in charge of allocating the necessary resources.
thus contributing to better living conditions for the Roma community. which helped them develop the necessary structure (the Foundation Open Society Institute – Macedonia). Interlife. The objective was to improve access to formal and non-formal education for Roma children. civil society. Some national foundations were initiated and supported by foreign foundations. Some were established through the transformation of public capital into private capital and provided private enterprises with a new image (the Mobimak Foundation). With the development of civil society we have witnessed the establishment of national foundations. I will list just a few: Open Society Institute Foundation (SOROS). French. Norwegian Church Assistance. The list of local organizational incentives is long and includes all the initiatives that civil organizations are undertaking in their attempts to generate income in order to support their activities. both living and deceased (the Boris Trajkovski Foundation. and inter-ethnic relations. 113 - Country Partnership Strategy (CPS). Some appeared thanks to the philanthropy of eminent Macedonians. when they were among the first to respond. The Council of the European Development Bank has allocated resources in the area of strengthening minority groups by approving a two year project for Roma education. . Clinton Global Initiative Foundation.. International religious organizations played a large role in Macedonian civil society. etc.. The documents generally cover a period of 3-4 years and were prepared with the cooperation of the government and representatives of civil society.MACEDONIAN CIVIL SOCIETY AS AN ACTIVE PROMOTER. This project was implemented through the Macedonian branch of UNICEF. Blagovestie). In this article we will name just a few: Caritas (German. World Vision. Their activities can be defined as: humanitarian aid. Danish Church. girls and young women. Swedish Pentecostal Assistance. A number of non-residual international foundations have contributed to the development of Macedonian civil society and the improvement of inter-ethnic relations. etc. and Italian). especially during the Kosovo crises. Catholic Relief Services. King Baudouin.
but in fact it comes from the fact that Macedonia has been home to a mixture of ethnic groups for centuries. Roma. and a mixture of fruit. which is favorable to fruit. As always. Macedonia’s constitution carries on the legacy of Yugoslavia by essentially retaining previous structures that guarantee the political. such as the emancipation of women and their empowerment in society. As a consequence. Macedonia was considered . Some NGO’s even operate in a context in which various ethnic groups seek to promote their own identity and their rights through a mono-ethnic agenda which. and various ethnic groups. and natality trends. Serbs. exceptions prove the rule. migratory movements. he/ she will find that it signifies a geographical region. It is rather speculative to claim that divisions between ethnic groups are rigid. Turks. though evidence for such divisions can be found in past and present society. Fluctuations in this ethnic structure were the result of various conquests. The Republic of Macedonia is a multi-ethnic society with a predominantly ethnic Macedonian population. but appear in the civil sector and in local NGO’s as well. Divisions along ethnic lines are not just a reality in the political life of contemporary Macedonian society. must exist within a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society (Simon 2001).114 SVETLANA TRBOJEVIK the ethnic structure of the Civil society If one looks up the word Macedonia in Webster’s dictionary. including Albanians. but target specific ethnic communities. and cultural rights of minorities. and Bulgaria] for centuries). which comprises 68% of the total population. For example. Greece. One might mistakenly think that Macedonia’s climate. Albania. and Association of Albanian Women in Macedonia work on similar issues. Macedonian NGO’s target specific ethnic communities. women’s associations such as Association of Roma Women in Macedonia. social. although their goals are more or less similar. of course. an independent country. rulers. is the source of this last definition. Association of Serbian Women in Macedonia. Bosniaks (people that originate from Bosnia and Sandjak) and Vlachs (an ethnic group that originates from Romania and has lived in the southern areas of Balkans [Macedonia.
Amendments of the Macedonian constitution that were made following the small-scale internal conflict of 2001 and the Ohrid Framework Agreement. which is determined by their traditions. issues concerning language rights (native language education. proportionate parliamentary representation as opposed to majority rule. and specifies the terms that needed to be implemented by the Macedonian government. self-initiated conflicts between the two. According to some writers. . minorities were not accordingly represented in the lower levels of government. each ethnic group has its own indigenous position. culture. the empowerment of municipal administrations. This agreement is similar to the Dayton Agreement for Bosnia. the transitional period was experienced differently by various ethnic groups. Nevertheless. We can be sure that part of the problem lies in differing opinions about “civic” and “ethnic” identities and different stances in the debate about whether the republic and its respective institutions should be a “unitary” or “bi-national” state. Macedonians and Albanians. 115 a model of effective conflict prevention and pluralism in the midst of regional ethnic conflicts because members of all ethnic groups continued to participate in government and state institutions (Broughton. while representatives from ethnic minorities were involved in the leading structures of government and attained high positions as ministers. the military. actually existed (as a result of a common enemy. and other state institutions. Ethnic minorities not only worked side by side in parliament... also from 2001. establishment. the Turkish Empire) is better left to the historians. The fact that concerns us is that there is no record of any large scale. Perhaps the debate about whether or not a century long peaceful coexistence between the largest ethnic groups.9 In the contemporary Macedonian society. decentralization. but also in the educational system.MACEDONIAN CIVIL SOCIETY AS AN ACTIVE PROMOTER. deputy ministers or department heads. most importantly acceptance by the majority group. and acceptance by other ethnic groups. there was a discrepancy in minority participation in government structures. 9 The Ohrid Framework Agreement was achieved in 2001 by four major political parties and was supported by the international community. or the right to use Albanian in parliament). have promoted positive changes in the protection of the rights of ethnic minorities. Accordingly. and accusations of cronyism. Fraenkel 2002).
few took advantage of the era of free education in order to better their position in society.” Eldridge Cleaver. when many Roma were integrated into society as unskilled laborers. The position of Roma in Macedonian society has varied throughout history. were more self-reliant and more capable of absorbing the shocks of transition because of their greater engagement in small-scale private capitalist ventures and agriculture. became a trial ground for various community based programs. Unfortunately. Fraenkel 2002). the Involvement of non-government organizations in Inter-ethnic Issues “If you aren’t part of the solution. civil rights leader Despite the ethnic polarization of Macedonian political and civil society. Macedonians were more effected by the transition because in the past more of them were dependent upon state-owned capital. It probably improved the most in the former Yugoslavia. Civil society was faced with the challenge of building bridges and improving dialog between the two largest ethnic groups. on the other hand. and black marketeering are rooted in a basic mistrust between Macedonia’s largest communities and the assumption that any concession would be taken as a pretext for ulterior political or territorial ambitions (Broughton. Additionally. An analysis of the mission statements of . in Macedonian society did not differ much from the status of the majority ethnic group. such as Serbs or Vlach. The status of certain ethnic groups. there have been many attempts by various local and international actors on the NGO scene to bridge the gap between different ethnic groups. civil society mostly focused on the preservation and promotion of their traditions. Shutka. Albanians.116 SVETLANA TRBOJEVIK bribery. The exclusion of Roma citizens has brought about intensive intervention from civil society throughout Roma communities. The transitional period cast many to the outskirts of society as superfluous remnants of the unskilled labor force. both ethnic groups were burdened with problems stemming from transition. In the case of these ethnic groups. as the largest organized Roma community. you’re part of the problem.
and other areas which indirectly improve inter-ethnic relations by promoting the inclusion and equal participation of different ethnic groups (Broughton. conflict analysis.. such as women’s groups and sports clubs. Those NGO’s which focus their work on improving inter-ethnic relations come from more diverse communities. which operate out of Tetovo. In western Macedonia there are two such organization. CIVIL is another Skopje based multi-ethnic group. Others focus on development. private. Multikultura and the Youth Information Center work on developing tolerance and awareness of inter-ethnic issues among high school students of different ethnic 10 Provision of social services by public. Bornarova 2005). It is a multi-ethnic organization that organizes dialog projects. Fraenkel 2002). The Nansen Dialogue Center in Skopje functions essentially as a local NGO. which operates out of Gostivar. ecology. . Inter-ethnic Program of Gostivar also attempts to counter the separatist trend in the NGO community by organizing activities involving multiple organizations which usually tend to be mono-ethnic. advocacy. The Institute for Social Work and Social Policy has established a fruitful relationship with the NGO sector. They are located in larger cities that are not homogeneous in their ethnic structure and are considered to be an important segment of the welfare mix10 in Macedonia. NGO’s are often invited to present their programs and are guest speakers at various seminars and lectures. and Multikultura and the Youth Information Center. They are also involved in extra-curricular training offered by the Institute (Lakinska. It promotes human rights and peaceful coexistence by conducting community dialog sessions and debates and launching media campaigns for peace. 117 registered organizations reveals that 56 NGOs include a commitment to improving inter-ethnic relations (Macedonian Center for International Cooperation 2003).MACEDONIAN CIVIL SOCIETY AS AN ACTIVE PROMOTER.. Some NGO’s focus particularly on inter-ethnic relations and try to reduce tension among different ethnic groups in Macedonia. the Inter-ethnic Program. It would perhaps be useful to describe the work of some NGO’s that have made significant contributions in this field. even though it is part of a regional network. and resolution training for young people and children. and NGO sector in Macedonia.
Many of the above mentioned groups were founded by social workers. or have social workers on their boards. a network of women from across the country. supporting micro-enterprise . organized by the Institute of Social Work and Social Policy through the National Center for Continued Education. the NGO community did not launch a campaign as a unified front or undertake significant joint action towards a peaceful solution (Broughton. Participants in these projects are ethnically mixed. Women’s organizations in Macedonia tend to have a mono-ethnic character and are often highly politicized. seeing as they are closely connected to political parties and actively promote their interests (Broughton. social work and social development (Lakinska. Fraenkel 2002). ANTIKO. The role of international NGO’s in improving inter-ethnic relations in Macedonia is manifested in their policy of employing different ethnic groups and facilitating contacts and cooperation among Macedonia’s different communities by focusing on training central and local government officials. The Center focuses on the education needs of social work students. The Center for Civic Initiative in Prilep promotes democracy and citizen involvement in creating positive social change. members of government and nongovernment organizations. NGO’s work on overcoming inter-ethnic problems by using approaches that are identical or similar to those used by state institutions. and also includes students of social work and professional social workers as volunteers. Unfortunately. Fraenkel 2002). ANTIKO’s work contributes to increased understanding and unity among women of different ethnic backgrounds. Nevertheless.118 SVETLANA TRBOJEVIK backgrounds. Bornarova 2005). After the outbreak of violence (which could be described as a conflict between Albanian rebels and the Macedonian army) in February 2001. resulting in cooperation among individuals from different ethnicities. more than one hundred NGO’s signed various appeals for a peaceful resolution and non-violence. and practitioners of various disciplines in the field of social policy. The NGO sector represents a vast field of employment for social workers. academics. NGO’s were also offered further training. both at the graduate and post-graduate levels. the work of one group. stands out.
and developing the capacity of local NGO’s. Balkan network for the development of civil society. Fraenkel 2002). Actors of sustainability of Civil society and Promoters of a Multi-ethnic Macedonia The last part of this paper will be devoted to an elaboration of the programs of two key players in Macedonian civil society: the Macedonian Center for International Cooperation and the Foundation Open Society Institute Macedonia. MCIC has designed a public-service campaign using the slogan Celo e koga ima se (literally. . something is complete when consists of everything). MCIC is considered the most stable and well-established NGO in Macedonia. “Citizens world”.. and strengthening of the strategic civil society organization. It bridges the gap between NGO’s that specifically focus on inter-ethnic relations and those that positively influence inter-ethnic relations while working toward other goals (Broughton. In addition. 119 development. and provisions to groups in need. Nashe Maalo. and conflict resolution skills. teaching skills for multicultural awareness and cooperation. communication. MCIC has implemented the following programs in the fields of inter-ethnic relations and Macedonian civil society: pages for mutual understanding.. This campaign directly encourages tolerance and support for a multicultural society (Broughton. re-socialization of ex-combatants. tolerance building. It has also made an impact through a cooperative media project. The Macedonian Center for International Cooperation (MCIC) was established in 1993 by local initiatives and Dutch Interchurch Assistance. whose aim is to improve inter-ethnic cooperation. One of them is the Search for Common Ground in Macedonia (SCGM). Fraenkel 2002). an award-winning children’s television series that focuses on multicultural literacy.MACEDONIAN CIVIL SOCIETY AS AN ACTIVE PROMOTER. Only a few international NGO’s work directly with conflict prevention and inter-ethnic relations. and understanding. SCGM has worked on a variety of projects in the Macedonian education system. The strategic goals of MCIC include promotion of peace development of the civil society.
a foundation. they have developed eight projects addressing this target group and focusing of the areas of education. media. and coordinating activities aimed at unifying NGO’s that represent minorities. Programs focus on education. Roma. FOSIM seeks to promote stability in Macedonia by disseminating information. civil society. Programs for encouraging cooperation between the government and the NGO sector and the promotion of European integration. we have seen an increase in the number of Roma involved in higher education. women. The significance of the work of FOSIM can also be seen in the establishment of 15 spinoff organizations. public administration. especially in the area of education. medicine and health. health. As a result of continued efforts to empower Roma education.120 SVETLANA TRBOJEVIK The Foundation Open Society Institute Macedonia (FOSIM) was established in 1992 as a foreign entity representative office. media. encouraging civil society to address Macedonia’s political and economic situation. Here. law. culture and arts. The Institute is very proud of its multi-ethnic student body. with the goal of strengthening the role and participation of NGO’s in the development of local communities. The great number of implemented programs and inter-program connections makes it difficult to categorize FOSIM’s activities. but there have been significant numbers . These programs have made a significant impact on the Roma community. It forms a part of the Soros network in central and east Europe. Although FOSIM does not have a separate Roma program. as well as programs and spin-off programs in the field of interethnic relations and programs targeting specific risk groups. and civil society. publishing. only those programs that have been implemented in the domain of civil society and programs that address Roma as a target group will be briefly presented. The majority of students are Macedonian. have also been implemented. and economic development. and in 1999 became a national legal entity. Currently there are more than 20 students of Roma descent enrolled in undergraduate programs and one enrolled in the graduate program at the Institute of Social Work and Social Policy. such as youth and women. The FOSIM has implemented programs for the development of the NGO sector.
and self-reflected as we would like to believe? Analysts of Macedonian society are called upon to provide answers to these questions in the near future. and . following so many civil society projects. did we experience internal conflict in 2001? Why was Macedonian civil society still not strong and reflective enough to prevent it? Most importantly. It can be noted that they have followed similar. FOSIM deals with particular domains. especially in the area of interethnic relationship. MCIC successfully identifies common social problems and works on overcoming them by uniting actors within the civil society. It focuses on creating conditions where the civil sector can be united around a single cause or a common goal by utilizing available social capital. even during the crisis of 2001 (Foundation Open Society Institute Macedonia 2006). we can conclude that they have made a significant contribution to the Macedonian civil society.MACEDONIAN CIVIL SOCIETY AS AN ACTIVE PROMOTER. developed. such as education and health. From the short review of the programs of both MCIC and FOSIM.. Their work is based on a strategy that focuses on establishing programs. and Roma. Whereas MCIC is focused on civil society at large.. Nevertheless. the local identification of problems. The Institute has not witnessed any tension between students from different ethnic groups. Conclusion All those who have been seriously involved in civil society and have worked in the field of inter-ethnic relations should consider the following questions: Why. the efficiency of the Macedonian civil sector. and providing for their sustainability. and specifically targets the Roma ethnic group. but nevertheless different paths in line with their unique functions. Its nature as a foundation has led FOSIM to develop a more “pro-creative” ideology. depends on the sustainability of the sector. Serbians. 121 of students from other ethnic backgrounds: Albanians. developing their structure. MCIC’s work is based on its mission as a center for international cooperation. is civil society really as powerful. equipping them for independent functioning.
where citizens play a crucial role in their design and implementation. they should appear as a result of local initiatives. Macedonian civil society would be sustained by rallying local financial support as well as greater involvement on a voluntary basis. Rather than constructing programs around donors’ bids. .122 SVETLANA TRBOJEVIK the necessary involvement of target groups. The success of programs depends on local initiatives. Ideally. the maturity of Macedonian civil society should be reflected in its self-reliance. Basically.
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211 persons who speak the Roma language (Czech statistical office. Non-official data. however. It is estimated that there are nearly 5 million Roma in Europe.1% of the population. position. if poverty is defined as an income lower than half of the average income in a given country (Apospori. These numbers provide a basis for one of the main legislative criteria for defining geographical areas in which protective measures aimed at national minorities in areas such as education and the use of minority languages in official contact are carried out.000. and especially significant in the case of Roma (Navrátil 2003). it is very important to find new methods for acquiring reliable data on the number. and possible problems of national minority members in various sectors. According to the 2001 census. put this figure at nearly 200. It is estimated that nearly 60 million people in the European Union live in poverty. with over 3 million living in Eastern Europe. Millar 2003). and 23. roughly 0. and there are no exact data because the methods used to identify Roma and collect relevant data differ from country to country (Navrátil 2003). there are 11. These figures are estimates.746 Roma in the Czech Republic. 2006). Discrepancies between official data and unofficial estimates of the number of members of a given national minority are common. Poverty and long-term material deprivation are characteristic of the .125 Ilona Pešatová government Measures Aimed at reducing the exclusion of roma in the Czech republic Introduction The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the Czech government’s stance on issues pertaining to Roma. Roma form the largest ethnic minority in the Czech Republic. With this in mind.
2000. The pitfall of this strategy.126 I L O N A P E Š AT O V á members of the Roma community. members or families of the Roma community. e. official policy is focused on the integration of Roma into society. In the Czech Republic. Two key strategies for integration or social co-existence with Roma communities have been implemented by the ethnic majority. 1997. . high quality housing) available to most members of society are not equally accessible to Roma. the Czech government introduced important documents that define the rights of the Roma community and state how these rights can be accessed (Conception of the Roma Integration Strategy 2004).). is assimilation (ibid. In 2000 and 2004. i. and a socio-cultural aspect (Report on the Situation of National Minorities in the Czech Republic 2003). and as such are a part of the Czech constitutional order (Report of the Government Attorney for Human Rights on the Present Situation of Roma Communities 2000). The second strategy concerns the limited access of Roma to employment. The Coordinator for National Minorities and Roma Issues (on the regional level). The opportunities (for example higher education. The first states that Roma are a “national and/or ethnic” minority according to the Bill of Rights. the Czech government has introduced a number of government bodies and facilitated collaboration with certain non-government organizations: • • The Council for Roma Community Issues (governmental advisory body). profitable jobs. At the same time. which is often mistaken for integration. In order to further the integration of Roma. housing and health care. poverty is closely linked with social exclusion and segregation. governmental Concepts of Integration Policies for the roma Community The Czech government’s approach to Roma integration is based on three elements: respect for human rights. compliance with the national legal framework. education.
). design a community plan or a plan for the social inclusion of excluded Roma communities in a given municipality and strategic plans aimed at solving this situation. with one assistant per 1. One part of an assistant's job is community social work. He/she is to initiate the establishment of those institutions and institutes that are lacking in the district and support the emancipation. The main task of the Roma Counselor it is to design a Roma integration development conception for his/her district on the basis of an analysis of the needs of the Roma Community.500 Roma inhabitants. Hollis 1989). value systems. Though it is desirable that the Roma counselor’s place of work be situated directly in the chief clerk’s office. in certain cases. . this is not the case in all places. prejudice. and. The Roma counselor should coordinate Roma assistants. The work of Roma counselors should continue to be carried out in cities where a large number of Roma live (Basic Resources of Government Conception Policy Concerning the Members of the Roma Community 1998). a practical part consisting of short-term team work with a skilled community social worker takes place.. They also work out or.G O V E RNME NT MEASURES AIMED AT REDUCING THE EXCLUSION OF ROMA. and psychosocial intervention (Woods. which includes the collection of information and the organization of educational activities for both majority and minority members in a given locality. stereotypes of social exclusion. assimilation efforts of Roma. in certain cases. This course familiarizes them with community work and with the specifics of work with Roma. After passing the theoretical part of the training.. The social worker can begin to work independently only after he/she has passed both parts of the course. The number of Roma assistants should be set according to qualified estimates of the number of Roma in a particular district. All community social workers engaged in Roma communities must pass a training course before they begin working independently. which in turn are approved by the municipal council (ibid. Municipalities have made efforts to interconnect services rendered to members of the Roma community on the local level. and contains subjects pertaining to the anti-oppressive approach. 127 • The Roma Counselor (on the municipality level). integration.
it is necessary to support the development of a network of advice centers which would include all districts and towns. Roma assistants can help professionals facilitate communication with Roma. a legal analysis that takes into account the point of view of the Roma community and Roma individuals must be conducted. find potential clients in the field. In order to eliminate discrimination against Roma. but also as paid assistants. Therefore. is of key political and civic importance. The law states that Roma are equal to all other citizens. These include. first of all. a shift from social benefits to social assistance with an emphasis on social work in Roma communities has occurred. advocate on behalf of Roma clients. In order to achieve this. In many locations. in real life. or ethnic belonging) aimed at individuals or groups. nationality. language. and accompany them in various official procedures.128 I L O N A P E Š AT O V á social services In the sphere of social services. Social activities which take place directly in the places where Roma live have shown positive results. The development of services and civic advice centers affects public administration and self-government in a way that is beneficial to clients. It is recommended that the legal and material conditions for the inclusion of experienced Roma members in community social work be established. These centers should employ Roma not only as volunteers. however. It is important to . discrimination occurs on a daily basis. even though these persons often do not meet the usual educational requirements. combating all forms of discrimination (based on skin color. for example supporting Roma representatives in state administration and government bodies. Cooperation between government and non-government organizations is also very important. work is carried out by civic associations and charity societies. such services should be made accessible to members of the Roma community. because Roma emancipation and participation in decision making processes that concern Roma communities.
In 2001. language. At the same time. education etc. preparatory and equalization classes and courses. At that time. the Act on Rights of the National Minorities was introduced. and to consequently modify the law through anti-discrimination legislation.). . The above mentioned laws define the government’s strategy for dealing with national minorities.. According to this law. Equalizing actions take the form of nursery schools. together with others who claim to belong to the same nationality.G O V E RNME NT MEASURES AIMED AT REDUCING THE EXCLUSION OF ROMA. The legislative gap which originated in the period before the Velvet revolution was hereby filled. Minority members are also protected by the Act on Education. 129 identify areas of life in which ethnic discrimination against Roma takes place and is allowed to go unsanctioned. which came into effect in 2005.. financial bonuses for teachers who work individually with pupils from certain groups. health care. equalizing actions are aimed at increasing the general level of education and vocational qualification. and traditions. and support for Roma assistants. The issue of ethnic diversity first became embedded in legislation highlighting the equality of citizens of different ethnic minorities and clearly stating integration principles in all areas (social policy. these are inhabitants who have expressed a wish to be considered a national minority in order to protect the interests and rights of their communities and individual members. A member of a national minority is a citizen of the Czech Republic who declares a nationality other than Czech and expresses a wish to be considered a member of a national minority. education In the sphere of education. The measures listed above should result in a decrease in social and ethnic tensions in the Czech Republic. the relations between individuals and population groups were defined by class position and not by national or ethnic references. a national minority is defined as a community of citizens of the Czech Republic who differ from other citizens due to ethnic origin. culture.
Their intervention in higher classes is generally more successful than with younger children. System requirements for education and anti-oppressive training for teachers are emphasized: mediation and negotiation can solve conflicts on the inter-personal level. and are most often attended by Roma children. forms (e.130 I L O N A P E Š AT O V á A program for Roma children has been introduced in nursery schools. and is intended to ease primary school entry for Roma children. This program is recommended for children in their last year of nursery school. Roma assistants are also needed in secondary schooling and training centers. He/she also organizes a Mothers’ Club to encourage both Roma and non-Roma mothers to become more active in nursery school activities. cooperates with families. victimization). Roma stories – through the active cooperation of Roma mothers). indirect. however.g. The Roma coordinator looks for families with small children and informs them about the possibilities and advantages of nursery school attendance. should not be limited only to the first grade of basic school. these classes are not mandatory. Roma assistants help nursery school teachers educate Roma children in an ethnically sensitive manner. It is necessary to educate teachers about the causes. and ensures that children attend school takes part in the class. Though they take place at elementary schools. Preparatory classes are offered to children from socio-culturally disadvantaged backgrounds. cultural. This results in projects for the promotion of Roma culture (Roma culture week: Roma songs. direct. institutional. and attempts to improve communication with the parents of children from the ethnic majority and facilitate a multi-cultural approach to education. The field of action of Roma assistants. an assistant teacher (a Roma assistant) who helps the teacher maintain control in the classroom. Roma children benefit by improving their Czech language skills and often have an easier time entering primary school. The ability to identify various forms and levels of discrimination and reduce their negative effects on . Roma assistants also work to improve communication with Roma families. but are insufficient for addressing conflicts arising from structural or institutional factors. Roma food. structural) of discrimination. and levels (personal. Ideally.
Participating teachers display a rather exceptional degree of self-reflection (the ability to identify and to be aware of one’s own discriminatory practices and those of colleagues) thanks to these courses. it is available. • considering the high percentage of unqualified workers among the Roma population. 131 pupils must become a part of the professional competence of every teacher. they pretend it is already occupied. most job opportunities are limited to the physically demanding work and low paying jobs. All future teachers studying at pedagogical and other faculties are advised to attend a course on multi-cultural and anti-racist education. they are not sufficient unless the socio-psychological level is surpassed. • Roma citizens appear in the files of the Employment Office to a proportionally much larger extent.G O V E RNME NT MEASURES AIMED AT REDUCING THE EXCLUSION OF ROMA. such jobs rarely go to Roma.. work habits.”). • despite a number of job offers for unqualified applicants. • as a result of long-term unemployment. • many Roma have experienced discrimination from perspective employers (“When I apply for a vacancy over the phone. The regular multi-cultural postgraduate study program at pedagogical faculties or other universities should also include such a course.. . • the majority of Roma face long-term unemployment (in some cases up to 10 years). many Roma lose their motivation. employment The issue of employment among Roma is marked by the following features: • a large portion of Roma have only a primary education (in many cases incomplete) and so belong to the unqualified labor force. social skills etc.. Although mediation techniques can produce positive results in such cases. when I come in person. which makes their grave situation even more difficult and closes the circle of exclusion from the job market (Navrátil 2003).
opportunities are being sought for firms that employ persons who have difficulty finding work in the labor market. Retraining courses allow Roma to acquire skills that could increase their chances of finding work. rehearse job interviews. They learn communication skills. Retraining and qualification courses are intended make employment more accessible and reduce unemployment. Towards this end. Equalizing actions are not only aimed at Roma. focus only on Roma. regardless of the number of children in the family or his/her qualifications. Acquiring qualification or retraining in professions which are more desirable in the labor market is one way of achieving independence. These clubs are organized through the support of employment offices. and minimum training courses for Roma assistants. for example: “persons from a socio-culturally disadvantaged environment”. those who have successfully completed retraining courses often remain among the unemployed. Certain actions. To remedy this situation. Clubs for the unemployed can also help to increase employment among Roma. such as preparation for work with the Police of the Czech Republic. and also provides financial aid for textbooks. school supplies. and not to decrease social allowances. and accommodation in university dormitories. the government provides grants for preparatory courses for Roma children and scholarships for successful Roma secondary school and university students. Nonetheless. which last several weeks. the unemployed learn how to write and respond to job ads and how to write professional resumes. in certain cases. During training courses. etc. Employment should pay off for every breadwinner. . university education. The key task is to continuously increase the price of labour. All individuals who fulfill the criteria are eligible. preparation for the position of Roma consultant. thorough research of the employment market should be carried out prior to the implementation of retraining courses for Roma. The correct balance between the subsistence minimum and the minimum wage must be reached.132 I L O N A P E Š AT O V á In the sphere of employment. “children with special educational and learning needs” or “persons difficult to employ in the labor market”. however. Equalization actions can quickly bring about a more favorable balance between Roma without higher education and Roma with secondary school or.
. into short-term accommodations. Conclusion 1. the segregation practices of villages and towns. the creation of ghettos/enclaves. Analyzes of the problem of blank flats in connection with the Roma community have revealed a very important social and political problem.G O V E RNME NT MEASURES AIMED AT REDUCING THE EXCLUSION OF ROMA. unsatisfactory.. the impossibility of renting a home in another locality due to owner prejudice. accommodation in flats without a rental contract – no possibility of obtaining housing grants (Navrátil 2003). which can be characterized as the displacement of the socially weak (endangered and vulnerable) part of the Roma minority from flats into substitute forms of housing. they are capable of constructing houses almost entirely by themselves. enforced (auto)segregation. the illegal occupancy of flats. the concept of affordable housing must be addressed without delay. Only the most fortunate individuals have managed to find a home of their own. Compensatory habitation actions can be understood to mean the creation of conditions in which even non-wealthy Roma have the possibility to find accommodation. 133 Improving the roma housing situation Today. many Roma are incapable of solving their housing situation. and their concentration into enclaves and ghettos. The construction of blank flats is not an instrument of integration. Though Roma often lack financial resources. The following problems should be resolved in order to improve the housing situation of Roma: the increased concentration of Roma inhabitants in old. According to the housing strategy prepared by the Ministry of Local Development. Social work theory and practice aimed at the Roma minority was developed in the period of the socialist state and became . This concept should include the maximum participation of future inhabitants in construction. An analysis of the problem of blank flats has become an analysis of the construction of blank flats as a means for spatial ethnic segregation. without compensation to the suburbs of towns. Compensatory actions apply to all inhabitants from socio-culturally disadvantaged backgrounds. stock-houses which are the property of state.
A democratic political system based on the diversity of well-established political parties was built on pre-communist traditions. took precedent over support for the Roma minority. Other political and economic priorities. . and new government bodies and complex social measures for the integration of Roma were implemented. The co-existence of Roma communities and the ethnic majority became the main aim of the new government’s new strategy. 2. however. The aversion of the majority population towards Roma increased.134 I L O N A P E Š AT O V á practically useless after the Velvet Revolution in 1989. The new system is evaluated on a regular basis and modified with an emphasis on the quality of the co-existence of the majority and the Roma minority. Roma issues were relegated to the verge of majority society. The realization of these strategies is slowly but surely decreasing tension and improving relations between the ethnic majority and the Roma community. and ethnic tension climaxed in the exodus of Roma to Canada and Western Europe. New laws aimed at ensuring the minority rights of Roma were introduced into the Czech constitutional order. 3. The Velvet Revolution brought the age of socialism to a close. 4. The whole system of social work was based on political and economic principles modeled for Soviet political institutions and practices.
