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"AMUSEMENTS IN MATHEMATICS"

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First Edition,

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**THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES
**

AND OTHER CURIOUS PROBLEMS

BY

**HENRY ERNEST DUDENEY
**

AUTHOR OF "AMUSEMENTS IN MATHEMATICS,"

ETC.

Second Edition

(With Some Fuller Solutions and Additional Notes)

**THOMAS NELSON AND
**

1919

SONS, LTD. LONDON, EDINBURGH, AND NEW YORK

at/-

CONTENTS

Preface

Introduction

9

11

**The Canterbury Puzzles
**

Puzzling Times at Solvamhall Castle

23

The Merry Monks of Riddlewell The Strange Escape of the King's Jester The Squire's Christmas Puzzle Party

Adventures of the Puzzle Club

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.58

68

78

86 94

The

Professor's Puzzles

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118

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Miscellaneous Puzzles

Solutions

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Index

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~

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.163

251

200842

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the reader has a predilection for problems with Magic Squares. and to substitute others for them. on second ferior interest. or for Combination and Group Puzzles. for example. but a certain classification will book prevented any amount of if be found in the index. DUDENEY. HENRY The Authors' Club. 1919. of just Though the problems one or two little variations or extensions. or for Moving Counters.— PREFACE When tion preparing this new edition for the press. he will find are quite different. I decided to let the book stand in its original form and add extended solutions and some short notes to certain problems that have in the past involved me in correspondence with interested readers I who desired additional information. thoughts. The very nature and form separation of the puzzles into classes. I my calculated to elucidate matter in these pages. also obviated the necessity of of brevity. my first inclina- was to withdraw a few puzzles that appeared to be of inBut. in M. as A . have also provided —what was clearly needed for reference of the an index. each work being complete have thought it would help the reader who happens to have both books before him if I made occasional references that would direct him to solutions and analyses in the later book in itself. is Amusements in Mathematics This course has For the sake throughout referred to E. July 2. my repeating myself. . from those in book Amusements in Mathematics. with the exception that in the index these are brought together for his convenience. Thus.

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: . and to navigate the to night air.INTRODUCTION The Mill on the Floss will remember that whenever Mr. to find a cure for certain malignant diseases." or " picture puzzle. Men have spent long lives in such attempts as to turn the baser metals into gold. ship in the midst of the sea and the all way only man with a maid/' is Probing into the secrets of Nature a passion with men we select different lines of research. " there as sharp as most men at solving a puzzle. four which be three things which are too wonderful for me Readers of ." There can be no denying the fact that we are surrounded on every hand by posers." The former species may be said to be adapted to the amusement of the sane man or woman the latter can be confidently recommended to the feeble-minded. I know not of a : the . upon a rock way of an the way of a eagle in the air . or the juvenile imbecility known as the " rebus. From morning we are being perpetually brought face But there are puzzles and puzzles. world. who may be supposed to have been solution. and many of which may be said to be impossible of Solomon himself. Those are usually devised for recreation and pastime may be roughly that divided into two classes Puzzles that are built up on some interand puzzles that conceal no esting or informing little principle to face with puzzles. some of which the intellect of man has mastered. principle bits to whatever—such as a picture cut at random into little be put together again. 11 . had to admit yea. Tulliver found himself confronted by any little difficulty " It's a puzzling he was accustomed to make the trite remark. the way of a serpent . to discover perpetual motion.

and artisan are perpetually engaged in attempting to solve puzzles. In short. but must be attacked on entirely original lines. What is this mysterious charm that many find irresistible ? of the best problems cannot . yet we are impelled to master it and when we have succeeded there is a pleasure and a sense of satisfaction that are a quite sufficient reward for our trouble. Theologian.12 INTRODUCTION The curious propensity for propounding puzzles is not peculiar It is simply innate in every intelligent man. sport. an Indian fakir. is frequently a problem of considerable difficulty. This is why. one finds that particular puzzles will sometimes be solved more readily by persons possessing only naturally alert faculties than by the better educated. scientist. in the solution of these things. We know the thing to be of trivial importance. A good puzzle should demand the exercise of our best wit and ingenuity. a Chinese philosopher. or by a yachtsman lazily scanning the horizon. or a European mathematician makes little difference. we are all propounding puzzles to one another every day of our liveswit hout always knowing it. a mahatma of Tibet. after a long and wide experience. though it is just possible that often they may have undeveloped mathematical minds. For many . and child that has ever lived. by one cyclist of another while taking a brief rest on a stile. though it is always showing itself in different forms whether the individual be a Sphinx of Egypt. woman. be solved by any familiar scholastic methods. The best players of such puzzle games as chess and draughts are not mathematicians. and pastime is built up of problems of greater or less difficulty. by a cricketer during the luncheon hour. The spontaneous question asked by the child of his parent. even when there is no prize to be won. yet it sometimes happens that a is kind of natural cunning and sagacity of considerable value. while every game. a Samson of Hebrew lore. It is extraordinary what fascination a good puzzle has for a great many people. and although a knowledge of mathematics and a certain familiarity with the methods of logic are often of great service to any race or to any period of history. .

But why did we ever attempt to do it ? The answer is simply that it gave us pleasure to seek the solution —that the pleasure was all in the seeking and finding for their own good puzzle. Albert Smith. and thereby within their reach around them. This is neglects that variety which a mistake. heroes. and in later tors. and have little practical relation to the game brain. it stimueducation. In starting on a tour through the wide realm of Puzzledom we do well to remember that we shall meet with points of interest of a very varied character. like virtue. one's pleasures. to keep level with his lates the smallest child. and in both cases it is not so much what we do as the doing of it from which we derive benefit. People often make the mistake of confining themselves to one miss opportunities of new little corner of the realm. 13 do we like to be puzzled ? The curious thing is that directly the enigma is solved the interest generally vanishes. in play or life it turns men into great discoverers. and We never like to feel our mental inferiority to he has solved it. A those around us. of chess). another to mathematical brain-rackers. One person pleasures that lie will keep to acrostics and other word puzzles. may in economy in the end. and that is enough. another to chess problems (which are merely puzzles on the chess-board. The daily walk recommended good of the body. in one of his it is the truest amusing novels. invenfellows. We have done it. The spirit of rivalry is innate in man .INTRODUCTION Why . I shall take advantage of this variety. and (if they have more material aims) perhaps millionaires. artists. Reg- ular exercise is supposed to be as necessary for the brain as for the body. Man loves he is not entirely happy until to be confronted by a mystery. because it restricts is so good for the And there is really a practical utility in puzzle-solving. orators. describes a woman who was convinced that she This may be a very rare suffered from " cobwigs on the brain/' by the doctor for the itself . . or the daily exercise for but appear to be so much waste of time the brain. and and so on. sakes. is its own reward.

charades. as it affords the easiest and shortest method of conveying some of the most It was the maxim of a very wise prince useful principles of logic. anagrams." because there is no way of creating an idea you can only make use of it when it comes. stimulate the imagination." as we say. Well. It is an art. comes by practice. you cannot invent a good puzzle to order.' " How are good puzzles invented ? I am not referring to acrostics. and there is nothing equal to the solving of puzzles and problems for sweeping them away. indeed. equally clever. any more than you can invent anything else in that manner.. that he who knows not how to dissemble knows not how to reign and I desire you to receive it as mine. an interesting passage in praise of puzzles in the quaint " The ingenious Here is an extract study of making and solving puzzles is a science undoubtedly of most necessary acquirement. . and is able by long experience to judge of its value. and develop the reasoning faculties. It is useless to say. Sometimes a new and most interesting idea is suggested by the . You may think this is wrong. They keep the brain alert. and that sort of thing. And not only are they useful in this indirect way. and deserves to make a part in the meditation of both sexes. The expert knows an idea when he sees one. and are led up to by other puzzles that come under our notice. The explanation is very simple. like facility. : ' ' to riddle knows not how to live. i 4 INTRODUCTION complaint. but to puzzles that contain an original idea. They are suggested by something we see or hear. " I will sit down and invent an original puzzle. that ' he who knows not how There is letters of Fitzosborne. Fertility. that I would recommend to the encouragement of both the Universities. but in a more metaphorical sense many of us are very apt to suffer from mental cobwebs. cannot invent one " to save his life. Notions for puzzles come at strange times and in strange ways. because an expert in these things will make scores of puzzles while another person. but they often directly help us by teaching us some little tricks and "wrinkles " that can be applied in the affairs of life at the most unexpected times and in the most unexpected ways.

Professor Tyndall used to invite children to ask him puzzling questions. off and on. those nine It little digits cipher. all Coins. " Can the Almighty destroy His own omnipotence ? " It is somewhat similar to the other question. If you ask. 3. But he was a boy with a will. cards. should always be remembered that a very simple person may propound a problem that can only be solved by clever heads if at all. 5. form of the question. of almost anything. 9. puzzle to solve 15 A boy was given a but he misunderstood what he had to do. there could not at the same time exist a moving body that nothing could resist. " What would happen if an irresistible moving body came in contact with an immovable body ? " Here we have simply a contradiction in terms. " Can God do everything ? " On receiving " Then can He make a an affirmative reply. matches. 4. he said. puzzles have been come in useful. " This is not the puzzle I intended you misunderstood me but you have found out something much greater " And the puzzle which that boy acciby a friend. for if there existed such a thing as an immovable body. in the hands of of the ingenious person with an idea. 7. A child asked. she at once said stone so heavy that He can't lift it ? " Many wide-awake grownup people do not at once see a satisfactory answer. and some of them were very hard nuts to crack. which really amounts to asking. 2. and he stuck at it for six months. . 8. One child asked him why that part of a towel that was dipped in water was of a darker colour than the cry part. made out of the letters and An immense number of the alphabet. 6. " Why can we see through glass ? " nine people out of ten will reply. though cunning.INTRODUCTION blunder of somebody over another puzzle. counters. bits of wire or string. and set about attempting what most likely everybody would have told him was impossible. until he actually succeeded. When his friend saw the solution. 1. — — ! dentally discovered Puzzles can be is now in made out all the old puzzle books. Yet the difficulty lies merely in the absurd. How many readers : — could give the correct reply ? Many people are satisfied with the most ridiculous answers to puzzling questions. and from and o.

of course. " To worry the chauffeur. (" When There (2. For example. To-day this sort of riddle surlion. she dashed her head against a rock and immediately expired." It has though degenerated into the conundrum. we have been asked from our infancy. " Why does a chicken cross the road ? " " To get to the other side to which most people give the answer. which are based on . It is perhaps the first prize competition in this line on record. Then there is the riddle propounded by Samson.. the monster of Bceotia who propounded enigmas to the inhabitants and devoured them if they failed to solve them. " A honeyof the strong came forth sweetness. " of saying. " Because we can of broad types. " and here again the answer usually furnished is a door not a door ? : " . who pointed out that man walked on his hands and feet in the morning of life. and three in the evening ? It was explained by GEdipus. " When it is a negress (an egress). the correct reply is. Let us take three or four examples in illustration what I mean. the prize being thirty sheets and thirty changes of garments for a correct solution. at the noon of life he walked erect. It should be. simply another see through it." comb in the body of a dead " vives in such a form as." is the large class of Letter Puzzles. and out The answer was. ." way Puzzles have such an infinite rariety that it is sometimes very They often so merge difficult to divide them into distinct classes. It was said that the Sphinx would destroy herself if one of her riddles was ever correctly answered. and in the evening of his days he supported his When the Sphinx heard this explanation. This shows that puzzle solvers may be really useful on occasion. which is usually based on a mere " When pun. infirmities with a stick. The riddle was this " Out of the eater came forth meat. two at noon. Readers will remember the riddle of the Sphinx. in character that the best we can do is to sort them into a few transparent .16 " Because it INTRODUCTION is which is. that draws upon the imagination and play of fancy.077) it is a-jar ") is not the correct one. It was this " What animal walks : on four legs in the morning. First there is the ancient Riddle.

word-squares. puzzles that look : difficult. acrostics. and charades. while every conjuring trick is nothing but a puzzle. full of These range from the puzzle that the algebraist finds to be nothing but a " simple equation/' quite easy of direct solution. as they stand quite alone there are puzzles in logic.077) if we write down nineteen ones to form the number 2 . however. " Madam. and in dominoes. and in each class we may of course have degrees of easiness and difficulty. and puzzles that look difficult and are easy." diversity. or words and sentences that read backwards and forwards alike." to which his consort replied with the modest palindrome " Eve. (2. a favourite and very ancient branch of which is the puzzle in dissection. and only prove to be a very hard nut to him after he had actually tackled it.INTRODUCTION 17 the little peculiarities of the language in which they are written such as anagrams. Then we have Arithmetical But these classes do not nearly embrace all kinds of puzzles even when we allow for those that belong at once to several of the classes. Such a puzzle might. But it does easy and are stood by the merest child not follow that a puzzle that has conditions that are easily underis in itself easy. puzzles that look difficult and are difficult. In this class we also find palindromes. look simple to the uninformed. Most of the wire puzzles sold in the streets and toy-shops are concerned with the geometry of position. requiring some plane figure to be cut into a certain number of pieces that will fit together and form another figure. the solution to which the performer tries to keep to himself. I'm Adam. These must be very ancient indeed. in chess. in cards. Puzzles. if it be true that Adam introduced himself to Eve (in the English language. in draughts. Next we have the Geometrical Puzzle. For example. an immense class. up to the profoundest problems in the elegant domain of the theory of numbers. There are puzzles that look easy and are easy. There are many ingenious mechanical puzzles that you cannot classify. be it noted) with the palindromic words.

" If a herring and a half cost three-halfpence. But in most cases the latter method is the only one that gives any real pleasure. an exceedingly heavy task. though it may be solved immediately by trial. when the propounder explained to him that a dozen herrings would cost a shilling. without method. hoping to hit on the answer by accident a process there are always a right of doing anything applies in a very The maxim that — that generally results in our getting hopelessly entangled in the trap that has been artfully laid for us. " I was working I it out in haddocks It " ! so to sometimes requires more care than the reader might suppose word the conditions of a new puzzle that they are at once * See footnote on page 198. as far as we can.* The number composed in.723 and 5. that we understand the conditions. " Herrings " exclaimed the other apologetically.in. is 11. For if we do not understand what it is we have to do.363. . a problem is of such a character that. The only number composed only have no divisor number. We all know the story of the man who was asked the question. When we sit down to solve a puzzle. the conditions are perfectly simple. If you can find one. Nobody in the world knows yet whether that number has a divisor or not. we are not very likely to succeed in doing it.iii.iii. how much will a dozen herrings cost ? " After several unsuccessful attempts he gave it up.071.iii.iii.1 INTRODUCTION number (other than without remainder. it is very difficult to do by a process of pure reason. however.iii. you will have succeeded in doing something i. has only these two and their of seventeen ones.iii. certainty to Such a number of course. discovery is 2.iii.357.iii. Occasionally. divisors. and then ask for a I or itself) that will divide it that nobody else has ever done. ii. but the task is terribly difficult. the first thing to do is to make sure.222. of ones that we know with is.iii. called a prime way and a wrong way marked degree to the solving Here the wrong way consists in making aimless trials of puzzles.

You say that a rope is forbidden and he then falls back on the use of a current in the stream. in which people have to be got over in a boat that will only hold a certain number thing. some few puzzles are intended to be solved by some trick of this kind and if there happens to be no solution without the trick it is perfectly legitimate. because. A man recently propounded to the old familiar problem. To this I made the obvious reply that consequently a blind man could not go around anything. ! master the . Does the boy go around the monkey ? " I replied that if he would first give me his definition of " to go around " I would supply him with the answer. " I have taken care to make all the others crooked " Who could have anticipated such a quibble ? Then if you give a " crossing the river " puzzle. To quibble over the conditions is the last resort of the defeated would-be solver. most certainly the boy went around the monkey. but as the boy walks the monkey turns on the pole so as to be always facing him on the opposite side.INTRODUCTION clear 19 and exact and not so prolix as to destroy all interest in the I remember once propounding a problem that required something to be done in the " fewest possible straight lines/' and a person who was either very clever or very foolish (I have never quite determined which) claimed to have solved it in only one straight line. taking the words in their ordinary and correct meaning. " A boy walks round & pole on which a monkey. he retorted that it was not so. so that he might catch me either way. twists in the me is meaning of words. We have to use our best judgment as to whether a puzzle contains a catch or not . Of course. as she said. he demurred. but we should never hastily assume it. But a sapient reader made all the people swim across without using the boat at all Of course. . Sometimes people will attempt to bewilder you by curious little difficulty . As was expected. because he understood by " going around " a thing that you went in such a way as to see all sides of it. I once thought I had carefully excluded all such tricks in a particular puzzle of this class. I therefore said that. directly the would-be solver fails to he boldly introduces a rope to pull the boat across. ! or combination of persons.

while pointing at a portrait." and it was obviously Yet people over this question by the hour ! Tlieie are mysteries that have never been solved in many branches Let us consider a few in the world of numbers of Puzzledom. " That man's father his son's portrait." though many people have a very hazy notion of what it means. but you went in such a way that. because it is not possible to say in exact numbers what is the ratio of the diameter to the circumference. myself. for it is one thing not to be able to perform a certain feat. "It is as hard as squaring a circle. (though we can get an answer near enough for all practical purposes). you are confronted with the problem Well. says. argument. But it is only in recent times that it has been proved to be impossible. it cannot be done with exactitude of squaring the circle. up in a box and if at the start you. given see all sides. little things the conditions of which a child can understand. and often heated." clearly " myself. all sides sight." But. always see if you cannot simplify them. " Brothers and sisters have I none. but quite another to prove that Only uninstructed cranks now waste their time it cannot be done. in trying to square the circle. The whole thing is amusingly stupid. you could ! Upon which it was suggested that been shut consequently you could not walk around a man who had And so on. The fight statement simplified is is thus nothing more than. for a lot of confusion is got rid of in this way. Many people are puzzled over the old question of the man who.20 INTRODUCTION He then amended his definition by saying that the actual seeing was not essential. the greatest minds cannot master. When you have grasped your conditions. If you have a circle of given diameter and wish to find the side of a square that shall contain exactly the same area." ? What relation did the man in the picture bear to the speaker Here you simplify by saying it is my father's son " must be either " myself " or " my brother. very properly. . and you prevent an idle. since the speaker has no brother. though Everybody has heard the remark. decline to admit any but a simple and correct definition of " to go around/' there is no puzzle left. but that man's father that " is my father's son.

The numbers 1 to 9 can be arranged in a square of nine cells. numbering each square that the knight visits in succession. 4. . . and we shall have to extend our knowledge in certain directions before we can hope to solve the puzzle. is the length of the side. for we do not count as different the arrangements obtained by merely turning round the square and reflecting it in a mirror. 1. 1 to 16. prove unwelcome in the new dress that they have entirely original. And I have shown how this number may be at once doubled by merely converting every bordered square a simple rule —by —into a non-bordered one. 1 to 25. so that all the columns and rows and each of the diagonals will add up 15.INTRODUCTION Again. it but you cannot have . in which the inner square what like. 3. All my readers know what a magic square is. . etc. will at take our diagonal square. It is quite easy and there is only one way of doing it. you can do this. Then vain attempts have been made to construct a magic square by what is called a " knight's tour " over the chess-board. and then construct our Yes. But it is surprising to find that exactly 174. nobody knows. Now if we wish to make a magic square of the 16 numbers. Though the contents of the present volume are in the main some very few old friends will be found but these will not. But how many magic squares may be formed with the 25 numbers. with the exception of the two diagonals.240 such squares may be formed of one particular restricted kind only the bordered square. and has been done. 2. say an exact foot. there is we can never measure exactly in numbers the diagonal of If you have a window pane exactly a foot on every side. — of nine cells is itself magic. This has been finally proved of recent years. yet you can never say in exact numbers what diagonal. The simple person first. which so far have baffled all efforts. I trust. but then you can never say exactly You can have it which way you both ways. again not counting reversals and reflections. there are just 880 different ways of doing it. But it is not certain that it cannot it be done. 21 a square. is the length of that once suggest that we might the distance from corner to corner staring you in the face.

or the size of the book greatly increased. either half the problems would have had to be omitted. but at other times I have reluctantly felt — obliged to restrict myself to giving the bare answers. In some cases I have dealt with the methods of solution at considerable length. INTRODUCTION The puzzles are of every degree of difficulty. he will find great interest in verifying it . And the plan that] I have adopted full solutions has I its advantages. where a puzzle. it is and so varied in character that perhaps not too much to hope that every true puzzle lover will find ample material to interest and possibly instruct. thusiast to work out his own Even in those cases have given a general formula for the solution of for himself. Had the and proofs been given in the case of every puzzle.22 received. for it leaves scope for the mathematical enanalysis.

who. met at the old Tabard Inn. in Southwark. but difficulty and interest are two qualities of puzzledom that do not necessarily go together.A CHANCE-GATHERED company the shrine of Saint of pilgrims. Geoffrey Chaucer. This we all know was the origin of the immortal Canterbury Tales of our great fourteenth-century poet. and the host proposed that they should beguile the ride by each telling a tale to his fellow-pilgrims. on their way to Thomas a Becket at Canterbury. without unnecessary preamble. I will not stop to explain the singular manner in which they came into possession. why the quaint and curious " Canterbury Puzzles. later called the Talbot. the tales were never completed." devised and propounded by the same body of pilgrims. as Leland tells us. was an " ingenious mathematician " and the author of a learned treatise on the astrolabe. were not also recorded by the poet's pen. In presenting for the first time some of these old-world posers. to give my readers an opportunity of solving them and testing my their quality. 23 . This is greatly to be regretted. There are certainly far more difficult puzzles extant. but proceed at once. was peculiarly fitted for the propounding of problems. and perhaps that is Unfortunately. since Chaucer.

by Saint Joce. The Reve was a wily man and something of a scholar." calling for four stools. number of cheeses of he told varying sizes caught his alert eye and a puzzle of his own t^at the company that he would show them would keep them amused during their rest. that is in Norfolk. When the pilgrims were stopping at a wayside tavern. The Reve's Puzzle. men at Baldeswell. a . as clearly shown in the illustration. As Chaucer tells us. " There was no auditor could of him win." This he did that he might the better. without interruption. quoth he." The poet also noticed that " ever he rode the hindermost of the route. He then placed eight cheeses of graduating sizes on one of the end stools. " that I did once set before my fellow townsis a riddle. and." and " there could no man bring him in arrear . the smallest " This cheese being at the top.24 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES i. work out the fanciful problems and ideas that passed through his active brain. there was .

ye shall remove all the cheeses to the stool at the other end without ever putting any cheese on one that is smaller than itself. To him that will perform this feat in the least number of moves that be possible will I give a draught of the best that our good host can provide/' To solve this puzzle in the fewest possible moves.THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES no 25 it is man among them that could that I rede it aright. full easy." begged to be excused have been able to devise. straight of was come from the court but the company would not spare " Friends and fellow-pilgrims/' said he. for all 2. by the moving of one cheese at a time from one stool unto another. but it is the best that . TJw Pardoner's Puzzle. first with 8. " of a truth the him." He produced the accompanying plan. then with 10. it represented sixty-four towns through which he had to pass I matters . And yet withal do desire is that. Blame my lack of knowledge of such But his invention was very if it be not to your liking. and said that well received. riddle that I have made is but a poor thing. " that Rome. The gentle Pardoner. is an interesting recreation. and afterwards with 21 cheeses.

which is of a truth the number shown by the sacks in the middle. seems that it was impossible to go that way. 3. The Miller next took the company aside and showed them nine sacks of flour that were standing as depicted in the sketch. and once only. and three together in the middle thereof. in fifteen straight pilgrimages. He explained that the puzzle was to start from the large black town and visit all the other towns once. This worthy man " a very perfect. & I'm iH v m L l L'l ui Wherefore I do beg you. hearken. will also make 196. by the single one. the answer is 196. The Miller's Puzzle. which everybody should be able to solve. 34. 28. " Now. And mark ye. doth so happen that if we do but multiply the pair. 7." and " In many a noble army had he been At . and the lines connecting them were roads. 5. as Chaucer tells us. that there be single sacks on the outside.26 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES during some of his pilgrimages. Yet it be not true that the other it pair. there is only one answer to this puzzle. when so multiplied by its neighbour. The Knights Puzzle. straight lines with your pencil. my lords and masters. pairs next unto them. was. all and some/' said he. so to place anew the nine sacks with as little trouble as possible that each pair when thus multiplied by its single neighbour shall make the number in the middle/' As the Miller has stipulated in effect that as few bags as possible shall be moved. " while that I do set ye the riddle of the nine sacks of flour. Try to trace the route in fifteen like. : gentle knight. 4. gentle sirs. By Saint Benedict. You may end where you road at the bottom is but note that the omission of a as it little intentional.

" argent. and she . when called upon to favour the company." The reader may find it an interesting problem to count the number of squares that may be formed on the shield by uniting four roses.THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 27 mortal battles had he been fifteen." His shield. In thy hand take a piece of chalk and learn how many perfect squares thou canst make with one of the eighty-seven roses at each corner thereof. as seed called was 5. protested that she had no aptitude for such things. in the peculiar language of the heralds. scattered or strewn. When this knight on to propound a puzzle. was. but that her fourth husband had had a liking for them. as he is seen showing it to the company at the " Tabard " in the illustration. he said to the company.— The Wife of Bath's Riddles. semee of roses. The frolicsome Wife of ^Bath." which means that on a white ground red roses were *=j^ is sown by the hand. gules. " This riddle a wight did ask of me when that I fought with the lord of Palatine against the heathen in Turkey.

Perhaps no puzzle of the whole collection caused more jollity or was found more entertaining than that produced by the Host of . of a truth. I am. This perplexed the company a good deal. thy son but thou art not my mother. " the parental command. my son. but the reader it is not likely to give much difficulty. " Upon receiving/' saith she. 6.28 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES of his riddles that is remembered one pilgrims like : might be new to her fellow " Why a bung that hath been made fast in a barrel unto another bung that is just falling out of a barrel ? " As the company promptly answered this easy conundrum. the ladywent on to say that when she was one day seated sewing in her private chamber her son entered. and do not disturb me he did reply. Depart. The Host's Puzzle. " and until thou hast shown me how this may be I shall not go forth/ ' ' ! ' .

The silent and thoughtful Clerk of Oxenford. In books and learning was it always spent." was prevailed upon to give his 1 companions a puzzle. It is a knotty little problem and a fascinating one. Here be a cask of fine London ale. and the secret of such things is very deep and the number of such squares . of whom it is recorded that " Every farthing that his friends e'er lent. He said. and no marking of the measures is allowed. Yet it can be done. and the other of three pints." 29 who accompanied that little it called the pilgrims together masters I will all. " Ofttimes of late have I given much thought to the study of those strange talismans to ward off the plague and such evils that are yclept magic squares. 7. Pray show how it is possible for Of course." me to put a no other vessel or article is to be used. A good many persons to-day will find it by no means an easy task. doing of in And yet methinks it is but a simple matter when the is made clear. The Clerk of Oxenford's Puzzle. now the party all the way. He " My merry and spoke as follows be my turn to give your brains a twist. : show ye a it piece of craft that will try your wits to their full bent.THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES the "Tabard. and I my hands do hold two measures—one of five pints. true pint into each of the measures.

produced a beautiful piece of tapestry. worked in a simple chequered pattern. who draws and sells ale. as shown in the diagram. I . " hath one hundred and sixty-nine small squares. a maker of and must not be confounded with a tapster. Then came forward the Tapiser. in which the four columns. The Tapiser's Puzzle. of course. sirs. since there be divers ways of so doing. the It will four rows. the purpose of this be found that this tastes. who was. THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES But the small riddle that I did make yester eve for company is not so hard that any may not find it out with a little patience/' He then produced the square shown in the illustration and said that it was desired so to cut it into four pieces (by cuts along the lines) that they would fit together again and form a perfect magic square." quoth he. " This piece of He g & * & # #^ * * $ $ & & % *> & & & £> © *> & & & $ *J $ & & & 4 ® ¥ #> * & C& £> €> & & £> & & & «» & <& & & ¥ d & $> <& $> & $> <& #> ^ & $> & * § & & 0*9 ol** <£> <i> <$> *% <§> <g> <?> «jri> <fc <g> tapestry. " Moreover. tapestry.30 truly great. and I do desire you to tell me the manner of cutting the together and tapestry into three pieces that shall fit make one do wish to whole piece in shape of a perfect square. and the two long diagonals should add up 34. is a just sufficiently easy puzzle for most people's 8.

and did desire that it be carved and made into the pillar that you do now behold. and found it truly to contain now weigh but twenty pounds. 4). whereas the pillar doth 10. but this scholar withal doth hold that payment may not thus be fairly made by weight. and. Also did he promise certain payment for every cubic inch of wood cut away by " the carving thereof. who formed one of his party of pilgrims. since the heart of the block may be heavier.THE CANTERBUPv PUZZLES know much that 31 way wherein two of the pieces shall together contain as It is clear that as possible of the rich fabric. And in his hand he bare a mighty bow. Chaucer says of the Squire's Yeoman. How then may I with ease satisfy the scholar as to the quantity of wood that hath been cut away ? " This at first sight looks a difficult question. matches properly." did at thirty pounds. pillar that is The Carpenter produced the carved wooden his seen holding in the illustration. " A forester was he truly as I guess. " There dwelleth in the city of London a certain scholar that is learned in astrology and other strange arts." When a halt was made one day at a . for it is a very useful little " wrinkle. Now I The Puzzle of the Squire's Yeoman. but care made along the lines dividing the squares only. wherein the knight follows knotty problem to the goodly company (No. Some few days : he is propounding and spoke as gone he did bring unto me a piece of wood that had three feet in length." the Tapiser intended the cuts to be reversed. Of a truth I have therefore cut away one cubic foot (which is to say one-third) of the three cubic feet of the block." and tells us that " His arrows drooped not with feathers low. but it is so absurdly simple that the method employed by the carpenter should be known to everybody to-day. The Carpenter's Puzzle. no piece may be must be observed that the chequered pattern 9. than the outside. one foot in breadth and one foot in depth. as the material was not both sides alike. or perchance may be more light. first weigh the block.

on a later occasion. " that doth not know that many monks do oft pass the " time in play at certain games.3* THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES wayside inn." quoth the Nun. " Mark ye. horizontally. Selecting nine good arrows." this yeoman consented to give the company an exhibition of his skill." By a " neighbouring square " meant one that adjoins. good sirs. may is ii. bearing the old sign of the " Chequers. such as cards and the game of chess. — The Nun's Puzzle. Then the Yeoman said : " Here then is a riddle for Remove three of the arrows each to one of its neighbouring squares. ye. either laterally or diagonally. how that I shall shoot these nine arrows in such manner that each of them shall lodge in the middle of one of the squares that be upon the sign of Chequers/ and yet of a truth shall no arrow be in line with any other arrow/' The diagram will show exactly how he did this. I trow there be not one among ye. so that the nine shall yet be so placed that none thereof be in line with another. vertically. he said. albeit they be not lawful for them. and no two arrows will be found in line. These games. do they cunningly hide from the abbot's eye by putting them away in holes . the ' or diagonally.

full of schemes. and a good manipulator of figures. There be thirty of us in all riding over the common this morn. " Forsooth he was a worthy withal. " Be it so ? Here then is a riddle in numbers that I will set before this merry company when next we do make a halt. the Knight and the Squire.077) 3 . and so on. when they were on the road. until all are table. but the reader should try to arrive at the required order without doing this. or using any actual cards. 12. the eighteen cards shall then read " Of course each card must be placed on the table It is easy to the immediate right of the one that preceded it." The Nun then produced the eighteen cards that are shown in the illustration. She explained that the puzzle was so to arrange the cards in a pack. Truly we man (2. Sounding alway the increase of his winning. placing the next one at the bottom of the pack. " His reasons spake he eke full solemnly. reminded the Merchant that he had not yet propounded the puzzle that he owed the company. K V I F on the a I & CANTERBURY table. PILGRIMS.THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES upon their shelves. who were riding beside him. the next one on the I will G &." He was thoughtful. the next at the bottom of the pack." The Merchant's Puzzle. she do likewise ? Shall the 33 that they have cut out of the very hearts of great books that be nun therefore be greatly blamed if show a little riddle game that we do sometimes play among ourselves when the good abbess doth hap to be away. enough if you work backwards. that by placing the uppermost one on the table." One morning. Of the Merchant the poet writes. He thereupon said.

The Sergeant of the Law was " full rich of excellence. or all thirty in a row. of equal may we ride so that there be no lack In no other way numbers in the rows." He was talking one evening of prisons and prisoners.34 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES one and one. or three and three. and of great reverence/' He was a very busy man." The Merchant clearly required the number of persons that could so ride in the sixty-four ways. 13. Now. The Man of Law's Puzzle. or five and ten. or ten and and and fifteen. or six and six. like many of us to-day. " he seemed busier than he was. a party of pilgrims were able thus to ride in as many as sixty- four different ways. and at length made the following remarks : " And that which I have been saying doth . in what they do call may ride the single file. or fifteen five. but. or two two. Discreet he was. smallest Prithee tell me how many there must perforce have been in the company.

may vellum." this morn I bethought me of a riddle that I will now put He then produced a slip of which was drawn the curious plan that is now saith he. 6. These prisoners be numbered in order. 4. will find it be " If the reader makes a rough plan on a sheet of paper and uses numbered counters. 3. 14. he an interesting pastime to arrange the prisoners in the fewest possible moves. As there is never more than one vacant dungeon at a time to be moved into. which is empty. 11 ij=8fe==s a. on " Here. One prisoner may move at a time along the passage to the dungeon that doth happen to be empty. " if there be any of the company that can show how this piece skilled in heraldry. who was they were probably derived from III. 7.. and castles. The puzzle that the Weaver proposed was this. 5. explained that the lions and castles borne in the arms of Ferdinand . 6. the moves may be recorded in this simple way 3 2 1 6. however. 2. the King of Castile and Leon. and I desire to know how they can. whose daughter was the first wife of our Edward I. but never. on pain of death. In this he was undoubtedly correct. put themselves in the order 1." given." saith he. 3. " be nine dungeons. 7. in as few moves as possible. When the daintily embroidered with lions illustration. meaning of Weaver brought out a square piece of beautiful cloth. 5. and : ——— so on. 8. 1. 4. with a prisoner in every dungeon save one. " Let us. for the nonce. The Knight.THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES forsooth call to 35 my mind that forth. jfrsrj ij^>=g How may it two men be done ? in any dungeon at the same time. 8. 2. as depicted in the the pilgrims disputed among themselves as to the these ornaments. see. The Weaver's Puzzle.

five out of the eleven pilgrims can eat the pie. castle. and each piece bearing a and a castle/' It is not recorded that anybody mastered this puzzle.36 of cloth THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES may be cut into four several pieces. while that I do ask ye a riddle. and by Saint Moden it is one that I cannot answer myself withal. and broil and fry. while four find that there We . was a cook among the company and his no doubt at times in great request. . though possible of solution in a satisfactory manner. but will not touch the pasty. And make a mortress and well bake a pie." One night when the pilgrims were seated at a country hostelry. each of the same lion size and shape. The Cook's Puzzle. Now. " For he could services were roast and seethe. each of which may truly be divided into four parts and no more. mark ye. " Listen awhile. the cook presented himself at the head of the table that was presided over by the Franklin. my masters. it is quite No cut may pass through any part of a lion or a 15. about to begin their repast. and said. There be eleven pilgrims seated at this board on which is set a warden pie and a venison pasty.

the answer. as all the with the exception of the Clerk of down a wrong figure. the two that do remain be able and willing to eat of either. did take them to the next room. made a mistake of forty. is there any that can tell me in how many different ways the good Franklin may choose whom he will serve ? " I will just caution the reader that if he is not careful he will find. " My masters. " seeing you were so deep set in I the riddle. they called clamorously when he sees company Oxenford. Strange to say. that he has did." he explained. while the company perplexed their wits about this riddle the cook played upon them a merry jest. There be excellent bread and cheese in the pantry/' . where others did eat them with relish ere they had grown cold. who got it right by accident. In the midst of their deep thinking and hot dispute what should the cunning knave do but stealthily take away both the pie and the pasty. through putting for the cook.THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES will eat 37 the pasty but turn away from the pie. Moreover. finding there was nought upon the table. Then. By my hali- dame. when hunger made them desire to go on with the repast.

times he became Our particular individual was a somewhat quaint though worthy man. As great as if it were for an ale-stake/* One evening ten of the company stopped at a village inn and . " A garland had he set upon his head. . The Sompnou/s Puzzle.38 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 16. who. or Summoner. was an officer whose duty was to summon delinquents to appear in ecclesiastical courts. according to Chaucer. The Sompnour. it must be explained that his peculiar headgear is duly recorded by the poet. " He was known as the apparitor. A better fellow should a man not a gentle hireling and a kind find. In later joined the party of pilgrims." In order that the reader may understand his appearance in the picture.

The Monk's Puzzle. The count then began afresh at the next person.THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES accommodate five of 39 requested to be put up for the night. 17. But the lady misunderstood her instructions." Being of a chivalrous nature. and the count at herself. The Sompnour suggested that they as he had had experience in such matters in the summoning of juries and in other ways. and the person on whom that number fell was immediately to step out of the ring. his little plot was so to arrange that the men should all fall out and leave the ladies in possession. this resulted in all the turn instead of the men. " Greyhounds he had as swift as fowl of flight Of riding and of : hunting for the hare Was all his love. " Of a truth it was no fault of mine. in a clockwise direction. and they be put in the form of a square I though the one in the middle do never use. Nine kennels have I the use of my dogs. it not being of a useful Now may place my nature." : One day he addressed the pilgrims as follows " There is a little matter that hath at times perplexed me greatly. the riddle is to find in how many different ways I dogs in all or any of the outside kennels so that the . and at which pilgrim she should have begun her count so that no other than the five men should have been counted out ? " Of course. He therefore gave the Wife of Bath a number and directed her to count round and round the circle." said the Sompnour next day to the company. " and herein is methinks a riddle. though certes it is of no great weight yet may it serve to try the . for no cost would he spare. and selected in mistake the number eleven and started should draw lots. the point is to find the smallest number that will have the desired effect. he arranged the company in a circle and proposed a " count out. but mine host could only them. Can any tell me what number the good Wife should have used withal. wits of for some that be cunning in such things. for every eleventh person withdrawn from the circle is a lady. women falling out in As will be found. The Monk that went with the party was a great lover of sport.