The Dynamics of Social Exclusion in Europe. Hollis. Roma in the Czech Society. M. Available on: http://www.2006). Blank Flats as the Instrument of Ethnic Segregation.pdf (5.1. P. Secretary of Government Council about National Minorities (2003).2007) Act on Pre-school. (1989).cz/seznamy/5612004Sb. F. Czech government (1998). Report of Government Attorney for Human Rights about the Present Situation of Roma Communities. Primary. Act on Rights of National Minorities Members of the Czech Republic [in Roma language] (2001). (2003).html (5. Apospori. Government Attorney for Human Rights (2000).vlada. Basic Final Results of the Population and Housing Census 2001.1.2. NewYork: McGraw-Hill Humanities. Czech government (2004). http://vlada.11.vlada. 135 References: Act on Rights of National Minorities Members of the Czech Republic (2001).cz/assets/cs/rvk/rnm/dokumenty/vladni/zakon_ novela_mensiny. Navrátil.E.. Víšek. London: Edward Elgar Publications. Casework: A Psychosocial Therapy. Available on: http://racek.html (27.2006).pdf (5. Higher Secondary and Other Education (2004): http://www.Available on: http://www.nsf (27. Basic Resources of Government Conception Policy Concerning the Members of Roma Community...vlada. Secondary.cz/romove/koncepce.G O V E RNME NT MEASURES AIMED AT REDUCING THE EXCLUSION OF ROMA. P. (2003). .2007). Available on: http://www. Woods. Millar. J. Praha: Portál.1.2007). Report on the Situation of Nationality Minorities in the Czech Republic in 2003.2006).osf.cz/cs/rvk/rnm/dokumenty/ dokumenty_rady/default..zakonycr.czso. Conception of the Roma Integration in 2004.cz/usneseni/usneseni_test.nsf/publ (16. Czech statistical office (2006).11. Praha: Socioklub. et al. (2002). Available on: http://www.htm (27.cz/csu/ 2002edicniplan.11. http://vlada.2006). Roma in the Town. E.cz/scripts/detail (27.2007).11..cz/assets/cs/rvk/rnm/dokumenty/ vladni/menszakon_romsky_1.
misery and poverty. Hundreds of thousands of people were forced to leave their homes. even when it is made freely for the sake of better employment and living conditions. Ten years after the Dayton Agreement in 1995 and seven years after the International Protectorate had been established in Kosovo (Serbia). and co-existence following a cease fire. and how. and develop new networks and relationships within the context of general poverty? How does one deal with the loss of close ties to relatives and old friends? These are some of the main questions that refugees. and deportees have to face. find a place to live. internally displaced persons. one’s own life. disappointment. one full of uncertainty. their previous lives. they had to find a new space to call their own. Such tragedies occurred in the territory of the former Yugoslavia. Where. the consequences of destruction remain. Leaving one’s own space. . there are still a significant number of refugees and internally displaced persons. The structure of the population of a given state can change significantly as a result of war. tolerance. because of threats and compulsion is one of the most tragic events a human being can face.137 Miroslav Brkić refugees. is one to create a new life. the Internally displaced and deported Persons in serbia Introduction The decision to leave one’s town and street is difficult. even though politicians throw around words like peace. find a job.
and Croats (3%) (ibid. They had come to Serbia from the other states established in the territory former of Yugoslavia in order to escape the war.195 refugees remained in Serbia. These were mainly family members of Yugoslav Army officers of Serbian nationality. Most are of Serbian ethnic origin (40. Todorović. the number of refugees decreased. Kotal 1998). When the armed conflict came to an end. The ethno-religious structure of these refugees was: Serbs (77%). who decided to leave Slovenia because of fear for their future status in the newly established country. and an uncertain future: should they go back to their place of origin or stay where they are now? The journey of (re)integration is certainly difficult. By the end of 2005. . as are the creation of an “old-new” home and social networks. only 139. The majority of these refugees came from the Republic of Croatia (54%) and Bosnia and Herzegovina (45%)1. The war lasted until 1996. Slovenia was the first country in the region to declare its independence. they still face obstacles to the realization of their basic human rights.818 from Bosnia 1 36% from the territory of Federation and 9% from the area of the Republic of Srpska.138 M I R O S L AV B R K I Ć In Serbia. Despite the fact that the initial conflict was very short and resulted in a relatively small number of causalities. especially when compared with those produced by the events that followed. Their numbers were insignificant. there were 617. In the next four years the war escalated and the number of people who had left their homes rapidly increased both in Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.728 refugees registered in Serbia. and the need to prove oneself over and over again. 1% were from Slovenia (Milosavljević. Yugoslavs (10%). The armed conflict in the territory of former Yugoslavia began in May 1991.). refugees Number of refugees In 1996. integration problems. Muslims (9%). it set off the arrival of the first refugees in Serbia. battles with prejudice.
and around 105. Group 484 2006): Age 0-4 5-17 18-59 60+ Total M 617 8.03 100. Basic rights Refugees in Serbia are entitled to the following rights: the right to work (to open an employment book based on a refugee identity card and unique citizen’s number).78 58.856 39. 17% of the total number in 1996. .873 % 0.00 A decrease in the refugee population of over two thirds is not only the result of their return to their countries of origin or further emigration from Serbia. and a refugee number. primarily to the USA. which is a prerequisite for obtaining an employment book.456 42.0003 returned to the Republic of Croatia. reduced public transportation fares.322 % 0.0002 refugees returned to Bosnia and Herzegovina.30 29. their age and gender structure was as follows (UNHCR 2005.407 139. Around 20. the right to health care.64 28.148 15. mainly to the territory of the Republic of Srpska. This refugee cards does not automatically include a unique citizens’ number.232 16. and Australia (UNHCR 2005).845 72. A majority of those who remained in Serbia applied for Serbian citizenship and so exchanged their refugee status for that of poor citizens (Government of the Republic of Serbia 2004).96 Total 1. Approximately 285.000 refugees emigrated to other countries. the right to education.377 from Croatia).915 % 0.006 24.28 11. Refugees from Croatia can only get their citizen 2 3 43% of the total number in 1996. In 2005.85 51.18 48. and the right to open a bank account in most domestic banks.154 40.14 30. the possibility of accommodation in collective centers.04 F 615 7.89 11.562 66. INTERNALLY DISPLACED AND DEPORTED PERSONS IN SERBIA 139 and Herzegovina and 98.02 17.44 5.44 6. address. Canada. These rights could only be realized with a refugee identity card that contains the refugee’s name and surname.RE FUG E E S.402 81.
000 flats built. . depending on the period (Group 484 2004). In order to obtain it. This has resulted in an enormous rise in unemployment (the unemployment rate is 18%). only 18% of refugees had managed to find a home of their own (UNHCR 2005). a majority of the refugees did not manage to solve their housing problems. with relatives and friends. they have to return to their country of origin. Refugees who have the right to a residential flat in Croatia or Bosnia and Herzegovina are at a great disadvantage. In Croatia. Citizens over 50. and in social care institutions.4 Many still live in rented flats. Although the refugee population generally has a higher degree of education than the domestic population. refugees. 2005). This ultimately means that they are denied the right to work in Serbia. Housing From 1991 to 1996. and internally displaced persons are in a particularly difficult position. The percentage of these refugees was between 60 and 95. This could present an obstacle for male refugees who fear being arrested because of their participation in the armed conflict. as well as traditionally marginalized groups such as Roma. this problem has not been addressed by internal legislation or bilateral agreements. Unemployment Unemployment is one of the key problems in Serbia. Although this figure gradually decreased. the privatization and re-structuring of state-owned enterprises has moved forward at an accelerated pace. where around 12. persons with disabilities.000 refugees were housed (UNHCR. Since 2002. estimates show that 45% of refugees are un4 From the Republic’s budget there were 3. refugees mostly resided with host families in Serbia. The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina determined that flats which used to belong to the Yugoslav Army should remain the property of Bosnia and Herzegovina. meaning that those who once had residential rights now must take their case to The European Court for Human Rights.140 M I R O S L AV B R K I Ć number in Croatia. in refugee camps. Many have avoided returning to Croatia and so cannot acquire this important personal information. According to data from 2002.
micro credits are approved on the basis of the permission and guidelines of the National Bank. Many are forced to work in the “gray economy”. According to the Commissioner for Refugees of Serbia. Poverty prevents most refugees from using private health services. the Danish Refugee Council. The quality of health care largely depends on the region where refugees reside. Some pensioners have had problems with documents. and others carry out income-generating programs. A significant number of Serbs from Croatia do not receive pensions despite the fact that they fulfill all the requirements. and professional re-training. Swedish Individual Help. and social insurance were paid to the former fund of the Republic of Srpska Krajina. soft loans. the referral of patients to Belgrade is often avoided. Although the absence of an adequate legal framework on the state level is still a problem. Foreign and international organizations such as the Norwegian Refugee Council. They are not insured against occupational injuries and are often victims of fraud and exploitation. but administrative procedures are taking too long (UNHCR 2005).000 requests for pensions have been submitted in Croatia. 2003. healthcare. UN-Habitat.RE FUG E E S. maternity leave. such as micro credits. In poorer areas in southern and eastern Serbia there are no adequate specialized medical departments and. 5 During the war Serbs from Croatia constituted Srpska Krajina as an independent region. INTERNALLY DISPLACED AND DEPORTED PERSONS IN SERBIA 141 employed. 20. Access to health care and social insurance Refugees have access to basic health care services that include visits to general practitioners and medication prescriptions. verifying past employment. etc). A particular problem is the verification of employment in the former Yugoslav Republic of Srpska Krajina5. refugees are to receive their pensions in their current place of residence. which came into force on May 1. which means that they are without health insurance and social security (pension. due to economic reasons. According to the Agreement on Social Insurance between Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro. to encourage independent economic activities. In most cases this verification procedure would seem to be unresolved because taxes for pensions. . and with delays in administrative procedures.
It is difficult for refugees in collective centers to get involved in community life because of years of physical isolation and poor living conditions. They view refugees as undesirable competition for the few available jobs and blame them for the current situation (Group 484 2005). They used to receive humanitarian assistance from international organizations. Access to public welfare Refugees are not entitled to public welfare and other forms of financial support (children supplements. many refugee families are not able to send their children to faculties. but this aid has gradually diminished. primarily among socially vulnerable members of the domestic population. animosity towards refugees exists. Slovakian. Excellent high school students therefore often do not have any possibility of continuing their education. Ruthenian. where national minorities fear changes in the ethnic structure of the population (Group 484 2004). some municipalities in Serbia award scholarships to successful students from socially vulnerable families. Romanian. Integration In a number of cases. Research has also shown that refugees are not welcome in certain parts of Serbia (such as Vojvodina6). Due to poor economic status. In order to alleviate the situation. Despite these good intentions. the good will and general acceptance of the local population have contributed to the successful integration of refugees. compensation for third person care) which are available to the domestic population. 6 Region in Serbia where a significant number of national minorities live (Hungarian.). Croats etc. and contains negative connotations which follow refugees in all aspects of social life. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is the only large international agency that continues to support refugees and displaced persons. In some cases. . many feel that the term refugee carries a stigma. the Republic of Croatia refuses to pay pensions for the period between 1991 and 1995.142 M I R O S L AV B R K I Ć For the same reason. Access to education Education is available to both refugees and the domestic population.
574 14. Roma (12%) and Montenegrins (8%). Because they did not come from the territory of another country (since Kosovo and Metohia are still integral parts of the Serbia). Return is not a realistic option for the vast majority of these persons because their lives would be in danger.842 33. even today they are victims of “double discrimination”.565 60. they do not have the status of refugees.440 24. Internally displaced Persons Population number Following the adoption of the UN Resolution 1244 and the consequent establishment of the Protectorate.81 50. According to UNHCR estimates. They have a harder time finding employment than men. their social mobility is limited and they are mainly tied to home and family.62 F 1.22 15. discrimination based on gender and ethnicity.009 50. Their ethnic structure is: Serbs (78%).90 100.567 % 0.RE FUG E E S.268 18. On the contrary. Their position has not changed very much since the end of the war.09 49. less than 2% of internally displaced persons have returned to Kosovo and Metohia.010 207.987 % 0.000 displaced persons in Serbia. the majority of the non-Albanian population left Kosovo and Metohia.294 104.45 24. More than half of those who have returned are non-Serb citizens (Roma. In 2005 the age and gender structure of internally displaced persons in Serbia was as follows (Group 484 2006): Age 0-4 5-17 18-59 60+ Total M 1.76 12.00 .42 58. Since 2000. During the first years of displacement.716 102.84 29.18 7.69 11. Egyptians. INTERNALLY DISPLACED AND DEPORTED PERSONS IN SERBIA 143 Female refugees Female refugees are in a less favorable position.04 8. Bosniaks).128 60.693 120.569 26.554 % 1. that is. but of internally displaced persons.59 29. there have been about 210. they more or less bore the entire burden of family preservation and survival.38 Total 3.
If the poverty line were moved up just a bit.144 M I R O S L AV B R K I Ć Basic rights Legally speaking. The poverty issue According to some estimates.6% of the Serbian population lives below the poverty line (Government of the Republic of Serbia 2004). In practice. 10. by which the host becomes obliged to provide accommodation and food (called “acceptance by the host”). complicated administrative procedures. it is estimated that about 25% of refugees and displaced persons live on or below poverty line (WFP/CES MECON 2001). displaced persons have limited freedom of movement. and many do not speak Serbian. If they wish to change their place of residence. however. limitations in available social welfare programs. which means they have the same rights and duties as all other citizens. the percentage of poor people in general. displaced persons are citizens of Serbia. many of them have had problems exercising their rights due to poverty. Freedom of movement Compared with the domestic population. The position of internally displaced persons has worsened since 2003 and 2004 due to constant problems with the use of the property left behind in Kosovo and Metohia. and thus among refugees and displaced persons. would increase by about 20% (Government of the Republic of Serbia 2004). the closing of collective refugee centers. Roma from Kosovo and Metohia are in a particularly difficult position and are often exposed to various forms of outright and subtle discrimination. and a reduction of humanitarian assistance (International Committee of the Red Cross 2005). which makes it difficult for them obtain a displaced persons ID and access available rights. This approval can be obtained with a statement from a host. and unresolved property issues. They have dark complexions and Muslim names. . The ratio of refugees and internally displaced persons among the poor is twice that of the general population. they need approval from the Commissioner for Refugees in the place they wish to reside. Many do not have any personal documents.
they receive a pension from the Fund for Health and Social Insurance of Serbia. seeing as payments were delayed for six months in mid 2005. In practice. Displaced persons who live in unofficial collective centers cannot be registered. This generally makes their position more favorable than that of persons residing in private accommodations. displaced persons have the same rights to work as every other citizen. . If they do not have this document. The regulation of residence is of crucial importance for the realization of their rights. a majority of them are unemployed and earn their living in the “gray economy”. Paying rent and other expenses is not easy. The maximum amount of this compensation is about 60 Euros. The amount of this pension is determined provisionally and is significantly lower than it should be.RE FUG E E S. The Commissioner for Refugees covers food and lodging expenses. The sustainability of this program is questionable. displaced persons cannot apply for funds for housing programs. Housing About 93% of displaced persons live in private accommodations (Norwegian Refugee Council 2005). INTERNALLY DISPLACED AND DEPORTED PERSONS IN SERBIA 145 Most displaced persons are temporarily registered and have to renew their residence at the local police station every three months. One gets the impression that the standard of living in collective centers is lower. Because it is impossible for them to legally register a place of residence. some have an income and are officially employed or work in the gray economy. The right to work and pensions Formally. Many workers’ booklets were left in Kosovo and Metohia. Unlike refugees. Internally displaced persons who were employed in state-owned companies in Kosovo and Metohia before 1999 are entitled to temporary compensation. they register themselves at relatives’ or friends’ addresses. as they do not have a legal address. and this is a major obstacle for those who would like to find employment or receive a pension. Internally displaced persons receive pensions on the basis of employment booklets. seeing as the government is officially committed to their return to Kosovo and Metohia. particularly for those without permanent employment. but often quite the opposite is true.
The integration problems that these people face are similar to those faced by refugees. the number of returnees has declined significantly. or a lack of documents (some of these documents were burnt or destroyed in Kosovo and Metohia).146 M I R O S L AV B R K I Ć Access to education Education is free for displaced persons. many have not managed to realize this right. Roma children from Kosovo and Metohia often do not have any personal documents. they rarely use private health care services. By 1996 over 40% of refugees had returned.000 families that once received financial support from the ICRC have managed to exercise their right to social welfare (ICRC 2005). just like other citizens. their position actually appears to be even more difficult if we keep in mind the government’s official stance regarding their status (return to Kosovo and Metohia). which is 5% below the national average (Group 484 2005). Poverty makes the further education of secondary school graduates very difficult. In recent years. The reasons for this are the . In 2005. they could only receive social welfare if they fulfilled legal conditions. return or (re)integration Return to Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia Returns to Bosnia and Herzegovina take place on the basis of the bilateral agreement from 2003. Access to health care and integration Displaced persons have the right to free health care provided they have an identity card for internally displaced persons. In fact. making their rate of absence much higher. complicated administrative procedures. as it is for the entire population. the number of those who decided to return was twelve times less than in 2002 (UNCHR 2005). The enrollment rate for children is 92 %. When it stopped. Like refugees. Due to rigid criteria. Only 20% of the 6. mainly to the territory where their ethnicity was a majority. Access to social welfare Displaced persons received financial support from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) up until 2004.
These contracts have left many refugees without ownership rights. Their houses usually do not receive running water and electricity in time for their return. About 8. and those that remain require a person to dwell in the area where the property is being renewed.000 flats were destroyed and looted (OSCE 2005). the OSCE has recommended that the Republic of Croatia pass an act that would annul such contracts. This is usually intentionally postponed. also. thousands of sales contracts may have been forged. According to the Law on Areas of Special State Support. reconstruction is approved only if a house has not been totally destroyed. According to official data 122. thus contributing to the formation of mono-ethnic regional communities.000 refugees had returned to Croatia from Serbia by 1996 (Human Rights Watch 2006).000 units of real estate which should have been returned to their original owners have either been sold to the state or are still in the possession of temporary owners. Estimates state that about 3. Approximately half of the requests for property return have been positively resolved. For these reasons people mainly relocate to areas where they belong to the majority ethnic group. Minority returnees are exposed to various forms of pressure and discrimination. The Association of Croatian Serbs and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in Croatia estimate that the actual number of returnees is significantly lower. These persons also face employment discrimination (Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina 2006). Today there are fewer foreign donors in Bosnia and Herzegovina. the state has to ensure the proportionate representation of minorities .RE FUG E E S. Court appeals for property repossession are often postponed with the excuse that processes cannot be completed until adequate accommodation is found for the temporary users. a number of other factors have cast into doubt the sustainability the return project (Group 484 2005). INTERNALLY DISPLACED AND DEPORTED PERSONS IN SERBIA 147 difficult economic situation and a lack of funds for rebuilding. In response. Personal security and unemployment are the leading factors. Also. According to the Constitutional Law on Minority Group Rights. A small number of people have exercised this right. returnees are entitled to financial aid for building materials. Apart from the problems mentioned above.
1. four returnees were killed. and regional offices of state ministries in many regions (Human Rights Watch 2006). returnees have greater difficulty finding employment than the local population and those who graduated in Serbia experience difficulties with the recognition of their diplomas.148 M I R O S L AV B R K I Ć in state administration.927 Askalia/Egyptians. The government of the Republic of Croatia has implemented a series of positive changes pertaining to the return of Serbs7. civil. 7 One positive example is the introduction of a telephone information service at the Croatian Embassy in Belgrade. and fifty reported attacks on Serbs occurred in 2005 (Human Rights Watch 2006). Generally speaking. who are not obliged to employ minorities. This includes the right to safety and security. In order to fulfill these conditions. According to the data. the Serbian ethnic community in Croatia is not represented in the police force. show a readiness to employ Serbs. the right to return is a mere promise.). and local authority. However.616 Serbs. legal and executive bodies.324 Bosniaks. and other important issues. Personal security is the most important factor of the sustainability of the return project. 1. . following the end of the armed conflict: 6. legislative bodies. These changes primarily concern legal procedures and the reconstruction of the infrastructure which was damaged during the war. Unfortunately. pensions.576 Roma. Approximately 14. religious and national rights. Nonetheless.553 people have returned to Kosovo and Metohia over the last six years. The fact that the majority of perpetrators were not apprehended leads to an even greater feeling of insecurity. freedom of movement. the government of Kosovo should work on developing and implementing standards that would confirm its democratic position and commitment to the return of displaced persons. The service offers basic information to refugees about their property. private employers. this is not the case with state administration (ibid. 3. On the other hand. vacancies. social insurance. and the right to normal living conditions. there is still a considerable discrepancy between normatively proclaimed rights and their realization in practice (Group 484 2005). Return to Kosovo and Metohia UN Security Council Resolution 1244 states that all displaced persons have the right to a safe return to Kosovo.
RE FUG E E S. . Serbian sources report significantly higher numbers (ERP KIM 2004). According to UNMIK (United Nations Mission in Kosovo) data.the inability to engage local lawyers and experts. Most returned to rural areas of Kosovo with predominantly Serbian population. there have been numerous examples where this department’s decisions were not respected and recognized by local courts. since the UNMIK office responsible for cooperation with the court organizes transport from the administrative border to only a few locations in Kosovo. Serbs practically do not participate in the institutional life of Kosovo. Health care. Only 5.lack of money to start the court procedure. Property repossession is a lengthy process. education.000 persons who have attempted to repossess their property have met with success (Group 484 2006). . and they often encounter many problems. The property repossession procedure is not easy for non-Albanian persons. . Some of these include: . and social services are provided by the government of Serbia. A vast majority of Serbs live in mono-ethnic enclaves. INTERNALLY DISPLACED AND DEPORTED PERSONS IN SERBIA 149 484 Gorans. Serbs are generally unemployed and mainly work on farms. and have very limited freedom of movement. . However. the participation of Serbs in institutional life in Kosovo is nonexistent. The government of Serbia.000 of the 29. The Department of Housing and Property Issues is responsible for property protection and implementation. 260 Serbs have been killed since the establishment of the Protectorate. . It seems that Serbs and other non-Albanian persons are not safe in Kosovo since ethnic conflicts are common.the inefficiency of local courts overloaded with cases. as well as local and international humanitarian organizations. provides these persons with material support and humanitarian assistance. but fear for personal security is the main reason. which is the largest Serbian enclave where industry still partially functions. With the exception of Kosovska Mitrovica.ignorance of new regulations. and 623 Albanians (UNHCR 2005). The reasons for this are sometimes political.there is no possibility to visit Kosovo.
.000 people from Kosovo to Serbia may be expected in the near future (UNHCR 2005). Many returned persons had been fully settled in their new communities. although most of them originate from there. These persons belong to the most vulnerable group and are not welcome anywhere. They receive neither international nor local permanent assistance. Persons deported to serbia There exists yet another unofficial category – individuals who were refused asylum in western European countries and returned to Serbia. These persons are in a de facto apatrid (i. Many were left without personal documents and therefore cannot claim their citizenship rights. etc. they had had jobs and friends. neither in western Europe nor in Serbia. Some countries practice forced deportations. but very realistic. predictions another exodus of approximately 85.150 M I R O S L AV B R K I Ć - forged authorizations and sale contracts (Group 484 2005). They cannot go to Kosovo. About 80% are Roma who once lived in Kosovo and Metohia (Ministry for Human and Minority Rights 2005). According to pessimistic. their children had learned the language of their host country and any cultural. This situation shows the lack of available mechanisms for the realization of basic human rights. Estimates state that between 100.000 persons have been or will be sent back to Serbia from the EU countries in the following years (Petronijević 2005).8 Many had lived in another country for many years. When they were deported to Serbia they were left hanging in limbo. so to speak. stateless) position. their children attended schools. Most of them are Roma from Kosovo and Metohia.000 and 150.e. despite the fact that the conditions for a safe return have not been fulfilled. economic ties they once had to Serbia were 8 The Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross 2005. social and. the majority of Serbs probably will not return to their homes in Kosovo. They are neither internally displaced persons nor refugees. In spite of the efforts of the Serbian government and the international community.
Gorans. they cannot enroll in schools. These people have become outcasts of the modern age. But their situation in the Serbian state and society is rather grim: according to Serbian laws they cannot obtain the status of refugees or displaced persons.08% would like to get a job and 4. Unlike refugees and displaced persons. Ashkali are an ethnic group in Kosovo and Albania. in the north-west of Macedonia.9 Albanians who experienced personal threats) should not be forcibly returned to Kosovo.48% would accept vocational training. 10 . political collateral damage. A significant number of young people speak neither Roma nor Serbian. Gorans are a Slavic ethnic group who live in Kosovo. Roma. due to a lack of personal documents. One must wonder who exactly will be allowed to return. they are Muslims who speak Albanian language. 66. southern Serbia and the north-east Albania. the vast majority of these persons should be settled in Serbia. A survey conducted among persons who were forcibly deported from Germany illustrates the character of their needs: 9 100% of them are unemployed. Nevertheless. these people are left on their own. Their culture is similar to both Roma and Albanian culture.RE FUG E E S. According to UNMIK the only people who may safely return are members of the Ashkalija10 or Egyptian community. 2005 the United Nation Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK 2005) issued a document on forced return which states that the members of most ethnic groups (Serbs. their diplomas are not recognized and. In December. “By bringing them back into a social and cultural context in which they do not belong and with which they are not familiar. Albanians in mixed marriages. These facts have simply not been taken into consideration. persons with mixed ethnic backgrounds. members of all the above mentioned groups are being deported from Germany and other western countries. Bosniaks. to total social isolation and economic poverty” (Group 484 2006: 20). They were Ortodox Slavs who adopted Islam by the end of the 18th century. many do not speak the Serbian language and the local population seems reluctant to accept them. these individuals are generally not accepted by their local communities. INTERNALLY DISPLACED AND DEPORTED PERSONS IN SERBIA 151 severed. What is to be done with these people? The international community has suggested a “solution”: even though they come from Kosovo.
Solidarity and mutual support faded away. 7. bombing. humanitarian assistance was provided. As time passed. Even though this period was marked by strong emotions. social workers were the first to offer support.34% are interested in obtaining micro credits for private business. and the provision of necessities were the first interventions. not only as professionals. Exhausted from the war. This strategy of the . but also as people who comprehend the tragic nature of these events. and organized theft by the political oligarchy. People gave unselfish support to refugees. refugees and later displaced persons were accepted by their friends and relatives. UNDP. or renting a flat) (Group 484 2006). 4. from a professional point of view it was rather clear-cut. and UNOCHA. 7. If we keep in mind their uncertain status in Serbia. they became more and more ambivalent toward refugees and displaced persons.152 M I R O S L AV B R K I Ć - 100% of them would accept financial support. Conclusion When masses of refugees started to arrive from different parts of the former Yugoslavia. it seems unlikely that their needs will be met in an organized and systematic manner. a significant number of refugees and displaced persons fell into an extremely difficult social and economic position.41% need scholarships for their children. Comfort. A national refugee strategy was adopted in 2002 through the support of UNHCR.75% need medical help. 35% need assistance to enroll their children in schools and additional Serbian language lessons. Serbian citizens were faced with their own problems. assistance in finding accommodation. 80% need assistance to obtain personal documents or with other administrative needs. 85% need assistance with accommodation (building or reconstructing a dwelling. The degree of solidarity and mutual support was rather impressive.
we could say that these people are political hostages in their own country. in an effort to encourage the integration of refugees. are preparing a strategy for the reintegration of deported persons. In 2004 and 2005 there was a shift toward a more concrete solution regarding refugees from the territory of the former Yugoslavia. OSCE. these people will be in the position of apartrids (i. At the meeting in Sarajevo a declaration was signed and a regional initiative for refugee return and integration was launched. The states of the region should offer favorable conditions and allow refugees to decide freely on their integration or return. the government formed the Commission for the Coordination of Continual Refugee Integration. and deadlines) that would be combined following negotiations and evaluation by the international community. Asylum and the Refugees Regional Initiative (MARRI). The eventual return of these persons to Kosovo and Metohia is standard policy. and they do not speak the Serbian language. excluded from social life and the institutional and legal entitlements enjoyed by other citizens. stateless persons). Keeping in mind the actual situation in Kosovo and Metohia.RE FUG E E S. In September 2004. it defined return or integration measures. Their basic human and civic rights are non-existent. UNHCR. According to this declaration the governments who signed the documents should adopt their own action plans (with objectives. Croatia. Deportees are in the worst position. Their legal status is not regulated. e. Many deported persons were returned to Serbia without person- . Since then. tasks. in collaboration with the local non-government organisations. and Bosnia and Herzegovina. two chapters of the mutual agreement have been defined: a chapter on statistics and a chapter on rights. and the European Union mediated talks between Serbia and Montenegro. they do not have basic personal documents. The integration of internally displaced persons has not been systematically addressed by the government. In order to improve their situation. INTERNALLY DISPLACED AND DEPORTED PERSONS IN SERBIA 153 Serbian government mainly relied on the assistance of international donors. meaning that there are no government programs aimed at their integration. Until this strategy is ratified. the Ministry of Human and Minority Rights and the Migration. based on the free will of refugees.
can use. and promote social justice” (NASW Code of Ethics 1996). satisfy basic human needs. a true test of their courage. The Ministry for Human and Minority Rights. education) and how to realize them (however unrealizable they may be). Advocating these rights is a professional challenge for social workers. supported by the Swedish Embassy in Belgrade. The team consists of a lawyer and a social worker. and inform them about their basic rights (health insurance. legislative advocacy is one of the mechanisms that can improve the position of refugees and internally displaced and deported persons. Social workers cannot be politically neutral. This is one of the very few potentially powerful weapons that social workers. opened a readmission office at the Belgrade Airport in December 2005. Ideally. this readmission office only serves to reduce the strain caused by the immediate crisis situation and provide basic information. regardless of the country or region. The tasks of the profession of social work in this particular situation should include the creation of a social services’ network that would provide suitable and effective assistance. employment. they should stand for the users’ interests by changing the authorities’ system in order to improve social conditions. Social workers have an ethical obligation to serve as advocates on behalf of the rights and interests of marginalized groups such as refugees and internally displaced and deported persons. The formation of coalitions is required because individual efforts rarely result in changes. The living conditions and rights of the . The social worker’s task is to identify deported persons. and the principles of social justice in action. assess their basic needs. The regional organization of social workers and the establishment of professional coalitions and partnerships are ways to initiate desired changes. professional devotion. For this reason.154 M I R O S L AV B R K I Ć al documents and basic living resources and do not have the slightest idea how to integrate themselves into their new (old) environment. the readmission office would be a link to further support and assistance. together with refugees and displaced or deported persons. Since such systematic support is not provided. The social worker also disseminates information on local government and non-government services. they must be “aware of the influence they have on the political stage through their practice.
and deported persons in Serbia are a true test of the county’s tolerance. respect for diversity. equality. and commitment to democratic values. INTERNALLY DISPLACED AND DEPORTED PERSONS IN SERBIA 155 internally displaced.RE FUG E E S. . refugees.