In each year my good ship over every one of the ten courses depicted thereon. " of five islands. Is the inhabitants of which sail doth there any ferent among the company who can I tell me in how many dif- ways may direct always setting out from the same island the Magdalen's ten yearly voyages.40 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES of dogs number on every side of the square may small diagrams show four ways of doing it. it counts as different. And every His barque ycleped was the Magcreek in Brittany and Spain : 9 dalen. From Gothland to the Cape of Finisterre." quoth the Shipman. but never may she pass along the same course twice in any year. Any kennels empty. " ? . " Here be a chart." The and though the fourth way is merely a reversal of the third. as Of this person we they were. He knew well all the havens. This puzzle was evidently a variation of the ancient one of the Abbess and her Nuns. * The strange puzzle in navigation that he propounded was as follows. with I do trade. be just ten. " Puzzle. be left may 18. The Shipmaris are told.

THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 4i 19. The Puzzle of the Prioress. who went by the name of Eglantine. The Prioress." It is with the brooch that we are concerned. how that it hath an affinity for the square." But our puzzle has to do less with her character and education than with her " And thereon hung a brooch of gold full sheen." " the pilgrims did find no answer to the riddle. It is recorded that spake full fair : * . for when asked to give a puzzle she showed this jewel "A learned man from Normandy did to the company and said this brooch as a charm. is best remembered on account of Chaucer's remark. though on my faith I know not the manner of doing it. saying strange and mystic once give me things anent it. For French of Paris was to her unknow. On which dress. and such other wise words that were too subtle for me. But the good Abbot of Chertsey did once tell me that the cross may be so cunningly cut into four pieces that they will join and make a perfect square. was written first a crowned A. After the school of Stratford-att6Bow. " And French she and properly.

learned though he was. for " In world to him there was none like To speak of physic and of surgery/' and " He knew the cause of every malady. addressing the company." The problem that the Doctor propounded to the assembled pilgrims was this. " to have the exact measures of two other phials." yet was he not indifferent to the more material side of life." To find exact dimensions in the . " Gold in physic is a cordial Therefore he loved gold in special. and the other two feet in circumference." 20. of a like shape but different in size.42 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES and the Clerk of Oxenford thought that the Prioress had been deceived in the matter thereof . He produced two spherical phials." said the Doctor. which did fill him with shame and make merry the company. though the gentle knight did flout and gibe at the poor clerk because of his lack of understanding over other of the riddles. that is may together contain just as much liquid as contained by these two. whereupon the lady was sore vexed. and pointed out that one phial was exactly a foot in circumference. " I do wish. all this This Doctor. as shown in our illustration. The Puzzle of the Doctor of Physic.

but he .-'i'-j \ \ *^ \ • K •& >K > 1 i ye? \ &: and very good was he. true The Ploughman—of whom Chaucer remarked. " A worker f j \ \ ! J • : > / i. 21. numbers is one of the toughest nuts I have at* Of course the thickness of the glass.THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 43 smallest possible tempted. and the neck and base. Living in perfect peace and charity " protested that riddles were not for simple minds like his. are to be ignored. The Ploughman's Puzzle.

" Without baked meat never was his house. come hath a plantation of sixteen fair oak trees. did say that the sixteen trees might have been so planted that they would make so many as fifteen straight rows. they willed it. of deep learning. White was his beard as is the daisy.44 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES if would show the good pilgrims. one that he had frequently heard certain clever folk in his own neighbourhood dis" The lord of the manor in the part of Sussex whence I cuss." . Can ye show me how this might be ? Many have doubted that 'twere possible to be done. and they be so they make twelve rows with four trees in every row. " His table dormant in At his hall alway Stood ready covered all throughout the day. The Franklin's Puzzle. Of every dainty that men could bethink. who happened to be travelling in those parts. Of fish and flesh. ." He was a hospitable and generous man. How shows one of many ways of forming the twelve can we make fifteen ? 22." We are told by Chaucer that he was a great householder and an epicure. with four trees in every row thereof. It snowed in his Franklin was in this company " A house of meat and drink." set out that Once on a time a man The illustration rows. and that so plenteous.

" I have bethought me how I might portray in one only stroke a picture of our late sovereign lord King Edward the Third. All full of fresh flowers. my masters. what is it over which thou dost take so great pains withal ? " and the Squire answered.THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 45 the repasts of the Pilgrims he usually presided at one of the tables. at an inn just outside Canterbury. Vith the " Now. and I pray you so place them afresh that they shall form a magic square. 3. 23. adding up to thirty in all the ten straight ways. Tis a riddle to . for." The Knight turned to him after a while and said. twenty years of age. Of a truth will I set before ye another that may seem to be somewhat of a like kind. 26. He was undoubtedly what in later times we should call a dandy. as we found him doing on the occasion when the cook propounded problem of the two pies. this young Squire was standing in the background making a drawing of some kind for " He could songs make and well indite. But mark well that ye may not remove more than ten of the bottles from their present places. The young was the son of the Knight that accompanied him on the historic pilgrimage. and well portray and write. the company called on him to produce the puzzle required of him whereupon he placed on the table sixteen bottles numbered I. Here be set out sixteen bottles in form of a square. his . albeit there be little in common betwixt them. . He was as fresh as is the month of May. while the Haberdasher was propounding his problem of the triangle. Singing he was or fluting all the day. Joust and eke dance. The Squire's Puzzle. " Embroidered was he as is a mead. fresh in your show us a memories how that the good Clerk of Oxenford did what hath been called the magic square. Squire. " it will be last one marked o. " My son. white and red. who hath been dead these ten years. 2." quoth he." As will be seen in the illustration to No. up to 15." This is a little puzzle that may be conveniently tried with sixteen numbered riddle touching counters. One day. for therein layeth the subtlety of the riddle.

was a merry fellow." He went by the name of Hubert. To first shall show it unto me will I give the portraiture. kling eyes." Yet he was " the best beggar in all his house/' and gave reasons why " Therefore. 24. The Friar's Puzzle. which him who was won by the Man of Law. It may be here remarked that the pilgrimage set out from Southwark on 17th April 1387. Men must give silver to the needy friar. with a sweet tongue and twin" Courteous he was and lowly of service. and Edward the Third died in 1377. One day he produced four money " If the needy friar doth receive in alms bags and spoke as follows five hundred silver pennies. There was a man nowhere so virtuous. instead of weeping The Friar and much prayer.46 find THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES where the stroke doth begin and where it doth also end. prithee tell in how many different : ." I am able to present a facsimile of the original drawing.

or three bags may at any time be empty. 150. 200 would be the same as 100. 50. really devout is. 50." Now. The Parson's Puzzle. and The Parson was a priest I trow there nowhere . 25. 100. or 200. 150). 150. Chaucer is careful to tell us that " Wide was his parish. and one. to whom he presented his teaching with patience and simplicity " but first he followed it himself . 200. two.THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 47 ways they may be placed in the four bags/' The good man explained that order made no difference (so that the distribution 50." and good man. " A better His virtues and charity made him beloved by all his flock. 100. .

and in the doing thereof I do pass over every one of the eight bridges once and no more. " Behold how at the branching of the river is an island. after this manner.48 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES " . through which a small river ran that joined the sea some hundreds of miles I give a facsimile of the plan. there be eight bridges and no more over the river in my parish. neither by swimming nor wading. nor fly in the air as doth the eagle but only pass over by the to the south. I do never cross the river in any boat. houses far asunder. also. from the house to the church. Upon this island doth stand my own poor parsonage. with his parochial visitations that the Parson's puzzle He produced a plan of part of his parish. and ye may Mark ye. But he neglected nought for rain or thunder and it is actually dealt. Can any of ye find the path. . nay. that all see the whereabouts of the village church. " Here. . without going out of the parish ? Nay. is a strange riddle/' quoth the Parson. nor do I go underground like unto the mole. my friends. On my way to church it is my wont to visit sundry of my flock. my worthy Pilgrims.

**THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES
**

bridges."

49

There

is

a

way

in

this curious journey.

**Can the reader discover
**

offer

**which the Parson might have made it ? At first it
**

a loophole.

**seems impossible, but the conditions
**

26.

The Haberdasher's Puzzle.

Many

was

attempts were

made

to induce the Haberdasher,

who

for

of the party, to propound a puzzle of

some kind, but

a

**long time without success.
**

ping-places, he said

At last, at one of the Pilgrims' stopthat he would show them something that

K^

would " put

matter of

(2,077)

As a he was really playing off a practical joke on the company, for he was quite ignorant of any answer to the puzzle

their brains into a twist like unto a bell-rope."

fact,

i

50

**THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES
**

He produced

full

that he set them.

**a piece of cloth in the shape of a
**

in the illustration,

perfect equilateral triangle, as

shown

and

said,

?

"

Be

there any

among ye

wise in the true cutting of cloth

I

trow not. Every man to his trade, and the scholar may learn from the varlet and the wise man from the fool. Show me, then, if ye can, in what manner this piece of cloth may be cut into four several pieces that may be put together to make a perfect square." Now some of the more learned of the company found a way of doing it in five pieces, but not in four. But when they pressed the Haberdasher for the correct answer he was forced to admit, after much beating about the bush, that he knew no way of doing

it

any number of pieces. " By Saint Francis," saith he, " any knave can make a riddle methinks, but it is for them that may to rede it aright. " For this he narrowly escaped a sound beating. But the curious point of the puzzle is that I have found that the feat may really be performed in so few as four pieces, and without turning over any piece when placing them together. The method of doing this is subtle, but I think the reader will find the problem a most interesting one.

in

27.

The Dyer's Puzzle.

One of the pilgrims was a Dyer, but Chaucer tells us nothing about him, the Tales being incomplete. Time after time the company had pressed this individual to produce a puzzle of some kind, but without effect. The poor fellow tried his best to follow the examples of his friends the Tapiser, the Weaver, and the Haberdasher but the necessary idea would not come, rack his brains as he would. All things, however, come to those who wait and persevere and one morning he announced, in a state of considerable excitement, that he had a poser to set before them. He brought out a square piece of silk on wjiich were embroidered a number of fleurs-de-lys in rows, as shown in our illustration. " Lordings," said the Dyer, " hearken anon unto my riddle. Since I was awakened at dawn by the crowing of cocks for which

;

—

—

—

**THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES
**

din

Si

have sought an answer thereto, There be sixty-and-four not. but by St. and the riddle is to show how I may remove six flowers-de-luce, of these so that. there may yet be an even number of the flowers in every row and every column." The Dyer was abashed when every one of the company showed

our host never thrive

I

may

—

Bernard

I

have found

it

<*&<*«&&*&<&

44 4 &4>4& 4? 4& &## ***

1********

******** ******** ******** ********

without any difficulty whatever, and each in a different way, how But the good Clerk of Oxenford was seen this might be done. to whisper something to the Dyer, who added, " Hold, my masters What I have said is not all. Ye must find in how many different ways it may be done " All agreed that this was quite another matter. And only a few of the company got the right answer.

!

28.

The Great Dispute between

the Friar

and

the

Sompnour.

Chaucer records the painful fact that the harmony of the pilgrimage was broken on occasions by the quarrels between the Friar and the Sompnour. At one stage the latter threatened that ere they reached Sittingbourne he would make the Friar's " heart lor to mourn; " but the worthy Host intervened and patched up a

52

THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES

again over a temporary peace. Unfortunately trouble broke out very curious dispute in this way.

square

At one point of the journey the road lay along two sides of a field, and some of the pilgrims persisted, in spite of trespass,

illustration.

in cutting across from corner to corner, as they are seen to be

Now, the Friar startled the company by was no need for the trespass, since one way " On my faith, was exactly the same distance as the other then," exclaimed the Sompnour, " thou art a very fool " " Nay,"

doing in the

stating that there

I

!

**replied the Friar, "
**

shall presently

if

the

company

will

but

listen

show how that thou

art the fool,

with patience, I for thou hast not

wit enough in thy poor brain to prove that the diagonal of any square is less than two of the sides."

If

will

the reader will refer to the diagrams that we have given, he be able to follow the Friar's argument. If we suppose the

:

**THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES
**

side of the field to be ioo yards, then the distance along the

sides,

53

two

200 yards. He undertook to prove that the diagonal distance direct from A to C is also 200 yards. Now, if we take the diagonal path shown in Fig. 1, it is evident that we go the 6ame distance, for every one of the eight straight portions of this path measures exactly 25 yards. Similarly in Fig. 2, the zigzag contains ten straight portions, each 20 yards long that path is also the same length 200 yards. No matter how many steps we make in our zigzag path, the result is most certainly

to B, and

to C,

is

A

B

—

always the same. Thus, in Fig. 3 the steps are very small, yet the distance must be 200 yards as is also the case in Fig. 4, and would yet be if we needed a microscope to detect the steps. In this way, the Friar argued, we may go on straightening out that zigzag path until we ultimately reach a perfectly straight line, and it therefore follows that the diagonal of a square is of exactly the same length as two of the sides. Now, in the face of it, this must be wrong ; and it is in fact absurdly so, as we can at once prove by actual measurement if we

;

Being a mathemaand a man of a thoughtful habit. " Thou lookest as thou wouldst find a hare. if some of the other pilgrims had not interposed the two would have undoubtedly come to-day when we get entangled in to blows. Chaucer's Puzzle. 29. he utterly lost his temper and resorted to abuse. intended to ridicule the popular romances of the day. this that so exasperated him. In fact. he tells us. and so upset the Friar's reasoning. the Host made fun of him. It is an interesting fact that in the " Parson's Prologue " Chaucer actually . point out the fallacy. Chaucer himself accompanied the pilgrims. like many of us an argument. The reader will perhaps at once see the flaw in the Friar's argument. after twenty-two stanzas of which the company refused to hear any more. him was and consequently. For ever on the ground I see thee stare. and induced him to start another tale in prose." The poet replied to the request for a tale by launching into a long-spun-out and ridiculous tician h^^ lV&*> poem.54 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES Yet the Sompnour could not for the life of It have any doubt. saying.

: In modern English this reads somewhat as follows " The sun from the south line was descended so low that it was that not to it my sight more than twenty-nine degrees. a mug will hold less liquor at the top of this mountain than in the valley beneath. correct to a minute. and the one he propounded was the following. quoth he. He showed them the diamond-shaped arrangement ! ' . he was asked to entertain the pilgrims with a puzzle. ' This person joined the party on the road. as stated Though Chaucer made this little puzzle No. for. The Puzzle of the Canon's Yeoman. a little more or less. and finds that the local time was 3. my shadow was eleven feet. mountain in his country. I calculate was four o'clock. as he did show me. I did lord go into Italy as the envoy of our sovereign King Edward the Third. To ride among this merry company/ " Of course. he did not venture to propound it to his fellow-pilgrims. At the same moment the moon's altitude (she being in mid-Libra) was steadily increasing as we entered at the west end of the village. ' this jolly company for your sake.58 p. 23. 30. assuming my height to be six feet.. This speaks well for Chaucer's accuracy." A correspondent has taken the trouble to work this out. Because I would I might you overtake. " God save/ Fast have I ridden/ saith he.— — 55 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES introduces a little astronomical problem. and while there did visit Francesco Petrarch.m. : in the year 1372. for the tells first line of the Tales us that the pilgrimage was in April set out —they in are supposed to have on 17th April 1387. kind altogether it may be called a geographical one. that learned poet did take me to the top of a certain Of a truth. and recorded it for the interest of his readers. modern style. The puzzle that he gave them was of a simpler " When. and that the day of the year was the 22nd or 23rd of April. Prythee tell me what mountain this may be that has so strange a property withal/' A very elementary knowledge of geography will suffice for arriving at the correct answer.

The Manciple coming upon the scene asked permission to eat with them. only the successive letters in any reading must always adjoin one another. Was I " In it how many I different a rat saw " You may go backwards and forwards. ways canst thou read the words.56 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES accompanying ' of letters presented in the illustration. do call it the rat-catcher's riddle.— The Manciple's Puzzle. and ? ' said. Yet he was a man " whom purchasers might take as an example How to be wise in buying of their victual.' It happened that at a certain stage of the journey the Miller and the Weaver sat down to a light repast. in any direction 31. When and the Manciple had fed he laid down eight pieces of money said with a sly smile. and made fools of them all. who accompanied the party was a wily man who had more than thirty masters." . Tis a riddle for thy wits. to which they agreed. The Miller produced five loaves and the Weaver three. The Manciple was an officer who had the care of buying victuals The particular individual for an Inn of Court—like the Temple. upwards or downwards. " Settle betwixt yourselves how the money shall be fairly divided.

until it was finally decided that the Manciple. and many of the pilgrims joined in it. as an expert in such matters. .THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 57 A discussion followed. the Monk. What was it ? Of course. and the Cook money should be divided equally between the two Various other opinions were urged with considerable vigour. His decision was quite insisted that the men. all three are supposed to have eaten equal shares of the bread. while the Carpenter. correct. should himself settle the point. the simple Ploughman was ridiculed for suggesting that the Miller should receive seven and the Weaver only one. The Reve and the Sompnour held that the Miller should receive five pieces and the Weaver three.

or goff (the game so well known to-day by special favourite the name of golf). 32. declared on one occasion. therefore. and while the majority will be found sufficiently easy to interest those who like a puzzle that is a puzzle. but well within the scope of all. The selection has been made to suit all tastes. and of the quaint customs and ceremonies that obtained there in the olden times. a source of particular satisfaction that the recent discovery of some ancient rolls and documents mainly to the family of De Fortibus enables me to place before my readers a few of the posers that racked people's brains in the good old days.Everybody that has heard of Solvamhall Castle. I wot not the riddle that he may not rede withal. cambuc. " By the bones of Saint Jingo. Bandy-ball. 58 and was a . is familiar with the fact that Sir Hugh de Fortibus was a lover of all Sir Robert de Riddlesdale himself kinds of puzzles and enigmas. this Sir Hugh hath a sharp wit." relating It is. The Game of Bandy -Ball. Certes. two that I have included may perhaps be found worthy of engaging the attention of the more advanced student of these things. is of great antiquity.

Can the reader get round in fewer strokes with two other distances ? . and 400 yards apart. Seated one night in the hall of the castle." Two very good distances are 125 and 75. The object was to ride swiftly some eighty paces and run the lance through the ring. Each had his rings made into a chain De Gournay's chain being exactly sixteen inches in length. which carry you round in 28 strokes. and at the end of a hanging supporter was placed a circular ring. what would the two distances be that would carry him in the least number of strokes round the whole course ? " Beshrew me. as shown in the above illustrated By raising or lowering the bar the ring could be adjusted to title. and Malet's six inches. The Noble Demoiselle. 200." Sir Hugh would say. the proper height generally about the level of the left eyebrow of the horseman. 350. Sir Hugh desired the company to fill their cups and listen while he told the tale of his . the little puzzle proposed by Sir Hugh was to discover just how many rings each man had won. 375. At one tournament at the castle Henry de Gournay beat Stephen Malet by six rings. and he once proposed this question. A horizontal bar was fixed in a post. so that it would either go towards the hole. but this is not the correct answer. Now. " if I know any who could do it in this perfect way albeit. 325. 33. 300. If a man could always strike the ball in a perfectly straight line and send it exactly one of two distances. 225. It was a very difficult feat. 250. and remained on the lance as the property of the skilful winner. — — 34.— — PUZZLING TIMES AT SOLVAMHALL CASTLE at Solvamhall Castle. or drop into it. as the rings were all of the same size and made of metal half an inch thick. and men were not unnaturally proud of the rings they had succeeded in capturing. pass over it. 275. 59 of the Sir Hugh de Fortibus was himself a master game. Another favourite sport at the castle was tilting at the ring. They had nine holes. the point is a pretty one. Tilting at the Ring. which was easily detached.

but was prepared in The butt or . not even ^r -* J. you were bound to end at the cell that was sought.-1-j 1 Sir Hugh then produced a plan of the thirty-five cells in the dungeon and asked his companions to discover the particular cell that the demoiselle occupied. " Twas marvellous valiant " ! But Sir Hugh said. all exclaimed. and once only. he related the final escape from all the dangers and horrors of the great Death's-head Dungeon with the fair but unconscious maiden in his arms. " to save my would never have turned from body from the bernicles. 35. target used in archeiy at Solvamhall was not marked out in concentric rings as at the present da3V'. Can you find the cell ? Unless you start at the correct outside cell it is impossible to pass through all the doorways once and once only." I my purpose. The Archery Butt. and when father's greatest enemy. Try tracing out the route with your pencil.— 60 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES adventure as a youth in rescuing from captivity a noble demoiselle who was languishing in the dungeon of the castle belonging to his The story was a thrilling one. He said that if you started at one of the outside cells and passed through every doorway once.

In the illustration himself. Half the lines are. but. on the sides. because it will be found that he has so cleverly arranged the numbers that every one of the twelve lines of three adds up to exactly twenty-two. by my faith. 61 shown a numbered target something of a curiosity. of course. I know ho. . not any forth. so that the twelve lines thereof shall make twenty and three instead of twenty and two/' To rearrange the numbers one to nineteen so that all the twelve lines shall add up to twenty-three will be found a fascinating puzzle. and the others radiate from the centre. It is prepared by Sir Hugh is One day.PUZZLING TIMES AT SOLVAMHALL CASTLE fanciful designs. ! Hugh de Fortibus said. when the Sir it archers were a little tired of their sport. " What is said that a fool's bolt is merry archers Of a truth soon shot. man among you who shall do that which I will Let these numbers that are upon the butt be set now put down afresh.

I trow thou art but a sorry craftsman if thou canst not. " let it be done forthwith." " Truly. Sir Hugh." " Of a truth that is so. whose sides shall be all equal." " Then I desire that another window be made higher up whose on the inside. but it shall be divided by bars into eight lights." It will be noticed that Sir Hugh ignores the thickness of the bars. and is divided by the narrow bars into four lights. " yon window square. and measures." said the bewildered chief builder. On He one occasion Sir Hugh greatly perplexed his chiel builder. measuring half a foot on every side. set such a window in a keep wall." said he. " Methinks. not it ! how may . " I know be done. took this worthy man to the walls of the donjon keep and is pointed to a window there. Sir Hugh.62 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 36. The Donjon Keep Window. four sides shall also be each one foot. forsooth. one foot every way." " By my halidame " exclaimed De Fortibus in pretended rage.

It was noticed that De Fortibus spent much time in examining this crescent and comparing it with the cross borne by the Crusaders on theif own banners. 7 " It is certainly rather curious. a sign that bodes good Holy Land. of the conversion of the crescent to the cross. One day. and this has led me to the : m a finding of matters at which I marvel greatly. for that which I shall now make known in a is mystical and deep. he^hade the following striking announcement " I have thought much of late. When Sir Hugh's kinsman. as shown in the illustration. and I show how the conversion from crescent to cross may be made in ten . friends and masters. 63 The Crescent and the Cross." Sir Hugh de Fortibus then explained that the crescent in one banner might be cut into pieces that would exactly form the perfect cross in the other.PUZZLING TIMES AT SOLVAMHALL CASTLE 37. in the presence of a goodly company. of the dream that this crescent Truly it was shown to me enemy may be exactly converted Herein is into the cross of our for our wars in the own banner. he brought with him a flag bearing the sign of a crescent. came back from the Holy Land. Sir John de Collingham.

" show me the true intent of A o o o c o ~ Arx Ar. 38. the toothache. he sent for a learned priest.— 64 pieces. Sir Clerk. The Amulet A strange man was one day found loitering in the courtyard of the castle. A~ A D A r." said " Then give the varlet food and raiment and set him on his " Meanwhile. using THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES every part of the crescent. " it is but an amulet that this poor wight doth wear upon his breast to ward off the ague. . and. after he had spoken in a foreign tongue with the stranger." " Sir Hugh. He ordered the varlet to be removed and examined. who could make nothing of him. bearing this mysterious inscription : AAAAAAAA^ BBBBBBBBB R R R R R R R R R R AAAAAAAAAAA To-day we know that Abracadabra was the supreme deity of the Assyrians. But Sir Hugh had never heard of it. and such other afflictions of the body. and this curious arrangement of the letters of the word was commonly worn in Europe as an amulet or charm against diseases. regarding the document rather seriously. All they found was a piece of parchment securely suspended from the neck. suspected him of being a spy. A D D D D D ^ D ^ AAA B B R R R A this strange writing. in order to discover whether any secret letters were concealed about him. canst thou tell me in Sir Hugh. and the retainers. noticing that his speech had a foreign accent." way. " I pray you. The flag was alike on both sides." replied the holy man. so pieces may be turned over where required. So the fellow was brought before Sir Hugh. Sir Clerk." said he.

077) . It The Snail on if the Flagstaff. It is curious to find in the Solvamhall records our familiar friend the climbing snail puzzle. always ' passing from a letter to an adjoining one. On the occasion of some great rejoicings at the Castle. we could trace back to their Some of them would be found to have been first propounded in very ancient times. 39. Sir Hugh 5 (2. would often be interesting origin many of the best known puzzles. and it will be seen that in its modern form it has lost its original lost their original point subtlety. always starting from the A at the top thereof ? Place your pencil on the A at the top and count in how many different ways you can trace out the word downwards.— PUZZLING TIMES AT SOLVAMHALL CASTLE how many ways this ' 65 word Abracadabra may be read on the " amulet. and there can be very little doubt that while a certain number may have improved with age. others will have deteriorated and even and bearing.

" this snail to get " Then. " there is no need to measure the staff. " tell us how many days it will take from the bottom to the top of the pole. Sir Knight. I much marvel if the same can be done unless we take down and measure the staff." " By bread and water.— 66 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES flying of flags was superintending the and banners. pointed out that a wandering snail was climbing up the One wise old fellow said : " They do say." " Credit me." Can the reader give the answer to this version of a puzzle that we all know so well ? ." replied Sir Hugh. albeit I hold such stories as mere fables. that the snail doth climb upwards three feet in the daytime." replied the knight. when somebody flagstaff. but slippeth back two feet by night.

Hugh's young kinswoman and ward.— PUZZLING TIMES AT SOLVAMHALL CASTLE 40. and no two pieces of the same size. When young men sued for the hand of Lady Isabel. . Many young men failed. and the rest of the surface was exactly inlaid with pieces of wood. ten inches by J-inch . absolutely determine the size of the top of the casket. each piece being a perfect square. was : other conditions. 67 Lady Isabel's Casket. combined with those Sir arnulph. but the dimensions of that strip of gold. ten inches long by a quarter of an inch wide. but one at length succeeded. and a strip of gold in shape. the top of which was perfectly square It was inlaid with pieces of wood." Amongst her treasures was a casket. The puzzle is not an easy one. Lady Isabel de Fitzknown far and wide as " Isabel the Fair. Sir Hugh promised his consent to the one who would tell him the dimensions that there was a of the top of the box from these facts alone rectangular strip of gold.

" " enigma. and as I have shown above." quoth the Lord Abbot. did not occur in their vocabulary.^H^S *•* t . near a sacred spring known as the Red-hill Well." no matter whether it took the form of " Where was Moses when the light went out ? " or the Squaring of It the Circle. in the case of the Abbot this passion was strong kind. mathematical. even in death. This became in the vernacular Reddlewell and Riddlewell. but alas — — ! away the life of the jovial and greatly beloved Abbot of the old monastery of Riddlewell." They were accustomed to etc.. The monks of Riddlewell Abbey were noted in their day for the quaint enigmas and puzzles that they were in the habit of propounding. On one of the walls in the refectory were inscribed . as he lay a-dying." " problem. " Friar Andrew. or mechanical It grew into an absorbing passion with them. Thus passed Abbot's lips. no matter whether they happened to be of a metaphysical. and under the Lord Abbot David the monks evidently tried to justify the latter form by the riddles they propounded so well. " methinks I could now rede thee the riddle of riddles an I had the time and " The good friar put his ear close to the holy they were silenced for ever. The solving of puzzles became the favourite recreation. call every poser a " riddle. ^mW T^^Qup^i?^iztz% ahd Enigmas. would seem that the words " puzzle. philosophical. The Abbey was built in the fourteenth century.

and I propose to select those that seem most interesting. undoubtedly. when they had had very bad luck and only caught twelve fishes amongst them. I shall try to make the conditions of the puzzles perfectly clear. decision. the puzzle genius of the monastery. so that the modern reader in trying to find may fully understand them. of the solutions. and the rule was that each monk in turn should propose some riddle weekly to the community. The Riddle the At the bottom of the Abbey meads was a small fish-pond where monks used to spend many a contemplative hour with rod and line." to remind the brethren of what was expected of them. the others being always free to cap it with another if disposed to do so. of the Fish-pond. Brother Jonathan suddenly declared . One day. Abbot David was.— THE MERRY MONKS OF RIDDLEWELL the words of Samson. and everybody naturally bowed to his Only a few of the Abbey riddles have been preserved. and be amused some 41. " I will 69 now put forth a riddle to you.

pass it over two other fishes. nor how many empty baskets you pass. " rede me this riddle of the and placed them Twelve Fishes. gentle anglers. the Abbot announced that a messenger had that morning brought news that a number of pilgrims were on the road and would require their hospitality. And. when the monks were seated at their repast. Go on again . and. and when these have been placed. from which it will be seen that the sixteen rooms are approached by a well staircase in the centre. having passed that also over two fishes. After the monks had solved this little problem and arranged for " You will . There must be eleven persons sleeping on each side of the building. One day. put them." he said. Six fishes only are to be removed. and you know my rule that not more than three persons may occupy the same room. " in the square dormitory that has two floors with eight rooms on each floor. " Now. take up one fish. and six baskets empty. and place it in the next basket. take up another single fish. . as shown in our illustration. you must always go in one direction round the pond (without any doubling back) and end at the spot from which you set out. place it in a basket and so continue your journey. Start at any basket you like. there should be two fishes in each of six baskets. He thereupon took twelve fish baskets at equal distances round the pond. always going in one direction round the pond. The Riddle of the Pilgrims. Which of you merry wights will do this in such a manner that you shall go " round the pond as few times as possible ? I will explain to the reader that it does not matter whether the two fishes that are passed over are in one or two baskets. 42.— 70 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES that as there was no sport that day he would put forth a riddle for their entertainment. and. and twice as many on the upper floor as on the lower floor." said he." I give a plan of the two floors. Of course every room must be occupied. as Brother Jonathan said. with one fish in each basket.

THE MERRY MONKS OF RIDDLEWELL the accommodation. and the Star) but plain tiles were also available. the Lion. Eight Rooms on Lower Floor. " I trow. Let these . that a riddle day. it was decided to put down new tiles. without any plain tiles at all. When these became cracked and burnt with the heat of the great fire. It The Riddle of the Tiled Hearth. of this puzzle to discover the number 43. 71 when it was found that stated. Eight Rooms on Upper Floor. the pilgrims arrived. which had to be selected from four different patterns (the Cross. Listen. my Lord Abbot. to that is required of me this which I shall put forth. but the wily monks Plan of Dormitory." Yet it was a simple enough little puzzle. succeeded in getting over the new difficulty without breaking the is Abbot's total rules. where they burnt their Yule logs and round which they had such merry carousings. The curious point of pilgrims. the Fleur-de-lys. was floored with sixteen large ornamental tiles. then. The Abbot proposed that they should be laid as shown in our sketch. Brother Richard broke in. The square hearth. but seems that it . was Friar Andrew who first managed to " rede the riddle of the Tiled Hearth. they were three more in number than was at first This necessitated a reconsideration of the question.

The Riddle of the Sack Wine. too many 44. . of course.72 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES sixteen tiles be so placed that no tile shall be in line with another oi " (he meant. at table. I fill the glass with the mixture from the jug and pour it back into the bottle holding . or diagonally) —" and in such manner that as few plain tiles as possible be required/ ' When the monks handed hit in their plans upon the correct answer. It is this." said he. for I cannot rede it myself. even Friar Richard himself being wrong. All had used it was found that only Friar Andrew had plain tiles. when seated of him. Mark me take a glass of sack from this bottle that contains a pint of wine and pour it into that jug which contains a pint of water. not in line horizontally. " I am no good at the making of riddles. the same design — vertically. Brother upon by the Abbot to give the riddle that Benjamin was called was that day demanded "Forsooth. but I have been teasing my poor brain as thou knowest full well over a matter that I trust some among you will expound to me. One evening. Now.

and restored good feeling all round. have I taken more wine from the bottle than water from the jug ? Or have I taken more water from the " jug than wine from the bottle ? I gather that the monks got nearer to a great quarrel over this little poser than had ever happened before. The Riddle of the Cellarer. as the ruddy-faced Cellarer . He ordered him to be brought in.THE MERRY MONKS OF RIDDLEWELL the sack." said the Abbot." while another noisily insisted that depended on the shape of the glass and the age of the wine. showed them what a simple question it really was. 73 Pray tell me. But the Lord Abbot intervened. 45. " Now. and said that this incident brought to his mind the painful fact that John the Cellarer had LULU I been caught robbing the cask of best Malvoisie that was reserved for special occasions. Then Abbot David looked grave. varlet. forgot himself as to tell his neighbour that " his pate it all One brother so far more wine had got into than wit came out of it.

" in a pint of water in its stead . his knees. the monks ? There no punishment for his sad fault. and I have taken me a pint every day this month of June it being to-day the thirtieth thereof and if my Lord Abbot can tell me to a nicety how much good wine I have taken in all. let him punish me as he will. that is thirty pints." 1 " — Why. But on the way a stranger took up arms and joined them. ! " I put It is a curious fact that this is the only riddle in the old record Is is it possible that it proved merely the note. Pray tell me. falling on " Of a truth. and they were then able to form exactly thirteen smaller squares. and such was their number that they were able to form themselves into a square. ! and the cask was so handy. forgive me " he cried. the Evil One did come and tempt me. nay for each time I drew a pint out of the cask. What " hast thou to say for thyself ? " Prithee. Towards the close of a sumptuous repast he spoke as follows " My Lord Abbot. by your leave. " thou knowest that thou wast taken this morn- came ing in the act of stealing good wine that was forbidden thee." " Nay. A body of Crusaders went forth to fight the good cause. my Lord Abbot. On another occasion a certain knight. The Riddle of the Crusaders. Sir Ralph de Bohun. I will. put forth one that was told unto me in foreign lands. " John that is not accompanied too hard a nut for suffered by its solution. and the wine was so good withal.74 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES before him." 46. and " Rascal How much that but maketh thy fault the worse — — ! ! wine hast thou taken ? " Alack-a-day There were a hundred pints in the cask at the start. knowing full well that riddles are greatly to thy liking. knave. merry monks. how many men went forth to battle ? " : . was a guest of the monks at Riddlewell Abbey. and and I had drunk of it ofttimes without being found out.

The monks gave up this answer next morning.111 mice. and the total was exactly How many cats do you suppose there were ? " 1.— THE MERRY MONKS OF RIDDLEWELL Abbot David pushed aside a few hasty calculations. But which if." said he at length. 18 by 18. and afterwards who would make a square 325 men would make 13 squares of 25 Crusaders each. In the first 75 his plate of warden pie. 111. of you can tell me how many men there would have been instead of 13. but the Abbot showed them the 47. " the riddle place there were 324 men. . and at the end of the year it was found that every cat had killed an equal number of mice. is easy to rede. The Riddle of St. Edmondsbury. A record was kept. Edtnondsbury. they had been able to form " 113 squares under exactly the like conditions ? riddle." said Father Peter on one occasion. and made " Sir Knight. " It used to be told at St. " that many years ago they were so overrun with mice that the good abbot gave orders that all the cats from the country round should be obtained to exterminate the vermin.

" perchance 1. but it is not shown how they 48. who." persisted Benjamin.111 cats I each killed one mouse.76 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES " Methinks one cat killed the lot. never before or .111. then. " I said mice ' and all I need add is this that each cat killed more mice than there were cats." replied Father Peter." " No. They told me it was ' . brother I said ' cats." said Brother Benjamin. after the monks' jovial laughter had ended. is recorded.' " Well. The Riddle of the Frogs' Ring. curiously enough. to be engraved with the name of the monk who should put forth the best new riddle. This tournament of wit was won by Brother Benedict. — merely a question of the division of numbers. One Christmas the Abbot offered a prize of a large black jack mounted in silver." The correct answer arrived at it. but I know not the answer to the riddle. " " Out upon thee.

They may move in any order one step at a time. or jumping over one of the opposite colour to the place beyond. The only other condition is that when all the frogs have changed sides. in which twelve discs of wood (called " frogs ") were placed in the order shown in our illustration.THE MERRY MONKS OF RIDDLEWELL after 77 ol his brethren. The puzzle was to perform the feat in as few moves as possible. How many moves are necessary I will ? : conclude in the words of the old writer " These be some of the riddles which the monks of Riddlewell did set forth and expound each to the others in the merry days of the good Abbot David." A ring was made with chalk on the floor of the nail. just as we play draughts to-day. the 1 must be where the 12 now is and the 12 in the place now occupied by 1. and divided into thirteen compartments." . and the black ones the opposite way. and vice versa. The white frogs move round in one direction. gave out anything that did not excite the ridicule It was called the " Frogs' Ring. The puzzle was to get all the white numbers where the black ones were. The numbers 1 to 6 were painted white and the numbers 7 to 12 black. one place being left vacant.

**THE STRANGE ESCAPE OF THE
**

KING'S JESTER.

A PUZZLING ADVENTURE.

I was greatly in favour with the king, and his Majesty never seemed to weary of the companionship of the court I had a gift for making riddles and quaint puzzles which fool. ofttimes caused great sport ; for albeit the king never found the right answer of one of these things in all his life, yet would he make merry at the bewilderment of those about him. But let every cobbler stick unto his last for when I did set out to learn the art of performing strange tricks in the magic, wherein

;

At one time

the hand doth ever deceive the eye, the king was affrighted, and

did accuse me of being a wizard, even commanding that I should be put to death. Luckily my wit did save my life. I begged that I might be slain by the royal hand and not by that of the executioner.

"

By

**the saints," said his Majesty, " what difference can
**

thee

?

it

make unto

" Your

kill

But

kill

since

it is

thy wish, thou shalt have thy

choice whether I

thee or the executioner." Majesty," I answered, " I accept the choice that thou

hast so graciously offered to

me

:

I

prefer that your Majesty should

the executioner."