Todorović L.) Government of the Republic of Serbia (2003). Godišnji izveštaj o stanju ljudskih prava prisilnih migranata. Milosavljević M. Ministry of Human and Minority Rights (2005). Strategija za smanjenje siromaštva Republike Srbije. Group 484 (2006).. OSCE (2005). Grad otvorenog srca: Beograd i izbeglice 1991-1996.net/news/archive (21. Beograd: Crveni Krst. Group 484 (2004). Belgrade: Norwegian Refugee Council. Country Summary for Croatia. 2006). Godišnji izveštaj o stanju ljudskih prava prisilnih migranata. Human Rights Watch (2006).09. Beograd: Group 484. Norwegian Refugee Council and IDMC (2005). Belgrade: International Committee of the Red Cross. Izveštaj o procesu readmisije. UNMIK-ove grube manipulacije brojkama.pdf (January.org/wr2k6/pdf/croatia. International Committee of the Red Cross (2005). Background Report On Refugee Return in Croatia and the Status of Implementation of the January 2005 Sarajevo Ministerial . Government of the Republic of Serbia (2004).156 M I R O S L AV B R K I Ć References ERP KIM (2004). Beograd: Group 484. Situacija interno raseljenih lica u Srbiji i Crnoj Gori. Human Rights Watch. (1998). Human Rights. Vlada Republike Srbije. IDPs from Kosovo: Stuck Between Uncertain Return Prospect and Denial of Local Integration. Beograd: Ministarstvo za ljudska i manjinska prava National Association of Social Workers (1996).kosovo. Washington: NASW Press. Croatia: A Decade of Disappointment Continuing Obstacles to the Reintegration of Serb Returnees. Code of Ethics. Beograd: Group 484. Siromaštvo i pristup pravima izbelih i raseljenih lica.2004. Zagreb: Human Rights Watch. Beograd: Vlada Republike Srbije. Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2006). Available on: http:// hrw. Kotal J. Nacionalna strategija za rešavanje problema izbeglica i raseljenih lica. Group 484 (2005). Available on: www.. Sarajevo: Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
INTERNALLY DISPLACED AND DEPORTED PERSONS IN SERBIA 157 Declaration On Refugee Returns.pdf (29. Siromaštvo u Srbiji. Internally Displaced Persons in Serbia and Montenegro (other than Kosovo) by Current Place of Asylum. UNMIK (2005). . WFP/CES MECON (2001). Available on: http://www.pdf (5.de/fileadmin/ proasyl/fm_redakteure/ Newsletter_Anhaenge/108/pdf_filename_ UNMIK_20Dez.07.01. Available on: http://www._202005.2006). Beograd: Group 484. Petronijević V.RE FUG E E S. Beograd: Centar za ekonomske studije.11. Problem azilantske zaštite .proasyl.2006). Available on: www. Office of Returns and Communities.osce.2005). UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999). Background Note on Forced Returns Policy. un.uporedna iskustva.htm (10. UNHCR (2005).org/Docs/scres/1999/sc99. (2005).org/ documents/mc/2005/07/15886_en. Belgrade: UNHCR.
from education to the labor market (Balibar 2004). Z5-7309-0591) funded by the Slovenian Research Agency (Javna agencija za raziskovalno dejavnosti Republike Slovenije.). I believe. these have changed significantly since the end of the cold war and the disintegration of Yugoslavia. Borders have taken over the country. resident permits and asylum. This article will examine the internal borders that currently define policies regarding citizenship. that this duality extends beyond Slovenia’s political and symbolic belonging. The simultaneous presence of both a national border and a new European Union border significantly broadens the gap between Slovenia and other states of the former Yugoslavia. they’ve extended into the interior. External borders determine internal ones. Slovenia has been a member of the European Union since 2004. and now run through local and state public services. a state which has a sort of dual identity. and have become essential for the functioning of state institutions. The situation surrounding visa requirements is quite telling: who needs a visa to travel to Slovenia? Citizens of the European Union or the United States.159 Jelka Zorn new borders. On the other hand. or those with whom Slovenes shared a country until recently? The price of this dual border is high. regardless of the complexity of actual situations (ibid. new exclusions Introduction1 This article focuses on Slovenia. and that Slovenia in fact has a dual border. Slovenia was once part of socialist or Tito’s Yugoslavia and as such shares historical characteristics with other states in the region. extremely high. . These personal legal statuses often 1 This article is part of the research project Transnational Citizenship (no. however. since the border is not merely a line that one must cross to enter Slovenia. from social services to health care. Of course this is a question of the concept of rights and thus concerns the very concrete rights of very concrete individuals.
for example. This is reflected in an emerging European citizenship which is evermore becoming a citizenship of borders. and political affiliations. Europe. should not be perceived as being external to Europe. to different readings of history. The ways in which persons perceived as foreign.). can be viewed as institutions where internal and external borders intersect – where different types of exclusion meet. . is diverse. but rather as a projection of European race relations. As a frontier of the European Union. political. Moreover. unfortunately. Slovenia. “The fate of European identity as a whole is being played out in the former Yugoslavia and more generally in the Balkans” (Balibar 2004: 6). economic. Detention centers for “aliens”. is a good example of the negative aspects of this conceptualization of citizenship and will allow me to show the ways in which many current problems pertain to the concept of borders. as defined by renowned French philosopher Étienne Balibar (2004). it has always been home to a number of different religious. which have stripped certain persons of their social. As Balibar wrote. immigrant or culturally different have been excluded will be described within the conceptual framework of borders. racism and oppression. linguistic. and to various views on relations with the rest of the world (ibid. The problem of the ethnic divisions and oppression that have accumulated in Slovenia and in the territory of the former Yugoslavia in general. and genealogical identity references. Here. and basic human rights – this happened with the erasure from the Register of Permanent Residents (see below). the Case of Ali berisha As I have already pointed out. linguistic. Slovenia provides an example of extreme oppression through administrative procedures.160 JELKA ZORN serve as vehicles for exclusion. like the former Yugoslavia. the external border has been reproduced in the form of internal boundaries within the notions of citizenship and asylum. the notion of race doesn’t have any content other than a historical mixture of religious. One of the problems is that the Balkan region is perceived as external to Europe and thus excluded from Europe. cultural.
along with his wife and children. The term erasure was developed post festum by the victims of this act to signify the cancellation of their legal resident statuses. where he had never even set foot prior to his deportation. Ali moved to Slovenia in 1985. To understand Ali Berisha’s situation. Born in Kosovo to a Roma family. where Ali had been a permanent resident before being unlawfully erased from the Register of Permanent Residents. Slovenia and Europe in general have to be explained.305 persons erased from the Register of Permanent Residence. the erasure Ali Berisha was one of the 18. NEW EXCLUSIONS 161 some of the “aliens” have been produced by the Slovene state in a very peculiar way. German authorities decided to deport Ali. In order to protect themselves from immediate deportation to Germany and thus to Kosovo. a father of five children and a human rights activist. The erasure was carried out in secret by the Ministry of the Interior. he was deported to Albania.NEW BORDERS. The term in secret refers to the fact that the erased were not notified about the change of their permanent resident status. In order to avoid yet another deportation. a man in his late thirties. when Slovenia’s citizenship policy was initially adopted. These legal statuses had been cancelled for all persons who did not become Slovene citizens in 1991 or 1992. both the erasure from the Register of Permanent Residence of Slovenia and issues pertaining to asylum in Germany. where he claimed asylum as a refugee from the former Yugoslavia. I would like to illustrate this by using the example of Ali Berisha. during routine visits to local administrative offices they were asked to present personal . to Kosovo. to his birthplace. Albanian authorities returned Ali to Slovenia. Ali illegally fled to Germany. the Berisha family applied for asylum in Slovenia. which took place in Slovenia in 1992. the predecessor to today’s detention center. after Slovenia had declared its sovereignty. and usually found out about the erasure only after they had suffered its consequences. where he was immediately placed in a Center for Aliens. The Berisha family decided to come to Slovenia. For example. In 2005. Seven years later.
the right to cross the state border. they were no longer able to drive. as their driver’s licences – issued in Slovenia – had been confiscated and destroyed by the . the erased could not legally cross the state border. in the eyes of the law they were equated with illegal immigrants (Dedić et al. some even experienced a physical torture (ibid. both as individuals and family members. The enforcement of the Aliens Act annulled all the rights they once possessed. As already mentioned. in Slovenia. Blitz 2006). Zorn 2005a. The cancellation of these persons’ permanent resident statuses stripped them of the right to live in Slovenia (in their homes with their families).). Some were deported and had great difficulty returning to their families in Slovenia. Some were forced to emigrate. Germany. Many suffered from constant fear of the police and other forms of psychological strain. and all other economic. 2003). Because Slovenia is a small country. 2003. Belgium. In contrast with other Slovene residents. Certain individuals were even detained and deported. and many of these persons have relatives and friends in other republics of the former Yugoslavia. Many lost the pensions which they had earned in Slovenia. and the newly established states in the region of the former Yugoslavia (Lipovec Čebron 2006). where until recently they had lived on equal footing with all other citizens. Furthermore. fleeing to Italy. these persons were not entitled to purchase the apartments (of collective ownership) in which they had lived (Lipovec Čebron 2006). social and political rights. which were confiscated and promptly destroyed. these persons were not eligible to receive social benefits. There are cases which resulted in death and even suicide due to insufficient health care and poverty (Dedić et al. These persons became de facto stateless. They were deprived of health insurance and were thus denied access to public health services. Some parents were separated from their children for months or even years.162 JELKA ZORN documents. Without legal status. this caused a great deal of grief and stress. Many not only lost their jobs but were also denied the possibility of looking for employment. This erasure greatly affected the lives of many. Some of the erased even went so far as to pretend to be refugees or asylum seekers in their home country.
The second possibility was created for those residents who had immigrated from other republics of the former Yugoslavia: they could only receive citizenship if they had filed an application (according to article . A clear example of a state’s production of illegality is the erasure. In Slovenia it was used against immigrants. These individuals had become de facto stateless: “Like Jews in Nazi Germany. a kind of sub-category of citizenship that at the time had no meaning. ethnic Slovenes. e. but rather produce it. this social or class discrimination have resulted in the production of illegality of residence. This erasure and similar examples make it very clear that states do not attempt to eliminate illegality. and show how this illegality is consequently used as a pretext for repressive measures (Balibar 2004). At this point it is necessary to go a bit further back in time in order to understand how the Aliens Act could have been applied to people who had lived in Slovenia for years. ius sanguinis principle). On the basis of this distinction. were automatically granted citizenship (i. but was to play a vital role in 1991. that is. republican citizenship. Moreover. Once this distinction had been established. the Erased existed within a state that had robbed them of their rights but still subjected them to its jurisdiction” (Blitz 2006: 454). those citizens who had been registered in the Slovene citizenship book. it could be manipulated in a number of ways. The 1974 Yugoslav constitution introduced a special legal status. The legal foundation of this exclusion lies in the administrative ethnic categorisation of citizens of the former Yugoslavia. NEW EXCLUSIONS 163 authorities. emphasis as in the original). First. the citizenship policy of the new state provided two legal possibilities for acquiring citizenship status. together with the institutional practices that are their result (Balibar 2004: 109. that borders “have been transported into the middle of political space”. as Balibar wrote. “In other times we would have called this their ‘class function’” (ibid. It is true.NEW BORDERS.: 113). The possibility of attaining new legal residence was in most cases limited to persons with privileged economic status. The case of the erased shows how borders are in the function of social or class discrimination.
thus concealing and distorting the experiences of the erased (ibid.164 JELKA ZORN 40 of the Citizenship Act. All official Roma-related discourse in Slovenia and most legislation related to Roma.305 persons. 1992 (Dedić et al. In a public discourse Slovene citizenship was treated as if it were a privilege and not a right. i.000 of the so-called “non-autochthonous” (Perić 2001: 35). manifested as “anti-balkanism”.000 people (out of a population of 2 million) acquired Slovene citizenship in this manner. There are no available statistics of the numbers of the later. that is. it . 1970s and 1980s. pejoratively referred to as “Southerners”. Asylum seekers Roma. approximately 171. became widespread and normalised in society after Slovenia had gained its independence. This kind of racism.). racism is understood as in Balibar’s notion (1991) of “racism without races”.2 Ali Beri2 Beside the erasure there are other highly problematic issues such as the concept of “autochthonous” and “non-autochthonous” Roma. 2003). it has been estimated that there were about 2. “race” as a symbolic status of otherness and not merely as the colour of one’s skin. 2003). These individuals were erased from the Register of Permanent Residents on February 26. however. They also estimate that at least two thirds of this group does not have Slovene citizenship (ibid. Most residents of non-Slovene ethnic origin. while the “non-autochthonous” Roma are understood to be those who came as economic migrants from other parts of former Yugoslavia in the 1960s. which implies that they were alien to Slovene “culture” (Blitz 2006: 459). has addressed only the so-called “autochthonous” Roma (ibid. a total of 18. which is almost 1% of the Slovene population. A new bill on Roma community omits the legal discrimination on the basis of autochthonity and non-autochthonity.).). either did not apply for citizenship or had their application rejected. e.500 to 3. one of the ethnic minorities in Slovenia were greatly affected by this erasure. The erased included a wide range of diverse individuals whose only unifying factor was the perception of these individuals as non-Slovenes. The term has been commonly held to refer to those Roma whose families have lived in Slovenia for more that a century. however the Romani activists estimate that there might be about 2. However. The ideological background which made this erasure possible and effective was racism. Here.000 Roma individuals among the erased (Perić 2001). hate speech against immigrants even included public discussions about the revision and withdrawal of their lawfully acquired citizenship statuses (Dedić et al. For example. ius domicili principle). introduced and used by Slovene officials.
whereby almost all refugees were forced to return (Kreickenbaum 2003). a kind of tolerated status. as well as in Slovenia and other European Union countries. The Berisha family applied for asylum but were nonetheless marked for deportation in 2005. anti-deportation campaigners were successful. temporary suspension of deportation). if someone applies for asylum in Germany.137 people were forcibly removed (Europa 2005). he had what the German law calls “Duldung” (i. For example. The source of this number is Proasyl 2005. key asylum and migration strategies revolve around detention and deportation. the German government signed an agreement with Yugoslavia (now the Republic of Serbia). In order to fully grasp the vulnerability of Berisha family’s position. the Berisha family managed to avoid deportation from Germany to Kosovo. instead. between 2002 and 2004. only a small number of asylum applications are approved. NEW EXCLUSIONS 165 sha is one of them. According to the European Commission report the number of forced deportations from Germany in 2002. Slovenian authorities justified their decision to return the family to Germany by citing the Dublin convention (RTV Slovenia 2006). In 2002. In three year time. the matter is to be resolved in Germany. Like many other refugees from the former Yugoslavia. But Slovenia attempted to send them back to Germany – the Ministry of the Interior issued two decisions (in 2005 and 2006) without the possibility of appeal. e. about 72. Fleeing to Slovenia.000 refugees or asylum seekers were removed from Germany.NEW BORDERS. for instance. This means that on average 65 persons per day were deported. . On both occasions. the issue of asylum must be critically examined. he fled to Germany in order to avoid being deported yet again. In Germany. and in Slovenia this percentage of refugees approved for asylum status is even lower (Zorn 2006). After being erased and deported from Slovenia. This document states that asylum applications are to be considered and decided upon within the state in which they were initially filed. Afghanistan and Iraq. Not only does this convention allow human beings to be shuffled around as if they were furniture and 3 does not deal with the issues of the erasure or Roma individuals without citizenship. in Germany only about 4.2 % of asylum applications are resolved in favour of refugees (Kreickenbaum 2003). 2003 and 2004 is even higher: they estimate that 77.3 most of them to Kosovo.
and 2. meaning that asylum seekers rejected in one state have been rejected in the entire European Union. In the UK. For example. and strip them of economic. visa requirements) (Gibney 2006). non-arrival measures are becoming even tighter and have even begun to extend beyond the borders of the European Union (Gibney 2006). in the UK. and basic human rights. e.4 In the same period of time.700 persons were removed over three years (from 2002 to 2004).000) people were forcibly removed from the European Union states. The institution of the asylum has been further distorted by non-arrival measures (i. threaten their health and even their lives. At the EU summit in Thessaloniki. Afghanistan and Iraq. According to the European Commission report. nearly 50.5 This means that on average 7 persons per day were removed from Slovenia. political. but it also constructs the European Union as single entity. About 500 deaths due to illegal border crossings have been reported in each of the last ten years.200 persons were removed from Slovenia. and 10% were granted humanitarian protection or discretionary leave to remain (Home Office 2006).166 JELKA ZORN give precedent to states’ interests over the rights of people. approximately 8. 7% of applicants were granted asylum. most often to the same countries mentioned above: Serbia and Montenegro. which means that they were handed over to the police of those countries (Policija 2006). In 2005 in Slovenia there were 767 persons deported to their countries of origin.024 were returned to the countries from which they had arrived. In spite of these tragic consequences. although current trends are more or less uniform throughout the Europe (Europa 2005).685 principal asylum applicants removed from the UK. . The European Commission (ibid. Greece in June 2003. social. various ministers and vice presi4 5 For example in 2005 there were 15.) estimates that in these 3 years more than half a million (520. These measures result in unauthorised or illegal border crossings which cost lives and money. Illegal border crossings degrade people and stigmatize them as unwanted and redundant. This means that on average 475 persons per day were deported. this number would be even higher if we took into account all the cases that go unreported (Zorn 2005b). Germany has the highest number of deportations. This means that on average 46 persons per day were deported from the UK.
but also in discourse on human rights. in 2005 1.6 Data about how many asylum seekers are detained every year in the whole Europe is not available. with an emphasis on the establishment of closer ties with transit countries and countries of origin of refugees (Proasyl 2005). but the constantly rising number of detention centers can give us some idea: in the countries of the European Union. there are currently 178 detention centres for asylum seekers and undocumented immigrants (Zorn 2006). while the number of detained and deported persons has risen. NEW EXCLUSIONS 167 dents approved an expenditure of nearly 400 million Euros in order to further extend European border protection. The only available data is the number of persons detained on a given day: for example. Each of the last few years has seen about 20 % fewer asylum applications than the year before (Slovenia is the only exception to this rule). The first case concerns the protection of the rights of “real” refugees as opposed to “bogus” asylum seekers. One could argue that asylum no longer exists in Europe. The discourse on “real” versus “bogus” is a political invention which slanders and vilifies all asylum seekers. I would like to use two cases to point this out. For example. Human rights discourse as an attempt to normalise restrictive measures The normalization of restrictive measures has found support not only in anti-terrorist and ethnic conflict prevention discourse. it should come as no surprise that the number of asylum seekers has been drastically reduced in recent years.NEW BORDERS. Another figure that shows the extent and normalisation of extremely repressive measures that target refugees and immigrants is the use of detention.639 persons were detained in Slovenia. Therefore. in the countries of the European Union the number of asylum applications has decreased. on the last day of December 2005 there were 1. seeing as Geneva refugee status has become so restricted and detention and deportations so widespread (Lipovec Čebron 2006). In general. These detention centres are prison. . the deportation of “bogus” asylum seekers is justified 6 The UK for example doesn’t keep a record of annual detainee figures (Welch and Schuster 2005). According to the Slovene and other European governments. but prisons for people that have committed no crime. including 30 minors (Home Office 2006).950 persons detained across the UK among these there were 1.450 asylum seekers.
by the protection and rights granted to “real” refugees. Promoting respect for the human rights of the “real” refugees has become a pretext for the oppression of other refugees who, according to the government’s criteria, have not been sufficiently tortured to be recognized as Geneva Convention refugees. Both deterrence measures and a culture of disbelief have become key elements of asylum (cf. Humphries 2004). The well known Convention on Common Minimal Standards in European Asylum Policy from 2003, if considered from the perspective of asylum seekers, should instead be titled Standards of Maximum Deterrence (Kopp 2003). The second case of the discourse on human rights pertains to detention and deportation. European directives on this matter paint a paradoxical picture: they clearly state that detention and removals must respect basic human rights, but do not question detention and removals as such (Zorn 2007). Let’s return to the case of Ali Berisha: he moved to Slovenia in 1985 and fled to Germany in 1993 (because he was not allowed to remain in Slovenia). He has not been to Kosovo (his birthplace) in more than 20 years; his children have never been there, and have no desire to go there. According to the European directives, their human rights would have to be respected during detention and deportation, but the deportation itself – after 12 years in Germany, where his children attended school – would not be a violation of human rights. No matter how courteously and respectfully refugees are treated during detention and deportation, at the end of the day they are still deported: they find themselves in a hostile or even, to some, alien world, without any possibility of integration, and without any guarantee of a life free of violence and extreme poverty (cf. Brkić in this book). If he were deported, Ali Berisha would have start from scratch for the third time in his life. As Hannah Arendt, herself a Jewish refugee from Germany, wrote 60 years ago: the most unfortunate circumstance refugees and other immigrants experience is not necessarily the loss of home and the entire social environment they are attached to – although already this is heavy enough; even more unfortunate is the lack of the possibility of finding a new home and a new community of their own (Arendt 1967). The result of common European policy is that Ali is no longer welcome anywhere.
NEW BORDERS, NEW EXCLUSIONS
If we examine common European migration and asylum policies, we will see that the erasure from the Register of Permanent Residents of Slovenia in fact does not contradict current European principles; the difference is that the erasure has been officially recognised as unconstitutional,7 whereas detention and deportation from European countries have not. The Struggle for Regularisation: Re-inventing Citizenship and Asylum in europe The situation of formal inequality and oppression described above could be defined as an emerging European apartheid. This apartheid, however, is being constantly challenged by resistance that is emerging both locally and globally. The Erased, asylum seekers and the undocumented are important protagonists in the transnational struggle for social justice and citizenship rights. This struggle itself is a manifestation of active citizenship; it is actively creating a new type of political subjectivity (Sassen 2006). Despite their lack of legal status, the Erased are involved in public matters and thus participate in the creation of citizenship and democracy (cf. Balibar 2004). They formally do not belong to the communities in which they live, but instead form an indispensable part of a community acting in solidarity beyond national frames of reference (ibid.). As Balibar wrote: “We are not ‘citizens’, but we can ‘become’ citizens; we can enter into one or several processes of the creation of citizenship. And we enter all the more deeply into them the more numerous and more different (I would almost say the more divergent) we are” (Balibar 2004: 199, emphasis as in the original). The struggle of Slovenia’s Erased is encouraging and inspiring. It took 10 years, however, for the truth to come out; for individuals to meet and share their experiences and for them to recognize that their erasure was a collective, ethnically motivated act of hatred and not merely an accumulation of individual administrative errors. Today their struggle is growing even stronger. After several years of campaigning in Slovenia and abroad, the Erased and their support7
The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia ruled in 1999 and 2003 that the erasure from the Register of Permanent Residents is in violation of the Constitution.
ers have adopted a more strategic approach to their situation. In July 2006, they filed (with the help of Italian human rights advocates) a lawsuit against Slovenia with the European Court for Human Rights in Strasbourg. To strengthen their case and make their struggle visible and politically relevant, the Erased and their supporters created an event called the “Caravan of the Erased”. This was a 4-day bus trip across Europe to Brussels, where their case was presented to the European Parliament. On the way to Brussels, the caravan stopped in Trieste, Monfalcone and Paris to meet members of the Italian regional Parliament and French Parliament, trade union organisation and Sans Papier activists. All these groups and institutions welcomed our8 struggle and offered their support. The journey of 46 very different individuals (in terms of age, social and ethnic background etc.) travelling together was a moving experience and gained a great deal of media support. The purpose of the campaign is to see justice served in this and similar cases. This is to demand not only the re-registration of the Erased and compensation for the rights they lost, but also a change that would be more profound and widespread: “We demand a reinvention of belonging, and access to full citizenship rights in Europe” (Dostje! 2006). Hopefully the caravan has made a contribution to intensify the conflict surrounding issues of belonging, and brought this conflict to the highest spheres of political authority in the EU. The Erased and their supporters believe that, if justice will be won, they will have made a small but important contribution to the fight for citizenship rights of other immigrant groups and asylum seekers in Europe (Lipovec Čebron 2006). Therefore a key to this struggle is the development of solidarity networks with other oppressed groups. Much like exploited workers, for instance, who themselves are often immigrants, the Erased are a symptom of neo-liberal politics and policies. Only together, through mutual activities and solidarity, we can become powerful enough to fight neo-liberalism and its other face, racism. Social work As far as social work is concerned, and social justice is its core
Author of this article is among the supporters of the Erased and has attended the Caravan of the Erased.
NEW BORDERS, NEW EXCLUSIONS
value, I believe that the struggle for the right to stay, that is, for the regularisation of all people living in our communities, should be on every social worker’s agenda. This is easier said than done, since social workers are almost never completely independent and autonomous employees, answering solely to professional ethics and values, but rather find themselves having to comply with demands and objectives which can significantly detract them from a commitment to justice and the social services user’s perspective. Those considered undocumented immigrants are detained in prison-like institutions, whereas asylum seekers live in semi-open, but nonetheless completely segregated type of housing. The Ministry of Interior, a governmental body responsible for the implementation of asylum and immigration policies, has incorporated a certain type of social work within the Asylum Home and Detention Centre. The Ministry and the Police have ultimate authority, which means that social work cannot function independently. The role of social services is more or less limited to issues of everyday survival and interpersonal relations of the housed asylum seekers and immigrants. The key issue of the right to remain in Slovenia is therefore out of the social workers’ hands. It seems that in these repressive environments the task of social workers is highly limited: it is more about making utterly inhumane practices such as segregation, detention and deportation look as humane as possible than engaging in the social service users’ perspective (advocating their rights and responding to their essential needs). The issues pertaining to social work with asylum seekers and immigrants demand more than individual social worker’s commitment since prevailing police conceptualisations resulting in practices of segregation and detention need to be challenged. The way we conceptualise issues reflects our practices, policies, and even legislation. The social work community needs to act in unison as a pressure group to fight inequalities on the individual, collective and structural levels. Forming alliances and networks with movements for global justice (the struggle of the Erased in Slovenia, for example) can empower members of oppressed groups and help to create sufficient pressure for adopting measures aimed at generating a more egalitarian and inclusive
society. This would also enable social workers to assist individuals and families in finding their new home in Slovenia instead, as it is currently the case, social workers assist people in coping with their detention and deportation. Conclusion Even though there were no illegal residents in the former Yugoslavia, one can hardly imagine that Ali Berisha lived a life free of discrimination and oppression. Due to traditionally negative attitudes and stereotypes, as well as Roma’s political and cultural invisibility, he faced oppression as a member of the Roma community. It is also well known that internal immigrants from other republics of the former Yugoslavia were constructed as a cultural Other, especially in the 1980’s, and were often targets of nationalism and racism, which were on the rise at that time. Oppression functioned through stereotyping and prejudice aimed at both internal economic immigrants and Roma communities. Following the disintegration of Yugoslavia, racism underwent a significant metamorphosis. New forms of exclusion were added to the oppression which already existed. The construction of cultural otherness and stereotypes pertaining to skin colour have been enhanced; racist communities have learned to use legal measures to achieve segregation and exclusion. In response, social work must explore these problems and create practices that will confront and overcome these new forms of exploitation and exclusion. Therefore, social work must not only look for ways to challenge a role that has been, in some cases, imposed on social workers (assisting with detention and deportation), but also, and above all, seek ways to change the whole situation of global inequality that is reflected in Europe’s immigration and asylum policies. This requires both an understanding of how racism in today’s Europe functions by erecting administrative borders around and within countries and research into the experiences and knowledge of the (potential) users of social services, in this case immigrants, asylum seekers, and the Erased.
The Oxford Amnesty Lectures 2004. (2006). UK: Oxford University Press (139-169). M.homeoffice.info/ texte/english/European_Asylum_Policy_04. (2003). Princeton. European Asylum Policy. Insufficient: Governmental Programs for Roma in . Kreickenbaum. Minimum Standards – Maximum Deterrence. É.wsws.2006). J. org/articles/2003/aug2003/asyl-08_prn.11. (2003).11. and Wallerstein I. Lipovec Čebron. Statelessness and the Social (De)Construction of Citizenship: Political Restructuring and Ethnic Discrimination in Slovenia. NEW EXCLUSIONS 173 References Arendt. We.2006). Kopp. K.dostje. É.3. U. Ljubljana: Peace Institute. Perić. J.11. Displacement.pdf (15. do?reference=MEMO/05/288&format=HTML&adged (12. Available on: www. 21. Personal conversation.) An Unacceptable Role for Social Work: Implementing Immigration Policy. The Erased.gov. Humphries. Asylum. Blitz. Is There a “Neo-Racism”?. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Balibar. Home Office (2006). Available on: www. K. H. New York: Verso. Zorn. Available on: www. British Journal of Social Work. É.htm (12. M.). 5..uk/rds/ pdfs06/hosb1406.2006). London.11.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction. In: World Socialist Web Site. T. (2006). United Kingdom 2005. the People of Europe? Reflections on Transnational Citizenship. (2001). (2003). (2004. In: Tunstall.2006. Asylum Statistics. (1967). Class: Ambiguous Identities. Dedić. Journal of Human Rights.proasyl. 453-479. Migration. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.NEW BORDERS. B.2006). Nation. Dostje! (2006). Home Office Statistical Bulletin. Oxford: Princeton University Press. Race. Europa (2005): Available on: http://europa. (ed. in Proasyl. Organised Innocence and the Politics of Exclusion. www. 34. (2006). K. (1991). Balibar.shtml (12. Jalušič V. (2004). 93-107. In: Balibar. Gibney.. E. Germany: Fewer asylum seekers and more deportations..org (15/3/2007). J. B.“A Thousand Little Guantanamos”: Western States and Measures to Prevent the Arrival of Refugees.
(ed.info/texte/english/ Newsletter/2005_June. J. Detention of asylum seekers in the US. 331-355. (2005). Strategije izključevanja begunk. Available on: www.pdf (14. M. UK: Oxford University Press. Quarterly Journal of the European Roma Rights Center. Zorn.htm (12. pridrževanje in deportacije. . Borders. I. France.. 2/3. K. Zorn. (2006). 176-203. Asylum. 117-144. 135-152.si/si/ statistika/lp/2005/lp2005. Sage.11. Proasyl (2005). Zorn. 34–49. In: Tunstall.si/modload. Pravni zapleti ob vrnitvi Berishe. Schuster L. Migration. Od izjeme do norme: centri za tujce. London. UK: Venture Press.). Roma Rights.2006). 226. Ferguson.2006). Ethnic Citizenship in the Slovenian State. The Oxford Amnesty Lectures 2004. Germany. Displacement. M. In: Lavalette. J. 54-73. (2005b). S. Letno poročilo 2005.). Thousand Oaks and New Delhi. E. International Social Work and the Radical Tradition. 259-275.policija. J. Zorn. Citizenship Studies.proasyl. Welch.2006). 4/5. (2005a). beguncev oziroma prosilcev za azil in oseb brez statusa.. RTV Slovenia (2006). in: Criminal Justice.174 JELKA ZORN Slovenia. Available on: www. Časopis za kritiko znanosti.rtvslo. Exclusions and Resistance: The case of Slovenia.11. (2007). The Repositioning of Citizenship and Alienage: Emergent Subjects and Spaces for Politics.11. 2. (2006). UK.php?&c_mod=rnews&op=sections&func=read &c_menu=1&c_id=125492 (12. Policija (2005). Available on: www. Socialno delo. and Italy: A critical view of the globalizing culture of control. (eds. Sassen. J.
Issues of ethnic and/or cultural diversity were not foregrounded and workforce immigration was viewed as temporary. would work in Europe for a few years and then return to their home countries. who were very much welcome during . It was assumed that workers. and consequently the discussion of these issues is also new to social work training. which meant that “guest workers” (another German euphemism for workforce immigrants) could turn to the advice centres of large independent welfare associations if they encountered difficulties. This “rotation principle” was the basis. to be replaced in turn by others. who mainly came from countries bordering the Mediterranean. This also applied to refugees from eastern bloc countries. of Germany’s “foreigner policy”. Although immigration has been ongoing since the early 1960s – or earlier in the case of certain former colonial nations such as France and Great Britain – predominantly in the form of workforce migration. The consequence of this was that no political or social attempts at integration were made. for example. responsibilities were assigned along religious lines. “support for foreigners” was a common concept. Those who came to Germany were simply expected to adapt. For the sake of simplicity. Caritas was to offer support to Catholics (Italians and Spaniards). In a similar vain. as it was officially known. the Protestant Diakonisches Werk to those from the former Yugoslavia and Greece.175 Christine Labonté-Roset ethnicity and Intercultural Practice in social Work Curricula Social work addressing the issues of ethnic minorities is a comparatively recent development. most European countries viewed themselves as nations with homogeneous populations until the end of the 1970s. and the non-denominational Arbeiterwohlfahrt (Workers’ Welfare) to Moslem Turks.
Anyone who had been involved with these issues. still differences between countries. she analyses with a rare clarity the failed integration of workforce immigrants. realized this much earlier. It was not until the 1980s and 1990s that the highly visible multiculturalism of our societies was publicly discussed.176 CHRISTINE LABONTÉ-ROSET the Cold-War Europe. but were prevented from doing so. sensitive ways to tackle the issues of ethnic minorities have been developed. which has grown into a mass movement. The fact that this does not guarantee the full integration of immigrants into the host society was dramatically illustrated by the riots in the outskirts of French cities. however. Starting with the story of her own family she shows that. until recently many German politicians denied that Germany is a country of immigration. was supposed to make conflict a thing of the past. Everyone was equal before the law and had the same rights and obligations. however. For instance. Ni Soumises movement founded by Fadéla Amara. while the first generation tended to be more isolated and hoped to return to their homeland. this played a considerable part in the formation of blocs during the Cold War (Lorenz 2006). At this point it is worth mentioning the Ni Putes. as they were proof of the lack of freedom within the eastern bloc. subsequent generations wanted to integrate via education and employment. as they were the first to be affected by the mass unemployment of the 1990s (Amara 2004). Furthermore. the reconciliation of “arch enemies”. In France it was argued that there were no ethnic minorities because nationality laws state that anyone born in the country has the right to French citizenship. Naturally. This first occurred through an analysis of the existing situation of ethnic minorities that had immigrated to the . The parallel process of Europeanisation had other causes. such as France and Germany. What effect did the realisation that we are living in multicultural societies have on the study and practice of social work? Over the past 20 years new. There were. In her book of the same title. The creation of the European Economic Community was intended to strengthen the European economic sector in the face of other economic superpowers such as the USA.