Yet

it

is

the

life

**of a royal jester beset with great dangers,
**

it

king having once gotten

**into his royal head that
**

fell

I

and the was a wizard,

was not long before

I

again

into trouble, from which

my

wit

did not a second time in a like

way

78

save me.

I

was

cast into the

**STRANGE ESCAPE OF THE
**

dungeon to await

KING'S JESTER

of

79

my

death.

**How, by the help
**

I

my

gift in

I will

answering riddles and puzzles,

did escape from captivity

now

set forth

;

and

in case

it

doth perplex any to know how some

of the strange feats were performed, I will hereafter

make

the

manner

thereof plain to

all.

49.

The Mysterious Rope.

My dungeon did not lie beneath the moat, but was in one of the most high parts of the castle. So stout was the door, and so well locked and secured withal, that escape that way was not to be found. By hard work I did, after many days, remove one of the bars from the narrow window, and was able to crush my body through the opening but the distance to the courtyard below was so exceeding great that it was certain death to drop thereto. Yet by great good fortune did I find in the corner of the cell a rope that had been there left and lay hid in the great darkness. But this rope had not length enough, and to drop in safety from the end was nowise pos;

.

sible.

Then did

I

remember how the wise

man from

off

Ireland did lengthen the blanket

**that wis too short for
**

to the top.

him by cutting a yard

it on So I made haste to divide the rope in half and to tie the two parts thereof together again. It was then full long, and did reach th~ ground, and I went down in safety. How could this have been ?

the bottom of the same and joining

50.

**The Underground Maze.
**

of the

The only way out

yard that

I

now was

in

was to descend

a few stairs that led up into the centre (A) of an underground

8o

**THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES
**

I

I

**maze, through the winding of which take my leave by the door (B). But
**

great darkness of this dreadful place

I

must pass before

I

could

knew

full well

that in the

might well wander for hours and yet return to the place from which I set out. How was I then

? With a plan of the maze it is but a simple matter to trace out the route, but how was the way to be found in the place itself in utter darkness ?

to reach the door with certainty

51.

**The Secret Lock.
**

it

When

I

did at last reach the door

was

fast closed,

and on

sliding a panel set before

a grating the

light that

came

it

in thereby

**showed unto me that
**

lock.

ful to place the

my

passage was barred by the king's secret

Before the handle of the door might be turned,

was need-

hands of three several dials in their proper places. If you but knew the proper letter for each dial, the secret was of a truth to your hand but as ten letters were upon the face of every dial, you might try nine hundred and ninety-nine times and only succeed on the thousandth attempt withal. If I was indeed to escape I must waste not a moment. Now, once had I heard the learned monk who did invent the lock say that he feared that the king's servants, having such bad

;

—

STRANGE ESCAPE OF THE

KING'S JESTER

;

81

memories, would mayhap forget the right letters so perchance, thought I, he had on this account devised some way to aid their memories. And what more natural than to make the letters

form some word ? I soon found a word that was English, made of three letters one letter being on each of the three dials. After that I had pointed the hands properly to the letters the door opened and I passed out. What was the secret word ?

—

52.

Crossing the Moat.

I was now face to face with the castle moat, which was, indeed, very wide and very deep. Alas ! I could not swim, and my chance of escape seemed of a truth hopeless, as, doubtless, it would have been had I not espied a boat tied to the wall by a rope. But after I had got into it I did find that the oars had been taken away, and

(2,077)

6

82

**THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES
**

I

**that there was nothing that
**

I

**could use to row
**

off

me

across.

When

had untied the rope and pushed

upon the water the boat lay

quite

still,

there being no stream or current to help me.

How,

then, did I

yet take the boat across the

moat

?

53.

The Royal Gardens.

It was now daylight, and still had I to pass through the royal gardens outside of the castle walls. These gardens had once been laid out by an old king's gardener, who had become bereft of his They were senses, but was allowed to amuse himself therein. square, and divided into 16 parts by high walls, as shown in the

plan thereof, so that there were openings from one garden to an-

but escape unobserved. to slip with agility from one garden to another. as I had sprained an ankle in leaving the garden. so that I might not s i — 1 1 -+4-+1 1 be seen. but only 83 ways of entrance. I had as there were gardeners two different . but afterwards remembered that I had of a truth entered every one of the 16 gardens once. Now. it was needbut ful that I enter at the gate A and leave by the other gate B going and coming about their work. I Bridging the Ditch. Looking around for something to help me over my difficulty. indeed. and never more than once. but I had a deep ditch before I might get quite forgot that I must yet cross right away. I did succeed in so doing. I a free man.STRANGE ESCAPE OF THE KING'S JESTER other. and I durst not attempt to jump it. How might it have been done ? 54. This ditch was 10 feet wide. This was. a curious thing. I soon now did truly think that at last was .

I was never restored to that full favour that was once my joy and pride. which more than one hath deemed to be of a truth wonderful. indeed. with which I soon succeeded in placing myself out of all fear of capiuic. but because a . and the planks were each no more than 9 feet long. I am now an aged man. and have not quite lost all my taste thereby. With these alone. crafty matters is And I do hold that the study of such is good.84 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES found eight narrow planks of wood lying together in a heap. I did at last manage to make a bridge across the ditch. mayhap. though. and. Through the goodly offices of divers persons at the king's court did at length obtain the royal pardon. How was this done ? Being now free I did hasten to the house of a friend who pro- vided me with a horse and a disguise. I I been asked by many that do know me to them the strange manner of my escape. albeit the feat was nothing astonishing withal if we do but remember that from my youth upwards I had trained my wit to the making and answer- Ofttimes have set forth to ing of cunning enigmas. help him out of many difficulties. not alone for the pleasure that created man may never be sure that in some sudden and untoward difficulty that may beset him in passing through this life of ours such strange learning may not serve his ends greatly.

never have I found making out the answers to any of these things than I had in mastering them that did enable me. 85 and conceits but. to gain my freedom from the castle dungeon and greater pleasure in so save my life. of a truth. as the king's jester in disgrace. .STRANGE ESCAPE OF THE KING'S JESTER for quaint puzzles .

and particularly in his own home. festive style that our grandfathers and great-grandfathers so dearly loved. rollicking. in Somerset. his fame extended to Exmoor and splendid riding in pursuit of the red deer had excited the admiration and envy of innumerable younger huntsmen. A born itself. . my lads. of Stoke Courcy Hall. and rare jovial humour made him the idol of his friends and even of his relations. I must confine myself in this sketch to one special feature in the Squire's round of jollification during of Merrie name at Stoke Courcy the season of peace and good will. But it was in his own parish. where his daring — : England. it was on the question of keeping up in a royal fashion the great festival of Yule-tide. it will be unnecessary for me to attempt a description. there were few men in the west country more widely known and more generally respected and Squire Davidge. for if there was one thing more than another upon which Squire Davidge had very pronounced views. which sometimes means a good deal." he would say to his sons "our country will begin to fall on evil days if ever we grow indifferent to the claims of those Christmas festivities that have helped to win us the proud beloved than he. that his genial hospitality. generosity. when I say that Christmas was kept up in the good old happy. We have a faithful picture of these merry scenes in the Bracebridge Hall of Washington Irving.THE A SQUIRE'S CHRISTMAS PUZZLE PARTY fine specimen of the old English country gentleman was last When the century was yet in its youth." Therefore. " Hark ye. sportsman. At Christmas it was always an open house at Stoke Courcy Hall.

the conditions of which I think it best to give mainly in my own words for the sake of greater clearness. and he offered to give proof of the fact to the company. beyond a way of doing it. The little record is written in the neat angular hand of a young lady of that day. brain-racker. delightful inconsequence our fair historian records with " This Miss Charity Lockyer has since been married to a curate from Taunton Vale " placed three empty : One young lady —of whom — teacups on a table. The old gentleman always presented a new watch to the guest who was most successful in his answers. propounded on one occasion. . SQUIRE'S CHRISTMAS PUZZLE PARTY 87 took a curious and intelligent interest in puzzles of every and there was always one night devoted to what was known as " Squire Davidge's Puzzle Party. It is a pity that all the puzzles were not preserved but I propose to present to my readers a few selected from a number that have passed down to a surviving member of the family. declared with some heat that. and one hard . and the puzzles.— THE He kind." Every guest was expected to come armed with some riddle or puzzle for the bewilderment and possible delectation of the company. There are some very easy ones. there was no possible to see his face when he was shown Miss Charity's correct answer. " One young man. The Three Teacups. appear to have been all 55. a few that are moderately difficult. so all should be able to find something to their taste. studying the law. who has been to Oxford University. and challenged anybody to put ten lumps of sugar in them so that there would be an odd number of lumps in every cup. who has kindly allowed me to use them on this occasion." It must have been interesting is and doubt.

as he conwas sure the man knew how to make a good This is the report that Jabez made. add four coins and leave nine. answer hereof. and he passed the coins to the company. there must needs be ten pennies at the left. which might puzzle some readers . telling sidered best. from which it is probable that several somewhat similar modern ones have been Farmer Rouse sent his man to market with a flock of derived Squire Hembrow. We could not but think We were a good deal amused Geese.' — 88 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 56. it him that he might sell all or any of them. A guest asked some one to favour him with eleven pennies. for he bargain. though I have taken out of the old Somerset dialect. The Christmas wherever that may proposed the following little arithmetical puzzle. as depicted in our illustration. from Weston Zoyland — be — : geese. The writer says " He then requested us to remove five coins from : the eleven.' 57. The Eleven Pennies.

Widow but Foster a quarter of what remained and three-quarters of a goose over .— THE in a SQUIRE'S CHRISTMAS not desired. on the part of Major With a piece of chalk . and gave him a fifth of a goose over for the missus. Jasper Tyler then I sold Farmer Avent half of the flock and half a goose oVeSf a third of what remained and a third of a goose over then I sold way . where I sold him exactly a fifth of what I had left. how many geese did Farmer Rouse send to market ? My humane readers may be relieved to know that no goose was divided or put to any inconvenience whatever by the sales. first of all I sold Mr. jest " We laughed greatly at a pretty Trenchard. and as I was coming home. a merry friend of the Squire's. : 58. 89 " Well. The Chalked Numbers. PUZZLE PARTY . whom should I meet Ned Collier so we had a mug of cider together at the Barley Mow." Now. These nineteen that I have brought back I couldn't get rid of at any price.

I. " Everybody.— go THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES he marked a different number on the backs of eight lads who were Then. It will be seen that the numbers of the left-hand group add up to 10. 59. as I suppose. knows well that the number of different Christmas plum puddings that you taste will bring you . & a q a a ® q a a a a a a a a a g m a a a a a a q % a a a'% q & Tasting the Plum Puddings. 3. it seems. and 5. as at the party/' shown in the illustration. but the Major explained that the numbers were quite correct if properly regarded. 2. while the numbers in the other group add up to 29. he divided them in two groups. 9 on the other. 4 being on one side. 7. The Squire's niece asked if the 5 should not be a 6. so that the four numbers in each group should add up alike. 8. The Major's puzzle was to rearrange the eight boys in two new groups.

but not diagonally or obliquely. he was an exceedingly melancholy man. one widower and three widows. and rather would appear that the puddings were arranged regularly. " At the party was a widower who has but lately come into these parts.THE the same SQUIRE'S CHRISTMAS PUZZLE PARTY 91 (and his of paper number of lucky days in the new year. Other maids beside were in a like way shocked. I would not have suffered any one to kiss me in that manner had I known that so unfair a watch was being kept. to fully understand this fanciful But it 60. You can go up or down or horizontally. to be sure." But it seems that the melancholy widower was merely collecting material for the . and he said the puzzle was an allegory of a sort." I fail as much dispatch overstrained view of the puzzle. as Betty Marchant has since told me." says the record " and. as that would imply a second and unnecessary tasting of those indigestible dainties. You have simply to put the point of your pencil on the pudding in the top corner. One of the guests name has escaped my memory) brought with him a sheet on which were drawn sixty-four puddings. twelve bachelors The company . and he intended to show how we might manage our pudding-tasting with as possible. and strike out all the sixty-four puddings through their centres in twenty-one straight strokes. and you must never strike out a pudding twice. as I have shown them in the illustration. Truly. But the peculiar part of the thing is that you are required to taste the pudding that is seen steaming hot at the end of your tenth stroke. bearing a sprig of holly. Under the Mistletoe Bough. anji to taste the one decked with holly in the bottom row the very last of all. and that to strike out a pudding was to indicate that it had been duly tasted. following little osculatory problem. consisted of the Squire and his wife and six other married couples. We afterwards heard that he had been keeping a secret account of all the kisses that were given and received under the mistletoe bough. for he did sit away from the company during the most part of the evening.

kiss anybody. I think. that every kiss — 61. assuming. and ten maidens and little girls. to do. of course. except his all own wife. everybody was found to have kissed everybody else. kiss The each widower did not other. with the following exceptions No male. kissed a male. interest The last extract that I will give is those readers who may find some of the above puzzles too easy.92 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES and boys. as it is charitable was returned the double act being counted as one kiss. No married and additions : man kissed a married woman. one that will. . All the bachelors and boys kissed the maidens and girls twice. Now. The Silver Cubes. and the widows did not ascertain just The puzzle was to how many kisses had been thus given under the mistletoe bough.

but I though. " Master Herbert Spearing. Of a truth I did not venture to attempt it myself. That which he wanted to know was Could anybody give him exact dimensions for two cubes that should together contain just seventeen cubic inches of Of course the cubes may be of different sizes. I could not be done. as they measured two inches every way. Master Herbert brought with him two cubes of solid silver that belonged to his He showed that.THE SQUIRE'S CHRISTMAS PUZZLE PARTY 93 It is a hard nut. as devised by the old might well be revived at the present day by people who are fond of puzzles and who have grown tired of Book Teas and similar recent introductions for the amusement of evening parties. and should only be attempted by those who flatter themselves that they possess strong intellectual teeth. of a certainty. may not vouch for it. after the young lawyer from Oxford. it Squire. each contained eight cubic inches of silver. the son of a widow lady in our proposed a puzzle in arithmetic that looks simple. He did assure U9 that he believed have since been told that it is possible. and therefore the two contained together sixteen cubic inches. nobody present was able to failed to it show us the answer. and . seems to have been excellent. Prizes could be awarded to the best solvers of the puzzles propounded by the guests. — ' The idea of a Christmas Puzzle Party. but solve it. who they say is very learned in the mathematics and a great scholar. parish. silver ? ' " mother.

— mmmm became known that the bewildering mystery of by the members of the Puzzle Club. the general public was quite unaware that any such club existed. The club was started a few years ago to bring together those interested in the solution of puzzles of all kinds. The Ambiguous Photograph. sake something to unravel. of the lighter kind of is A good example comes before them problem that occasionally the that which 94 is known amongst them by . As often as not the circumstances It is — are of no importance to anybody. and it contains some of the profoundest mathematicians and some of the most subtle thinkers resident in London. These have done some excelBut the main body soon took lent work of a high and dry kind. it When recently the Prince and the Lost Balloon was really solved to investigating the problems of real life that are perpetually cropping up. The fact is that the members always deprecated publicity . little puzzle and that 62. only right to say that they take no interest in crimes as such. but since they have been dragged into the light in connection with this celebrated case. is sufficient. but they just form a in real life. but only investigate a case when it possesses features of a They seek perplexity for its own distinctly puzzling character. so many absurd and untrue stories have become current respecting their doings that I have been permitted to publish a correct account of some of their more interesting achievements. decided that the real names of the members should not be given. however. It was.

" " Don't be sarcastic. " I have received it to-day from Dovey. though frequently he had put others on the track of a deep solution Tim Churton. a bank clerk. remarkably familiar with the elegant branch of mathematics the theory of numbers. The . whose record was that he had never solved a puzzle himself since the club was formed." said Baynes. Yet any child should be able to solve the mystery. Suddenly Herbert Baynes entered the room. a barrister not overburdened with briefs. Some of the members were one evening seated together in their clubhouse in the Adelphi. unorthodox ideas as to perpetual motion also Harold Tomkins. . who was discussing a problem with Ernest Russell. I would suggest sending it upstairs to the billiard-marker." . 95 of " The Ambiguous Photograph. Baynes was a man of private means. and everybody saw at once from his face that he had something interesting to communicate. . I will give the reader an opportunity of trying his wits at it. " Here's a quaint little poser for you all.ADVENTURES OF THE PUZZLE CLUB name thing. who held some easy post in Somerset House. — occupation. a Scotsman. . " Remember. we are indebted to Dovey for the great Railway Signal Problem that Is it " " gave us all a week's amusement in the solving." it is it Though it is perplexing to the inexperienced. Wilson." said Melville. many private detective agencies that found to their advantage to keep in touch with the another of those easy cryptograms ? " asked Wilson. and was a Senior Wrangler and one of the most subtle thinkers of the club Fred Wilson. a prosperous accountant. with no original : witted fellows. Those present were Henry Melville. a bearded man of middle age. regarded in the club as quite a trivial close observation of these sharp- Yet serves to show the photograph hangs on the club wall. a journalist of very buoyant spirits." proprietor of one of the it Dovey was club. who had more real capacity than one would at first suspect John Macdonald. and has baffled every guest who has examined it. full of cranky. If so.

. A few days ago he came to Lady Marksford in great glee.' — THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 96 " If you fellows want to hear/' resumed Baynes.' " ' But. Dovey has if himself just returned from Paris. in tones of great contempt. Here it is. All agreed that Lady Marksford was right that it is impossible — to determine whether the man is walking with the lady or not. she has actually put one of Dovey's spies on to that excellent husband of hers and the myrmidon has been shadowing him about for a fortnight with a pocket camera. " Well. He wants to justify his man. Well. your ladyship. by showing that the photo does disclose which way going. including his head and shoulders. the man is from her ladyship. is hidden ' from sight ? And and she scrutinized the photo carefully why. I guess it is impossible from this photograph to say whether the gentleman is walking with the lady or going in the opposite ' — — ' direction " Thereupon ! she dismissed the detective in high dudgeon. and formed the opinion that Lord Marksford was flirting with other ladies of his acquaintance. He had snapshotted keep quiet while . it is evidence. " Now. you stupid man/ cried her ladyship. It will be seen that a slight but sudden summer shower is the real cause of the difficulty. and in a few days shall have found out all about her. his lordship while actually walking in the public streets with a lady who was not his wife. of the jealous little Yankee who married Lord Marksford two years ago? Lady Marksford and her husband have been In Paris for two or three months. that your husband was ' ' walking with the lady. the poor creature soon got under the influence of the green-eyed monster. when the greater part of him. how can any one swear that this is his lordship. and got this account of the incident possible. I know where she is staying." " ' What is the use of this at all ? asked the jealous woman. " just try to You all know I relate the amusing affair to you." Our illustration is a faithful drawing made from the original photograph. See what you fellows can make of it.

wrong. at it " Of course. after everybody had "I find there is important evidence in carefully.ADVENTURES OF THE PUZZLE CLUB u 97 Her ladyship Look is made a close scrutiny." said Melville.077) 7 . " we can tell nothing from the frock-coat." said Baynes." the picture. Blessed if I can say (2. It may be the front or the tails.

" It might hurt you. " On the contrary. but which ? way his arm goes it is impossible to see." advised Wilson. look here. Mac." Tomkins thought." Melville clearly to suggest declared. -" began Macdonald." said Russell." " How about the bend of the legs " asked Churton in Wilson. shot just From the picture you might fellow took his snap- suspect that his lordship has no knees." " I'm thinking that perhapshis eye-glasses. it is no use you thinking that if the dog would kindly pass on things would be easy. He won't/' " The man's general pose seems to me to imply movement to the left. adjusting " Don't think." " Now. " it appears to me movement to the right.98 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES his overcoat over his Then he has arm. there isn't any bend. Besides. whose opinions . The when the legs happened to be perfectly straight. as he " Bend ! why." put " glanced over the other's shoulder. you men.

Baynes. " a flash " Well. " Baynes is right. " going Why. Very " ! well. every one remembers the case . seized the opportunity for making a most minute examination of it. came to me in it ? " asked Baynes. what is ! It is as clear as possible. Now." he said.' " " You need not have been alarmed.— ADVENTURES OF THE PUZZLE CLUB 99 always carried respect in the club. Russell. Assuming that the gentleman is really Lord Marksford and the figure. The Cornish Cliff Mystery. who had at the time possession of the photo. Though the incident known in the Club as " The Cornish Cliff Mystery " has never been published. it is perfectly obvious. " It strikes me that what we have to do is to consider the attitude of the lady rather than that of the man. You see which way dog belong ? " To the detective —to the" the dog is left. so far as it is " visible. " Recollect that no member shall openly his — — ! ' disclose his solution to a puzzle unless all present consent.' ' 63. In a few moments he held up hands to invoke silence. " There is important evidence there which settles the matter with certainty. Does her attention seem to be directed to somebody " by her side ? Everybody agreed that it was impossible to say. and so prolonged that Russell. though Wilson did/' said Melville. " Don't break the rules of the club. to whom does the The laughter was simply against Wilson that followed this announcement boisterous. " I've got it ! " shouted Wilson." explained Russell. " Extraordinary that none of It all you have seen it. is his I have no hesitation myself in saying that " Stop " all the members shouted at once. In which " direction I will tell you when you have all given it up. " I was simply going to say that I have no hesitation in declaring that Lord Marksford is walking in one particular direction.

In fact. the pocket-book that I " This have shown you. There was an exciting hunt for them by the police. two of the firm's Cornhill a few years ago. they learnt that the absconding men had been tracked to that very neighbourhood. — that it was impossible for the thieves to get out of the country. one morning." said the inspector. They were traced as far as Truro. ." Arrived at the spot. an inspector and a constable came into the inn to make some inquiries. At the suggestion of Melville the four men walked along the road London together. suddenly disappeared absconded with a very large sum of money. and the production happened to have in his pocket from one of them. It had evidently been dropped by accident. who were so prompt in their action . and exchanged A few refercivilities with the two members of the Puzzle Club. they were Interested in the case coast. Just at this time it happened that Henry Melville and Fred Wilson were away together on a walking tour round the Cornish and Like most people. He said that he had just been to examine a very important clue a quarter of a mile from there. making an escape very improbable. while at breakfast at a little inn. and were known to be in hiding in Cornwall. and expressed the opinion that Messrs. " There is our stile in it the distance. they left the hard road and got over the constable found beside — — . and that a strong cordon of police had been drawn round the district. Lamson and Marsh would never again be found alive. On looking over the stone stile he noticed the footprints of two men which I have already proved from particulars previously supplied to the police to be those of the men we want and I am sure you will agree that they point to only one possible conclusion.ioo THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES with which it was connected an embezzlement at Todd's Bank in Lamson and Marsh. and the inspector opened out. containing the name of Marsh and some memoranda in his handwriting. ences to some of the leading of a confidential letter Melville detectives. soon established complete confidence. and it was found that they had clerks.

you see. except by the footprints that you deal of trampling about. The soil has nowhere been disturbed for yards around.ADVENTURES OF THE PUZZLE CLUB stile. gentlemen. and they all took care not to They followed the prints closely. " that the footprints lead straight to the edge of the cliff. knowing they were unable to escape capture. found that they led straight to the edge of a two men were here very clearly imsoil." " That. and you marks anywhere. almost perpendicular. footprints or other Look to the right and the left. " Here. and cliff forming a sheer precipice. 101 The footprints of the pressed in the thin but soft trample on the tracks. where there is a good which the feet below. Go round there will find no to the left. and you will be satisfied that the most experienced mountaineer . see. and there end." said the inspector. at the foot of two hundred sea. they de" cided not to be taken alive. " Exactly. some was breaking among the boulders. and threw themselves over the cliff ? asked Wilson. The conclusion is obvious.

balloons. Quite impossible." anywhere get no ledge or foothold within " Utterly impossible. and Marsh was a little fellow. will find also. that ever lived could not over the edge of the fifty feet." Melville then explained how the men had got away. ** prints again. No two men could walk backwards exactitude. " What do you propose to do " ? "I am for the going straight back to communicate the discovery to We shall withdraw the cordon and search the coast dead bodies." said Melville. They did not drop over the cliff. or even parachutes. the Marsh walks heavily on his heels. hiding under some straw in a barn.102 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES make a There descent." " Then you will make a fatal mistake. hunted as they were. Nor do I suppose that two men. Hi9 account proved to be quite correct. within two miles of the spot. Just examine the headquarters. after an inspection. that is impossible. Lamson was a tall man. " No . " The men are alive and in hiding in the district." " I that Lamson thought as much. How did they get away from the edge of the cliff ? . or even is cliff. " And yet you takes a shorter stride than Marsh. just over six feet." " Do you suppose that the men walked backwards in their own footprints ? " asked the inspector. could have provided themselves with flying-machines. the other." said Melville. though you will never find Marsh treading in the steps of peculiarity that . Whose is the large foot ? " " That is Lamson '9." said Melville. and the small print is Marsh's. while Lamson treads more on his toes. for it will be remembered that they were caught. some two hundred yards will not find in that way with such You a single place where they have missed the print by even an eighth of an inch. Notice. Nothing remarkable in that ? Perhaps not but has it occurred to you that Lamson walked behind Marsh ? Because you will find that he sometimes treads over Marsh's footsteps.

" said Russell. The tion of little affair of the " Runaway Motor-car " is a good illustra- to at how a knowledge of some branch of puzzledom may be put unexpected use. round a corner. as Mrs. and was certain also that the first figure was a 1. when a motor-car came from behind. Wadey the number began with the figure It We have therefore to find is may conceivably happen that there only . He was badly knocked about. while his machine was wrecked. And states.651 and he knew there was no in the number. by the fact that. An old woman. and that he found that when he multiplied the first two figures by the last three they made the same figures. She was positive as to the letters. and tried to take the number of the car. which was beyond question the fault of the driver of the car. You see. by 651 makes 15. is is excessively stupid in every- always working out sums in his head . The other witness was the village simpleton. but thing else. saw the whole thing. a Mrs. There were two witnesses to the accident. there must be a limit to the five-figure numbers having the peculiarity observed by the simpleton. The motor-car was not stopped. in which case the number of the car would have been 24. A member of the Club. and fractured his left arm. at a terrific speed. came in one night and said was bicycling in Surrey on the previous day. these are further limited these numbers. " It will be easy enough to find that car. and sent him flying in the road. whose name I have the moment of writing forgotten. which need not be given. and all he could say five figures in the number. The other figures she failed to read on account of the speed and dust. who just escapes that a friend of his being an arithmetical genius. 103 The Runaway Motor -Car. caught one of his wheels.624 (the same five figures). Wadey. " The known facts are possibly sufficient to enable one to discover the exact number. and he had been unable to trace it. 1. only in different order just as 24 multiplied He was that there were — .— ADVENTURES OF THE PUZZLE CLUB 64.

in which case the thing solved. with the result that the very night he sent the number by runaway car was at once traced. will case. merely guessing ofEhand. and its owner. But even if there are several cases. By Every owner except the one in fault be able to prove an alibi. " Surely/' replied Russell. for that post. What was the number of the car ? . " How will you manage that ? " somebody asked. We shall see. had to pay the cost of the damages resulting from his carelessness. the owner of the actual car may easily be found.104 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES is one such number." Russell was right. who was himself driving. I think it quite probable that there is only one number that fits the the process of elimination. Yet. " the method is^quite obvious.

the ground was covered to a depth of several inches. which it now present. There were the footprints of the Ravensdene butler who retired to bed five minutes before midnight from E to EE. at 11 p. and left at midnight to walk home.m. straight from D to the spot where he was found.— The Mystery of — 105 Ravensdene Park. stabbed to the heart. taking the short route that lay through Ravensdene Park Hastdxigs at his country house a short distance that is. as involved the assassination of Mr. On and though it lasted only half an hour. Hastings were very clear.— ADVENTURES OF THE PUZZLE CLUB 65.. But in the early morning he was found dead. All the seven gates were promptly closed. at the point indicated by the star in our diagram. Mr. I will The mystery was a of Ravensdene Park. from D to A in the sketch-plan. These were fortunately very distinct. February 17th. and the police obtained the following facts The footprints of Mr. Other footprints showed that : — — . there was a heavy fall of snow. and the footprints in the snow examined. There were the footprints of the gamekeeper from A to his lodge at AA. Cyril from London. tragic affair. Hastings had been spending the evening at the house of a neighbour.

it was a very foggy night. The mystery was brought before the members of the Puzzle Club. Of this the police were absolutely certain. like the one we possible to discover — have reproduced. but it was par- ticularly noticed that no track ever crossed another track. as no path ever crossed another. Was it who committed the crime ? Was it the butler ? Or the gamekeeper ? Or the man who came in at B and went out at BB ? Or the man who went in at C and left at CC ? They provided themselves with diagrams sketch-plans. while C and left at gate CC. in accordance with the positive statements of the police that we have given. . It was soon evident that. Only these snow.io6 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES B and left at one individual had come in at gate another had entered by gate gate BB. and some of these pedeshad consequently taken circuitous routes. but they stupidly omitted to make a sketch of the various routes before the snow had melted and utterly effaced them. Our friends then proceeded to trace out the route of each person. which simplified the real form of Ravensdene Park without destroying the necessary conditions of the problem. who at once set themselves the task of solving it. trians five persons had entered the park since the fall of Now.

I was." as the circumstances involved the solution of a poser that could not puzzle problems. You see. Dawkins was asked to : which he did. to the following effect have told you. three furlongs from the next corner. and that the treasure is buried in it at a point exactly two furlongs from one corner. field. The Buried Treasure. said one man. I " very dark. and the key to the mystery will reveal itself. beginning to feel desperate. it is like this The document that fell into my hands states clearly that the field is square.' ' ' : that. (( Well.< — — 107 ADVENTURES OF THE PUZZLE CLUB some of the pedestrians must have lost their way considerably in But when the tracks were recorded in all possible ways. or E committed the deed ? Just trace out the route of each of the four persons. was introduced to the club by one of the members. and four furlongs from the next corner to thought " ' I was asleep. Can our readers discover whether A. I had gone out to Australia to try to retrieve my fortunes.' How would you proceed ? asked the other. just home from Australia. they had no difficulty in deciding on the assassin's route and as the police luckily knew whose footprints this route represented. One hot summer day I happened to be seated in a Melbourne wineshop. . C. the fog. and the future was looking his story. They was very wide awake. the treasure would be mine and as the original owner left no heir. order that he might relate an extraordinary stroke of luck that he had experienced " down under. B. gentlemen. an arrest was made that led to the man's conviction. but had met with no success. the worst of it is that nearly all the fields in the . in fact. that I was very much down on my luck. tell fail to interest all lovers of After the club dinner. but I assure I you I If only could find the right . 66. The problem of the Buried Treasure was of quite a different A young fellow named Dawkins. I have as much right to it as anybody else. when two fellows entered. in character. and engaged in conversation.

They can only happen in a field of one . and as the paper says that the treasure is three feet deep. that only means eight spots at the most to dig over . three. the square must be of a particular area. you bet that wouldn't take me long. and four furlongs from successive corners of a square. I happen to be a bit and hearing the conversation.' corner to start from.108 district are THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES square size." continued Dawkins. gentlemen. the same discover doubt whether there are two of exactly size of the field I could soon and. and I If only I knew the secure the treasure/ " But you would not ' know which corner. I saw at once that for a spot to be exactly two. quickly . nor which direction to go to the next " ' My dear chap. by taking these simple measurements.' " Now. it. " of a mathematician . You can't get such measurements to meet at one point in any square you choose.

Perhaps he stood in little need of the money. while it has saved me from ruin.ADVENTURES OF THE PUZZLE CLUB size. I was not long in discovering the field itself. will leave you the puzzle of working out just what that area is. as luck would have And it. . for the the conversation. when I found the size of the field. but without success. I tried to find the man. 109 I and that is just what these men never suspected." Could the reader have discovered the required area of the field from those details overheard in the wineshop ? It is an elegant little puzzle. and furnishes another example of the practical utility. right one. to make him some compensation anonymously. I often smile when I think of that poor fellow going about for the rest of his life saying If only I knew the size of the field while he has placed the treasure safe in my own possession. for. on unexpected occasions. enabled me has brought me home and to start in a business that already shows signs of being ' a particularly lucrative one. I did not need to for man had let make I tried it out the district in the eight digs. the third spot was the The treasure was a substantial sum. of a knowledge of the art of problem: ! ' solving. " Well.

as on the present occasion." was the reply. Hawkhurst. uttered with feigned conceit for the Professor was really a modest man "I'm simply glutted with ideas. Only Grigsby. cheery and kind-hearted. anywhere. Indeed. things got a little slow. who had just entered was a welcome addition to our number. The man. " We'll make him show us some new puzzles. seemed to be detained in town over the season of mirth and mincepies." " Where do you get all your notions ? " I asked. and the club was nearly deserted." drop in. and enigmas of every kind. here is the Professor " exclaimed Grigsby. during all my waking moments. " The Professor of Puzzles. and this was mainly because he was so happy in dishing them up in palatable ing. and myself. was very popular at the club." said form. He had all his life problems. two or three of my best puzzles have come to me in my dreams.— THE " PROFESSOR'S PUZZLES ! Why. " You are the — 110 . however. inclined to be cynical. and when." It was Christmas Eve. He was a man of middle age. of all the members. " Have you got anything new ? " I have always something new. " Everywhere." as we had nicknamed him. but dabbled in puzzles. and what the Professor didn't know about these matters was admittedly not worth know- His puzzles always had a charm of their own. man of all others that we were hoping would " Hawkhurst. his arrival was a positive blessing.

" he continued. Now. embellishment. " place the fewest possible current English . The Coinage Puzzle. These were constructed in India before the Christian era. as indicated in the illustration." magic squares. florin in He made two " a rough diagram. and extension. Any child can arrange the numbers one to nine in a square that will add up fifteen in eight ways.— THE PROFESSOR'S PUZZLES in " Then all the good ideas are not used up ? " " Certainly not. and introduced into Europe about the fourteenth century. 67. And all the old puzzles are capable of im- provement. but you will see it can be developed into quite a new problem if you use coins instead of numbers. for example. when they were supposed to possess certain magical properties that I am afraid they have since lost. and placed a crown and a of the divisions. Take.

"Are you sure that there is a current English postage-stamp the value of threepence-halfpenny ? " " For the life of me. I don't know. Take ten current English stamps. so the Professor we would work at it another showed Hawkhurst the solution privately. The Postage Stamps Puzzles." But Grigsby and I decided that his chat." " I shall do it with numbers first/' said Hawkhurst. The Professor smiled indulgently." put in Hawkhurst. May the florin be Hang it all I moved from ! present position " ? " Certainly not." " But how can the coins affect the question ? " asked Grigsby.— ii2 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES empty divisions. he trips you up over some little point you never thought of." " Then I give it up. Now. " and then substitute coins/' Five minutes its later. You never know when you have got to the bottom of his puzzles. coins in the seven so that each of the three columns. three rows. so that the square shall this time add up ninepence in the eight directions as before. Stick two of them in one division " and one in each of the others. Of course. nine of them being all of different values. instead of coins we'll substitute postage-stamps. and two diagonals shall add up fifteen shillings. ' ' of Isn't there ? " " That's just like the Professor. and no two may contain the same value. " There never was such a tricky man. time. and then went on with 68. " can't help getting the 2 in a corner. Just when you make sure you have found a solution. after he had been scribbling a few minutes on the back of an envelope. " That you will find out when you approach the solution. and the tenth a duplicate." ." " Here you are for ! " cried Grigsby. however. no division divisions may be without at least one coin. he exclaimed.

using as every three divisions in a line shall add up many stamps as you choose. and other creatures of Japanese manufacture (2. r/te — . @ © g @ @ © qg Frogs awi Tumblers. lizards.077) 8 69. a much Stick English postage stamps so that alike. snails. " What do you think of these ? " The Professor brought from his capacious pockets a number of frogs." said the Professor.THE " PROFESSOR'S PUZZLES that." all of different values. so long as they axe It is a hard nut. " here "3 is When you have done better one for you.

ii 4

THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES

—very

were grotesque in form and brilliant in colour. While we asked the waiter to place sixty-four tumblers looking at them he in on the club table. When these had been brought and arranged

eight the form of a square, as shown in the illustration, he placed the glasses as shown. of the little green frogs on " Now," he said, " you see these tumblers form eight horizontal and eight vertical lines, and if you look at them diagonally (both along ways) there are twenty-six other lines. If you run your eye

all

these forty-two lines,

you

will find

no two frogs are anywhere in

a

line.

" The puzzle

**irom new relative
**

"

I

I

;

Three of the frogs are supposed to jump is this. present position to three vacant glasses, so that in their their

positions

?

still

no two frogs

shall

be in a

line.

What

are the jumps made

"

"

" began Hawkhurst. what you are going to ask," anticipated the know

suppose

Professor.

"

No

the frogs

do not exchange positions, but each of the three

jumps to a glass that was not previously occupied." " But surely there must be scores of solutions ? " I said. " I shall be very glad if you can find them," replied the Professor with a

dry smile. " I only know of one—or rather two, position counting a reversal, which occurs in consequence of the

being symmetrical."

70.

Romeo and

Juliet.

For some time we tried to make these little reptiles perform the The Professor, however, would feat allotted to them, and failed. not give away his solution, but said he would instead introduce once seen to us a little thing that is childishly simple when you have at the very first attempt. it, but cannot be mastered by everybody

" he called again. " Just take away these glasses, please, and bring the chessboards." " I hope to goodness," exclaimed Grigsby, " you are not going ' White to show us some of those awful chess problems of yours.

" Waiter

!

to

mate Black

in 427

moves without moving

his pieces.'

'The

**THE PROFESSOR'S PUZZLES
**

jiff.'

"5

**bishop rooks the king, and pawns his Giuoco Piano in half a "
**

" No, it is not chess. You see these two snails. They are Romeo and Juliet. Juliet is on her balcony, waiting the arrival of her love; but Romeo has been dining, and forgets, for the life of him,

the

number

of her house.

The squares

represent sixty-four houses,

and the amorous swain

visits

every house once and only once before

possible turnings.

this with the fewest can move up, down, and across the board and through the diagonals. Mark his track with this piece

reaching his beloved.

**Now, make him do
**

snail

The

of chalk/'

" Seems easy enough," said Grigsby, running the chalk along the squares. " Look that does it." " Yes," said the Professor " Romeo has got there, it is true,

!