These were given different names in different countries. and also via new forms of social work developed on the basis of this analysis. including antioppressive practice” (Lyons. via the anti-oppressive social worker. particularly after rightwing and explicitly anti-foreigner parties such as the Danish Dansk Folkeparti had had election success. has allowed the state to reposition itself once again as a benign provider of welfare.E THNI CI T Y AND INTERCULTURAL PRACTICE IN SOCIAL WORK CURRICULA 177 country. “culture” was often viewed as fixed and static. it is usually dealt with under the heading of “social exclusion”. rather than being a challenge to the state. such as the disabled. At least in the early stages. including anti-racist or anti-oppressive social work or inter-cultural work. Manion 2004: 81). serious criticism has been levelled at antioppressive practice. Dominelli 2002). although it occasionally gave rise to uncritical ideas about a multicultural coexistence in which all groups can mutually enrich one and other. In the Netherlands. the inequality of power between the majority and minority and their respective socio-economic situations were not given sufficient consideration. claiming that it does not take into account the respective conditions under which it is carried out. Subsequently. is able to enforce new moral codes of behaviour on the recipients of welfare.” In other European countries. which. All British curricula include a main focus on “ethics and values. It was not until recently that structural affinities between ethnic minorities and other social minorities. Great Britain has been a pioneer in this field. The latter mainly addresses the coexistence of the majority and minorities in a society. or of those that had been there for a longer period of time such as Roma (Rommelspacher 1999. Kenneth McLaughlin (2005: 286) expresses this as follows: “Anti-oppressive social work. was able to pass . the party. became a topic of discussion. Recently. the status of this topic varies greatly. Bergold 2002). Also. Aluffi-Pentini 1995. however. In Scandinavian countries it has only recently been acknowledged as an important topic. and forms of “anti-racist” or “anti-oppressive social work” developed there have influenced the development of similar theory and practice in other countries (Lorenz. as a supporter of the governing liberal party after 2001.
inter-cultural social work is now an integral part of the curricula of social work study programmes. 2006 read: Little social work research has been done specifically on migrant perspectives and experiences in social and health care services or developing conceptual frameworks that tackle these complex issues. For instance. In Masters programmes that deal with European social policy. such as the MACESS (Comparative European Social Studies) joint Masters programme. There are few welfare professionals or social work researchers from ethnic minorities or migrant backgrounds in Finland and cultural competence has not yet been introduced as a core element of social work curricula (Clarke 2006: 1). the topic is dealt with more in the context of globalisation and less in terms of indigenous ethnic minorities (Lasonen 2005).178 CHRISTINE LABONTÉ-ROSET highly restrictive laws targeting immigrants (Mason 2004). Spain. At my own university we have a “Diversity . at least in Finnish social work research. the topic is dealt with under the heading of “marginalisation and social exclusion”. which had been countries of emigration for a long time. for example at the University of Barcelona. such as Finland. but in all of these countries the indigenous Sami exist as a minority. In Belgium. In the context of human rights. The topic now seems to be becoming more significant. In other Nordic countries. and similar to other Scandinavian countries. and Portugal. the subject of inter-cultural coexistence has been taken more seriously since the success of the Vlaamse Block. which is without a doubt also related to the fact that Spain is one of the countries most affected by so-called “illegal” immigration. In many countries. courses of this type can occasionally be found in social work study programmes. At the same time. In Germany. this is partly due to the fact that in recent years working groups of the Fakultätentag für Soziale Arbeit (Association of Schools of Social Work) have focused on this topic. the number of workforce migrants here is low compared to central European countries. This topic is more likely to be found in training in Spain. still have difficulties with this topic in social work research. depending on whether this is a practical or research speciality of the individual teaching staff. Southern European countries such as Italy. mainly from Africa. the notice for a conference in May. too. the question of full citizens’ rights for immigrants and their dependants is at least broached.
from academic social work to the health-care sector etc. students from 30 countries have participated. sometimes in an aggressive manner. with the subgroups “intercultural work” and “Gender and queer studies”. these topics are not satisfactorily covered in many curricula in Europe. in this subject area. In the main study programme we provide project seminars lasting four semesters. for example. This study programme arose mainly from our experiences with establishing or restructuring social work faculties after the Balkan war and the disintegration of Yugoslavia into individual countries. which to my mind is unique in Europe. The focal points of the curriculum included international law and human rights and diversity training and mediation. a queer topic should be dealt with in all areas. and with the fact that ethnic minorities have started demanding their full rights to participation. In summary. the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) financed the establishment of the course. Nonetheless.This is also to do with the increase and success of racist parties and groups in most European countries. which can also be seen in the appearance of various conferences on the subject. This is partly to do with the fact that the multiculturalism of European societies has become obvious. To date. including a four-month practice period. Since 2000 we have been offering an English-language Masters programme “Inter-Cultural Conflict Management”. over 40% of children and young people have a migrant background (Labonté-Roset 2006) . Similar to the gender issue. it can be said that issues of multicultural societies in social work training have gained ground in recent years.E THNI CI T Y AND INTERCULTURAL PRACTICE IN SOCIAL WORK CURRICULA 179 Studies” module in the foundation course. . In the first three years. and the percentage of immigrants is constantly increasing. as in France. at least in the cities – in Berlin.
Dominanzkultur. In: Hamburger. (2002). Education for the Social Professions in the United Kingdom. Ist die Berliner Politik gerecht? Die Tageszeitung. F. Anti-oppressive Social Work Theory and Practice. Paris: La Découverte Poche. 10/9/2006. Lasonen. Feindbilder und Verständigung. 18. Frankfurt am Main: ISSEigenverlag.. (2005). From ridicule to institutionalization: antioppression. Grundfragen der politischen Psychologie. In: Campanini. et al. Opladen: Leske + Budrich.. Rommelspacher. 4. Hampshire. W. Dominelli. 25. Palgrave: Macmillan.). Higher Education Policy. Lorenz. Bergold. (2006). 283-305. p. F. Band 1. Clarke. Ausbildung für soziale Berufe in Europa.11. the state and social work. T. Dorset: Russell House. From the Birth of the Nation State to the impact of Globalisation.) (1995). E. (2004). Rome: Carocci McLaughlin. uta. (2005). Manion. 3. Texte zur Fremdheit und Macht. A. European Social Work. C. Réflexions sur l’interculturalité par rapport à l’éducation et au travail. Leverkusen Opladen: B.). K. (2004). Commonalities and Differences. (2006). K. (1999). B. Labonté-Roset. Anti-racist Work with Young People. K. Mason. Aluffi-Pentini. Göttingen: Lamur Verlag.fi (22. (eds. 27. Frost. Available on: www.180 CHRISTINE LABONTÉ-ROSET References Amara.2006). L. (eds. (2002). Budrich Publishers Lyons. J. Migrant Community Research in Finland: New Perspectives in Producing Social Work Knowledge. Ni Putes. (2006). Perspectives on European Social Work. 54-66. W. Ni Soumises. Lorenz. Critical Social Policy. (2004). J. Denmark. (eds. A. .. K.
Yugoslavs 5.1 1 Bosnia and Herzegovina has a population of 4.181 Milanka Miković and Udžejna Habul The Effects of Ethnic Divisions on Social Work Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina Introduction With the secession of the Republic of Slovenia from the former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia in late 1991. according to 2001 estimates. . Previous values such as brotherhood and unity were paradoxically transformed into hatred. Croatian and Serbian (Mayer. Nash 2002). Also. Even die hard utopists could no longer believe in the survival of “Tito’s Yugoslavia”. serious errors are possible in light of the displacement of the masses as a result of military activity and ethnic cleansing. The independence of the Republics of Slovenia and Croatia led to an independence referendum in the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. others 2. Bosnia and Herzegovina was inhabited by the following ethnic groups: Bosniaks 44%. thanks to a multiethnic system which scattered people such a way that this imaginary melting pot of religions and peoples could no longer be sustained. fueled by older Balkan divisions. partly to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim as a follower of Islam). The unpredictable effects of unleashed savage passions led a country which had been “normal” until this point into a war of everyone against everyone and a clash of everything against everything.5%.5%. The idea of independence for all the republics of the former Yugoslavia was irreversibly bringing about circumstances in which chaos. through which this small European country in the middle of the Balkan peninsula gained independence and became a member of the United Nations in 1992. Croats 17%.3 million.” the referendum and consequent independence produced a division of the peoples of Bosnia which was marked by the atrocities of a fratricidal war. as a census of the population has not been carried out since 1991. Serbs 31%. According to the 1991 census. (The term “Bosniak” replaced the term “Muslim” as an ethnic term. was to ultimately prevail. Languages used are: Bosnian. In line with its description as a “small Yugoslavia. it became evident that disintegration along the lines of inter-republic borders was inevitable. The data should be viewed cum grano salis.
in communities inhabited. For example. This peace often resembles a war after a war. for example. respect for others. and even the murder of returnees are an everyday occurrence in contemporary Bosnian society. along with reforms in the economic and civil sectors which would provide the foundation for a refugee policy and create opportunities for the exercise of the various rights of ethnic groups (Mayer. Simply put. especially frightening is the destruction of almost all religious buildings belonging to the Moslem community in Bosnian Serb controlled areas during the war (Association of Citizens from Five Municipalities of Bosanska Krajina 1995).182 MILANKA MIKOVIĆ AND UDŽEJNA HABUL Those famous words. The war ended with the Dayton Agreement in December 1995. Nash 2002). Such a conclusion led to a period of European integration which can only be described as agonizing. This situation calls for the strengthening of the rule of law. depending on national i. the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska.” is often strategically obstructed even today. 12 years after the end of the war. The return of displaced and expelled residents of different ethnic backgrounds. alienated forms of education are “normal” and are reflected in national divisions in the educational system. The return of refugees of different ethnic background to their prewar residences. as a result of divisions along ethnic lines. In such circumstances. “nothing is as it used to be”. and the belief that one’s neighbor is more important than one’s brother. threats. the majority of which had been “ethnically cleansed. students study cer- . The inability to find work. and with a definite division of the country into two entities. Fierce attacks have been carried out against the traditional Bosnian values of tolerance. ethnic supremacy.e. remains obstructed and very slow. In Bosnia and Herzegovina this is customarily called “two schools under the same roof. by a majority of the Croatian population.” The presence of nationalistic ideology in curricula is another reason for this phenomenon. can be applied to Bosnia and Herzegovina today. religious buildings belonging to other groups were razed to the ground. It would seem that the masterminds of Bosnia’s destruction had vehemently insisted on the annihilation of moral and ethnic values. “Voluntary” resettlement and forceful expulsion during the war (Mazowijecki 1995) has resulted in a large number of ethnically pure territories in both regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina (see below). lawlessness. whereby children of different ethnicities. do not end up in the same class.
etc. University of Mostar in the east (“Muslim part of the town”) and University of Mostar in the west (“Croat part of the town”). from different textbooks than those used by students of Bosniak or Serb ethnic backgrounds. east (“Serb”) and west (“Muslim”) Sarajevo. but around the extremely complex social situation in a country which is characterized by poverty. Divisions also occur in the selection and hiring of teachers. This has effected the education of social workers. east and west. where the fifth class of students was enrolled in the 2006/07 academic year. and Tuzla. at the University of Podgorica Law School. such as history. free from the demagogic notions of ethnic divisions. and also around an increasing interest in these studies among young people... This can be discerned in the decision of parliamentary and university authorities to establish a Department of Social Work (2003) in Montenegro. In Bosnia and Herzegovina we find two universities in the same city. besides Belgrade. This is especially true because this is a unique phenomenon in the region. should not be structured exclusively around ethnic divisions. A similar model can be found only in Serbia and Kosovo. This phenomenon is particularly present in some parts of western Herzegovina and central Bosnia. 2 Along with Banja Luka. where the third class was enrolled. 152 students enrolled). These relations hinder the return of minority ethnic groups and compel young people to leave the country for good. 183 tain subjects. when 72 students were enrolled).THE EFFECTS OF ETHNIC DIVISONS ON S OCIAL WORK EDUCATION. It should be noted that the recently established Department of Social Work in Banja Luka (founded in 2000. the existence of social work studies in three of eight Universities cannot be viewed using objective criteria. Furthermore. whose division is signified by the two sides of the world. where. “Croat” children in these communities are taught almost exclusively by Croat teachers.2 Nonetheless. The situation in elementary and high school education is inevitably reflected in higher education. and “Bosniak” and “Serb” children by Bosniak and Serb teachers. it appears that cities with their own social work education programs are in the state’s interest. as well as the Department of Social Work at the University of Tuzla (2004. in Sarajevo a total of 327 students were enrolled in 2006/07 (162 full-time and 165 part-time students). social work studies have been established in Kosovska Mitrovica (in 2004). .
1992-1995. The Beginnings of Social Work Education at the Two-year School for Social Workers in Sarajevo (1958-1984) The need to provide the most vulnerable categories of the population following World War II (which was at least partly stimulated by an ideological rift between the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and the government of the Soviet Union. especially in the social security institutions of the socialist Yugoslav state (Zaviršek 2005). With the founding of two-year Schools for Social Workers in the five socialist republics3. Each of these periods has certain unique characteristics. the education of social workers and the potential influence of ethnic divisions on this segment of social activities will be examined in three stages: 1958-1991. which are the result of changes and amendments to curricula. and 1996 and after. For the sake of convenience. professional social work.e. .184 MILANKA MIKOVIĆ AND UDŽEJNA HABUL The effects of ethnic divisions on social work education in Bosnia and Herzegovina cannot be examined without a comparative analysis and research on the education of social workers.e. professional education was established in the field of social work. i. These processes and relations were to eventually culminate in war and the atrocities of ethnocentrism in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Serbia and Macedonia (1957). all the way to today. the direct Stalin-Tito clash in 1948) with better social protection and security brought about – with a primary focus on collective values and the state care of a person – the need to introduce expert. In this manner Yugoslavia diverged from the generally accepted concepts and 3 Two-year Schools for Social Workers were founded in Croatia (1952). i. This research covers the time period from the founding of the two-year School for Social Workers of Sarajevo in 1958. Slovenia (1955). through the establishment of a four-year study. the last of which was established in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1958. such changes were partly conditioned by social processes and relations. social work studies as an academic discipline at the Faculty of Political Science of Sarajevo in 1985.
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prevalent ideological orientation of other socialist countries, which had done away with education for social workers and did not even implement such programs until the last decade of the 20th century. The first curricula in all five newly founded Schools for Social Workers were almost identical and completion of the two-year program conferred a diploma and the professional title of social worker. “Similarities in social work education in the different schools in Yugoslavia were a result of the similar formal structure of social work institutions in the whole country, as well as the fact that the first curricula were designed either by special UN commissions or with support provided by foreign experts” (Zaviršek 2005: 34). The unique characteristics of the first generation of social workers at the School for Social Workers in Sarajevo arose from the fact that the “school was founded as a vocational school with the aim of educating promising and prominent workers in the area of social protection, who will be trained to deal with increasingly complex social problems, phenomena, and needs which can no longer be addressed without specially trained staff” (Collection of Papers 1979: 39). We may note the following: - Upon the founding of the School for Social Workers in 1958, two classes enrolled in the first year of studies: the first in March, and the second in September; - The first class of students and graduates, in accordance with the Law of the School for Social Workers in Sarajevo, had certain privileges which later classes did not enjoy. For instance, the Law of the School for Social Workers, Article 7, paragraph 2, stipulates that, along with candidates with a high school degree, this school could be attended by “persons who had graduated at least from an eight-year school, or school of equal value, or if a relevant school degree is acknowledged and they have had 8 years of professional practice in a social protection service or other administrative services of state bodies, institutions and organizations, that perform public services.” A second privilege is stipulated in Article 10 of the same Law: “Servants who are sent for regular education by the bodies, institutions or organizations where they are employed are entitled to paid leave, as well as all other labor rights.” The same article specified the rights of parttime students who were enrolled in the School with the approval
MILANKA MIKOVIĆ AND UDŽEJNA HABUL
of their employers. This category of students was “entitled to paid leave and the reimbursement of travel expenses for attending compulsory courses and taking examinations.” Simply speaking, the first generations of full-time students at the School for Social Workers in Sarajevo consisted of students who were already employed and received regular salaries or scholarships during their studies. Due to the benefits and opportunities of education most students and graduates of the first classes were men employed in local governance bodies. The average age of students in the first five classes was over 35 as shown in the overview of graduates in the first 19 classes at the School for Social Workers in Sarajevo (1960-1978), by gender and average age:
Group 1. 2. 3. 4. Graduating Class
I-V VI-X XI-XV (1960-1963) (1964-1968) (1969-1973)
Sex Female 36.2% 45.9% 61.3% 58.65% 52.1% Male 63.8% 54.05% 38.7% 41.35% 47.9%
Average age 35.2 29 27.1 23.8 27.5
XVI-XIX (1974-1978) AVERAGE
Source: Collection of papers (Zbornik radova) (1979), Social Work in Development of Social Policy and Social Protection (Socijalni rad u razvoju socijalne politike i socijalne zaštite). Sarajevo: School for Social Workers.
The data in the above table show that, starting with the sixth class, the average age of graduates, as well as the number of male graduates, declined. This is partly due to the fact that workers of this kind were no longer scarce. The “employed” category now mostly consisted of people holding lower positions, unlike in the first five generations, where 18.9% of graduates held management positions and 26.1% were independent officers, mostly males. Only 6.6% of students in the first five generations of graduates were high school students who continued their studies immediately after completing high school (Collection of papers 1979).
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In the third group, study and employment no longer overlap. The average age of graduates continued to drop (27.1) as did the number of males, 38.7%, compared with 63.8% in the first five generations. With the cancellation of various privileges, the sex structure of the student body gradually returned to “normal”, from 36.2% female graduates in the first group, to 45.9% in the second and 61.3% in the third. In the first 19 graduating classes of the School for Social Workers in Sarajevo more than half of the total number of graduates are females (52.1%). The increase of female and decrease of male graduates was to continue in all subsequent generations. Less than 10% of the 1,000 students enrolled at the Department of Social Work at the Faculty of Political Science in the 2005/2006 academic year were male. These facts lead to the conclusion that the profession of social worker “came in handy” for men at a time when survival in an appropriate position required a “formal” diploma. With the appearance of new jobs and opportunities, which paid better and were more attractive, men lost interest in this “female” profession. Today, social work is performed almost entirely by female social workers. Ethnic Divisions Research on the education of social workers at the two-year School for Social Workers and four-year Faculty of Political Science of Sarajevo before 1991 shows that ethnic divisions simply did not exist. This is perhaps surprising, seeing as this area of social functioning could indeed have provided fertile ground for such divisions. On the contrary, a cross referencing of the number of enrolled students and graduates and the ethnic background of these students shows that ethnic representation at the school was closely proportionate to the ethnic make up of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina at the time. For example, in the class of 1960 (that is, the first graduating class), over 40% of students were of Muslim descent: 28 out of a total 67 graduates. Near identical proportions can be seen in all subsequent generations, until 1991. The absence of ethnic divisions is also confirmed by the fact that, over a period of 27 years (1958-1991), social work education
MILANKA MIKOVIĆ AND UDŽEJNA HABUL
programs were completed by a number of students from other republics of the former Yugoslavia, who on average made up around 20% of the total number of graduates. Overview of the first 19 classes at the School for Social Workers in Sarajevo (1960-1978) by republic shows the following ethnic structure:
Generation I-V 1960-1963 VI-X 1964-1968 XI-XV 1969-1973 XVI-XIX 1974-1978 Average Bosnia and Herzegovina 85.5% 77.6% 75.3% 82.7% 80% Montenegro 5% 7.3% 5.7% 7% 6.3% Croatia 4.1% 6.7% 7.6% 2.3% 5.3% Macedonia 0.4% 0.6% 0.2% 0.25% Slovenia 0.65 0.5% 0.25% Serbia 5% 7.8% 10.6% 7.5% 7.9%
Source: Collection of papers (Zbornik radova) (1979), Social Work in Development of Social Policy and Social Protection (Socijalni rad u razvoju socijalne politike i socijalne zaštite). Sarajevo: School for Social Workers.
Most graduates from other republics came from Serbia (7.9%), Montenegro (6.3%), and Croatia (5.3%); the fewest came from Macedonia and Slovenia (0.25% each). Such a graduate structure confirms beyond all doubt the absence of the effects of ethnic divisions on the education of social workers at the School for Social Workers in Sarajevo. The reason why so many students from other republics chose to be schooled in Sarajevo (apart from a common language) can be found in the proximity of Sarajevo to certain border areas of neighboring Republics. The development of curricula for social work studies at the School for Social Workers in Sarajevo, and even later at the Faculty of Political Science, also leads to the conclusion that ethnic divisions were not present or did not influence the education of social workers in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Nonetheless, some nuances of transition, which also marked the period of the socialism in other social segments, are visible in this period. For example, curricula for social work studies in Sarajevo, were almost identical to curricula at other advanced and university institutions for the education of social workers in the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia. Hence, it is entirely understandable that a diploma from any one of these institutions was valid and recognized anywhere in Yugoslavia.
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The Education of Social Workers at the Faculty of Political Science of Sarajevo, with an Emphasis on the Period During the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995) A particular turning point in the development of the education of social workers in Bosnia and Herzegovina was the introduction of a four-year social work program at the Faculty of Political Science of Sarajevo in 1985. The groundwork for social work as an academic discipline and for the development of the science of social work was thus laid; especially important were the introduction of postgraduate and doctoral studies and new opportunities for practical social work. During the 1992-1995 war and siege, none of the faculties in Sarajevo discontinued classes. Classes were held using the old curricula and with the staff that had remained in a besieged Sarajevo. The wartime circumstances of this period affected the ethnic structure of both teachers and students, and the work during these years may be called “study in wartime conditions.” In April, 1992, large numbers of Serb teachers and instructors left Sarajevo4. As the conflict escalated, teachers from other ethnic groups began to leave. At the Faculty as well as at the Department of Social Work remained predominantly “Bosniak staff”. In order to understand this process, it is important to remember the political concept that divides the country into three ethnic territories with government bodies established upon ethnic principles – the Serbian Republika Srpska, the Croat Community of “Herzeg-Bosnia” (renamed a Republic in the summer of 1992), and the remaining territory, which resumed the continuity of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, where members of the Bosniak ethnic group formed a majority. Nonetheless, a small number of non-Bosniak teachers, instructors, and administrative staff who refused to accept the ethnicization of the university and life in general remained at the Faculty of Political Science and the Department of Social Work.5
The Yugoslav People’s Army and Serb volunteer forces began shelling Sarajevo on April 6, 1992 and this date is considered to be the beginning of siege of the city and the official start of war in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Many people left the city even before the conflict broke out, which can lead us to conclude that they had been informed in advance that the conflict would start. The Serb Democratic Party – SDS, first secretly, then publicly, conducted a campaign telling all Serbs to leave territories not under their control. In the fall of 1992, an identical call came from the authorities of the self-declared Herzeg-Bosnia, which first withdrew its ministers and officials from Sarajevo, thus denying the legitimacy of institutions of the internationally recognized Bosnia and Herzegovina.
as well as the siege of Sarajevo and accompanying humanitarian crisis. but regular enrollment did not take place during this period. Ethnic structure of graduates (1990-1995) Ethnic background Bosniaks Croats Serbs Total 1990 18 11 2 31 1991 15 4 19 38 1992 8 / 10 18 1995 10 1 1 12 Source: Faculty of Political Science. The above table illustrates how the circumstances of the war were reflected in the ethnic structure of students enrolled in the Department of Social Work. which forced students from . a mere five years later this figure had plummeted under 1%. Department of Social Work Students Record Office Data It is plain to see that war conditions and “war geography” objectively resulted in an enormous increase in the number of Bosniak graduates at the University of Sarajevo. moving to areas controlled by the Republika Srpska Army. Around 150. Six Serb students graduated from the Department of Social Work in 1992. despite the hardships of wartime circumstances. Military and political factors largely explain the changes in the structure of the student body. including the Faculty of Political Science and Department of Social Work. but only one in 1995. a decline in the number of Croat students is also evident.000 Serb citizens left Sarajevo during the war.190 MILANKA MIKOVIĆ AND UDŽEJNA HABUL Strategies focused on the preservation of the Faculty of Political Science and the departments operating within the Faculty. these were mostly Bosniaks. Persons who remained in the city continued their education. The continuation of studies was ensured. Croat students made up 30% of the graduating class of 1990. “Reduced studying” is also indicated by the total number of graduates – 18 (1992) and 12 (1995). Furthermore.
Republika Srpska is centralized and its government has full jurisdiction in all fields. while the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is organized as a decentralized entity in which jurisdiction is divided between cantons and the entity. This would inevitably affect the education process on all levels. Education of Social Workers at the Faculty of Political Science. As for Sarajevo itself. This field is delegated to the entities – Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska. The teachers who stayed focused on the survival of their organizations and sought to merely maintain some kind of study in the face of constant artillery fire.. to return to their prewar residences and to join their ethnic groups. but the 6 Under the Constitution (Annex 4 of the Peace Agreement from Dayton). Higher education is regulated by cantonal legislation (the Federation is composed of 10 cantons) and thus completely decentralized. 1995. as well as Yugoslavia. Bosnia-Herzegovina is made up of two entities – Republika Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina – as well as Brčko District. The loose state structure was not given any powers in the area of education. Department of Social Work. however. 191 other parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina. after 1996 Following the signing of the Peace Agreement in Dayton on November 21. while in the Federation the field of education is shared by the Federation and the cantons. The Peace Agreement and Annex IV of the Constitution are based on an ethnic principle which provides the basis for the organization of the entire state and social structure6.THE EFFECTS OF ETHNIC DIVISONS ON S OCIAL WORK EDUCATION. despite the fact that they were virtually cut off from the outside world and had had their resources reduced to chalk and blackboards. . it would be more accurate to say that the University was not able to resist a process which was sweeping through all areas of life in Bosnia and Herzegovina. a new phase of constitutional arrangement began in Bosnia and Herzegovina. that the ethnicization of the University of Sarajevo was not an official policy of the authorities at the time. It should be noted. During the siege of Sarajevo and the war there were no academic discussions on the issue of the ethnicization of faculties. Republika Srpska is organized as a centralized entity.. This resulted in an enormous increase in the number of Bosniak graduates. the conflict had forced the population to resettle and generally instigated a policy of ethnic division. The laws themselves do not favor an ethnic principle.
and politically – is reflected in the faculties themselves. A slight change in the ethnic structure is evident. However. the ethnic factor is stressed – hence the Croat University of Mostar. especially in the years 2002 and 2005. with the further division of the Federation into 10 cantons. ethnic/entity and regional grouping is still present in the country. which creates an opportunity to choose where to study. The overall environment in which institutions of higher education operate – demographically. ultimately determines the ethnic structure of both teachers and students. when non-Bosniak students – Serbs and Croats – made up around 8% of graduates. ethnically. Department of Social Work Students Record Office Data The data show an absolute predominance of Bosniak students. entity law defines general principles. this can be explained by a more favorable political environment in Bosnia and Herzegovina7. universities and faculties in this entity are exclusively Serb (we have not heard of a single Bosniak working at institutions of higher education in this entity). seated in Mostar). In order to understand this complicated situation. In the Federation entity. several points must be clarified. as we have already pointed out. An illustration of these divisions is the existence of two 7 General tension is mostly alleviated and freedom of movement is complete. In Croat-majority cantons (such as Herzegovina-Neretva. Ethnic structure of social work graduates at the Sarajevo university (2000-2005) Ethnic background Bosniaks Croats Serbs Total 2000 17 2 / 19 2001 24 2 / 26 2002 54 5 3 62 2003 60 3 1 64 2004 88 1 2 91 2005 76 5 2 83 TOTAL 319 18 8 345 Source: Faculty of Political Science. The Republika Srpska independently regulates the field of education and higher education. however. while individual cantons enact their own laws. . In terms of staff. which also includes the establishment of universities and faculties and the selection of curricula and staff.192 MILANKA MIKOVIĆ AND UDŽEJNA HABUL territorial and ethnic organization of the state (composed of two entities).
the faculties in Sarajevo and Banja Luka have not established any form of institutional cooperation – common textbooks. This entails the foundation of universities on an ethnic basis and the inclusion of ethnic elements. The same cannot be said about the Banja Luka faculty. p. By respecting consocial10 models (and practice). . Unfortunately. Mostar. Although a joint. and. This is confirmed by Z. three institutions educate social workers in Bosnia and Herzegovina: in Sarajevo. provided that certain universal criteria are respected – referential studies and diplomas recognized beyond state borders. 63.” no. The Department of Social Work at the Faculty of Political Science of Sarajevo has maintained its multi-ethnic character. In this context. institutional cooperation between these two departments does not exist today. although in a scaled down form. With this goal Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the Bologna process. p.. Tuzla and Banja Luka. The prewar Džemal Bijedić University continued to operate during the war and is today situated on the east bank of the Neretva River – in the Bosniak part of town. Banja Luka. 122 in Zbornik – Održivi razvoj i socijalni rad [Collection of papers – Sustainable Development and Social Work].THE EFFECTS OF ETHNIC DIVISONS ON S OCIAL WORK EDUCATION. having been established during the war in the part of town under Croat rule8. Federalizam (federacija) kao metoda reguliranja etničkih sukoba [Federalism /Federation/ as a Method of Regulating Ethnic Conflicts]. such as nationally uniform courses and the right to use the national language. magazine “Status. the education of social workers reflects our general reality. ethnic elements in education would not have an a priori negative connotation..10/06. The consocial model includes strong mechanisms that ensure the inclusion and effective representation of all ethnic groups. according to John McGarry. multi-ethnic administration has been operating for several years now. Although they operate in the same country. became obliged to recognize diplo8 9 10 During the war Mostar was a divided city – the western part had a Croat majority and the eastern part had a Bosniak majority. Mirjanić in: Razvoj nastavnog plana i programa za odsjek za socijalni rad na Univerzitetu u Banjaluci [Development of Curriculum for the Department of Social Work at the University of Banja Luka]. 193 universities in Mostar. 2005. harmonization of curricula (here we will exclude participation in a project under the auspices of the Stockholm Faculty of Social Work and supported by SIDA). exchange of teaching staff. by ratifying the Lisbon Convention. of which one has a Croat ethnic prefix.9 Conclusion As we have already seen. Mostar is still divided by an invisible line of division based on ethnic principles.
Ethnic sensitivity was acknowledged in the public discussion11. The greatest obstacles this Law has faced have come from the Republika Srpska. The OSCE Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina organized a public discussion in 2005 about the draft of a state Law on Higher Education as part of an education reform campaign. Serbs and Croats are fully equal in the entire territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this regard.oescebih. and must also acquire an approach to education that is free of discrimination and segregation. see www. These discussions stressed that the decision on the constituency12 of peoples in the entire territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina should be obeyed. Croatian and Bosnian. There is also an obligation to align the structure of employees in all public institutions with the 1991 census in order to reverse the results of “ethnic cleansing. The Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina passed a decision on constituency of people in the summer of 2000. which means preserving the entities’ control and powers in the field of education and higher education.org. this law has undergone parliamentary procedure since the spring of 2004.” 11 12 13 For a thorough report on the public discussion. These are basically three names for one language. This term can be described as equality. Public discussion to date has stressed that passing The Law on Higher Education at the state level is a priority. Bosnia-Herzegovina must create conditions that will ensure the right to an education that is accessible to everyone and in line with the religious and philosophical beliefs of students and their parents. a state Law on Higher Education must be passed which would regulate general criteria and standards for study and provide for the creation of a licensing agency. According to this treaty. as well as the equal representation of the official languages13 at the universities.” Under the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina the official languages are Serbian. this law will provide the foundation for the standardization of higher education and further fulfill the requirements of the Bologna Declaration. . this was laid out in the Feasibility Study for Bosnia and Herzegovina as a prerequisite for this country to enter into a higher phase of relations with the European Union – talks on stabilization and association. but has yet to be passed. Participants in the public discussion organized in Banja Luka concluded: “The Law on Higher Education should be a framework document and as such should be a result of political consensus and respect a decentralized structure. After all. regardless of whether they are in majority or minority in a certain region. Consequential implementation of the decision means that Bosniaks.194 MILANKA MIKOVIĆ AND UDŽEJNA HABUL mas.
THE EFFECTS OF ETHNIC DIVISONS ON S OCIAL WORK EDUCATION.. 195 There is still no indication as to when the Law will be passed.. . although this is required by the Stabilization and Association Agreement with the EU.