:

n6

**THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES
**

;

and visited every square once, and only once but you have made him turn nineteen times, and that is not doing the trick in the fewest

turns possible/'

Hawkhurst, curiously enough, hit on the solution at once, and the Professor remarked that this was just one of those puzzles that a person might solve at a glance or not master in six months.

71.

Romeo's Second Journey.

added.

**" It was a sheer stroke of luck on your part, Hawkhurst," he " Here is a much easier puzzle, because it is capable of
**

;

more systematic analysis yet it may just happen that you will not do it in an hour. Put Romeo on a white square and make him

turnings.

crawl into every other white square once with the fewest possible This time a white square may be visited twice, but the snail must never pass a second time through the same corner of a

square nor ever enter the black squares." " May he leave the board for refreshments

?

" asked Grigsby.

"

No

;

he

is

not allowed out until he has performed his feat."

72.

The Frogs who would a-wooing

go.

Professor arranged

will

While we were vainly attempting to solve this puzzle, the on the table ten of the frogs in two rows, as they

be found in the

illustration.

" That seems entertaining," I said. " What is it ? " " It is a little puzzle I made a year ago, and a favourite with the few people who have seen it. It is called ' The Frogs who would

THE

a-wooing go.'

after the four

PROFESSOR'S ^PUZZLES

117

Four of them are supposed to go a-wooing, and have each made a jump upon the table, tL v are in such a position that they form five straight rows with four frogs ii

evpry row." " What's that ? " asked Hawkhurst. " I think A few minutes later he exclaimed, " How's this ? " " They form only four rows instead of

I

can do that."

five, and you have moved them," explained the Professor. " Hawkhurst," said Grigsby severely, " you are a duffer. I see the solution at a glance. Here you are These two jump on their

six of

!

**comrades' backs." " No, no," admonished the Professor
**

I distinctly

;

" that

is

not allowed.

said that the

Sometimes it problem that the quibbler will not persuade himself that he has found a flaw through which the solution may be mastered by a

child of five."

jumps were to be made upon the table. passes the wit of man 90 to word the conditions of a

for

we had been vainly puzzling with these batrachian lovers some time, the Professor revealed his secret. The Professor gathered up his Japanese reptiles and wished us

After

good-night with the usual seasonable compliments. We three who remained had one more pipe together, and then also left for our respective homes. Each believes that the other two racked^their

brains over Christmas in the determined attempt to master the

Professor's puzzles

;

but when

we next met

at the club

we were

all

unanimous

solve "

in declaring that those puzzles

which we had

failed to

we really had not had time to look at," while those we had mastered after an enormous amount of labour " we had seen at the

first

glance directly

we got home."

—

MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES

73.—The Game

of Kayles,

all of our most popular games are of very ancient origin, though in many cases they have b^en considerably developed and improved. Kayles derived from the French word quilles was a great favourite in the fourteenth century, and was undoubtedly the parent of our modern game of ninepins. Kayle-pins were not confined in those days to any particular number, and they were generally made of a conical shape and set up in a straight row. At first they were knocked down by a club that was thrown at them from a distance, which at once suggests the origin of the pastime of " shying for cocoanuts " that is to-day so popular on Bank Holidays on Hampstead Heath and elsewhere. Then the players introduced balls, as an improvement on the club.

Nearly

—

—

In the illustration we get a picture of some of our fourteenthcentury ancestors playing at kayle-pins in this manner.

Now,

I

will introduce to

my

readers a

new game

of parlour

kayle-pins, that can be played across the table without

any preparaor

tion whatever.

noes,

You simply

place in a straight

counters,

row thirteen domicoins,

chess-pawns,

draughtsmen,

beans

anything will do

It is

—

all close,, together,

and then remove the second

**one as shown in the picture.
**

that they could always knock

assumed that the ancient players had become so expert down any single kayle-pin, or any

two kayle-pins that stood close together. They therefore altered the game, and it was agreed that the player who knocked down the last pin was the winner.

118

any single kayle-pin two adjoining kayle-pins. The following version of taken from Hayward's Life of William the Cotiqtteror. all you have to do 119 is to knock down with your fingers. in playing our table-game. I think it will be found a fascinating little game. the incident is : . that is so frequently recorded in the old it is doubtless authentic. with joynt authoritie. I. playing alternately until one of the two players makes the last capture. and so wins.. There is afterwards Henry chronicles that a story of Prince Henry. Remember that the second kayle-pin must be removed before you begin to play. or take away. because in the real game the ball could not do more than this. or 74. published in 1613 " Towards the end of his reigne he appointed his two sonnes Robert and Henry. son of William the Conqueror. and I will show the secret of winning. and that if you knock down two at once those two must be close together. The Broken Chessboard.MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES Therefore. governours of Normandie .

" Hereat Louis beganne to growe warme in words. then Daulphine of France. and did win of him very much. and was therein little respected by Henry. These went together to visit the French king lying at Constance where. at chesse. with Louis. entertaining the time with varietie of disports. The great impatience of the one and the small forbearance of the other did strike in the end such a heat between them that Louis threw the chessmen at Henry's face. .120 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES Henry played the one to suppresse either the insolence or levitie of the other.

it but do not record the arrangement. and simply to cut them out and fit them together. be seen that there are twelve pieces. and. and their spurres claimed so good haste as they recovered Pontoise. with an amusing pastime. tion. would have The Spider and the Fly. 75. found it Henry himself. a spider is at a point and on the middle of 30 4t one of the end walls. as at A . If you succeed in constructing the chessboard. " Hereupon they presently went to horse. floor in the centre. tradition —on this point not trustworthy —says that the chessboard broke into the thirteen fragments shown in our illustraIt will shape. all his skill and learning.— MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES " 121 Henry again stroke Louis with the chessboard. as and a fly is shown . you will find feel just as puzzling the next time you disposed to attack Prince it. 1 foot from the on the opposite wall. drew blood with the blowe. We thus have is the sixty-four squares of the chess-board. all different in and one little piece of four all squares only. measuring 30 feet in length 12 feet in width and height. Inside a rectangular room. albeit they were sharply pursued by the French/' Now. 1 foot from the ceiling. and had presently slain him upon the place had he not been stayed by his brother Robert. each containing five squares. if mounted on the puzzle cardboard. The pieces may be easily cut out of a sheet of " squared " paper. so as to make a perfect board properly chequered. they will form a source of perpetual amusement in the home.

had a sion he sent for fine taste in wines. was a very worthy little man . Brother John. it seems. and complained that a particular his palate. Here is a little astery in the west of England. puzzle culled from the traditions of an old monAbbot Francis. THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES What is order to reach the the shortest distance that the spider must crawl in Of course the fly. acts of charity for and his methods of equity extended to those which he was noted for miles round. mim The Abbot. bottling was not to tell " Pray me. moreover. The Perplexed Cellarman. but crawls fairly. how much of this wine thou didst bottle withal. On one occa- the cellarman. which remains stationary ? spider never drops or uses its web.122 at B." . 76.

had to consult one of the monks who was good at puzzles of this kind. and into required to two pieces (without flag. There be three varlets waiting at the gate. both full and empty and see that the dole be fairly made. But the large bottles themselves." " So be it. How was he to make the . and the like fair dozen in large bottles. and of empty bottles five large and five small.MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES " 123 lord abbot. required equitable division ? He first divided the bottles into three groups in several ways that at sight seemed to be quite fair. taking the three men with him. in so few as good dissection puzzle two pieces is rather a rarity." Poor John returned to his cellar. Of full bottles he had seven large and seven small. were not worth two small ones. so that no man receive more wine than another. nor any difference in bottles. as shown in the illustration. in the small. " whereof five of each have A my been drunk in the refectory. since two small bottles held just the same quantity of wine as one large one. any waste) that will fit together and form a perfectly square with the four roses symmetrically . the cellarman just how the made? distribution was 77. Hence the abbot's order that each man must take away the same number of bottles of each size. and who showed him how the thing was done. so perhaps the reader will be interested in A the following. Let the two dozen bottles be given unto them. Can you find out Finally. and then his task began to perplex him. it is The dia- gram cut it represents a piece of bunting." replied the cellarman. when empty.— Making a Flag.

" Of course we make no allowance 78. for " turnings. In the illustration Hendrick and Katnin are seen engaged in the exhilarating sport of attempting the capture of a couple of hogs. Catching the Hogs.— 124 placed. roses. a complete answer I will is afforded in the puzzle game now explain. as THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES This would be easy enough if it we should merely have bottom roses. and insert the piece at the of the flag. Why did they fail ? c* •??&. to cut from were not for the four A to B. through any of the But we are not allowed to cut and therein lies the difficulty of the puzzle.— m to? *& A & * Strange as little it may that seem. .

and then the second player moves both pigs one square each (not diagonally) . the game is particularly interesting. that is easy enough. he cannot stop your making how . or drive his opponent beyond. the question first is. say a 2. in the following manner :-— One player turns down a card. and turn down a 3 then. and use four marked counters to represent the Dutchman. and so on. his wife. say a 1. however. counts " seven " . the first player turns down another card. and invites the innocent wayfarer to try his luck or skill by seeing which of them can first score thirty-one. The first pkyer moves the Dutchman and his wife one square each in any direction (but not diagonally). and the two hogs. on its own merits. The Thirty-one Game. and so the play proceeds alternately until one of them scores the " thirty-one.MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES 125 Copy the simple diagram on a conveniently large sheet of cardboard or paper. . You must play first. whatever your opponent does. The cardsharper lays down the twenty-four cards shown in the illustration. say a 5. in order to win. This is a game that used to be (and may be to this day. and counts " two " the second player turns down a card. 79. adding this to the score. until Hendrick catches one hog and Katrun the other. At the beginning of the game these must be placed on the squares on which they are shown. As. but this is just what Dutch pigs will not do. or courteously request your opponent to you turn down the do so ? And should you conduct your play ? The reader will perhaps say " Oh. and counts " eight " . and. One player represents Hendrick and Katrun. Now. This you will find would be absurdly easy if the hogs moved first." and so wins. in turns. should card. for aught I know) a favourite means of swindling employed by cardsharpers at racecourses and in railway carriages. I will make no apology for presenting it to my readers. and the other the hogs.

" But this is just that little knowledge which is such a dangerous thing. SHUTS • • fool [oj? * * 00 * • 00 00 00 #4 4 44 #+ 00 00 00 00 . twenty-four. or stop THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES your making seventeen. by what ma# be called of certainly winning breaks the " method of exhaustion." look in vain for another 3 with which to win. . and the winning You have only to secure these numbers to win. the sharper thirty-one. for they are turned down ! So you are compelled either to let him make the " thirty-one " or to go yourself beyond. and it places you in the hands of the sharper.126 ten. you play 3 and count " ten " . and so lose the game." . 44 4 you play 3 and make your plays a 4 and counts " twenty-one " " twenty-four. You thus see that your method down utterly." Now You all the sharper plays the last 4 and scores " twenty-eight. and the sharper plays 4 and counts " seven " . You play 3. the sharper turns down 3 and scores " thirteen " you play 4 and count " seventeen " .

The Chinese Railways. . representatives the various countries concerned were engaged so many weeks in trying to find a solution to the problem. B to B. " Let every one of them have a concession l" So the Celestial Govern- Our illustration pentagonal fortifications. Take your pencil and trace out the route for the line A to A. and indicate not only just where each line must enter the city.— MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES I will : 127 give the key to the game. The letters in the diagram show the different nationalities. As it was agreed that the line of one the company must never of cross the line of another. but not here say whether you must play or second may like to find it out for yourself. showing I will how you may always first win you . without ever allowing one line to cross another or pass through another company's station. and so on. and the whole scheme fell through. that in the meantime a change in the Chinese Government was brought about. but also where the station belonging to that line must be located. . C to C. 80. shows the plan of a Chinese city protected by Five European Powers were scheming and clamouring for a concession to run a railway to the place and at last one of the Emperor's more brilliant advisers said. ment officials were kept busy arranging the details.

so that every one of the three columns. antics. . The Eight Clowns. and other Each clown bore one of the numbers they generally concluded with a few curious little numerical one of which was the rapid formation of a number of magic It occurred to me that if clown No. once saw on the body. three rows. this last item of their performance might not be so easy. I This illustration represents a troupe of clowns Continent. 1 failed to appear (as happens in the illustration).— 128 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 81. must be absent. squares. and each of the two diagonals shall add up the same. juggling. 1 that tricks. but it is No. The reader is asked to discover how these eight clowns may arrange themselves in the form of a square (one place being vacant). I to 9 on his After going through the usual tumbling. The vacant place may be at any part of the square.

077) 9 . 129 The Wizard's Arithmetic.— MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES 82. Once upon a time a knight went to consult a certain famous The interview had to do with an affair of the heart but after the man of magic had foretold the most favourable issues. wizard. and held them together to form the art " And the knight. " number 83. so that they stood in the order 41096. the conversation drifted on to occult subjects generally. thou learned also in the magic of numbers ? " asked Show me but one sample of thy wit in these matters/' The old wizard took five blocks bearing numbers. apparently at random. and placed them on a shelf. (2. He then took in his hands an 8 and a 3. . as shown in our illustration. and concocted a love-potion that was certain to help his visitor's cause.

! the 8 at the other end.. It How many is it not ? quite correctly-3410968. who knoweth " the philosophy of numbers on the shelf. 4> 5. arity that. of a truth. and scrip." the good knight replied. Very curious. bearing any figures you choose. 3. " canst thou " one number into the other in thy mind ? I should need " Nay. 3o THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES tell multiply me. we we take the ribbon by the ends and pull it This number has the peculihave the number 0588235294117647one of the numbers. 83. same find that will produce the other two-figure multipliers can you like on the You may place just as many blocks as you effect ? shelf. if we multiply it by any . and The wizard simply placed the 3 next to the 4 answer will be found that this gives the " Sir Knight. If The Ribbon Problem." said the wizard. 2." to set out upon the task with pen learned in " right easy a thing it is to a man Yet mark ye how in all the magic that is hid the lore of far Araby. out straight.

if we multiply by 3.— MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES 6. Three Japanese ladies possessed a square ancestral carpet of considerable intrinsic value. So. which starts from the dart in the circle. we get exactly the same number in the circle. the puzzle is to place a different arrangement of figures star. but treasured also as an interesting heirloom in the family. 84. 131 or 9. 7. . on the ribbon that will produce similar results when so multiplied only the o and the 7 appearing at the ends of the ribbon must not be removed. from a different place. starting For example. 8. They decided to cut it up and make three square rugs of it. . so that each should possess a share in her own house. and the product is 2352941176470588. we get the same result starting from the Now. multiply by 4. The Japanese Ladies and the Carpet.

will find evidence is to produce proof. another a two feet square in two pieces. Captain Longbow and the Bears. because then the carpet need not be cut into more than four pieces. Now. but a correspondent in Tokio assures me that the legend is that they did it in as few as six pieces. they would necessary to cut the carpet into seven pieces . Yes it can be done. and afterwards impaling him. evidently perplexed by the peculiar fact that no matter in what direction he looked it was always due south. then one lady may take a piece two feet square whole. which I will leave the reader for the present the saying that amusement of finding for himself. But this generous offer would not for a moment be entertained by the other two sisters. and he wants to know whethdr such a thing is . the difficulty in such cases future travellers. merely you suppose the carpet to be nine square feet.Un the manner shown in the when they succeed . He says that when he got there he saw a bear going round and round the top of the pole (which he declares is a pole). Of course. possible. That eminent and more or less veracious traveller Captain Longbow has a great grievance with the public. but he avers that in accomplishing the same feat. There are three easy ways of doing this. and the third a square foot whole. Captain Longbow put an end to the bear's meditations by shooting him. He claims that during a recent expedition in Arctic regions he actually reached the North Pole.1 32 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES simplest One lady suggested that the way would be for her to take a smaller share than the other two. on the spot. who insisted that the square carpet should be so cut that each should get a square mat of exactly the same if size. but cannot induce anybody to believe him. according to the have found it best Western authorities. Can you cut out the mats of equal size ? six pieces that will form three square 85.

but such a thing might have happened. . If the reader tries to make eleven dots on a sheet of paper so that there shall be seven rows of dots with four dots in but the captain's alleged every row. Can you discover how they were arranged ? was surprised one morning.MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES i33 illustration. ^as the evidence for future travellers to which I have alluded. with four bears in every row. he will find some difficult} grouping of the bears is quite possible. bears in his immediate vicinity. He on looking down from an elevation. the result of pure accident he cannot say. When the Captain got one hundred miles south on his return little journey he had a experience that is somewhat puzzling. to see no fewer than eleven what astonished him more fact that they had so placed 7 . But than anything else was the curious themselves that there were seven rows Whether or not this was of bears.

but he is not. as well as by rail. starting from A. The English Tour. pass from town to town. represents a military train —an engine and eight cars. The map of England shows twenty-four towns. at the town marked A resident A at the top of the map proposes to visit every one of the towns once and only once. making a dot in the towns you have visited. How does he perform the feat ? Take your pencil and.— — 134 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 86. This would be easy enough if he were able to cut across country by road. connected by a system of railways. The Chifu-Chemulpo Puzzle. The . 87. and in these days of much travelling should prove useful. This puzzle has to do with railway routes. Here It is a puzzle that was once on sale in the London shops. and to finish up his tour at Z. and see if you can end at Z.

Her manner of doing business is always original. with the engine left. and gave a third of an egg over. is one most eccentric women I ever met. I have no hesitation in presenting it to my readers. . moved from the move for each car or engine passed over one of the points. The cars move without The purchaser is invited to " try to do it many do you require ? The Eccentric Market-woman. the aid of the engine. or you can put as many as five cars. 6. there just room to pass 7 . Mrs. She had evidently got the idea from an old puzzle with which we are all familiar but as it is an improvement on it. or four and bring and the on the siding at the same time. so that they shall be in the order 5. is With 8 at the extremity. is > i35 to reverse the cars. 7> 6 4> 3. 2. on to the side track. as shown. and sometimes quite weird and wonderful. 2. 4.— MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES puzzle 8. or vice versa. She then sold a fourth of the remainder. of the . who keeps a little poultry farm in Surrey. Finally. as at first. She next sold a third of what she had left. Covey." How 88. instead of 1. 7. She related that she had that day taken a certain number of eggs to market. in 20 moves. and gave him half an egg over. it Do this in the fewest is possible moves. 5. Moves along the main track are not counted. She sold half of them to one customer. and gave a fourth of an egg over. Every time the engine or a car counts a main to the side track. on the side track. run 8 up to 6. 3. down 7 again engine. She was once found explaining to a few of her choice friends how she had disposed of her day's eggs. 1. 8.