Zaviršek.1979). Official Gazette of the People’s Republic of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Genocid u Bosanskoj Krajini. (2006). 5-23.196 MILANKA MIKOVIĆ AND UDŽEJNA HABUL References Association of Citizens from Five Municipalities in Bosanska Krajina (1995). Sarajevo: Advanced School for Social Workers. Status. W. Zločin. T. Održivi razvoj i socijalni rad. D. Collection of papers (Zbornik radova . 50-67. Federalizam kao metoda reguliranja etničkih sukoba. Zbornik radova. 10. Zločin. Mc Garry.1994.13. Nash. 9. Socijalni rad u razvoju socijalne politike i socijalne zaštite. (2002). 2. Law of the School for Social Workers (1957). Balkan 2010: Izvještaj samostalne specijalne grupe. Između nelagode i entuzijazma: Razvoj edukacije za socijalni rad u Jugoslaviji. . Z. (2005).. In: Faculty of Philosophy of Banja Luka. Sarajevo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Održivi razvoj i socijalni rad. Banja Luka: Faculty of Philosophy of Banja Luka. C. Mayer. E. 2. Mazowijecki. Mirjanić. 43/57. In: Faculty of Philosophy of Banja Luka. 24-33. Banja Luka: Faculty of Philosophy of Banja Luka. Razvoj nastavnog plana i programa za odsjek za socijalni rad na Univerzitetu u Banjaluci. Deveti izvještaj o ljudskim pravima sa teritorije bivše Jugoslavije. (1995). L. J. (2005).
197 Eva Anđela Delale and Vanja Branica ethnicity in the Curriculum and research of the Croatian school of social Work Introduction Eleven years after the ethnic war in Croatia. Staton 2000). the National Association of Social Worker’s Code of Ethics underwent major content changes pertaining to the concepts of diversity and multiculturalism. Suzuki.47% declared themselves to belong to .63% of the population is Croatian. Croatia is an ethnically homogeneous country. ethnicity in higher education and everyday life Ethnicity and race issues have been shaping social work in western societies for decades. and (c) the Department’s evaluation of social workers’ sensitivity to ethnicity issues in daily social work practice and the process of creating rights and services in the field of social policy. According to the latest national census from 2001 (Central Bureau of Statistics). Casas. 1994. The aim of the research presented in this essay was to determine how well ethnicity issues are represented in: (a) the curriculum of the Department of Social Work (Faculty of Law. Wantz 1990. the possibility of an open dialogue on the subject of ethnicity and ethnic sensitivity in Croatian social work education must be explored. and 7. University of Zagreb). In the USA. multiculturalism was one of the fastest growing college courses from 1991 to 1995 (Hollings. The latest Croatian Code of Ethics for Social Workers (2004) has been aligned with International documents related to ethics in social work and contains contents pertaining to oppression and ethnicity (national minorities). Ponterotto. By 1999. (b) the research of the Department staff from the 1990s to today. Alexander 1995 in Walker. 89.
European identity has been bringing about political changes. especially immigrants from Bosnia. Švob. were in transit to European countries. and finally Bosnian Croats who had taken refuge in Croatia or immigrated. with 4. tend to emphasize similarities in religion.198 E VA A N đ E L A D E L A L E A N D VA N J A B R A N I C A other ethnicities (the largest being the Serbs. Brčić 2005). even though “Euro-scepticism” and “Euro-optimism” are still present (Čaldarović. Gregurović based her conclusions on the observation that people affiliated with groups with formal and poor communication tend to emphasize differences rooted in tradition. Delale. language.83% Roman Catholic population). Since areas inhabited by these communities are poor. Those belonging to groups which have developed healthy interactions and cooperation within the community. 2. For example. and behaviours regardless of ethnicity. since 1998. and multi-ethnic society in the period following the Homeland war (1991-1995). with an 87. Wallerstein (in Gregurović 2005) has pointed out that “Belonging to one ethnic . customs. a constantly shifting nature. even those who are aware of their ethnic identity do not necessarily share the common goals of their ethnic group. Vrdoljak 1998). indigenous Serbs or indigenous Croats (depending on the area) who did not leave the community during the war. in addition to a dynamic character. The author emphasized processuality as an important trait of ethnicity and confirmed the hypothesis that ethnic identities have. indigenous Serbs (both returnees). on the other hand. Work on the social reconstruction of communities and work with refugees and returnees showed that many communities had undergone a change in their ethnic structure (Gregurović 2005. war and migration have. in many respects Croatia became a diverse. customs etc.54% of the population. She claims that ethnic identity does not necessarily receive precedence over other identities.01% of the population did not declare their ethnicity). Gregurović (2005) has researched forms of ethnic identification in such communities and concluded that individuals are not necessarily aware of their ethnic affiliation or ethnic identity. led to the formation and cohabitation of four ethnic categories in certain parts of Croatia: indigenous Croats. language. the prospect of a new. Even with such an ethnic majority (as well as a religious majority. Outside of these communities. Furthermore. in search of better job opportunities and standards of living. many people.
These differences are reflected in the definition of problems.. occasionally.” Even earlier. Chateerje. and the local and non-local community. Schlesinger 1998) have identified three levels of ethnic assessment: the person. Fandetti and Goldmeir (in Devore. the structure of the worker/client relationship. most importantly. as a political and economic recourse. Canda 1998: 131) had stressed that “ethnic identity is not a static attribute. every type of . systems approach. Different theories focus on different elements of the human condition and different ways of human understanding. a major factor in the distribution power and wealth” (Stavenhagen in Hokenstad. It also includes an association with a given territory and a sense of social solidarity (Mehta 1997). 199 group is a matter of social definition. that is. ecological perspectives. such as language or festivities. but evolves with personal identity in response to… changes and new environmental challenges. etc. and. structural approach. In this manner. and one or more distinctive elements of culture.” A group may emphasize its ethnicity when it is useful to do so and downplay it when it is seen as a handicap (Stavenhagen in Hokenstad. approaches focused on cultural awareness and minority issues. Midgley 1997). linguistic features which are handed down from one generation to another through socialization. One can approach ethnic reality and social work practice theory in a number of different ways: he/she may follow the psychosocial approach. “Ethnicity can be understood as a psychological need for a sense of belonging. even though many people treat ethnicity as if it were naturally determined. problem/solving approaches. An ethnic community can be understood as a unit of population that shares a common proper name. the family/client group. myths of common ancestry. emphasis on particular needs. Midgley 1997: 95). Ethnic groups are never delimited by clear cultural or geographic boundaries. Rotherdam and Phinney (in Robbins.ETHNICITY IN THE CURRICULUM AND RESEARCH. historical memories. a matter of interaction between the group members’ self-definition and other groups’ definition. empowerment and strength perspectives. Ethnicity is a shared cultural identity containing a range of distinctive behavioural and. Devore and Schlesinger (1998) suggested that these three levels may be viewed as several components of ethnic reality.. and the types of activities undertaken. as a framework for social organization.
In line with the principles of ethnically sensitive social work practice. is aligned with the Bologna Process. ethnicity in social Work Curricula The following research was conducted between September and November. Self-assessment of one’s own values. these are issues that must receive more attention in social work education if we are to improve the quality of ethnically sensitive social work. which was adopted in 2004 and implemented in the 2005/20061 academic year. . In order to obtain a masters degree. The “old” teaching program was adopted in the 1993/1994 academic year and used until 2005. social workers do not stand a chance of developing a comprehensive understanding of ethnic sensitivity and multiculturalism. ethnically sensitive practice with refugees and newcomers. The new program. If social work education does not contain a broader view of ethnic knowledge. critical thinking as a basis for the transformation of current education systems and society in general. ethnically sensitive practice in health care. and the impact of the intersection of social class and ethnicity (ethclass). thinking about ethnicity in categorical or transactional terms. etc. ethnically sensitive practice with families.200 E VA A N đ E L A D E L A L E A N D VA N J A B R A N I C A social work practice and social work education can be viewed from an ethnically sensitive perspective. The first part analyses the names and content descriptions of obligatory and elective courses within the two curricula of the Department of Social Work at the University of Zagreb. competence and perspectives. social workers must develop systematic approaches in order to assess the key components of ethnic reality and integrate this understanding into social work practice and education. biases. Both programs 1 Upon completing four years of study at the Department of Social Work of the Faculty of Law students earn a BA in social work. ethnically sensitive practice in the public sector. 2006 and consists of two parts. student can continue education in the fifth year and chooses between two programs: the Social Work Program and Social Policy Program. Devore and Schlesinger (1998) have differentiated social work practice and ethnic reality in many areas: ethnically sensitive macro-practice. and prejudice and their impact on practice and research.
a questionnaire about the frequency of issues of ethnicity in the curriculum and research of the Department of Social Work was created. Marginal Groups. Six research participants had 15 years of experience or more at the Department. Although the Department offers postgraduate studies. refers in its title to a field related to ethnicity. For the second part of the research.. One of the courses.The largest portion of the professors who participated in the survey had been working at the Department for 5 to 15 years (8 teachers). 201 are currently in use. The first unit addressed the relevance of ethnicity issues in social work and the frequency of courses that deal with ethnicity issues in different forms of education. mentions an analysis of the marginality concept. and 3 participants had less than 5 years of experience. The second unit covered the integration of ethnicity issues in the research work of department staff. .ETHNICITY IN THE CURRICULUM AND RESEARCH. The third unit consisted of an evaluation of social workers’ sensitivity to ethnicity issues in daily social work practice and in the creation of social policies. 17 questionnaires were completed. The content of this course also shows that the question of ethnicity is addressed in certain teaching units. An analysis of the curriculum of the undergraduate program and of the social work and social policy graduate programs was conducted. In regards to academic rank. An analysis of the titles and content summaries of the 31 required2 and 10 elective courses within the old program (which will be soon replaced with the Bologna program) revealed that none of the courses explicitly contained the concept of ethnicity in its title or summary. Displaced persons and refugees can also be found in the content summary of the course entitled Croatian Social Policy. for example. The questionnaire was circulated to all the teachers at the Department of Social Work (26 teachers). The course summary. depending which year a student was initially enrolled. representing 65% of the teachers employed (10 women and 7 men). which could be a result of the relevance of 2 Foreign language lessons were not analysed.. as well as topics concerning the displaced and refugees. an even number of professors (6). assistant professors (5) and assistants (6) took part in the research. The questionnaire consisted of three thematic units. these programs were not analysed.
such as an appreciation for diversity. however. The situation is somewhat different in the new Bologna Program for social workers. On the undergraduate level. multiculturalism and the Roma population. the social work track contains two courses that mention ethnicity issues and multiculturalism in their content summaries: Community Organization and Development and Human Rights and Social Work. while the Human Rights and Social Work course description indicates content related to fighting all forms of discrimination. including discrimination on the basis of national affiliation. On the graduate level. The analysis of the course titles provides insight into the curricula of both programs. ethnicity is referred to in the context of the development of skills required by social workers. This difference between the old and new program could also be the result of a different unit of analysis. the Marginal Groups course). ethnicity issues are once more the subject matter of the Marginal Groups course. On the graduate level. no course in the social work or social policy curriculum mentions the concept of ethnicity or other concepts pertaining to ethnicity in its title. An examination of course summaries also points to a somewhat different situation in comparison with the old program. and shows that the concept of ethnicity or ethnicityrelated fields are explicitly mentioned in the title of only one course. Content analysis allows us to conclude that ethnicity-related topics are present in two courses within the old program.202 E VA A N đ E L A D E L A L E A N D VA N J A B R A N I C A this topic at the time the curriculum was created. Extended course descriptions of 30 required and 18 elective courses on the undergraduate level were analysed. In the description of the Social Work with Individuals course. and in six courses within the new one. Much like the “old” program. In the graduate study specializing in social policy. only one course alludes to topics pertaining to ethnicity in its title (again. The description of the Community Organization and Development course mentions the acquisition of knowledge and skills for work with multinational communities and minorities. The course description treats issues pertaining to immigration. the old program did . the Human Rights course summary also includes topics pertaining to cultural diversity and minority protection.
however. teachers traced the importance of ethnicity issues to the need for an understanding of the clients’ needs. Therefore. is small. we cannot claim that ethnicity and related topics were not featured in lectures. 5-extremely relevant). One response makes this particularly clear: Social policy and the resulting proclaimed social rights should be harmonized with the clients’ particularities in the area of their whereabouts.81. 203 not provide us with extended course descriptions. In doing so. however.. the exercise of social rights. The teachers’ replies when asked about the current representation of this topic in the curriculum also say much about the perception of ethnicity and relevance of ethnicity-related subjects: 13 out of 17 teachers consider ethnicity issues to be under-represented in the De- . It is certain. that ethnicity was not transparently stressed by the course lecturers when the course summaries were created. and the planning and implementation of social interventions.. teachers within the new program refer to ethnicity issues in only two courses on both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Assessment of the relevance and frequency of ethnicity Issues in the Curriculum Teachers were asked to generally assess the relevance of ethnicity issues in social work using a scale from 1 to 5 (1-not relevant at all. The average rate was 3. According to the course contents.ETHNICITY IN THE CURRICULUM AND RESEARCH. The number of courses that clearly contain ethnicity issues as a separate teaching unit. In their explanations. The second part of the research included an assumption that certain courses which do not mention ethnicity and ethnicity-related topics in their description address these topics in lectures. They also stated that the ethnicity issue is closely linked to ethical social work practice and the application of the code of ethics. which indicates that teachers view ethnicity issues as highly relevant to social work. ethnicity (much like certain other variables) has a crucial relevance and should be one of the indicators of the clients’ actual needs.
skills. According to the teachers’ reports. such as: Knowledge of Cultural Determinants Shaping Behaviour and Economic Migration. while in 7 courses teachers do not address this subject.204 E VA A N đ E L A D E L A L E A N D VA N J A B R A N I C A partment’s curriculum. however. so that students can become familiar with ethnicity issue in different contexts. the ethnicity issue is represented in 20 courses. such as Identity and . Other topics are also covered as separate thematic units. Displacement. These topics pertained to the acquisition of knowledge. covered by 6 teachers. These topics are represented within courses in all years of study (from 1st to 5th year of study). Other topics. Sensitivity to Cultural Differences. The results indicate that ethnicity issues are represented in the classroom to a greater degree than the curriculum content analysis showed. Furthermore. and Appreciating Multiculturalism and Sensitivity to Context of the Social Work Services Clients by 6 teachers. For example. work methods and competencies in ethnically sensitive social work and other fields of social work practice. the questionnaire presented teachers with a list of possible approaches and topics relevant to ethnicity and multiculturalism and asked which of these have been used as separate thematic units or covered within the framework of other teaching units. the Specific Needs of Individuals and Groups Concerning Ethnicity. The topic Appreciating multiculturalism and sensitivity in the context of social work services clients. is taught as a separate teaching unit. The most represented topic is Social Exclusion and Inclusion. Related to Ethnicity (Appendix. Exile and Asylum. Stereotypes was addressed in another teaching unit by 10 teachers. Table 1). The topics most taught by teachers correspond to the reasons given for the relevance of such topics to social work: sensitivity and an acknowledgement of the ethnically specific needs of social welfare service clients. Ethnic Minorities by 7 teachers. Relocation. The topics listed in Table 2 (Appendix) are only used as part of other teaching units. A number of ethnicity-related topics and approaches were mostly represented in different teaching units. Appreciating Culturally Different World Views.
but only three mentioned research in which the participants were questioned about ethnicity. teachers stated that there is no difference in the representation of ethnicity issues between the old and new program. 205 Human Rights Issues. teachers have not included ethnic topics in their research. They are also represented in courses on social policy. This research has elucidated the depth and diversity of content used by teachers in their classes. Furthermore. research Work in the field of ethnicity Issues The part of the questionnaire pertaining to the integration of ethnicity issues in research was left blank by half the respondents. A total of five teachers have researched ethnicity-related topics3.. Ethnic Groups in a Multi-ethnic Environment.ETHNICITY IN THE CURRICULUM AND RESEARCH. We can reasonably assume that not even the teachers themselves are aware of the large number and diversity of modalities that address issues pertaining to ethnicity. “Identity and Fear” and “Stronger Together” – Action Research. two teachers stated the same research project: Longitudinal Monitoring of Mental Health of Children in Public Care. religion. The following data may therefore only serve as a general overview and do not allow for more in-depth interpretations. This failure to respond indicates somewhat of a lack of research in this field. Group Social Work.. teachers most of3 Such as: “Work with Refugees and Displaced People”. If we compare these results to the results of a content analysis of individual courses we can conclude that the number of courses that address ethnicity issues is substantially larger than the course summaries would lead us to believe. When asked why they did not include ethnicity as a socio-demographic variable. . “The Quality of Life of Families of Disabled Persons in Croatia”. and Community Social Work. although it is also possible that there was a lack of general interest in these topics. Reviewing the courses that deal with these topics. the international project: „Welfare and values in Europe: transition related to minorities. Due to the war. one can conclude that ethnicity issues are represented in all three courses that cover basic methods of social work practice: Social Work with the Individual. and gender“ (February 2006 – February 2009). Furthermore. Sensitivity to Ethnicity Issues in Local and International Context are more or less evenly represented.
they mentioned social workers’ frequent encounters and work with problems concerning the Roma community.e. or parent was of non-Croat origin only after they had worked with social workers in the exile centre for several years. the question of ethnicity was a very delicate subject due to the Homeland war. In the nineties. experience with the displaced has shown that certain persons were able to reveal to helpers that a grandmother. Four teachers felt that social workers are not ethnically sensitive. As for future research. often did know and teased the child on account of his ethnicity – especially if he/she were Roma. the counsellors i. the social workers who should have filled out the sociodemographic variable section of the questionnaire would often leave this part blank and state that they do not know the ethnicity of a child’s parents. Also. For instance. A somewhat larger number thought that social workers were ethnically sensitive in their practice. Other children. They are sensitive to this issue because their daily practice shows . as well as the child himself. however. grandfather. The reactions have been described as absence of reply to the question and as interviewees belonging to certain minorities being under-represented than compared to the situation in the society.206 E VA A N đ E L A D E L A L E A N D VA N J A B R A N I C A ten stated that this variable was not relevant to the research topic (3) and that they would expect the interviewees to feel reluctant and uneasy when faced with such an inquiry because of the war (3). Assessment of social Workers’ ethnic sensitivity in daily social Work Practice When asked about ethnic sensitivity in social work practice in Croatia. seven teachers said that they plan to include ethnicity issues in future research. When asked to explain their response. Concerning the longitudinal research of children in public care. six teachers replied that they could not answer this question due to insufficient knowledge of social work practice. a belief that “everyone is equal” was cited as a reason for a lack of emphasis on ethnicity issues in social work practice. while others might have only produced a “socially acceptable” reply. Certain participants might have felt threatened by insistence on this variable. The interviewee’s reactions to ethnicity questions were described by three teachers.
. through which social workers could become better acquainted with the particularities of different national minorities. 207 that they should appreciate its context and the diversity of the clients’ needs that stem from ethnicity. in their daily work they deal with the problems of the Roma community.ETHNICITY IN THE CURRICULUM AND RESEARCH. teachers mentioned social workers’ insufficient awareness of work in practice. I believe that they take care not to stress the ethnicity issue and are rather benevolent towards Roma culture. . When asked why they feel a lack of sensitivity to ethnicity issues exists among social workers. Several teachers think that ethnicity issues are only partially taken into consideration (3). workshops. they referred to the fact that uniform regulations and procedures are valid “for all people”. and that these issues are only considered while creating social policies. supervision… Seminars with the purpose of presenting the particularities of certain national minorities: customs. the exception are pilot-programs connected to Roma employment. Additional education. and do not take the specific needs of individual groups into account.. etc. The teachers recognized programs created specifically for the Roma population as exceptions. When asked why this is. Unfortunately. cultural determinants. for instance. Because the legislative framework for work in the field of social welfare is equal for all. and less from systematic education. needs. Most teachers felt that ethnicity-related issues are not taken into consideration in the process of developing and creating social policy (6). As many as 14 teachers said that activities for promoting the ethnic sensitivity of social workers working in the field are necessary. and practice often shows that successful interventions require a selective approach and consideration of ethnicity issues. such sensitivity arises more from a personal awareness. while issues pertaining to the Serbian national minority were viewed as politicised. family values. As a solution they suggested additional seminars and workshops. In terms of actual rights and services very few of them are ethnically specific.
ethnic and economic context (Green 1998). religious. they are not taught explicitly. teachers’ statements show that this topic is addressed in different ways in almost half of the courses (20). Interestingly. to not overwhelm them. but rather guidelines for effective practice. seminars. most of these being obligatory. Ethnicity issues are represented in all three courses that cover basic methods of social work practice. Conversely. but addressed within other topics. ethnicity is not particularly visible within Department’s curriculum. these guidelines and principles include understanding the client’s behaviour. I think that it is important to reach joint a decision by which courses should contain ethnicity issues as a specific teaching unit. but rather find a proper limit in the cases chosen for class. Bologna program. Conclusion An analysis of titles of obligatory and elective courses showed that the concept of ethnicity or ethnicity-related topics are explicitly stated in the title of only one course within the social work curricula. For example. A course analysis has shown the presence of ethnicity issues in two courses of the old program. Such a representation in the curriculum has led the authors to conclude that professional training for work in a multicultural context and ethnic-sensitive social work practice do not represent separate competencies. According to titles and summary analyses. and by which an issue/topic would be covered in different teaching units. reasoning. and emotions within the complete sociocultural. few teachers (3) pointed out that it is important to introduce the subject of ethnicity to students during their education. .208 E VA A N đ E L A D E L A L E A N D VA N J A B R A N I C A The teachers also recognized the importance of this subject in the framework of ethical issues and work in accordance with the profession’s Code of Ethics. and within six courses of the new. and are also represented in courses on social policy. It is important to encourage students to think about these things. from the 1st all the way to the 5th year of study. Ethnicity topics are also present in courses taught in different years of study.
Because groups and individuals differ from one another. could be the subject of further analysis and the next step in the research project. Possible overlapping of topics pertaining to ethnicity in different courses and information on the theoretical concepts that teachers use to approach this topic. appears in the classroom more often in the framework of different teaching units than as a separate topic. as well as a potential lack of certain basic concepts within the curriculum. Ethnicity. the blind application of techniques to all situations and all populations seems ludicrous. the teachers have pointed out a problem which has not been adequately addressed in the practice of many social workers. they stated the fact that uniform regulations and procedures are valid “for all”.. and that they implement ethnicity and related topics in the courses they teach. As a reason.ETHNICITY IN THE CURRICULUM AND RESEARCH. 209 Walker and Staton (2000) state that cultural sensitivity pervades all levels of practice and is difficult to isolate from other topics as a separate variable or competency. What is needed are differential approaches consistent with the life experiences of the person. The life-long education of social workers. .. Research showed that teachers consider ethnicity a relevant issue. however. and do not take into account the specific needs of ethnic groups.” In their replies. equal access and opportunities. Not equal treatment. are a starting point for overcoming obstacles to an ethnically competent approach to clients and the advancement of the practice and theory of social work. This research has revealed the wealth and diversity of content used by the teachers in their classes. The teachers who responded to the survey felt that it is important to raise social workers’ sensitivity to ethnically sensitive social work practice and that the current degree of sensitivity is inadequate. as well as an undergraduate and graduate curriculum in which ethnicity issues and ethnically sensitive social work are integrated. Sue and Sue (1990:170) concluded: “Equal treatment in counselling may be discriminatory treatment. After searching for appropriate intervention strategies that would maximize success and minimize cultural oppression. Most teachers felt that ethnicity-related issues are not taken into consideration in the area of social policy.
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References: Central Bureau of Statistics (2005), Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia. Zagreb: Central Bureau of statistics. Code of Ethics of the Croatian Association of the Social Workers (2004), Zagreb: The Croatian Association of the Social Workers. Čaldarović, O. M., Švob, Brčić, C. (2005), Integration of Youth: Ways of Perception and Understanding of “Others“. Migracijske i etničke teme, 21, 4: 299-314. Delale, E.A., Vrdoljak, Lj. (1998), Posttraumatske stresne reakcije djece u ratom oslobođenim područjima: iskustva iz Hrvatske Kostajnice. In: Šeparović, Z. (ed.) Zbornik radova Prvog hrvatskog žrtvoslovnog kongresa (487-494). Zagreb: Hrvatsko žrtvoslovno društvo. Devore, W., Schlesinger, E. G. (1998), Ethnic-Sensitive Social Work Practice. USA: Allyn and Bacon. Green, J. W. (1998), Cultural Awareness in the Human Services, A MultiEthnic Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Gregurović, S. (2005), Relacijska dimenzija etničkog identiteta: istraživanje etničkih kategorija na primjeru Petrinje. Migracijske i etničke teme, 21, 3: 221-242. Hokenstad, M.C., Midgley, J. (eds.) (1997), Issues in International Social Work, Global Challenges for New Century. Washington DC: NASW PRESS. Mehta,V. (1997), Ethnic Conflict and Violence in the Modern World. In: Hokenstad, M.C., Midgley, J. (eds.), Issues in International Social Work, Global Challenges for New Century. Washington DC: NASW PRESS. Robbins, S. P., Chateerje P., Canda, E. R (1998), Contemporary Human Behaviour Theory. Boston, New York: Allyn & Bacon. Sue, D.W., Sue, D. (1990), Counselling the Culturally Different, Theory and Practice. NY: A Wiley - Interscience Publication. Walker, R., Staton, M. (2000), Multiculturalism in Social Work Ethics. Journal of Social Work Education, 36, 3: 449-462.
ETHNICITY IN THE CURRICULUM AND RESEARCH...
APPendIx Table 1: Ethnicity issue represented in courses according to the teaching unit
toPICs Content is a separate topic or teaching unit Content tItle of the Course included (lectures (l), seminars (s) and within a exercises (e)) different teaching unit Family therapy – E Social Work Theory Social Work with Disabled People - S
Methods of working in multicultural environment and ethnically sensitive approaches to social work practice
Knowledge of cultural determinants shaping behaviour
4 non-verbal communication, status of disabled persons in society
Social Work Theory Social Psychology – L Social Demography Introduction to Social Policy Social Work with Groups – E Social Work with Disabled People
Appreciating culturally different worldviews, sensitivity to cultural differences, creating stereotypes
Family Therapy – L and E Social Work in Community Management – L 10 Social Work Ethics – L sexual steMarginal Groups – S reotypes, steSocial Work Theory reotypes and Social Psychology – L, S prejudice, Social Work stigmatization with Individuals of disabled Social Work with Disabled People Spirituality and Social Work 6 knowing the client, group work with clients of different demographic backgrounds Counselling - E Family Therapy – E Social Work Ethics – L Marginal Groups – S Social Work Theory Social Work with Individuals
Appreciating multiculturalism and sensitivity in the context of social work
E VA A N đ E L A D E L A L E A N D VA N J A B R A N I C A
Content is a separate topic or teaching unit
Content tItle of the Course included (lectures (l), seminars (s) and within a exercises (e)) different teaching unit Social Work in Community Organizing –L Marginal Groups – S Social Demography – S Penal Social Work Social Work with Individuals Social Demography
Economic migration, relocation, displacement, exile and asylum, related to ethnicity
Professional networking in the international and intercultural context
Juvenile Delinquency – L Social Work with Disabled People Social Work with Individuals
Concepts: nation, state, and culture in terms of ethnicity
1 EU comparative studies on disabled
Social Work with Disabled People Introduction to Social Policy Social Work with Individuals
Specific needs of individuals and groups concerning ethnicity; ethnic minorities
7 Forum – theatre, antidiscriminatory practice, stereotypes and prejudice, planning and programming
Drama Expression Social Work in Community Management - L Social Work Ethics – L Marginal Groups – S Social Work Theory Penal Social Work Social Work with Individuals Social Work with Groups – L and E Interpersonal Communication
ETHNICITY IN THE CURRICULUM AND RESEARCH...
Table 2: Ethnicity issue represented in courses within a different teaching unit
toPICs Practical issues of identity, human rights, racism, xenophobia related to ethnicity Content included within a different teaching unit 3 tItle of the Course (lectures (l), seminars (s) and exercises (e)) Social Work Ethics – L Marginal Groups – S Family Therapy – E Social Work in Community Organizing – L Social Psychology – L Social Work with Individuals Introduction to Social Policy Social Work in Community Organization – L Marginal Groups – S Social Psychology – S
Social exclusion and inclusion
6 social work with persons with disabilities
Ethnic groups in a multiethnic environment
3 ethnic minorities, Croats and Serbs, guest lecturer, Roma 3 migrations
Status regulation Particularities related to ethnicity issues: immigrants, asylum-seeking, border territories
Marginal Groups – S Social Work Theory Social Demography
Sensitivity to ethnicity issues in local and international context
4 ethnic minorities, communication barriers
Social Work in Community Organizing– L Marginal Groups – S Social Work Theory Interpersonal Communication Family Therapy – E Marginal Groups – S Social Work with Individuals Social Work with Groups
3 ethnic minorities, Relation between ethical and particularities of gengender/sex issues, mental der and sex approach, health and disability class lineage
With the rise of social problems in society. The regular curriculum now encompasses exercises. a country still dealing with the transitional process and its accompanying economic crisis. In the initial phase of social work education. with its bodies and structures. The state. The education of social workers has been accordingly extended to include contemporary contents pertaining to the methods and techniques of professional social work in multi-ethnic environments. One such adaptation is the parallel education of social work students as addition to social work undergraduate education at the Institute for Social Work and Social Policy which is the first university social work training in Macedonia. and poverty. field . programmes have become more practice oriented.215 Suzana Bornarova Promoting Multicultural education Within and beyond social Work training in Macedonia Introduction The vulnerable situation in the multi-ethnic Republic of Macedonia. has been pursuing solutions to mitigate and overcome the undesirable side effects of a multi-ethnic society. has resulted in changes in the traditional perception of multi-ethnic cohabitation and the spread of intolerance. unemployment. The education of social workers has undergone several stages of development. focusing on theoretical concepts rather than on their practical application. Science in general and education in particular play an active role in the search for solutions and the development of multi-ethnic cohabitation and tolerance. the education of social workers dealt mostly with theoretical. philosophical and social contents.
This not only intensified parallel education. The article presents three parallel education programmes/projects which have been implemented at the Institute for Social Work and Social Policy. Although each separate . All these extra-curricular forms of social work education are known as non-formal parallel education which complements formal education in social work. key Concepts of the Parallel education of social Work students Social work is rooted in a belief in the dignity and value of every human being.216 S U Z A N A B O R N A R O VA work. the Teaching Council of the Faculty of Philosophy established a Training Centre for Social Development at the Institute for Social Work and Social Policy. These changes were initiated by the transitional process in the Republic of Macedonia. and practice in relevant social welfare institutions. more importantly. and educational seminars on contents that supplement knowledge and skills obtained on the undergraduate level. the spreading out of the activities of the university curricula through lectures. every human being is special and has the right to be treated as an individual. Although the Training Centre offers continuing professional education mainly to graduated social workers. courses. The programmes have multi-ethnic dimensions and are aimed mainly at students of social work. new theories and practical social work approaches are constantly emerging. In social work. has become very common. To keep up with the constant globalisation of social problems. it legitimized it. which focuses predominantly on basic and general educational contents. Social workers should therefore respect people regardless of their age. or differences and strive to enrich and improve the life of every person. the process known as “university extension”. Since they cannot be fully incorporated in the regular curricula. that is. Students themselves show an ever greater interest in broadening or specialising their knowledge and skills through programs that supplement their regular studies. limitations. the pressing need to continuously upgrade the knowledge base has led to the inclusion of students of social work in this process. In 1998.
The concept of human diversity. This perspective treats the individual as a part of two systems: 1) the socio-educational system. or social diversity (Federico 1980). . gender. sexual orientation. the social worker should be familiar with the values and habits of different cultures when communicating or interacting with different systems. implies an understanding of the nature of culture and its influence on people’s development and functioning. cultural and social factors. They are in a position to strive for social justice in social services. to plan interventions and develop helping skills suitable to all cultural groups. They can contribute to the promotion of a just and balanced distribution of goods and services in the local community. the social worker should avoid stereotyping the members of any group. ethnicity. gender. 2. Also. are manifested in many different ways because of biological. Even people’s “common” needs. race. Social workers are involved in strengthening and changing all sectors of society. this would help them to understand the nature of the client population. ethnic background. For this reason. or class are treated with dignity and respect. and the issues of power relationship. social class. knowledge of the concept of human diversity is a necessary reference in the actions of the social worker. . The concept of dual perspective. which includes family and immediate surroundings (the indi- . regardless of their race. The concept of human diversity. The multicultural knowledge and skills and the development of competence for efficient multicultural practice is today based on the following concepts: 1. and to understand the values and cultural norms of a particular group in a multicultural society. The human diversity concept is especially important for cultural groups that face difficulties due to the fact that they are different from the dominant culture (Johnson 1995). They should ensure that all people. It refers to a continuum of differences among people and groups as a result of biological. policies and programmes. cultural. religion. age. recently introduced in social work.P R O M O T I N G M U LT I C U LT U R A L E D U C AT I O N . etc. disability. 217 group is characterized by common values and behaviour. Due to this specific mission. students of social work should be familiar with the historical and cultural traits of the various ethnic groups that they might work with. religion. These differences are the result of culture.
regardless of whether they are believers or not. and values. Cultural tradition contains within itself more than can be manifested at a specific moment in time and is constantly enriched through new experiences and exposure to new cultures. Religion can refer to organised institutions or to individual or collective system of beliefs or conduct. is alone in society. A system of values is a sum of beliefs and . One side of the dual perspective is the manner in which individuals perceive themselves. this is defined to a large extent by one’s immediate surroundings. 4. which consists of those values which broader society transfers to the individual. culture is a key source of human diversity. The guidelines for a group’s interaction with its surroundings are defined by its culture. culture also comprises values and ideas. If there are considerable differences between these two environments. and this is acknowledged by the other side of the dual perspective. For instance. political power. which includes the organisation of goods and services. and 2) the support system. and transferable behaviour and preserved experience of a group that shapes its thinking and future conduct. the individual will encounter difficulties in his/her functioning (Johnson 1995). however. Therefore.218 S U Z A N A B O R N A R O VA vidual’s culture). Culture is the learned. In addition to material elements. other groups. Religion and values are variables of the “human diversity” concept. Sallee 1994). members of a minority group may face discrimination and prejudice in the outside world. but enjoy love and acceptance in their own homes. the educational system. shared. If discrepancies occur between these two systems. and their own behaviour. The consequence of a dual perspective differ from one individual to another and among groups (Hoffman. other members of the same cultural group. people live in an unstable balance. Values and religion. other people. most importantly by family. 3. Cultural diversity. No individual. and broader social systems. acceptance. Social workers should understand religion and its influence on human behaviour. economic resources. Membership in different cultural groups determines one’s attitude towards social institutions. and towards himself/herself (Federico 1980).
both individually and collectively. While ethnocentrism is a tendency to perceive cultures through the prism of one’s own culture. however. as well as an understanding of the nature of human diversity. at the same time. and with cultural experiences that should be shared and respected. Schwartz 1994). Cultural pluralism stresses the need for such changes because discrimination rooted in views and perceptions is much more difficult to eliminate than discriminatory laws or policies. cultural pluralism is quite promising. desires and hopes. multiculturalism implies openness towards diversity and the application of such an attitude in . multiculturalism. people. One’s system of values is predetermined by the culture of his/her immediate environment. viewpoints. Cultural pluralism. along with respect for and understanding of different cultures. i. 5. In order to curb discrimination. his/her beliefs. As the highest level of a continuum. and respect for those who are different from us (Johnson. . is based on one’s confidence in the superiority of his/ her culture (Van Wormer 1997). 219 preferences.P R O M O T I N G M U LT I C U LT U R A L E D U C AT I O N .e. but as people with similar needs. In cultural pluralism. This requires a change in the attitudes of those in positions of power. not sanctioned. we must find ways to address the diversity of the cultural groups that comprise society. Cultural pluralism stresses that every group should preserve its cultural heritage and the specific features of its culture and at the same time actively participate in social life. although the need to acknowledge diversity and a mutual desire for life in a multicultural society must be accompanied by a change in the views of citizens themselves. Ethnocentrism vs. have different systems of values. diversity and differences are accepted and awarded. 6. A change of views should be stimulated. Multicultural education could play an important role in this process. tolerance for differences. Society should also offer opportunities for uniting the members of different cultural groups not as members of different cultures. . and values are under the influence of systems of values that are dominant in the broader social environment (McMahon 1996).
they should direct their work towards clients and their system. but also structural changes in institutions and society as a whole. at the same time. and ways of dealing with changes and stress. specific. views and conduct. (Kilpatrick 1995). religious customs. and. and able to activate their clients’ resources. It implies the ability to conduct professional social work in a manner that members of different cultures consider appropriate. values. In addition to . Cultural competence. economic and educational agenda is one aspect of multiculturalism. Also. which have a specific history and culture) does not. social workers should be familiar with a particular group’s experiences in relation to the dominant group and with the process of acculturation and its results. For instance. focus his/her interventions on achieving not only individual changes. family values. Multiculturalism demands that we learn what we do not know and rethink what we thought we knew. The specific characteristics of various subgroups within the framework of a single cultural group should also be taken into account (Johnson 1995). open to cultural diversity. constitute cultural sensitivity. parenting habits. and acknowledge their cultural integrity. Mere knowledge of the general characteristics of ethnic groups (and their subgroups. 7. Multiculturalism acknowledges the unique. etc. Social workers should possess considerable cultural knowledge about the ethnic and racial groups they work with. in and of itself. A network of assistance tailored to a particular culture is a very important potential source of help in situations where social welfare is needed. It implies openness to other ways of life and consideration and reaction to the circumstances of life (Burwell 1995).220 S U Z A N A B O R N A R O VA contact with clients. and authentic cultural resources that members of various groups posses and use in their everyday lives. helping stigmatised groups come closer to the “core” of the political. This includes knowledge of a cultural group’s history. The concept of multicultural social work demands that the social worker is led by the ideals and values of cultural pluralism instead of ethnocentrism. This means that social workers should be aware of their own cultural limitations.
8. At the same time. It strengthens social workers’ awareness of racism in broader society and shows them how the social conditions and feelings of powerlessness affect the life experiences of individuals. Ethnically sensitive practice. Advanced cultural competence should be the goal of multicultural social work. agency etc. The development of cultural competence could be viewed as a continuum.P R O M O T I N G M U LT I C U LT U R A L E D U C AT I O N . mediation. because this makes it possible for him/her to respect the diversity of cultures and to recognize prejudice or ethnocentrism within himself/herself (McMahon 1996). . . this is crucial if they are to help their clients achieving self-awareness (Van Wormer 1997). policies. the social worker should be aware of his/her own culture. and practices that have destructive effects on different cultures and the members of these cultures. while advanced cultural competence signifies culturally competent practice that is characterized by the promotion and advocacy of the concept of cultural competence in the social system and by improved relations among the different cultures of a given society. It was intended to teach social workers about multi-ethnic tolerance. Inter-cultural Communication and social Work The sections bellow will present three parallel educational programmes that have been implemented at the Institute for Social Work and Social Policy and are based on the concepts described above. Destructiveness implies views. One of them was the project entitled Development of Personnel Cooperation in Civil Peace Service (2002-2005). the social worker should also know how a certain group perceives and constructs understanding of time. Social workers should also be aware of their own prejudice and fears. 221 knowledge of the history of various cultures. inter-personal relations. peace keep- . this level of competence should be promoted not only among students of social work. but also in society in general. with cultural destructiveness on one end and advanced cultural competence on the other.
In addition to specialisation courses. Their Role in the Social System and Strengthening Civil Society (53 participants). to support initiatives for the development of inter-ethnic tolerance and (cross)cultural values that could lead to the reconciliation of conflicting sides in civil society.222 S U Z A N A B O R N A R O VA ing. religious affiliation. students. to support initiatives. NGO representatives. NGOs and local social work authorities that focus on peace building and the promotion of mutual understanding among people of different social and educational status. cultural background and/or ethnic association. and professionals from social institutions. and inter-cultural competence in professional practice. - The project was implemented through two distinct practice-oriented specialization courses: Inter-cultural Communication and Social Work (66 participants) and Non-government Organizations (NGOs). associations. In addition to its research activities. whose services and residence in the Republic of Macedonia were supported by AGEH. the Training Centre also offers continuing education for social workers and similar professionals and parallel education for students of social work. Courses were aimed at students of social work. several other events took place within the Inter-cultural Communication and Social Work course: 1) Community Mediation – a seminar offered by a German expert. The courses were taught by 2 German experts (an ethnologist and a social worker).the Transcendent Method – a workshop offered by two experts from Aus- . 2) Inter-cultural Mediation as a Method in Social Work . which is part of the Institute for Social Work and Social Policy of the Faculty of Philosophy in Skopje. The Development of Personnel Cooperation in Civil Peace Service project had the following objectives: to contribute to the development and strengthening of civil society in the Republic of Macedonia. The project was supported by the German Agency for Development Cooperation (AGEH) and coordinated by the National Centre for Training in Social Development.
as well as ethnographic field research. scientific excursions to Balkan countries. The above mentioned Inter-cultural Communication and Social Work specialisation course (2 semesters) was offered to students in their final year of undergraduate study. conflict research.P R O M O T I N G M U LT I C U LT U R A L E D U C AT I O N .which resulted in the publication of a collection of scientific papers (by German experts and domestic teaching personnel). and minorities within the framework of local and national integration measures. 3) Study visits to Germany for students of the specialisation course (visits to the Plotzensee youth prison. Besides adopting strategies for violence prevention. and social work. that is. The specialisation course followed a cultural-scientific and ethnographic orientation which encompasses both in its theoretical and practical base and through methods of qualitative social research. This was further enhanced by the long-term process of acquiring ethnic sensitivity. field practice in foreign countries and similar. The contextual and methodical transfer of inter-cultural competency to course participants served as a unifying factor for the various course activities. group work. video presentations. the discovery of the cultural and behavioural patterns of one’s own culture and other cultures. in cooperation with the Konrad Adenauer Shtiftung Foundation. One of the most important and most complex objectives of inter-cultural social work in multicultural societies is . inter-cultural education. readings. organised by the Austrian Study Centre for Peace and Coping with Conflicts in Schatschlining. The curriculum was built around the concept of inter-cultural communication. supplementary workshops in topics such as civil conflict resolution. it embraced the long-term development of concepts for the peaceful coexistence of nations. the Youth Agency in Reinikendorf and the Lebenswelt NGO). The course consisted of a combination of academic lectures. 4) the participation of two students in the seminar entitled Civil Coping with Conflicts. and school social work. . Austria. contents from other disciplines. such as peace studies. . 223 tria. ethnic groups. exercises. and 5) Round table discussion on the topic of Theoretical Approaches in the Education of Social Workers and Challenges of Social Work Practice in a Multi-ethnic Environment .
In the first phase of the specialisation course. and way of life. migration. the differences and similarities between culturally determined systems of people orientation must be acknowledged and understood. function. and the ability to accept differences. This objective was addressed within the framework of multiculturalism in the state protection of minorities. by eliminating ethnocentric modes of thought. cultural characteristics. Before such inter-cultural dialog can begin. and so gain insight into the individual mechanisms of cultural distinction that are developed in the course of the socialisation process. students could obtain theoretical knowledge about the essence. and changes of cultures and lifestyles. Inter-cultural competence can therefore be understood as the sum of “abilities for communication or interaction”. culture. awareness of one’s own cultural attributes. The development of inter-cultural competency through interaction with other cultures often causes feelings of uncertainty and anxiety among students. Social work views inter-cultural mediation as a measure aimed at decreasing misunderstanding. and settlement of ethnic and religious minority groups in the Republic of Macedonia. The course addressed these emotional challenges . If inter-cultural social work is to contribute to flexible and mutually satisfying inter-cultural interaction. the adoption of culture.224 S U Z A N A B O R N A R O VA the initiation of inter-cultural dialogue. students learned to confront their attachment to their own culture and. but also emphasises the need for empathy. Here we will define inter-cultural competency as the ability to effectively and successfully communicate with people belonging to different ethnic groups in a foreign cultural environment. to comprehend and accept the values and behavioural models of other cultures. It not only demands that social workers be familiar with the client’s language. the core teaching contents were aimed at achieving a clearer understanding of culture. Students also gained a basic knowledge of the history. In other words. and developing strategies for dealing with conflicts. tradition. During their internal confrontation with their own cultural norms. and cultural adjustment. social workers who act in society must adopt and apply inter-cultural competency. acknowledging and formulating conflicting interests.
This approach included a socio-scientific review of the culturally heterogeneous ways of life of ethnic groups and religious minorities in multi-ethnic settlements in Skopje and the Republic of Macedonia.P R O M O T I N G M U LT I C U LT U R A L E D U C AT I O N . The evaluation results were quite favourable and show that students were satisfied with the course and considered it highly beneficial to their professional development as social workers. This active confrontation with potential inter-cultural conflict situations was aimed at the further development of tolerance among students. Change of perspective techniques played an important role in the course by creating emotional assumptions which students could integrate into their strategies for interaction with other cultures. which are the leading welfare institutions in Macedonia. students had an opportunity to learn about cultural sensitivity by examining the different values. and to differentiate picture of themselves and realistic self-evaluation. norms. . and a practical evaluation carried out by students. students confronted the cultural identities and perceptions of inhabitants of these settlements. students were expected to conduct ethnographic field research. . the narrative interview which each student conducted with a family from a multi-ethnic community focused on personal perceptions of multicultural coexistence and individual or collective subjective perceptions of “self” and “others”. Using qualitative social research methods. if you will. This could contribute to more efficient practical responses to ethnic-specific situations. on the construction of the social and cultural relations in which the interviewees lives take place (Jaroshek 2005). 225 using teaching methods such as role play or simulations. For this reason. and cultural models of behaviour of the heterogeneous social groups of the Republic of Macedonia. and the use of actual case studies from the Centers for Social Work. In this part of the specialist course. such as participatory observation and narrative interviews. This programme also had a broader impact on the development of . During the specialisation course. or. evaluation of the quality and relevancy of course contents. Several instruments for the evaluation of the project were designed and used: evaluation of the work of instructors. These techniques teach students that their culture and point of view are just one of many.
a Skopje-based non-government organization. Influenced by the positive experiences and outcomes of the project. those who participated regularly in instructional sessions and field visits (22 hours of lectures and 24 hours of practice/field work) and successfully completed the final exam were presented with course certificates.a Non-credit Course Specialisation (October-December 2005). and other activities which allowed students to confront refugee problems as social workers. It was implemented within the Institute for Social Work and Social Policy through the initiative and support of the Citizens’ Centre for Information Society. task assignments.226 S U Z A N A B O R N A R O VA the multicultural curriculum at the Institute. 29 third and fourth year students attended the course. In the preparatory phase. work on specific case studies. the legal and social Aspects of the Protection of refugees The second educational project was the Social Work with Refugees . Each instructional session was followed by discussions. curriculum development was guided by the Competence Development Network Process (CDNP) and . They could use the facilities at a Computer Centre in Skopje and went on field trips to the Rosh Centre and the Transit Centre for Refugees in Skopje. The students were encouraged to gather information about countries of origin of the refugees. UNHCR. and the Asylum Department of the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Macedonia participated in the project. The project also gave an opportunity to purchase relevant domestic and foreign literature. group work exercises. the Institute for Social Work and Social Policy has incorporated two elective courses into the curriculum of its newly developed credit transfer system. which will serve as a valuable learning and teaching resource both for the students and teaching staff of the Institute. Two key trainers from the National Training Centre for Social Development at the Institute and three supporting trainers from the Citizen’s Centre for Information Society. The curriculum was developed around practice and field work. which was introduced in the 2005/2006 academic year: Social Work with Ethnic Minorities and Social Work in the Non-governmental Sector.
P R O M O T I N G M U LT I C U LT U R A L E D U C AT I O N . Overall. 227 their Minimum Standards for Curricula Development of the Higher Educational Programmes. although not everyone could participate due to the limited class size. 7) gathering information about countries of origin (Internet search). Finally. 2) refugee experiences. The key instructors were also provided with resource materials listed in the CNDP’s Minimum Standards. 4) national asylum systems. 3) a framework of international refugee protection. social work related. such as women. cultural. This was also made clear by the large number of students interested in enrolling. 5) the framework of social protection. social. One can plainly see that the contents of the project fully correspond to the CDNP’s Minimum Standards. and people with disabilities. which they further amended with additional. material. Students were therefore able to receive information about the refugee protection competencies of all the institutions in the country that work with different aspects of the refugee population. 6) socio-cultural norms in social work with refugees (values. which covered the legal. UNHCR policy priorities enabled further elaboration of the instructional sessions. The Standards were subsequently modified to suit the target group and circumstances in the Republic of Macedonia. The curriculum also included field visits and practical exercises. proved to be an effective tool for capacity building. especially the last two sessions. 8) social work with refugees and asylum seekers (with a specific focus on women refugees). the course was successfully implemented because of the time devoted to preparation and curriculum development . . norms and ethical issues). and political aspects of this issue. The evaluation provided valuable information about the impact of this programme and showed that the course addressed a theme that had not been specifically addressed in the regular curriculum. . The project presented a holistic approach to the issue of refugee protection. which. economic. 9) social work with refugees and asylum seekers (with a specific focus on children refugees). which were devoted to social work services for vulnerable refugee groups. keeping in mind the practical orientation of social work. children. The themes included: 1) an introduction to the course/migration theme.
In 1997. Education has been one of the most essential priorities since the very beginning. In 2001. trainers. and materials that were distributed to them. It is an indisputable fact that courses of this type require practiceoriented classroom sessions and. This course was offered to students of social work as a form of specialization. yet was a non-credit course. The certificates that students obtained were signed and stamped by the National Centre for Training in Social Development and the Citizen’s Centre for Information Society. In the last decade. the factor that made the implementation of such a course in the regular study programme difficult. In the years that followed. Nonetheless. quality of the training sessions. providing financial and mentorial assistance. field trips and activities at relevant institutions. gradually rose. romaversitas The third project which will be described is the project for the promotion of the enrolment of Roma students in higher education and also in social work training. field visits. the motivation among young Roma for extended education and their number among students. Students themselves expressed satisfaction with the organization of the course. It was not the nature but the fact that our new Curricula was already developed. and are valuable proof of a form of continuing education which is increasingly in demand in the labor market today. The sustainability of this type of training may be possible if some of them could be incorporated into the regular courses at the Institute for Social Work and Social Policy. FIOOM initiated a scholarship programme for Roma secondary school students. Foundation of the Open Society Institute Macedonia (FIOOM) has been working on the implementation of several projects aimed at the improvement of the conditions and integration of Roma in the Republic of Macedonia. FIOOM developed a new programme called Romaver- .228 S U Z A N A B O R N A R O VA thanks to the support of the key instructors from the Training Centre provided by the Citizen’s Centre for Information Society. efforts have been made to incorporate some of the key course contents within regular post-graduate courses. more importantly.
- The Romaversitas programme is implemented through several programme packages: 1. It is part of a continuous effort to promote equal opportunities and equal access for marginalised groups in higher education. USAID is now one of the major sponsors of Romaversitas activities. In 2004. . in partnership with the Foundation Open Society Institute Macedonia (FIOOM). Today. the goals of Romaveritas are: a higher entry degree of entry into higher education for Roma students. the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). contribution to the future advancement of the educational status of Roma in general.financial support for a limited number of Roma students in the form of a scholarship. Romaversitas became an integral part of the USAID and FIOOM Programme for the Education of Roma. decreasing the number of drop-outs and promoting timely graduation. This programme originated from a joint initiative of FIOOM and the Programme for Support of the Higher Education of the Open Society Institute in Budapest (HESP). Due to positive results of the Romaversitas programme and the interest on the part of the Roma community and project donors. strengthening self-respect and improving the integration of Roma with non-Roma students. 229 sitas. . Romaversitas is tailored to the academic needs of Roma students and contributes to the advancement of their educational achievements. A scholarship programme .P R O M O T I N G M U LT I C U LT U R A L E D U C AT I O N . The scholarship is used to cover participation expenses. the creation of high quality professionals – Roma who could actively participate in the social life of the country and become active participants in the creation of the national educational policy. In general. began the implementation of a Programme for the education of Roma. . greater success and academic achievements.
3. Based on the experiences of the programme carried out by the ISWSP staff during the 2004/2005 academic year. debates.). A mentorship programme for Roma students – assistance is provided by university professors and student peers. In that year a total of 6 students attended lectures. travel expenses. Romaversitas centre is equipped with computers and provide students with internet access. research. courses and similar activities.230 S U Z A N A B O R N A R O VA 2. Financial bonuses intended to stimulate and motivate Roma students are also available to students with a grade point average of 8 or higher. the programme was substituted with a mentorship programme for Roma students in order to provide individual assistance and guidance during their general studies. In the academic year 2006/2007 mentors guide Roma students and provide them with counselling and assistance . computer literacy courses. The centre is used for meetings. small grants to support travel for academic purposes). 6. Summer school. though in a slightly different form. 4. and even 50% of the accommodation expenses of Roma students who study outside their place of residence. textbook costs. cooperation with Romaversitas continued in the following years. The Institute for Social Work and Social Policy became actively involved in the implementation of the Romaversitas programme in the 2004/2005 academic year. Additional training for the development of individual abilities and skills (English lessons. 5. In the 2005/2006 academic year. and also has library with textbooks and other resources to aid students in their studies. Support for student initiatives (academic projects. Continuing academic support for Roma students – improving study skills and achievements in specific subjects. The involvement of Institute staff was important for the implementation of mentorship and academic support programmes. Teachers of the Institute of Social Work and Social Policy provided additional instruction to Roma students which contained 24 hours of lectures and 6 hours practical work. etc.
changes to curricula and knowledge and skills of students are not enough. the particularities of diverse population groups. these contents should be integrated into several both regular and parallel education courses for students of social work. cultural. Today a total of 20 Roma students are enrolled at the Institute of Social Work and Social Policy undergraduate studies. It is based on the need to create equal opportunities for all students. . A multicultural education implies an educational environment in which the different cultural and ethnic groups present in society may freely and fully reflect on the educational process. Some of the elements of this process include . This would strengthen social work as a profession by dealing with the client in the environment in which he/she lives. This idea represents a movement for educational reform and a program that has yet to be implemented. practical social work skills. Even though the results of the programme can only be evaluated over time. as well as educational reforms that would lead to multicultural education. and a combination of the macro. human behaviour and social environment. and social backgrounds.P R O M O T I N G M U LT I C U LT U R A L E D U C AT I O N . increased motivation to persist in their studies assisted in solving problems encountered during studies. it is viewed as highly beneficial for Roma students because it expands their knowledge in particular areas and provides continuing assistance and support. Conclusion: Multicultural Education The need for the multicultural competence of the social workers inevitably imposes the need to amend social work curricula with contents covering ethnic minorities. including those of different ethnic. but into textbooks as well. . Systematic changes within educational institutions must also occur. multicultural social work. and offered continuing support and guidance up to graduation. In order to achieve this goal.and micro-practice of social work. they should not only be integrated into lectures. 231 only in specific subjects of the curricula. Ideally. The programme has improved their academic success. however.
the parallel education . however.232 S U Z A N A B O R N A R O VA integration into the context of social structures. This boom of new knowledge means that regular curricula (which cannot be frequently modified) are not able to encompass all of the contents that could upgrade students’ knowledge in specific areas of social work. Nonetheless. and stereotypes. much more in touch with the issues and everyday problems of minority groups. the teaching staff is expected not only to teach skills for social work with members of different cultures using a multicultural perspective whenever possible. knowledge building as a process. but also skills for confronting personal and institutional racism. academic institutions which provide a supportive environment through cultural tolerance and respect for diversity greatly contribute to the equality of all students. affirmation of the principle of pedagogical equality. If anything. prejudice. In general. An example of a good practice is the Romaversitas project presented in this text. Today we are facing a rapid development of new approaches and forms of social work. this process can succeed only if the education of social workers stresses its importance from the very beginning. discrimination. overcoming prejudice. it is a life long process. In the framework of this process. The multicultural social work is not the key reason for the current popularity of parallel education. and the strengthening of cultural tolerance and social structure. which supports both higher enrolment rates of Roma students in higher education and assistance to Roma students aimed at improving their academic achievements. This is predominantly achieved through affirmative action and quotas that guarantee a minimal number of minority students. by its very nature. The participation of the minority groups both as staff and students is particularly important for multicultural education. regardless of their cultural background. Macedonia devotes considerable attention to the involvement of minority groups in higher education. Furthermore. This of course does not mean that building cultural competence among students of social work and enabling them to practice a multicultural model of social work based on the human diversity concept is a simple process. it can certainly be said that social work is. Also.
. 233 is popular as it serves the purpose of filling in knowledge gaps in some and extending knowledge in other areas – one of which is multicultural social work. The Institute for Social Work and Social Policy has begun to practice this form of education more intensively in the last decade. . and has already reaped the fruits of its efforts.P R O M O T I N G M U LT I C U LT U R A L E D U C AT I O N . .
). (1995). Social Welfare . Working with Families . . C. Social Work Practice .An Integrative Model by Level of Functioning. Johnson. (2005). The Social Services . L. Collection of scientific papers “Theoretical Approaches in the Education of social Workers and Challenge of Social Work Practice in Multi-ethnic Environments”. In: Holland. (ed.: Peacock Publisher.. Johnson. (1997). McMahon. C. C. Social Welfare . Hoffman.C: Heath and Company. Social Work Practice . (1994). F. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. R.. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. L. Y. Van Wormer. Contexts of Helping: Commonalities and Diversities. S. C.A World View. In: Johnson Wayne. (1980). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. (1996). (1995).A Generalist Perspective. O. Lexington.234 S U Z A N A B O R N A R O VA References Burwell. The Social Welfare Institution . (1994). T. Schwartz. L. M. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. J. Rainer. (ed. A.An Introduction. (1995). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. S. A. Sallee. Maryland D. Federico. L. Social Work Practice .Bridges to Change. Skopje: Faculty of Philosophy Skopje. P.). Third edition. In: Bornarova. C.An Introduction. K. Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publisher. K.A Generalist Approach. Distinguishing Marks of Inter-cultural Social Work in Multi-ethnic Regions of Macedonia. Kilpatrick.A Response to Human Need. N. Human Diversity and Empowerment. E.
(ed. and the public perception of this 1 A list of students and graduates. etc.) (2002). Zagreb: Social Work Study Center. The first generation was enrolled in the 1952/1953 academic year and contained 34 students. 50 godina Studija za socijalni rad: 1952-2002. Ajduković.1 Sources dealing with social work as a profession and with social work education in this period are rather scarce. . also containing 34 students. Faculty of Law. This can be done by analyzing the topics of graduation theses. M. narratives of the first generations of students and graduated social workers (Ajduković. They include curricula. the second class.235 Marina Ajduković. was enrolled. socially appropriate methods for dealing with such problems. is presented in a monography published on the occasion the 50th anniversary of the Social Work Study Program in Zagreb. There were more men (19) than women (15) in the first generation. University of Zagreb. The first graduation theses were published in 1955. It can be assumed that the selection of topics for graduation theses was influenced by two sets of circumstances – the professional interests of advisers and the general social consensus about major social problems. as well as the program curriculum. One way to learn about the profession of social work at the time is to look at which issues were considered crucial for social work in this initial period. In the fall of 1953. Classes began in March 1953. Vanja Branica and Lucija Vejmelka the Male and/or female beginnings of social Work Education in Croatia: An Analysis of graduation theses topics Introduction Social work education was introduced in Croatia in 1952 through a two-year study program offered at the School of Social Work. some professional literature. analyses of documents of institutions where the first social workers were employed. Kljaić 2006).
and later in Ljubljana. Of course. political. In this case. together with the governing structure’s wish to protect the socially endangered strata of society and deal with social problems in a comprehensive manner. the socialist authorities tried to first.236 AJDUKOVIĆ. In short. solve acute social problems caused by the war. especially the problems of fighters in the National Liberation War and victims of fascism. given that the socialist authorities were promoting the egalitarian values of a classless society. and in line with the abandonment of the view that social problems would disappear with the development of socialism. 22): At the very beginning. However. Although administrative socialism was being abandoned at the time (Puljiz 2006). and improve the living conditions of the rural population. This meant that they had to improve the living standard and social security of the poor working class. took place under unique social. the profession of social work must be viewed in context. and the bureaucratic and voluntary approach to social problems declined. their ideological dogma compelled them to take into consideration the aspirations of the working class (on whose behalf they were in power) for a better life. According to Puljiz (2006: 18. professional work began to be more highly valued. strengthen the new order by controlling basic production assets and main economic resources. such as the idea of gender equality (Zaviršek 2006) and the idea of brotherhood and unity among different nations and ethnic groups. the authorities’ need to promote socialism was still very strong. second. and third. In addition to representing the working class and improving living conditions. VEJMELKA. one must bear in mind that the establishment of the School of Social Work in Zagreb. BRANICA new profession. These values. formed the preconditions for the development of a comprehensive system of social welfare . were also present. Slovenia and other Republics of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia. push for the rapid modernization and industrial development of the country by attempting to open up new possibilities for the poor. and ideological circumstances. other values. decrease agrarian overpopulation. and establish basic social welfare systems for workers and public officials. which was the largest and poorest social stratum.
and developed. schools were established in Slovenia.THE MA LE AND/OR FEMALE BEGGININGS OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION. the first educated social workers set out on the long journey to establish this new profession in Croatia. Valerija Singer and Tatjana Marinić who had visited foreign countries through the UN exchange program and gained valuable experience. which they later used in the creation of the curriculum (Ajduković 2002.. as well as the development of social work as a “female” profession in the late 19th and early 20th century in the socio-political context of capitalism. recent research has shown that social work in fact has a much longer history. By transferring the values they had learned in class to the workplace. this set of values and knowledge was modified. The values and knowledge that the teachers at the school for social work imparted to their students laid the groundwork for the further development of the profession. The goal of this study is to determine to what extent the theses of the first graduates maintain the described situation in Croatia and concur with the traditional development of social . supplemented. They also sparked the development of social work education in the republics of the former Yugoslavia in the 1950s. Although the establishment of social work education is considered a turning point in the development of the social work profession in Croatia. The school for social work in Croatia was founded by prominent figures like Eugen Pusić. one which begins with the activities of civil society and other organizations. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia (Zaviršek 2006). The first school for social work was founded in Zagreb. the development of social work education marks its institutionalization. and is an unmistakable sign of the existence of social work as a profession. Puljiz 2006). which are considered the predecessors of social work (Prlenda 2005. Ajduković. Over time. 237 which would distinguish Yugoslavia from other socialist countries. Branica 2006). Nevertheless. research Methodology The following study considers the particularities of the development of social work education in the 1950s in Croatia. Serbia.. Later.
If capitalism is abolished and socialism is introduced. To determine the extent to which topics directly connected with the socialist system are present in the graduation theses. and had a fine tradition of voluntary charity organizations. The authorities worked on the assumption that the destiny of the people can be shaped only by sweeping social changes. described the establishment of the school as follows (2004: 146): The situation after the Second World War in Croatia was a result of a combination of general policy and particularly favorable circumstances. it was considered an indication of civic individualism. I am referring to women such as Tatjana Marinić. Only in this way was it possible to overcome the regime’s strong opposition to the idea of educating social workers. We conducted a content analysis of the titles of graduation theses written in the first five years of the program (1955 to 1960). primarily because of the Partisan women who were active in this field. 3. These Partisan women. Taking this into account. VEJMELKA.238 AJDUKOVIĆ. and new relations of production come about and solve all problems. This opposition to the education of social workers could hardly be overcome by anybody else but us. our research focused on the following: 1. Jana Koh and Valerija Singer. and medicine. wielded authority even over the Party. who later came to Zagreb and worked on social policy. Relations of productions are abolished in revolutions. To determine the extent to which the issue of ethnicity is addressed in the graduation theses. The individual approach was considered wrong. something that others did not have. was perhaps of crucial importance – a group of social activists who participated in the national liberation movement and the National Liberation War. But something unique to Croatia. This is all the more interesting because women played a key role in the establishment of the School of Social Work. then there are no social problems. Means of production and production technology develop and clash with relations of production. pedagogy. in Croatia. There were 171 graduates during this period. This must be made clear. Were there “female” and “male” research topics? 2. BRANICA work as a female profession in Europe and North America. Professor Eugen Pusić. a member of the Croatian Academy of Arts and Sciences. Determining whether any differences in topics of graduation theses can be traced to the gender of the authors. Croatia had a very strong tradition in all three areas: law. 99 men and 72 . There was sufficient knowledge and determination to continue on this journey.
There are a number of thematic subcategories within each field. A closer look at the curriculum. however. The analysis encompassed all graduation theses of the first five classes. we see that Social Policy in General is the largest subcategory. the subtopic persons with special needs was covered in two courses: Social . the gender make-up of the first classes was quite different than today. Two other topics frequently appear: Child Welfare and Persons with Special Needs. but there do not seem to be any essential differences. such as Children and Youth.. Courses directly connected with social work dealt with particular social problems and user groups. In addition to these courses.. but was incorporated into courses such as Social Welfare and Working Relations and The History of Social Services. it is evident that most categories can be connected with courses that the students attended. Students wrote more theses dealing with social work. makes it clear that the theses were connected with courses dealing with social problems and the structure and functioning of the social welfare system. the curricula contained courses pertaining to legislation and other fields (psychology. social policy was not a separate course. and The Elderly. In the curricula of the 1956/57 to 1960/61.THE MA LE AND/OR FEMALE BEGGININGS OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION. If we compare the fields and subcategories with the curricula from the academic years 1952/53 to 1960/61. At the time. 239 women. social medicine). The curricula in different academic years vary in terms of the number of courses and the titles of particular courses. The field of social work includes more subcategories than the field of social policy. Analysis criteria suited to the objectives of the research were constructed. and fewer theses dealing with social policy (Table 1). Invalids. The term reflects the diversity of thesis titles. If we examine the topics that students opted for most frequently. A greater number of courses deal with social work and the methodology of social work than with social policy. Each of these two topics is associated with a particular course. sociology. pedagogy. today all these theses would fall under the heading of social policy. The topics of the graduation theses can be divided into two general fields: social work and social policy.
Kljajić 2006: 131. On the other hand. we can see that an equal number of men and women wrote about social work. but the circumstances in my family were difficult. because I could not study anything else since I did not have a scholarship. and it was like this with many people in my generation. Analysis of the topics of graduation theses with regard to the Authors’ gender Data on the number of enrolled students show that professional social work attracted both women and men.240 AJDUKOVIĆ. Kljajić 2006) showed that the key reasons for choosing this profession were somewhat different than today. I wanted to study mathematics. female students mentioned that they had chosen to study social work in order to help others and work with people more frequently than male students. men wrote more frequently about topics pertaining to social policy. My social background was the deciding factor. On the other hand. This is clear in the following statements (Ajduković. If we look at the thematic subcategories of graduation theses with regard to the authors’ gender. and this was a good decision. as well as the possibility of residing at the School of Social Work. an analysis of interviews with representatives of the first graduating classes of social workers (Ajduković. and with social work you could both live and study. and my father directed me towards the field in which I could start working sooner. However. and the professors would transmit the spirit of taking care of the poor (Ivan Hržić). I am really interested in nature and I love animals. were significant factors for both men and women.182): I was trying to decide between agronomy and social work. because you would have a profession after that… I enrolled because I could not study what I wanted. VEJMELKA. My parents could barely feed their five children. BRANICA Protection and Rehabilitation of the Mentally Disabled and Social Protection of War Invalids. Interviews with students of social work from this period showed that scholarships awarded to students of social work. Nevertheless. The Ministry was awarding 2200 dinars for social work. the main reason for social work was my love for humanity (Mileva Arbutina). Victims of Fascist Terror and the Families of Functionaries. We enrolled because we were poor. 181. .
focusing on family policy. social security. Table 1. which was not the topic of any graduation theses written by women. Particular graduation theses topics with regard to the author’s sex soCIAl Work – fIelds TOPICS CHILD WELFARE PERSONS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS GERONTOLOGY/ THE ELDERLY DELINQUENCY SUBSTANCE ABUSE SOCIAL MEDICINE LEISURE CASEWORK METHODOLOGY SPECIFIC AREAS soCIAl PolICy f ∑ 26 22 11 10 4 7 6 11 4 13 7 106 RESEARCH M 9 11 6 7 3 7 6 2 3 54 TOPICS SOCIAL POLICY IN GENERAL FAMILY POLICY SOCIAL SECURITY DEMOGRAPHY MARGINAL GROUPS M 23 7 8 5 1 f 14 3 3 ∑ 37 10 11 5 1 17 11 5 3 1 1 45 20 1 65 ∑ 52 ∑ . 241 Within the category of social work.THE MA LE AND/OR FEMALE BEGGININGS OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION. and demography.the most frequent topics of graduation theses are marked in gray . such as delinquency and alcoholism. Men and women exhibited an equal interest in topics which deal with persons with special needs and the elderly. because women did not write about them at all: social medicine and leisure.the topics that women did not write about are marked in light dark gray . Men tended to write about socio-pathological phenomena.. men and women generally opted for different subcategories. Women more frequently selected topics concerning child welfare and casework. Two topics can be called male topics.. Men wrote about social policy more frequently than women.
The analysis of the titles in the first five years of the social work study program (N=171) shows that there were more graduation theses dealing with the socialist system in general (23. . eight dealt with women’s issues. This clearly shows that there are no indications of gender sensitivity with regard to some typical women’s issues of the period. the Analysis of topics on the socialist system The titles of the graduation theses were analyzed according to two criteria: a) connection with the socialist political system and b) connection with the war. On the basis of our analysis. or 2 The two plurals are: starci (“old persons”) and učenici (“pupils”). In the titles of graduation theses dealing with particular social problems. the category of social welfare users was usually written using a gender-neutral plural which does not reveal whether these theses dealt with men or women. such as the exposure of women to domestic violence or balancing work and family. These mostly dealt with working women (Appendix 1).2 In 8 cases. They may refer to both males and females. BRANICA We also wanted to find out if any social problems were more closely connected with a particular gender. Most of these theses (5) were on delinquency. we can conclude that graduation thesis topics are not gender sensitive. user groups.242 AJDUKOVIĆ. etc. the title reveals that a thesis dealt with a particular social problem among men or women. VEJMELKA. For instance: Demografska i ekonomska analiza staraca smještenih u domu (Demographic and economic analysis of the elderly living in homes) or Kako sprovode slobodno vrijeme učenici u privredi koji se nalaze na izučavanju zanata u Karlovcu (How do trade school pupils learning their trade in Karlovac spend their leisure time). Two dealt with the issue of alcoholism among men (Appendix 2). Out of a total of 171 graduation theses. Four of them dealt with delinquency among men and one with delinquency among women. Such a lack of gender sensitivity can also be seen in the use of the male grammatical gender when addressing particular problems.
6%). 1958 December 22. Even fewer theses reveal a clear connection to the socialist political system in their titles (6). ustanovama Zagreba (Social management in the social institutions in Zagreb) Socijalna politika i socijalna zaštita kroz program SKJ (Social policy and social welfare through the program of the The League of Communists of Yugoslavia) Rajman Ivan CeranDulibić Marija Kaneki Stevo December 30. 1958 Ćirić Jelka November 12. Topics of graduation theses dealing with the socialist system. Those that do primarily deal with social management. . 243 13. Graduation theses written by men are marked in gray and graduation theses written by women in white. student Latas đorđe graduation date September 25. some graduation theses (12) do in fact seem to be indirectly connected with the socialist system. 1956 graduation thesis topic Elementi populacione politike SFRJ (Elements of the population policy of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia) Društveno upravljanje socijalnim ustanovama (Social management of social institutions) Društveno upravljanje u socijalnom osiguranju za grad Zagreb (Social management in the social security in the city of Zagreb) Uloga narodnog odbora kotara Virovitice u poslovima socijalne zaštite (The role of the national committee of the district of Virovitica in social welfare) Društveno upravljanje u soc. 1959 Interestingly.THE MA LE AND/OR FEMALE BEGGININGS OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION.. 1959 Vučetić Vicko November 18.45%) than with the war (13 or 7. 1957 November 11. The titles of these theses show that they deal with the influence of a particular company (founded under socialism and in accordance with the socialist economic dogma) on the community where it was founded and on the occurrence and solution of a particular social problem. however.. Table 2.
socijalni i društveni faktor u području Sinjske krajine (Dalmatinka as an economic. 1959 June 9. with special emphasis on social work in the factory) Seljaci radnici u “Jugomontu” (Peasant laborers at Jugomont) Analiza problema radnica s umanjenom radnom sposobnosti u tvornici “Josip Kraš” (Analysis of problems of female laborers with diminished working capacity at the Josip Kraš factory) Potreba organiziranja društvene prehrane u Novoj industriji Vrbovsko (The need to organize a mess at the Nova Industrija Vrbovsko factory) Sindikalna podružnica tvornice keksa i kruha “Sloboda” kao faktor u rješavanju socijalnih problema u kolektivu (The Union branch of the biscuit and bread factory Sloboda as a factor in solving social problems in the collective) Neki problemi radnika poluseljaka Tvornice vijaka Knin (Some problems of laborers-peasants in the Knin Screw Factory) Neki problemi samohranih majki trikotaže “Biser” u Bjelovaru (Some problems of single mothers in the Biser Knitwear Factory in Bjelovar) Milihram Franjo Mikić Dušan Hečimović Kaja Vučinić Radovan Ćulić Stevan Dujaković Nikola Radotović Tomislav December 15. 1956 October 13. maj shipyard in Rijeka) Seljaci-industrijski radnici (u tvornici “đ. 1959 October 16. 1959 . Graduation theses written by men are marked in gray and graduation theses written by women in white. Topics of graduation theses dealing with the socialist system – companies . 1956 March 18. 1958 October 30.maj” Rijeka (Analysis of industrial accidents in the 3.Brodu) (Peasants – factory laborers (in the Đ.đaković” u Slav. 1959 November 4. community and social factor in the area of Sinjska krajina) Analiza nekih socijalnih faktora radništva Tvornice šibica “Drava” Osijek (An analysis of some social factors of the laborers at the Drava Match Factory in Osijek) Analiza ozljeda na radu u brodogradilištu “3. 1959 graduation thesis topic Žene u Varaždinskoj industriji svile (Women in the Varaždin Silk Factory) “Dalmatinka”kao ekonomski. 1958 November 23.244 AJDUKOVIĆ. VEJMELKA. 1958 October 21. 1958 March 10. Đaković factory in Slavonski Brod)) Provedba socijalnog osiguranja u poduzeću “Varteks”Varaždin s posebnim osvrtom na socijalni rad u poduzeću (Social security in the Varteks factory in Varaždin. student Čavec Vladimir Švarcer Ksenija Pospihalj Mirko Cukrov Ante Mekić Nusret graduation date October 6. 1958 December 9. BRANICA Table 3.
Such a division clearly reflects one of the dominant values of socialism. Examples of such topics are given in Table 4. these topics were still relevant from a political and social standpoint.. graduation theses most commonly mention pali borci (“killed partisans”).THE MA LE AND/OR FEMALE BEGGININGS OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION. Furthermore. Table 4. but deal with a particular phenomenon (primarily leisure) of a particular social stratum (laborers and the rural population) can also be found. artisans. 245 Theses which do not explicitly mention the socialist system. the problems their children face. zanatlije. Taking into consideration the extent of the Second World War and its consequences.. 1955 March 22. even ten years after the end of the war. the curriculum of the School of Social Work included a separate course dealing with the problems of war invalids and their families until 1961. old-age pensioners and students)?) Kako naši radni ljudi provode svoju starost (What do our working people do in their old age?) Požega Branko March 22. 1955 graduation thesis topic Kako se koristi slobodno vrijeme u radničkoj obitelji (How is leisure time spent in a laborer’s family?) Kako se u porodici službenika koristi slobodno vrijeme (How is leisure time spent in a clerk’s family?) Kako provode slobodno vrijeme oni koji privređuju (How do family providers spend their leisure time?) Kako porodica provodi slobodno vrijeme (zemljoradnici. 1955 When dealing with the war. and ratni invalidi (“war invalids”). it is logical to suppose that. Topics of graduation theses dealing with a particular social stratum. . 1955 Ferega Zora December 5. These topics represent problems common to all post-war periods. student Gašparić Ivan Orban Miroslav graduation date March 22. 1955 Despi Vladislav March 22. however. penzioneri i studenti) (How does a family spend its leisure time (farmers. Graduation theses written by men are marked in gray and graduation theses written by women in white.
BRANICA Table 5. Topics of graduation theses dealing with the war. 1956 May 8. with regard to levies) Zaštita djece palih boraca i žrtava fašističkog terora na području općine Ludbreg (Welfare of children of the fallen fighters and the victims of the Fascist terror in the Ludbreg Municipality) Briga NOO-a Slav. graduation student graduation thesis topic date Kolaković Zora Pešut Neda Kuničić Jozica Vučičević Pavle Kostovski Zdravko NinkovićVobaški Milosavka Gareljić Miljenko March 28. 1959 December 7. VEJMELKA. victims of the Fascist terror) Oblici dječje zaštite i djece palih boraca i žrtava fašističkog terora (The types of protection of children and of children of the fallen fighters and the victims of the Fascist terror) Usporedbe zakona o RVI-a iz god. 1959 October 31.246 AJDUKOVIĆ. 1955 July 2. 1955 October 25.god. from its foundation to the present) Utvrđivanje ratnog invaliditeta (Establishing war invalidity) Faktori koji utječu na slabije učenje djece palih boraca u školi učenika u industriji “Prvomajska” (Factors that influence poor academic achievement in children of the fallen fighters in the Prvomajska trade school) Zbrinjavanje djece palih boraca i ŽFT-a na ustaničkoj Romaniji NR BiH (Caring for the children of fallen fighters and the victims of the Fascist terror in the region of Romanija of the People’s Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Zaštita vojnih invalida i porodica poginulih boraca na području Istre za vrijeme Italije i danas (The welfare of war invalids and the families of fallen fighters in Istria during Italian rule and today) Mikoci đuro Ragužin Ivan Stojčević Gavro DelijanisKovačević Vera Jolović Branko October 15. 1958 October 17.1929. 1955 September 22.sa zakonom RVI-a iz 1946. from the 1914-1918 war to the present) Zaštita žrtava fašističkog terora (Welfare of the victims of the Fascist terror) Razvoj zaštite RVI u NR Hrvatskoj s osvrtom na financijsko-materijalna davanja (The development of the welfare of war invalids in the People’s Republic of Croatia. 1958 October 10.sa Zakonom RVIa od 1946.Brod za djecu palih boraca i žrtava fašističkog terora od njegova osnutka do danas (The care of the People’s Committee of the Slavonski Brod Municipality for the children of the fallen fighters and the victims of the Fascist terror. (A comparison of the War Invalids Act of 1929 and the War Invalids Act of 1946) Usporedba zakona iz 1929. 1958 October 2. 1959 Poropat Ivan . (A comparison of the War Invalids Act of 1929 and the War Invalids Act of 1946) Zdravstvena zaštita i snabdijevanje ortopedskim pomagalima ratnih vojnih invalida od rata 1914-18 do danas (Healthcare and providing orthopedic devices to war invalids. Graduation theses written by men are marked in gray and graduation theses written by women in white. 1957 June 20. 1958 Zaštita djece palih boraca žrtava fašističkog terora (The protection of children of fallen fighters. 1955 March 28.
Data in the admission register included each student’s nationality and sex. Of course.5%). that is. 1955 graduation thesis topic Razvitak dječjih domova u NRH od oslobođenja do danas (Development of children’s homes in the People’s Republic of Croatia from liberation to the present) Dječja zaštita u Beogradu prije i poslije rata (Child welfare in Belgrade before and after the war) U kojima se sve pravcima osnovna načela novog porodičnog prava FNRJ proizvela reforma ranijeg porodičnog prava i kako se to očituje na osnovnim propisima porodičnog prava FNRJ (how were the basic principles in the Family Act of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia in reformed in relation to the earlier Family Act.5%) than with child welfare (5.THE MA LE AND/OR FEMALE BEGGININGS OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION. more graduation theses are directly connected with the socialist system and the National Liberation War (21. and one student was ethnically uncommitted. 1955 Overall. ethnicity in graduation theses The analysis of the topics of graduation theses dealing with ethnicity included an analysis of the nationality of students enrolled in the School of Social Work. 519 students were enrolled in the social work study program at the School of Social Work in its first six years.26%) or the welfare of the elderly (3. student Hržić Ivan Komlenac Jovanka graduation date October 10. Examples of such topics are given in Table 6. that male social workers dealt with current political issues more often than female social workers. this in no way means that the texts of all other graduation theses were not ideologically marked. .. i. Table 6. 1955 March 19.e. Topics of graduation theses comparing social problems before and after the Second World War. Graduation theses written by men are marked in gray and graduation theses written by women in white. and how is this reflected in particular provisions?) Višekruna Piljo September 13. 247 The thesis titles also show that some theses compared a particular social problem before and after the Second World War.. in the academic years 1952/53 to 1959/60. No data was provided for 3 students. We can also see that these topics are predominantly “male”.
13%) and Czechs (0.74 0. Students with regard to nationality nAtIonAlIty Croats (men) Croats (women) Serbs (men) Serbs (women) Montenegrins (men) Montenegrins (women) Slovenians (men) Slovenians (women) Macedonians (men) Macedonians (women) Czechs (men) Czechs (women) Albanians (men) Albanians (women) Pakistani (men) Ethnically uncommitted total nuMber 183 183 56 48 14 1 6 5 9 2 4 0 3 0 1 1 516 % 35. Slovenians (2. It is worth noting.46 10.77%). it can be seen that the make-up of the student body was roughly proportionate to that of the country. Interestingly.97 1. 1.18% Croat. Serbs were the next (20.15%).90% Czech. Table 7.93%). there was a larger percentage of students of Serbian nationality and a smaller percentage of students of Croatian nationality. There were no women of Czech or Albanian descent among the students enrolled.19 100 If this data is compared with data from the 1953 census.13%).07% Slovenian and 0. VEJMELKA.77 0 0. Macedonians (2. 14. in comparison with the census data.71 0. Macedonians or Albanians.248 AJDUKOVIĆ. and was 78. Although there were students from different national backgrounds. only one . Out of a total of 171 thesis titles.39 0.16 0.98% Serb. 0. and were represented by more men than women. The population of Croatia was 3. There were also members of national minorities: Montenegrins (2. There are no data about the number of Montenegrins.46 35.58 0 0.85 9. however.90%). one student was Pakistani.58% of the students were Albanian. the analysis of the topics of graduation theses showed that ethnicity was not dealt with.30 2. 936. 022. that.19 1.19 0. BRANICA Croats were the largest group (70. and were represented by a roughly equal number of men and women.
249 mentions ethnicity. said the following: We did not discuss it… but there were Macedonians. although their motivation seems to have been different. 3. who graduated in 1958. 2.THE MA LE AND/OR FEMALE BEGGININGS OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION. social work did not begin as a “female” profession. . Partisans. Since the founding of the School of Social Work. while women have primarily focused on practical approaches and social work interventions. It is reasonable to assume that the proclaimed values of brotherhood and unity made ethnicity an undesirable topic. we can observe the following: 1. But it was not very noticeable or very crucial. men have been more interested in social policy topics. when asked whether the issues of women’s equality or ethnicity were discussed while she was studying. and topics dealing with ethnicity do not occur at all.. Topics directly connected with the social system and the National Liberation War are relatively frequent (21. as was the case in many European countries where social work education was developed in the first half of the 20th century (cf.. it was not emphasized by the advisers (who were mostly the founders of the study program. This is corroborated by a statement of a female student from one of the first generations. Montenegrins. personal communication). At the inception of the vocational training (School of Social Work in Zagreb). Gender sensitive issues are very infrequent in the graduation theses. Conclusion On the basis of the analysis of graduation theses from the period between 1955 and 1960. and members of the “establishment”) or the students. This shows that. regardless of the crucial role of women in the foundation of the social work education. graduated in 1995. Zaviršek 2005). This is the graduation thesis entitled Cigani na području općine Koprivnica (Gypsies in the area of the Koprivnica Municipality). in any case. written by Ivan Grgić. the profession of social work appealed to both men and women. one student from Kosovo. important to us at the time (Ksenija Bralić-Švarcer. 4. who.5% overall).
A more indepth analysis of graduation theses. is required. which would take into account the gender perspective and influence of ideology on the values of the social work profession in the period of recovery following the Second World War. . BRANICA Furthermore. Further research based on oral history and the work of female social workers in socialism. the analysis of the graduation theses showed that values proclaimed by the social and political system of the time were deeply embedded in the education of social workers.250 AJDUKOVIĆ. It is evident that graduation theses can be a relevant source of information. as has appeared in recent publications (Dijanić et al. is also required. Conducting parallel research into this issue in several socialist countries from this period would grant us significant new insights into gender issues and the ideology of the development of social work in this particular social and political context. when the authorities clearly needed to promote socialism as a social and political system. 2004). VEJMELKA.
E. (2006). 1: 63-74. D. socialism will do the rest!” History of Social Work Education in Slovenia during the Period 19401960. Zagreb: Social Work Study Center. S. godine. Puljiz. -1960. Kurt and Schulte eds. Socijalna politika i socijalne djelatnosti u Hrvatskoj u razdoblju 1900.. 13. Počeci socijalnog rada u Hrvatskoj između dva svjetska rata. Ljetopis Studijskog centra socijalnog rada. S. Susret prvih diplomiranih socijalnih radnika. Spol. V. 251 References Ajduković. Revija za socijalnu politiku. 1. socijalna skrb i obrazovanje za socijalni rad u početku socijalističke vlasti u Sloveniji. (ed. (2006).. Pusić. I. D. Povijest socijalnog rada u Hrvatskoj: Intervju.) (2002). S. 1: 29-45. Zaviršek. Ajduković.. and Stanić. in: Schilde. 50 godina Studija za socijalni rad: 1952 . University of Zagreb. Faculty of Law. Zagreb: Centre for Women’s Studies. “You will teach them some.13. Niemčić. 13.. (2004).13. Ajduković. (2004). Glimpses in the Beginnings of Eastern Europe’s professional Welfare.THE MA LE AND/OR FEMALE BEGGININGS OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION. 1: 141-154. M.: Need and Care. D. and Branica. V. M. Ljetopis Studijskog centra socijalnog rada. Ljetopis Studijskog centra socijalnog rada. 1: 177-187. Zaviršek. (2006). Dijanić. (2005). Opladen & Bloomfield Hills: Barbara Budrich Publishers. (2005). Narodni i vjerski sastav stanovništva Hrvatske 1880-1991 po naseljima (1998). Ženski biografski leksikon – Sjećanje žena na život u socijalizmu. 3-4: 319-332. Ljetopis Studijskog centra socijalnog rada. Ljetopis Studijskog centra socijalnog rada. Žene i prvi organizirani oblici praktičnog socijalnog rada u Hrvatskoj. Central Bureau of Statistics. (2006). Merunka-Golubić. and Kljajić.2002.12. M. Prlenda. . 1: 7-28.11. M.
252 AJDUKOVIĆ. 1959 4. 1956 3. 1956 Žene u Varaždinskoj industriji svile (Women in the Varaždin Silk Factory) Sociografski odnosi uposlene ženske radne snage u Linjskoj Krapini (Sociographic relations of the female workforce in Linjska Krapina) Socijalna zaštita trudnih žena i majki rodilja u radnom odnosu (Social welfare of working pregnant women and young mothers) Neki problemi samohranih majki trikotaže “Biser” u Bjelovaru (Some problems of single mothers in the Biser Knitwear Factory in Bjelovar) Ekonomski i socijalni elementi zapošljavanja ženske radne snage u Linjskoj Krapini (Economic and social elements of employing a female workforce in Linjska Krapina) O problemu prostitucije (About the problem of prostitution) Mjere za pomoć radnoj majci u FNRJ (Measures to help working mothers in the Federative People’s Republic of Yugoslavia) Žensko prihvatilište u Zagrebu. Cmrk Marija October 13. 1959 8. VEJMELKA. Čavec Vladimir October 06. 1956 6. Radotović Tomislav October 16. BRANICA APPendICes Appendix 1. zadatak. Medak Ante January 15. 1959 . Mišković Branko December 14. Eskenazi-Kos Bina December 30. Petrović Radojica January 14. Content analysis – analysis criterion: women’s issues Graduation theses dealing with women’s issues 1. organizacija i uloga socijalnog radnika u prihvatilištu (Women’s shelter in Zagreb: its organization and the role of social workers in the shelter) 2. 1958 7. 1959 5. Smesnik-Takač Mira March 30.
Analysis of graduation theses based on whether or not gender issues are dealt with Da li postoji razlika u socijalnopsihološkoj strukturi delikventa i nedelikventa u istoj porodici (Is there a difference in the socio-psychological structure of a delinquent and a nondelinquent in the same family?) Resocijalizacija omladinaca koji su prošli kroz odgojni zavod Klinča-sela (The resocialization of young men who were detained in the Klinča-sela juvenile detention center?) Pojava recidivizma kod maloljetnih prestupnika (Recidivism in underage delinquents) Nekoliko obilježja liječenih alkoholičara na stanici za psihohigijenu (Some characteristics of alcoholics treated at the psychological hygiene clinic) Zaštita porodice na temelju socijalnog osiguranja na području sreza Tuzla. 1955 M 2. with special emphasis on children in families of alcoholics in the city of Zagreb) 1. Novak Josip November 8. 253 Appendix 2. 1956 M 6. 1959 M 4.. 1958 M 3.THE MA LE AND/OR FEMALE BEGGININGS OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION. 1958 M . iza smrti osiguranika hranioca porodice (Social welfare of a family from the district of Tuzla following the death of an insured person who was the family provider) Neke soc. Jurak Ljubomir July 3. Rodica Ljubomira đukić Mirjana September 28. Krajna Cvjetko February 18. Kljaić Slavko September 17. Počuča Milica October 20. 1955 M 5. Logožar Ladislav April 2.. karakteristike maloljetnih prestupnica (Some social characteristics of underage female delinquents) Problemi maloljetnih prestupnika na području grada Brčko (Some problems of underage delinquents in the town of Brčko) Neki sociološko demografski elementi alkoholizma s posebnim osvrtom na djecu u porodicama alkoholičara na području grada Zagreba (Some sociodemographic elements of alcoholism. M 8. 1956 January 27. 1959 F 7.
and yet racist violence and right wing politics are on the rise. in line with a belief that everything was better in the past. In eastern Germany. Their analytical approach to societies offers insights into complex social problems such as racism and other forms of inequality. especially since the last few years. It has taken their jobs. right wing parties have seats in three of the five regional parlia- . Multiculturalism is an indispensable counterpart of globalisation. the process towards a single neo-liberal economic agenda. 2006. during the Conference ‘Ethnicity and Education in Social Work’. One possible reaction to this phenomenon is a return to old right wing ideologies and strategies. which in turn have been transferred to so-called third world countries. Zorn: In the last two decades we’ve heard more and more talk about globalization. One can find arguments of this kind in Germany. even Hitler was able to provide jobs. that is. Racism and racist attacks have been on the rise.255 Jelka Zorn An Interview with Christine LabontéRoset and Lena Dominelli This Interview with Professor Christine Labonté Roset and Professor Lena Dominelli took place on December 4. They are also paid less. as well as issues pertaining to social security and welfare in the age of globalization. at the Faculty of Social Work in Ljubljana. Isn’t this somewhat of a contradiction? Labonté Roset: Globalisation has caused feelings of powerlessness in many people.
In that context. I believe. In Berlin. not people with solidarity or people who belong to anything. In that kind of very uncertain. Globalisation erodes borders for capital. In Saxony. people look for scapegoats. manufacturing jobs have been disappearing to low paid countries like China and India at the rate of 400. because they were . This surge in racist violence is frightening. The UK. we have had a history that allows us to say that we are proud of not having had far right parties. the right wing has a very fertile ground. These youths are becoming more and more open about expressing their hatred. Zorn: The increase of racist violence and right wing politics in Germany is not an isolated occurrence. vulnerable situation. for example. Because the governments have not responded to that feeling of vulnerability. headed in the same direction. In that context. These right wing parties are openly working together with groups of young right wing extremists who even carry out attacks. people look for certainties and they think there were certainties in the past.000 jobs a year. Of course this is a myth. This is new. Another alarming phenomenon is the growth of antiSemitism among youngsters from immigrant backgrounds. because there have been no interventions at the political level to counteract it. they got about 7% of the vote. In the process of opening borders jobs have been taken away from people: for over a decade. In the UK. but not for people. So it makes people in Europe feel vulnerable. but also from neighboring countries. for example. but rather a typical European development. mostly from Arab countries. People who are different are obvious scapegoats. several attacks on parliament members from the Green and Social Democratic party have occurred. I think that racism is a very predictable reaction. The nation state was developed by destroying heterogeneity. famous for its appreciation of ethnic diversity is.256 INTERVIEW ments. How do you explain the growth of racism in the UK and in general? Dominelli: I think that growing racism is part of globalisation. people are individualized: globalisation creates the individual consumer.
all seen as lunatic fringes. But now, they have got 49 local counselors elected in the country. That is more scary than scary to me. The reason for the right wing politicians’ success is that they have approached the people who have been saying for years “we want housing, we want jobs, health care and good education”. Mainstream politicians haven’t delivered that. People don’t know where to go, so they are willing to listen to right wing politicians, who of course won’t be able to deliver these public goods either. Because the problem of global neo-liberalism is much more complex, I think international social action is necessary in order to solve the problems of social justice. We all have to sit down and figure out how to share the earth’s resources equally. Ironically the old idea of socialism was that it couldn’t happen solely in one country. Already Marx had claimed that the struggle has to be international. The other scary thing is that over 50% of racially aggravated assaults were committed by young thugs under 16. One begins to wonder why. They are the ones with the smallest stake in the system. They know they are going to get low paying jobs and poor housing. They know they are not going to be heard, that nobody is interested in them, so what else can they do? They get locked into competing for resources against each other, and who can they exclude? “Race”, racism, and other differences are very handy when competing for resources. Zorn: It seems that racism is one of the ideologies that has gained support among young people today. How is the German government responding to this? Labonté Roset: In Germany the government is reacting to this development. In the last three years they have created various programs, Xenos and Civitas for example. These programs support youth groups, including anti-fascist youth groups. They are creating possibilities for youth with antifascist sentiments to get together, to meet each other. They also work with youngsters who are in danger of becoming
members of right wing groups. I think awareness is growing. At our university, Birgit Rommelspacher has evaluated these programs and concluded that they are not ideal, but can create other environments in which youngsters who are against right wing orientation won’t feel so lost. They have felt isolated and alone in schools, and this is changing. It is also very important to work with youngsters who are in danger of becoming members of right wing groups. I must say that this is very difficult work. In a way it is dangerous, because it sometimes seems that you are not clearly opposed to right wing opinions and actions. As a social worker you do not agree with racist attitudes, of course, but you nevertheless invite these youngsters to work with you in order to show them alternative orientations. I believe one must have and display clear boundaries in this type of work. There is very lively discussion nowadays in Germany about how to work with people who are in danger of becoming right wing orientated, while at the same time avoiding to work with people who are already members of extreme right wing groups. This is a very dangerous field and I think that we have yet to engage in discussions which are necessary in order to gain a clearer perspective. Zorn: The empowerment and networking of youngsters who have clear anti-fascist attitudes is a very innovative approach to fighting racism. Another possible response is work with youth who are in danger of becoming perpetrators of racist acts. What is your experience or opinion, Lena, regarding this kind of approach? Not long ago the British government adopted a new law to counter antisocial behavior: how do you find its implementation in regards to racism as anti-social behavior? Dominelli: In the UK there have been attempts by communities and social workers to work with racist individuals, young skinheads, particularly in the East End of London. Phil Cohen, for example, has written a lot on this subject and his experience is that it is virtually impossible to change the racist attitudes of these youngsters. I’m not surprised, because the structural
issues that confront them in every day life are often ignored. They live in really appalling conditions. We wouldn’t want to live in such conditions, so why should we expect them to be happy living in such a miserable situation? The other point is that black people have organized themselves to fight back against racism and discrimination. This has been going on as long as I can remember, and alliances across racial divides have always been present. But in the long run this has not been successful either. The government, to give it its due in Britain, has set the social cohesion agenda, which has tried to encourage people to interact more – not in the multicultural sense of keeping our differences intact, but by saying what we have in common. Multiculturalism no longer works and the government, by introducing the Anti-social Behavior Orders (ASBO), has missed the point. Nowadays kids are criminalized for writing graffiti saying something like “my life is shit, what can you do about it?”. The number of vicious assaults has risen, but one can end up in jail even for graffiti. These strategies have not worked; ironically, ASBO’s have been used primarily on black kids, because they are the ones who are seen as dangerous and deviant. There’s been debate about what has to be done, and there have been attempts to work with the skinheads, but I personally feel that the government is still using the pathology model. Poor people want employment, education, health care and nice places to live. It’s what we all want. These are structural problems that have to be dealt with. Poor people are not getting a response on that. I don’t think it is going to matter how much anti-racists play around solely with attitudes. That won’t solve this problem. If you really want to make a difference, you have to deal with what I call the scarcity issue. People are scared; it is scarcity and uncertainty, competition. Zorn: The problem of racism invites an examination of the socioeconomic conditions in which people live. Social class and mobility issues come to the fore, whereby education is seen as one of the strongest components of social mobility. How is this issue addressed in Germany, for example?
Labonté Roset: We have an institute at our university for 15 years now. It’s called The European Institute for Productive Learning. It was developed to bring “dropouts” back to school. The institute has been very successful with these types of youngsters. In Berlin, the number of dropouts with migration background is around 40%. It is very important that they get another chance in another kind of school, or that they can switch programs and get involved with practical work, which tends to interest these youngsters. New schooling methods are based on such interests. About 80 to 90% of these youngsters are successful on their final exams. Afterwards, they have far more opportunities. That’s why I think that we have work on both sides; that means that we also have to look for ways to change the living conditions of these young people. Zorn: Despite the success of certain programs for young people, there is still a general feeling that Europe is regressing: welfare systems have been transformed into systems of control, people are not getting jobs, and there are no decent places to live; free education and reliable social and health services for everybody without discrimination are slowly coming to an end. Dominelli: I agree. I would not want to say that education is not important. In the UK, if you live in a “sink estate”, you are going to have the worst schools and teachers, the worst of everything. Therefore, in Britain we have middle class parents leaving an area and moving somewhere else because there is a good school nearby. Why? Because they know that if you don’t have a good education the chances of getting your children anywhere in life are minimal. But even a good education is being devalued because you need more and more degrees. In the old days, you could be a professor at a university with one publication and BA. Now the demands are several publications every year and at least a PhD. So the question of education still doesn’t get to the heart of structural issues. We have to find a way to create jobs that people want, but I’m not sure how we could
do this. I worked with young people as a probation officer in the 1980s, in west Yorkshire, England. I worked with young boys and girls who were in trouble with the law. When I asked them what they wanted, the young men all said they wanted women, cars, jobs, houses and no gaffer (boss) around to tell them what to do. Women wanted the same things – jobs, boyfriends and a place to live. And when I thought about it, why do we like our middle class jobs? Because, yes, we do have bosses but it is a light touch on what we do, isn’t it? We still have considerable autonomy at work. So I asked these young people what they would like to do instead. They said they want to be educated and self-employed, because then they could be their own bosses. In those days, we had the possibility of setting up small, community based workshops where you could get them into self employment. My friends in probation have informed me that some are still working. Opportunities like this are gone. Zorn: Why? Dominelli: I am very angry at the development of bureaucratic competence based professionals (bureau-technocrats, as I call them) such as social workers, probation officers and community workers, because bureaucratic competence is an obstacle to creativity. I may have been privileged because I was a community worker who had gone into probation and so I had connections. I think we need to develop communities and bring community work skills into social work – something we have failed to do in the UK since the mid-1980s. Communities are not going to be self sustaining if we don’t develop education, health care, transport, the environment, and jobs; all these things have got to come together for us to make progress on this front. But whether we will solve this problem by doing this in the individual community, in the nation state or in the European region or the world as a whole, I don’t know. But I think that is the real crunch question for all of us. Instead, we have had lots of what the UK government calls job creation schemes. I have done the analysis and
in other words. Berlin. These networks are a result of the unemployment movement. The jobs in these job creation schemes are: a) low paid. It was created by social workers in order 1 Institute for Productive Learning in Europe: Ingrid Böhm. Milow. Zürich. Sozialpolitik anders denken. . Haupt-Verlag. Zorn: Are there any positive examples in this pessimistic trend? Labonté Roset: There are local social economy systems. Productive Learning – a Bridge between School and Life (DVD – English and German Version). Social Economy: Community Action towards Social Integration and the Prevention of Unemployment and Poverty. The unemployed came together to look for ways to change their situation. Susanne and Isidor Wallimann (1998). These low paid jobs keep people below the poverty line and often disappear in six months. The Italian constitution says that if you are creating cooperatives in order to develop small enterprises. you are entitled to tax reductions.1 This model is being used in Italy as well. In Italy there are around 800 such initiatives.262 INTERVIEW evaluated these employment schemes in southern England. IPLE (Institute for Productive Learning in Europe (2006/06). Issue 2. Humanitas. In: European Journal of Social Work. local cooperatives. for example. and they are not successful. IPLE. a local kindergarten and a small publishing house and are reinforcing the local economy by implementing the local currency.iple. Productive Learning – An Educational Opportunity for Young People in Europe. a real education that gives you a degree or a qualification. Vol 1.de Elsen. People in my research said that they wanted real jobs. With the help of others. They developed the idea of creating small enterprises. Schibri-Verlag. Jens Schneider (1996). They created. for example. website: www. Esteban and Isidor Wallimann (2004). Das Verursacherprinzip von der umweltpolitischen zur sozialpolitischen Anwendung. July 1998. And it doesn’t seem to me an unreasonable thing to want. There are several articles about these local social economies. Piñeiro. Training for the unemployed is not recognized as proper training. so people can’t get out of poverty (even though the government in the UK has been saying work is the only way out of poverty) and b) without job security. which are creating small jobs for people who are unemployed. including social workers. like those in Luxembourg and Switzerland. is a cooperative near Florence which I am familiar with. they received some financial support.
They lost their bread winners. They are very successful. Dominelli: There are lots of other examples like that. people live and work in the countryside. In the UK. although this model has worked for a few individuals. often don’t support local initiatives. So it is not surprising that the people who have risen the most in terms between 1991 to 2001 in the UK have been Indians. and waste tax payer money on bad ideas. and they are still being used. who are very successful entrepreneurs. . There is a long history of self-employment and cooperatives in the UK. which was set up specifically to deal with issues pertaining to neo-liberalism and the fact that there never was a welfare state. Zorn: Governments are not necessary part of the solution. Another example: somebody can leave a car at the station and another person comes along and drives it home. These communes are built around the idea of self-sufficiency. the middle class has set up local area networks to primarily exchange services amongst each other. ironically. because they divide people. for example. there are communities who share their cars to reduce the impact they have on the environment. It is a very interesting idea. This is an agrarian cooperative. groups of people who have dropped out of society have set up communes. they are becoming part of the problem. it is not necessarily good for everybody In Chile. For example. They are still very poor. Black people in the UK have always used self-employment as their way up the social ladder. I visited a small cooperative in a rural area. whereas the Bangladeshi and Pakistanis who came later had very little space in the self-employment market and ended up working for others. cultivating lettuce and other vegetables. In England. They got together to make their own way in life and now they have a very successful commune. so there was a number of women and children who needed help.INTERVIEW 263 to help young people who have mental health problems or mental disabilities. in Wales for example.
and I’m asking what are they giving me for my money. But the borders are not open for job seekers to go elsewhere and find a job there. One example is the discourse surrounding the reproduction of the “nation” and its work force: instead of appreciating immigrants and their contributions. and that’s . Women have always been used as breeding machines. which is still the best model of a welfare state. and people’s expectations now are much greater than they were before. even in Sweden. Zorn: The governments’ inability to control such situations. after all. I think we have to start holding industry. they are the ones who are taking our money. I believe there is a parasitical relationship between the private sector and the state sector that is not acknowledged. Social policy. But no. NGO’s. Why are we going back when we know the laisser-faire model didn’t work in the past. Dominelli: It is like the new eugenic movement. over 40% for most middle class people. Firms can suddenly leave people without jobs and no discussion needs to take place between them and the trade unions or people in the community. what are they giving to my community for our money? A war in Iraq? A further 6 billion pounds a year is needed to create the welfare state in terms of funding health care and other services we need. started by saying “we want women to give birth to more kids”. has been fixed by a neo-liberal ideology and disguised by racist attitudes.264 INTERVIEW Dominelli: The welfare state has been developed in Europe because the private market and the NGO’s had failed to provide for the majority of people. some have argued that ”we will die out”. I think there is a role for everybody because the task of getting everyone a decent quality of life is huge. These companies can go because the border is open for capital to come and go. especially when it comes to the protection of workers’ rights. but we do have money to fight a war in Iraq. I think we need to become much more demanding about what the government delivers for the money that we give them. and the state accountable for the situation we are in. we haven’t got money for that. In Britain taxes are very high. But the state has got to take the lead. the private sector.
Italy. But this suggestion is not very popular. but Germany. they are doing all the jobs that no British person would ever consider doing. because they were all brought over on an individual basis. This should go without saying. They are driving buses. Tony Blair has been saying that all we need to do is to bring in the right kind of immigrants. but I do not think it will change any of these dynamics. they’re producing kids”. Social workers are good example. we have got 69 social workers who come from Zimbabwe. “we are not going to stigmatize them. What do the Zimbabweans get for these workers? Nothing. Britain has gone the other way. Now. And if you look at what are they doing. when eastern European countries joined the EU. But they have the wrong religions – Catholicism and Islam. They said. This action can set up a skills-shortage and ruin the social services infrastructure in Zimbabwe. We now have a code of ethics for international recruitment. But how do we establish mutuality in exchanges of workers? That is the nub of the question. And they are the right color. These two religions . This sets up another set of dynamics and the end results are worrying. And for less money.INTERVIEW 265 why they supported single mothers. in the UK there is a heated debate about the “huge” numbers of eastern European immigrants. The French tried to introduce high levels of payment for child benefits to those who have more children. Many of us have been protesting about it to the British government. I think this is how we start appropriating skills from other peoples countries. That is three-quarters of the workforce in Zimbabwe. because the sending country cannot afford to do so. Another interesting labor recruitment is within the EU. they are all highly skilled people. The British state should at least pay for their education so that at least some more people could be educated as social workers in Zimbabwe. which in turn are not replaced. Britain was criticized by other countries for not stopping them. they are plumbers. Since 2004. there have been attempts to stop people from the eastern countries from coming to the western countries. It focuses largely on treating recruited workers with respect. the skilled ones. Ireland all did. for example. In Birmingham.
the eternal question is which immigrants are welcome.e. And often people who are coming to Europe are not coming from poor families. Well educated women with academic backgrounds simply don’t have children. they used to depend on social benefits. which parents received from the government. Labonté Roset: We had similar discussion regarding birth rates in relation to immigrants. Before. for example. The oppressive discourses are not just about the color of ones skin or eyes. Experts are most desirable. but about language. Now the system has been changed. Another obstacle is the experience that they are not allowed to come with their families. religion and other personal characteristics. Very few people came. Immigrants therefore tend to be well educated. Now the asylum law provides a possibility to .266 INTERVIEW are not popular in Britain. This is a system that primarily supports middle class families. parental leave was a small. working permits) in order to come to Germany. rejected asylum seekers who could not be sent back to their countries were not allowed to work. Germany changed its asylum law. because now they see that they can make money even if they take one or two years of parental leave. hair and eye color. because Germany has one of the lowest birth rate in the world. 5 years. According to the old law. On the other side. so they rather go to other countries. They have the possibility of receiving green cards (i. because poor people cannot afford to emigrate. So they often decide to work and have no children in order to continue their professional life. because green cards are for a limited period. fixed sum of money. Racism has always been about more than simply skin. Now the amount of parental leave depends on one’s salary. But their recruitment has not been a success. Recently. especially in the field of information technology. This also has to do with the lack of a public welfare system that would give working mothers a chance to work and have children. They are also afraid of the racism.
and also that combating exclusions and inequalities is a very complex. Zorn: As your answers have clearly shown. racism and oppression have been constantly changing their forms and arguments as to whom to “protect” and whom to exclude. This is an important change.INTERVIEW 267 get permanent residency within one year if they could find an employment in Germany. structural issue. I thank you for sharing your insights. .
Macedonia. is a junior researcher and lecturer at the Department of Social Work. Faculty of Philosophy.branica@pravo. E-mail: lena. is a researcher at the Department of Social Work. social work with youth. emotional intelligence and parenting style theories and research. E-mail: bornarova@yahoo. social work with juvenile delinquents. BA.co. social work advocacy. Faculty of Law. children in care. education policy and social policy for elderly. University of Zagreb. E-mail: m.yu Eva Anđela delale. Faculty of Law.ac.dominelli@durham. Areas of teaching and research: history of social work.uk .brkic@sbb. She is a former president of the International Association of Schools of Social Work (1996 to 2004) and a current IASSW’s Liaison Officer for the United Nations. E-mail: andelale@yahoo. Croatia. Areas of teaching and research: social work with families.com Dr Miroslav Brkić is a senior lecturer at the Department of Social Work and Social Policy.268 ContrIbutors dr Marina Ajduković is a Professor. Areas of research and teaching: interpersonal communication. E-mail: marina@dpp. MA in psychology. University of Zagreb. University of “Ss. globalization.com dr lena dominelli is a Professor at the School of Applied Social Sciences at the University of Durham. children’s rights. child care. multicultural social work. history of social work. social policy and social work. Croatia. gender and social work. Areas of research and teaching: sociology. supervision. Belgrade. social work in education. Serbia. Cyril and Methodius” in Skopje. social and community development. a head of the Chair for Social Work at the Department of Social Work and a head of the Postgraduate Studies in Social Work at the University of Zagreb. social work management.hr dr suzana bornarova is a senior lecturer at the Institute for Social Work and Social Policy. Faculty of Political Sciences. women’s welfare. theory of social work.hr vanja branica. E-mail: vanja. developmental and social psychology. Areas of teaching and research: community social work. Areas of teaching and research: individual and group psychosocial interventions.
the first women’s publishing house in Europe. E-mail: socres@bih. Areas of teaching and research: marginalisation and social exclusion in Europe. Technical University of Liberec. Bosnia and Herzegovina.at Dr Milanka Miković is a Professor at the Department of Social Work. community mental health. Areas of teaching and research: minority issues and community planning in social services. University of Applied Sciences. University of Sarajevo. Czech Republic.cz dr dagmar schultz is a Professor of social work at the Alice-Salomon University of Applied Sciences in Berlin. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org@interventionsstelle-wien. E-mail: rosa. juvenile delinquency. women’s health care. Vienna. domestic violence. history of social work education. international social work and higher education policy in Europe.com . Faculty of Political Science. Task Force to Combat Violence against Women. cultural competence in the psychiatric care of migrants and minorities. Austria. University of Sarajevo. gender-specific social work interventions. Areas of teaching and research: family law and social protection.pesatova@tul.CONTRIBUTORS 269 Dr Udžejna Habul is a senior lecturer at the Department of Social Work. women’s human rights. E-mail: illona. E-mail: labonte@asfh-berlin. Bosnia and Hezegovina. Areas of teaching and research: psycho-social disorders among children and youth. Berlin. domestic violence. From 1999 to 2007 she was president of the European Association of Schools of Social Work and a vice-president of the International Association of Schools of Social Work.ba dr Christine labonté-roset is a Professor and rector of the Alice-Salomon University of Applied Sciences. Germany. Areas of teaching and research: anti-racist social work. practice and research: violence against women.net. gender and social work. Faculty of Political Science. racism and antiracist work.ba dr Ilona Pešatová is a senior lecturer of social work and a deputy head of the Department of Social Studies and Special Education at the Faculty of Education.de rosa logar is a director of the Domestic Abuse Intervention Program in Vienna and a lecturer at the Department of Social Work. She is also a member of the Council of Europe. She was one of the founders of the Orlanda. Areas of teaching. Currently she is a president of the European Network for Quality Assurance for Social Professions (ENQASP). poverty and social policy. E-mail: habule@bih. gender. ethnic minorities and migration.
270 CONTRIBUTORS svetlana trbojevik.zavirsek@fsd. University of Ljubljana. social work in local community. E-mail: lvejmelka@pravo. Cyril and Methodius” in Skopje. Slovenia. Macedonia. history of social work. Areas of teaching and research: theory of social work.si lucija email@example.com Špela urh.si simona Žnidarec Demšar. especially on the Erased people.si dr Jelka Zorn is a lecturer at the Faculty of Social Work. trafficking in human beings.hr dr darja Zaviršek is a Professor and a vice dean at the Faculty of Social Work. University of Ljubljana. University of “Ss. Areas of teaching and research: community mental health. immigration and citizenship issues in Slovenia. She is also a community activist fighting for social inclusion of Roma. anthropology of gender and health. MA. E-mail: darja. Areas of teaching and research: interpersonal communication and child welfare. non-governmental sector.uni-lj.si . is a junior researcher and a lecturer at the Faculty of Social Work.urh@fsd. Areas of teaching and research: community social work and ethnically sensitive social work. University of Zagreb. University of Ljubljana. is a junior lecturer and a secretary of the Department of social work. E-mail: simona. She is active in campaigns which advocate their rights and NoBorder networks. Slovenia. BA. Slovenia. Since 2002 she serves as the board member of the International Association of the Schools of Social Work and has initiated the Sub-regional Network of the Schools of Social Work from the Eastern Europe. history of social work.znidarec@fsd. She is currently preparing her PhD on the subject of ethnically sensitive social work with Roma which is her main area of teaching and researching. is a lecturer at the Institute of Social Work and Social Policy. BA. is a lecturer at the Faculty of Social Work. E-mail: jelka. Faculty of Philosophy. University of Ljubljana. E-mail: svetlet@yahoo. E-mail: spela.uni-lj.uni-lj. Faculty of Law. Areas of research and teaching: asylum. disability studies. BA. children’s rights.
272 deportation (deported persons) 43. 175. 192. 117. 224. M. 165-167. 166. 111. 103 Bender. 12. 12. 128. 236. 272 Aluffi-Pentini. 176 Aris. 235. 76. 181-183. 228. D. 238 D Dearing. 85. 241 Clarke. 181. 46. 48. E. 176 Bologna Process 197 borders 161. 214 Carter. 181. 209. N. 180. 95. 204. K. 161-163. 17. 184 ‘colour-blind’ approach 34 Crawford. 212. 239. 166. 185. 273 Branica. 239. 47. K. 239. 255. 140-142. 162. 28. 197. 270 Atik. 120-122. S. 182. 243 Cyrus. 28. 97. 15. 227. 220. 59 anti-discriminatory practice 216 anti-racism 32 Arendt. 137. 274 civil society 107-115. 119. 241. 273 C Canda. 196. 141-144. 158. 103. 29. 191-198. 27. 202. 203. 165. F. R. O. 118. R. 202. 172. 59 Dedić. 184 Blitz. 206. J. 128. 36. 161. 122. 176 Delale. 201. V. 83 Bergold. 214 citizenship 12. 185. 219. 189. B. 82 Cerar. 41. 176 Barth. 21. M. 134. 167-173. 186. 192. 203. 98. 27. M. 82 Czech Republic 127. 103 Chateerje. 88. 74. C. 170. N. 83 Austria 42. 132.271 INDEX A Ajduković. 170. 227-229 curricula 11-14. 165. 59 Croatia 11. 153. 239. 244. 59 assimilation 31. 121-124. 164. Y. 148-150. J. 164. 221-225. A. 149. 12. 140. 272 Brčić. M. 165. 211. 214 Broughton. 171. 226. 60. 241. R. 201. J. 180. 171. 225. 117-119. 197. 202. 169. 11. 250. 13. 184 Amara. P. 272 Bosnia and Herzegovina 8. 131. 31. 44. 79. 166. 184 Andall. 272 cultural competence 31. 68. 273 culture 9. 255. 34. Z. 125. 42. 63. 210. 131. 214. H. 177. 226. 141. 214. 164. .T. 171. 202. 241. 182. 226. 231. 155. 57. 238. 175-177. 252. 120. 166. 241. 152. E. 251. 250. 12. 188. 185188. 67. 14. 260. 41. 242. 125 Burwell. 129 asylum seekers (asylum policies) 16. A. S. 155. F. 193. 43. 40-42. 49. 158. 188. 110. 201. R. 268 Bornarova. 20. 37. 148. 203. 13. 216. E. 60 Carter. 273 Čaldarović. 181. 214 B Balibar. 87-89. 69. 200. 236. 162. A.
255. 259-263. 176 Gilman. 57-59. 104. 183. 176. 209. 49. 17. 82 Gün. 57-60. 170. 103. J. 75. 179. 152. 169. T. 60 Gartner. 206. 268. 260. 171. . L. 169. 201. 100. C. 59. 222. 46-48. 17. H. S 9. 273 F Far Right 19. 55. 31. 210. 203. 32. 79. 262 Erased: -struggle of the Erased 174 -erasure from the Register of Permanent Residents 162. 67. 180. 34. 82 empowerment 76. 17 globalisation 182. 267. 12. 152-157. 8. 204. 270. 162. 181. 255 discrimination 63. 164. 27 Federico. 101. 165. 155. 182. 33. 173. 230. 149. 264. W. 260. 167. 167. 163. 25. 112. 137. 272 Dragidella. J. 179. 97. 44. 100. 202. 22-24. 102. 20. 114. 32. 238 Foucault. 96. 85. 254. 12. 168. 164. 117. 176. 139-150. 129. 221. R. 171 Eriksen. 40. 183 G Galtung. 202. 162. 51.272 55. 94. 59 gender perspective 254 Germany 20. 109. 175. 43-46. 227. 153. 168. 174 detention (detained persons) 12. 163. 125-127. M. 27. 214 Gregurović. 213. 264. 74. 88. 265. 236. 168. 116. 257 Devore. 269. 163. 170. 161. 82 E egalitarianism 32 Eichenberg. 170. 184. 260 domestic violence 39. 177. 273 European Union 32. 108. 87. 136. K. 181. 243. R. 262. 182. 43. 171. 125 Gibney. 50. 180. 96. 203. W. 204. 251. 154. 38 Fraenkel. 103. D. 80. 169. 42. 152. 179. 259. 93. 96. 167. 40. J. 117. 241. 40. 167. 167. 207-209. 29. 92. 128. 171. 97. 118. 168. 214 Dijanić. C. 142. 205. E. 203. 202 ethnicity 7. 19. 163. 270. 66-68. 169. 204. 254. 20. 259 Europe 7-11. 42. 174. 82 Grünke. 231 diversity 7. M. 214 Griese. 136. 209. 148. 259. 12-16. 180. 77. 186. 134. 80. 221-225. M. 19-21. 257 Green. 198 exclusion 44. 220. 273 Gerovska. 67. 273 Dominelli. 201. 117-122. 96. 213. 195 ethnic minorities: -discrimination of 63. 172. 170. 111. 271. 139. S. 169. 212. 83. 242-251. 131. 11. 146. 114. 125 France 17. 103. 215. 61. 39. 266. 59. A. 174. 41. 38. 36. 173. 19. 103 ethnic division 92. 183. 127. 253. 155 -refugees 11. 95. 145. 76 displaced persons: -internally 12. 165. H. M. 66-68. 179. 122. 162. 30. 157. 246. 217. 182. 29. 179. 179. 260 graduation theses 239. 13-15. 177. 111. 17 217. 268. 35. 76 -indigenous 72. 26-29. L.
53. 103 Kreickenbaum. 113. V. 60. 261. 176 Koray. 176 Husband. 125. 60. 97. 274 Hermann. D. 60 Humphries. 228 -conflict management 183 -practice 179 internationalism 7. 90. 125 Lane. 273. 109. 169. 82 Hessle. 109. 274 . 67. 176 Kuhar. 105 K Kahn. 186. 179. 172. 172. 87. 8. 238 Klemenz. 128. A. 238 Hokenstad. S. 67. J. 50. 10. 156. S. 93. 184. 231-233. 244. 140. 204. 155. U. 87. S. 80. 164. 91. 54. 17. 272. 123. 60 Hanonina. 220. 184 Lösel. 203. 56. 76. 182. 226. 163. 217 Humphreys. 227. B. 88. 229 Johnson. K. 236 intercultural: -competency 63. 221-224. 122. F. R. 170. A. 29. 141. 79. 103. 164. L. 236. 128. 182. 176 Janko Spreizer. W. C. M. 255 Kopp. S. 136. 263-265. C. 135. 59. 17. 131. C. 103 Jaroshek. 88. 110. K. 182. 162. 92. 45. 29 M Macedonia 11. 179. 167. 170. 61. 91-93. 238. 82 Kilpatrick.273 H Hague. G. S. 48. 109. B. 40-42. 205. K. M. 120. 224. 125 health 7. 143. 103 Karlsen. 181. 148. 180. 67. 183. 104 Lasonen. M. 14. 101. 103 Hauss. 232. 103. 59 Hall. 89. 180. 173 innovative project 86 integration 28. 63. V. 16 islamophobia 20. 183. 152. S. 140. 181. 42. 144. 219. C. 183. 268. 64. 67. 158 Kovačič. A. 170. 129. 83 Kljajić. 38 Haller. 36. 140. 84 Jalušič. S. 122. 83 Lyons. 84 Hoffman. S. 238 Josipovič. 87. 168. 67. 148. 233. B. 209. 153. K. 176 Logar. R. 119. 13. 241. 67. 103-105 Lipovec Čebron. 103 Hanžek. 64. 192. C. 104. 267. 228-230. C. 161. V. 83 Kotal. 169. 214 human rights 27. J. 44. 125 immigrants: -undocumented 169. 48. B. C. 184 Leskošek. 107-123. 170. 103 J Jackson. 39. 88. G. 89. 273 Lorenz. 88. M. R. 227. 85. 112. A. 128. 217. 188. 125 Hildenbrand. J. 90. 97. C. 58. 47. 273 Lakinska. 119. 131. 87. 110. 184 I Ilievski. 85. 105 L Labonté-Roset. 222. 168. 104.
T. 215. 185. 223. 238 Sassen. 167. 83 P Patel. 184. M. 255 Pusić. 170. 255 professional coalitions 157 Puljiz. 158 Mirjanić. 150 Sagor. 200 Mc Garry. L. 169. 83 Sallee. 233 -inclusion 105 -exclusion 87. B. 167. 135. 130. 200 Mazowijecki. 57. 9. 104 Manion. 214 Milosavljević. W. 255 O Ozankan. K. 27. 255 R race 20-22. T. 34. 181. 82 Neighbors. 162. 238 Niemčić. 270. 127. 214 Roma: -community 85. Z. 67. A. 88. 206. 35. 26-29. 100. C. V 240. R. 28. 171. K. 173175. 206. 208. 139-150. S. 215. 97. S. N. 86. H. 32. 95. 34. 164. 104 pathologies 13. 185. 179. I. J. 222. 166. J. 187. 241. 31. 95. 32.274 Malahleka. 204. 201. 93. 87. 67. 176 Petronijević. 153. 217. 180. 104 Perić. 273 Ramesh. 167. 236. 129. 202. 41. 19. 263 Payne. 20-24. 13. 105 N Nash. T. 274 Merunka-Golubić. 203. 205. 26. O. B. 267. 186. 137. 43. 200 nationalism 12. 164. 17 Mullender. 262 Rotman. 128. 118. I. 152-157. 67. M. 176. 122. 228 poverty 10. 242. 217 Mason. L. 186. A. S. 89. E. 211. 146. J. 12. N. 42. 36. 97-101. 210. S. J. 55. 273. 31. 52. 224. 159 S safety 50. 266. 67. 200 McLaughlin. 93. 273 Powell. 166. 255 Midgley. 127. 241. 200 Mirzoeff. 25. 184 Masten. 104 Prlenda. M. 100. 183. 136. 66. 225. 97. 231 Republika Srpska 186. 128. A. 197. 230. 139. 103. 115. 184 marginal groups 205. 186. 88. M. 54. 96. 104 Razack. J. 104. G. 104 refugees 11. 11. 208 -stereotypes and prejudice 215 Rommelspacher. 86. 216. 96. 196. W. 203. 184 McMahon. 194. 84 Nelson. 259-263. 76. Y. 140. 83 Prilleltensky. 96. 94. 79. 80. L. 75. 271. 186. 181. 198 Robbins. 241. 219. 12. 214 mental health 217. 181. 223. 59 multiculturalism 7. 195. 182. 177 . M. E. 238 Mehta. 40. 152. 75. 83 Mayer. 203. 174 Nazroo. 90. 225. N. M. 32 racism 7. 94. 174. P. V. 170. 108. V. 193. 204.
175. 168. 132. 88. 101. 232235. 274 -history of 272-274 -intercultural 7. 105 Švob. 214 support 9. 221. K. 8. 79. 64. 267. E. B. 10. L. 202. 105 V Van Wormer. 96. 214 . 260. 105 Todorović. 35. 181 -community 7. 241. 55. 269. 102. 273 social services 14. L. 50. 185. 204. 154-156. 21. 28. 15. 158 U UK 17. 96. 81 Sokalski. 193197. 126 Vrdoljak. 237. 49. 11. 64. 255 Staton. 273 social work: -advocacy 35. 272 service users 34. 188. 60 Thompson. 241. 81. 262. R. 201. 132. 14. 236. 67-69. 156. 122. 135. 273 -development of the science of 193 -education 220. 255. 140. 98. 191. 17 Stanić. 88. 203. Lj. 103. 240. 272 -anti-oppressive 95. 214 Sue. 76. 113-115. 78. 151. 187. 87. D. 201. 177. P. 230. 156. 192. 240. 131. 173. 206. 28. 174 -curricula development 231 -department of 125. 70. 209. 140. 136. 223. 225. 222. 102. 214 stigma 68. 173. 203. 73. 43-53. 97. 63. 274 socialism 9. 90-93. 76. 201. 36. 272. 54. 169. 211-213. 73. 226. M. 161. 26. 96. 254. 93. 83. 242-245. 85. 97. 100. 136. 214 Schultz. 192. 249. 265. Z. 14. 148. 205. 134. 65. 100. 48. 169. 225. 104. 266. 208. 215. Š. N. 94-97. 119. 273 Schuringa. 144 struggle of the Erased 174 Stubbs. S. L. 173 Simon. D. 124. 125 Slovenia 10-12. Lj. 110. 130. 176. 169. 177 Schwartz. 179. 144. 204. 83 social inclusion 129. 94. 267 sustainable development 17. 13. 79. 204. 213. 94. 177. 104. 255. 95. 14. 225. 174. 17 Sue. 272 -research 182 -resilience oriented 63 -resource oriented 64. H.W. 125. 197 Škerl. 213. 242. 235. 266. M. I. U. 198 Serbia 11. 20. 272. 97. L. 119. 192. 129-131. D. 202. 105 Šumi. 259 -ethnically sensitive 7. N. 17. 176. 261. 129. 214 T Thiara. K. 105 Schuster. 111. 238 segregation 128. 99-102. G. 238 Vrangelovski. 105 undergraduate program 205 Urh. 264. 261 social policy 120. 151. 126 Soumpasi. M. 11. 102. 86. 78. 187. 269 Ule. 10 -multicultural 224. 210. 172. 168. 253. 56.275 Schlesinger. 9. 182. 79. 16. 188. 274 Sobczyk. 86-88. 205. 139-147. 167. C. 12. 149-159. 80. 107-109. 189. 247. 92. 161-174. 223. 95.
R. 12. 188. 99. 185. 268 Weil. 188. 140. 255. 90. 72. 161-167. F. 143. 251. 139. D. M. 192. 70. 29. 240. 67. 240. 164. 89. 274 Zeiler. 271. 167170. 67. 177. 16. 161. 10. 10. 251. 10. 75. 209. 8. 12. 179. 125. M. 97. 201. 20. 75. R. 96. 80. 139. 256 Z Zarifoglu. 67. 49 -prevention of violence against 44 -violence against 45. 57 Woolfe. 246. 84 Y Yugoslavia. 8. 85. 17. 84 Zaumseil. 274 . 11. 186. 213. 250. 183. 214 Walsh. R. 200. 176. 84 war 8. S. 66. 17. 105 Welch. F. 202. 67. 183. 161. 145. 249. 84 Wohlfart. 150. J. 84 Zorn. 193-197. 67. 84 Werner. 26. 105. 67. 75. 66. 259-268. S. 116. 84 Zaviršek. 194. 189. 201. 154. E. E. 72. 185. 22. D. 97. 274 Žnidarec Demšar. 105. C. 177 Welter-Enderlin. 14. J. 140. 253. 88. 247. 84 whiteness 21. 155. 174. 67. 84 women: -immigrant and minority 42. 210. 169. 118. 108. 189. former 7. 27 Williams. E. 7. 104 Wustmann. 15. 188. 240. 88. 20. 241. M.276 W Walker. 80. 155. 241.
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