Now. but the flower jumped . Covey Can you say how many ? 89. the puzzle number of eggs that Mrs. and the original word can be correctly read round the garland. and gave a an egg over. to find the smallest possible could have taken to market. on of name which you mark the first letter of your word. Continue this (taking the letters in their proper order) until all the letters have been written down.— 136 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES fifth of she disposed of a fifth of the remainder. The Primrose Puzzle. and write down the second letter. all And. Select the contains eight letters. Then touch another vacant flower. strange to say. she had not through- these transactions broken a single egg. and that Touch one of the primroses with your and jump over one of the adjoining flowers to another. out is Then what she had left she divided equally among thirteen of her friends. You must always touch an unoccupied flower. pencil any flower that you think suitable. and again jump over one in another direction.

more used to arithmetical operations. 25x51=1. Brooks. An ordinary child. mother has occasion to add up the numbers 1. Every box has a picture on each of its six sides. when he sees there are four along one side and three along the other. named Adams. Seven friends. It was agreed that no man should ever sit down twice with the same two neighbours. use of little artifices . sometimes it is practically impossible to make the required enumeration without having a very clear head indeed. 2. be occupied or not. Sometimes the labour can be diminished by the it is far from easy. speak of mere counting as one of the but on occasions. which he keeps on his counter in a row. therefore. But his smart son of twenty may go one better and say. will see at a glance that by joining the numbers at the extremes there are 25 pairs of 51 . The Five Tea Tins. under these conditions. and there you are A tea merchant has five tin tea boxes of cubical shape. " Why multiply by 25 ? Just " add two o's to the 51 and divide by 4. . 137 may selected. As they can be seated. The Round Table. so there are thirty ! . she will most probably make a long addition sum of the fifty numbers while her husband. but he miserably failed. and Green. " 1. as I shall show. were spending fifteen days together at the seaside. may also be 90. Fry. Edwards. Dobson. and they had a round breakfast table at the hotel all to themselves. " Four times three are twelve " while his tiny brother will count them all in rows. 3. will almost instinctively say. buying twelve postage stamps. 4. The name of a tree Only English words may be used. the plan was quite practicable. up to 50.275. in just fifteen ways. If the child's Sometimes people will simplest operations in the world . 3." etc. Cater. But could the reader have prepared an arrangement for every sitting ? The hotel proprietor was asked to draw up a scheme. 91. as shown in our illustration.— — MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES over . 2.

therefore. two similar pictures may be in a row. 4 are repeated on No. vertically. or diagonally). The tradesman's customer. The Four Porkers. . 3 and 5 to be put side by side.— 138 pictures in all THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES but one picture on No. having obtained this information. thinks may it a good puzzle to work out in how many ways the boxes be arranged on the counter so that the order of the five pic- He found the making tough little nut. tures in front shall never be twice alike. i is repeated on No. and . only twenty-seven different pictures. and never allows Nos. 4. as it is all a question of their order. each in a separate sty. that although sties is in every one of the thirty-six a straight line (either hori- zontally. There are. two other pictures on No. Can you work out the answer without getting your brain into a tangle ? Of course. of the count a 92. with at least one of the pigs. 1 at one end of the row. 3. The owner always keeps No. The four pigs are so placed.

— blocks bearing the ten digits or Arabic 1. The particular puzzle that they have been amusing themselves with is to divide the blocks into two groups of five. The number hit they have product. In how many may the four pigs be placed to fulfil these conditions If ways you Ik %.970 multiplied . The children in the illustration have found that a large number of very interesting and instructive puzzles may be made out of number blocks figures . and then so arrange them in the form of two multiplication sums that one product shall be the same as the other. 3. that is. and you round in front of a mirror you get four more. and o.485 multiplied by 2 is 6. 3. of possible solutions is very considerable. 7. 4. 8. but on that arrangement that gives the smallest possible Thus. 5.970. The Number Blocks. not to be counted as different arrangements. 2.— MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES yet no pig is *39 different ? in line with another. X turn it * if turn this page round you get three more arrangements. and 6. 6. These are 93. 9.

The puzzle I is quite interesting enough have given it. should be added that the multipliers may contain two in the simple form in which Perhaps figures. Make a diagram of convenient size similar to that shown in our illustration. like. by You is will find it quite impossible to get any smaller result. it 94. Here is a little puzzle of the moving counters class that my any readers will probably find entertaining. Of course. and yet it is a nut that requires some cracking. fractions are not allowed. my puzzle to find the largest possible result. Divide the blocks into any two groups of five that you and arrange them to form two multiplication sums that shall produce the same product and the largest amount possible. Foxes and Geese. nor any tricks whatever. That is all. and provide six counters—three marked to represent foxes and three to . Now.140 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES i is the same.

what is the smallest number of moves necessary to make the foxes and geese change places ? find. Now. make them exchange places in the fewest possible Place the geese on the discs foxes on the discs numbered 10. n. Now the puzzle is this. prevents you moving the fox from 11 on the either . 2. 2.MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES represent geese. If you play 10 to 5. or there will be trouble. and the geese on 10. and 12 that is. then your next move may be 2 to 9 with a goose. and 3. you will first move. and goose get within This rule. — — moves. or from 12 to 7. It is perhaps unnecessary to say that only one fox or one goose can be on a disc at the same time. By moving one at a time. as on 4 or 6 he would be within reach of a goose. which you could not have played if the fox had not previously gone from 10. try to get the foxes on 1. along a straight line from one disc to the next one. and the and 12. It also prevents your moving a fox from 10 to 9. 141 1. and 3. But you must be careful never to let a fox reach of each other. fox and r goose alternately. 11.

" The third . my way was a piece of timber with many holes in it.142 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 95. during the long time that Friday had now been with me I was not wanting to lay a foundation of useful knowledge in his mind. day in the morning. not to be found in the modern editions of the Adventures. I told him that it was my wish to make the table from the timber I had found. It is Here is is a curious extract from Robinson Crusoe's diary. I went down to the shore hoping to find a typewriter and other useful things washed up from the wreck of the ship but all omitted in the old. and This has always seemed to me to be a pity. Friday had many times said that we stood sadly in need of a square table for our afternoon tea. " Friday was sadly put to it to say how this might be. more that fell in My man . and I bethought me how And since this piece of wood might be used for that purpose. without there being any holes in the top thereof. the wind having abated during the night. Robinson Crusoe's Table.

the illustration gives the exact proportion of the piece be sure.' Now.— MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES especially as I said it *43 should consist of no more than two pieces joined together . How did Robinson largest possible square table-top in it ? two pieces. so pieces sugars not fall through. though. In the county of Devon. The Fifteen Orchards. while others stoutly maintained that they ought to be planted Some . where the cider comes from. but I taught him how ' it could be done in such a way that the table might be as large as was possible. to I : was amused when he said. fifteen of the inhabitants of a village are imbued with an excellent spirit of friendly rivalry. My nation do much better " they stop up holes. and a few years ago they decided to settle by actual experiment a tion of apple trees. so should not have any holes in 96. of Crusoe that it wood with the make the positions of the fifteen holes. little difference of opinion as to the cultiva- said they want plenty of light and air.

number of apples. One man had a single tree in his field. in order to compare results. In fact. All day long and night too there he is. in order that they might get shade and protection So they agreed to plant a lot of young trees. another had three trees. the " There he is. I had considerable regard for him.— i 44 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES pretty closely." said Mrs. whilst his hardly eats anything. and the man with fourteen trees had given three each to the men with nine and thirteen trees. they would all have had exactly the same. found everybody plumber ? " He seemed to be in a bad way. I When paid a visit to Peckham recently I asking. a each orchard. the puzzle is to discover how many apples each would have had (the same in every case) if that little distribution had been carried out. It's worrying me into an early know what — — grave. Last year a very curious result was found to have come different from cold winds. Now. 97. figuring and figuring. But. another had two trees. so neglected that I don't He going to happen to me and the five children. business is and takes no rest. another five. " What has happened to Sam Solders. another had four trees." . if the man with eleven trees had given one apple to the man who had seven trees. As he had fitted up a hot-water apparatus for me some years ago which did not lead to an explosion for at least three months (and then only damaged the complexion of one of the cook's followers). It is quite easy if you set to work in the right way. number in about. on comparing notes they found that the total gathered in every allotment was almost the same. " That's how is he's been for three weeks. the last man having as many as fifteen trees in his little orchard. and his wife was seriously anxious about the state of his mind. when I called to inquire. and so on. what was stranger The Perplexed Plumber. and tearing his hair like a mad thing. in his Each of the fifteen individuals discovered that every tree own orchard bore exactly the same still. Solders.

one with a top and the other without a top. Solders out of his dilemma. No margin need be allowed for what ladies would call " turnings. each to hold 1. Solders is a thrifty man.077) be useful to others in my 10 . the smallest possible quantity of metal should be required. so he naturally desired to make the two cisterns of such dimensions that the brim.000 cubic feet of water when filled to The price was to be a certain amount per cistern. He says : " That trade. seems rect- that he had received an order from a customer to make two angular zinc cisterns." I shall show how I helped Mr. Each was to hold exactly 1.MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES I 145 It persuaded Mrs. and also the exact proportions of such a cistern without a top. including cost of labour. Now Mr.000 cubic feet of water ? By " economical " is meant the method that requires the smallest possible quantity of metal." little wrinkle you gave me would (2. This my ingenious readers find the dimensions of the most economical cistern with a top. Solders to explain matters to me. was the Can little question that was so worrying him.

and seemed quite unconscious of the casual remarks that " What are you dreaming about ? " I I addressed to him." he said. for I well knew his methods of working at these things. The Nelson Column. Two " ! . During a Nelson celebration I was standing in Trafalgar Square with a friend of puzzling proclivities. I now detected that he was in the throes of producing a new problem of some sort. He had for some time been gazing at the column in an abstracted way.— 146 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 98. said at last. beginning to figure something out on the back of an envelope. " " Five times round " Two feet. five times round What on earth are you saying ? " " Wait a minute. Somebody's Trilbys ? " I inquired. feethe murmured.

gate sands. but chosen for the purposes of the puzzle. " That's A very interesting little puzzle. One ran faster than the other. drawn the cylindrical shaft of the If it column throughout. The Two Errand Boys. off his boy with a message to the butcher and at the same time the butcher sent his boy to the baker. On the Ramsgate Sands. cult. and they were seen to pass at a spot 720 yards from the baker's shop. were tapering." The puzzle is this. no child may ever have a second time the same neighbour. it is wreathed in a spiral garland which passes round it exactly five times. The puzzle is quite easy if properly attacked. out. The height of the shaft of the Nelson column being 200 feet and its circumference 16 feet 8 inches. when it was found that they passed each other at a spot 400 yards from the butcher's. How far apart are the two tradesmen's shops ? Of course each boy went at a uniform pace through- A country baker sent in the next village. How many rings may they form without any child ever taking twice the hand of any other child right hand or left ? That is. The artist has also intentionally of equal circumference less easy.— — MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES " Here you are ! — 147 it ! " he suddenly exclaimed. 101. Of course the height and circumference are not correct. the puzzle would be 99. What is is the length of the garland ? It looks rather diffi- but really remarkably easy. Pope has told us that all chance is but " direction which thou canst not see." and certainly we all occasionally come across re- . Each stopped ten minutes at his destination and then started on the return journey." He was right. 100. The Three Motor-Cars. Thirteen youngsters were seen dancing in a ring on the Rams- Apparently they were playing *' Round the Mulberry Bush.

the numbers on the cars . the reader of two. and. in which the numbers have this additional peculiarity —that the second if number is a multiple of the first. 345. the ten figures. 345 could be divided by 78 without a remainder. That is. 78. and 78 multiplied by 345 makes will be able to find many similar sets of numbers the same peculiarity. He is pointing out to his two friends that the three numbers on their cars contain all the figures 1 to 9 and 0. what is more remarkable.910. that if the numbers on the they will and second cars are multiplied together make the number on the third car. and five figures respectively that have But there is one set.148 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES markable coincidences wilderment. three. and first 26.910 contain 26. and one only. In other words. just — little things against the probability of the occurrence of which the odds are immense —that fill us with be- One of the three motor men in the illustration has happened on one of these queer coincidences. all Now.

E. B. C. Now a certain passenger. F. and o will read the same both ways. and two diagonals). and five figures respectively. member that the constant must not be changed by the reversal. a 9 a 6. D. whether you turn the diagram upside down or not ? You must not use a 3. C. a 7 a 2. and his selections of these lead to variations of the complete route. and a 2 a 7. he can take the short direct route. numbers so that Can you construct a square it of sixteen different be magic (that is. adding up alike in the four rows. in a straight line or he can go one of the long routes.— — MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES 149 would themselves fulfil this extra condition. The above diagram is the plan of an underground railway. 8. 103. The any distance. or 5. The Tube Railway. E. It will be noted that . with plenty of time on his hands. as these figures will not reverse but a 6 may become a 9 when reversed. What are the three numbers that we want ? Remember that they must have two. four columns. he has optional lines between certain stations. three. Reshall . . so long as you do not go twice along any portion of the line during the same journey. though its conditions are so simple. C. A Reversible Magic Square. B. such as A. B. goes daily fare is uniform for from A to F. Many readers will find it a very perplexing little problem. D. The 1. 102. 4. D. A. How many different routes are there from which he may select ? Fo: example. E. F.

many wonderful sights on the rolling seen a vanilla iceberg. or the sea-sarpint " Have you really seen a sea-serpent ? I thought it was unyes. he thought this was a splendid opportunity for picking up a He therefore proceeded to " draw " the little useful information. " I suppose. or a " P'raps you've never mermaid a-hanging out her things to dry on the equatorial line. certain whether they existed. weather- seas ? " Bless you. " you have seen " sir." said Mr. His knowledge of the sea was therefore very limited." " Uncertin ! You wouldn't say there was anything uncertin ." said the Skipper. The Skipper and the Sea-Serpent. So. as he was taking a holiday on the south coast. Softleigh one morning to a jovial.— ISO THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 104. or the blue-winged shark what flies through " the air in pursuit of his prey. Mr. natives. beaten skipper. Simon Softleigh had spent most of his life between Tooting Bee and Fenchurch Street.

whom he had called for. Simon he never succeeded in working out the correct answer to that little puzzle. each piece was equal in length to three-quarters the length of a piece added to three-quarters of a cable. and before you could say Tom Bowling I cut him into three pieces. for it may confidently be said that out of a thousand readers who attempt the solution not one will get it exactly right. make a ' when we come alongside o' the him with that sword o' mine. it is to the discredit of Mr. 'ead out of the water ship. except. to There were just a gross of osculations altogether. young gentleman. and afterwards we hauled 'em aboard the Saucy Sally." " What was the length of the creature ? " asked Simon. the bashful young man who only escort home. The when I I was skipper of the Saucy Sally. The Dorcas Society. the cannibal long story short. At the close of four and a half months' hard work. the quilt for the dear curate that ladies of a certain Dorcas Society were so delighted with the completion of a beautiful himself. of course. little — There's a puzzle for you to work out. to beast I just let drive at ' 'em ? He used 'em to make tyres for his motor-car takes a lot to puncture a sea-sarpint's skin. I sold 'em to a feller in Rio Janeiro. silk patchwork everybody kissed everybody else.— MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES about a sea-sarpint if 151 once you'd seen one. What did I do with 'em ? Well. chief as eat our cabin- —and we pulls straight into the track of that there sea-sarpint. and eyes flashing let fire. We first as I seed was was a-coming round Cape Horn with a cargo with while its of shrimps from the Pacific Islands when its looks over the port side and sees a tremenjus monster like a snake. " Well. a-bearing down on our I So I shouts to the bo'sun to down the boat. kissed his sisters. I runs below and fetches my sword —the same what used when boy I killed King Chokee. 105. . And what do you suppose he done with Well. 'ave been ? How many Softleigh that cables long must that there sea-sarpint not at all " Now. all of exactually the same length.

we are expected to say the answer is twelve days. A simple version of the puzzle of the climbing snail familiar it to everybody. 106. is tions. and I am sure that they A mutual kiss here counts as two osculaall worked equally well. correctly enough. and was snail apparently intended to inculcate the simple moral that we should never slip if we can help it. But the modern infant in arms is not taken He says. ascending 3 feet every day and slipping back 2 feet every night. because the creature makes an actual advance of 1 foot in every twenty-four hours. that at the end of the . The Adventurous Snail.— 152 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES longer would the ladies have taken over their needleif How much work task the sisters of the curate referred to had played lawn tennis instead of attending the meetings Of course we must ? assume that the ladies attended regularly. is the popular story. We were all taught This it in the nursery. How long does it take to get to the top ? Of course. in in this way. A crawls up a pole 12 feet high.

down as he did in his climbing up. consider the original story. Let us. Now. Of course. Once upon a time two philosophers were walking in their garden. in a puzzle of this kind the day is always supposed to be equally divided into twelve hours' daytime and twelve hours' night. and therefore reaches summit of its ambition on the tenth day. royal surveyor found himself confronted by great natural diffiowing to the wild character of the country. has a sharp edge. the gentleman calculated that the snail ascended 3 feet each day. It happened that the king one day discovered that his four sons were not only plotting against each The dominions other." said the philosopher to his friend. so that when he gets there he will instantly begin to descend." This is the true version of the puzzle.MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES ninth day the snail the 153 is 3 feet from the top. putting precisely the same exertion into his daily climbing sleeping perilous ascent of a wall 20 feet high. where each should be given a triangular territory of equal area. " how long will it take Sir Snail to climb to the top of the wall and descend the other side ? The top of the wall. when one of them espied a highly respectable member of the Helix Aspersa family. the culties. After consulting with his advisers he decided not to exile the princes. The Four Princes. as you know. who was in the same line of business. The result area. sleeping and slipping back 2 feet every night. however. and my readers will perhaps be interested in working out the exact number of days. a pioneer in mountaineering. in the act of making the Judging by the trail. beyond the boundaries of which they would pass at the cost of their lives. the four tri- was that while each was given exactly the same . " Pray tell me. of a certain Eastern monarch formed a perfectly square tract of country. but were in secret rebellion against himself. and and slipping at night as before. but to confine them to the four corners of the country. for it would cease to slip when it had got to the top. 107.

the sum of as many figures as you like. is somewhat in the manner shown in the illustration. that there were nine Muses. while we know that there are nine planets. The puzzle to give the three measure- for each of the four districts in the smallest possible numbers whole furlongs. nine days' wonders. and was perpetually . but also a mystic. Then it has been confidently held that nine tailors make a man . know. add these and deduct the sum from the first number. write of the number nine in ordinary arithmetic. the figures in this new number will always be a multiple of nine. — down a number containing figures together. nine rivers of Hades. He was deeply convinced of the magic properties of the number nine. Plato and the Nines.— 154 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES all of different angular districts were shapes. for and down from heaven. it is required to find (in the smallest possible numbers) four rational right-angled triangles of ments all — equal area. and that a cat has nine lives and sometimes nine tails. Most people are acquainted with some of the curious properties For example. in Both in ancient and modern times the number nine has been considered to possess peculiarly mystic qualities. that Vulcan was nine days falling We instance. In other words. Now. There was once a worthy man at Athens who was not only a cranky arithmetician. 108.

in fact." But Plato devised a way of getting rid of him. problem of the ninth day of the ninth . record it on my phonograph for the benefit of posterity. after working hard at the for nine years. knocked recorded of the old crank that. and." manner depicted in our illustration. fell down nine steps. The puzzle he then propounded was so to arrange the three nines that they will Plato then showed.MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES strolling out to the groves of 155 Academia to bother poor old Plato with hisnonsensical ideas about what he called his " lucky number. old chappie " (that is : the nearest translation of the original Greek term of familiarity) " when you can bring me the solution of this little mystery of the three nines I shall be happy to listen to your treatise. the philosopher cut him short with the remark. by putting them into the form of a fraction. in the that three nines may represent the It is number twenty. When the seer one day proposed to inflict on him a lengthy disquisition on his favourite topic. he one day. be arranged so as to represent the number eleven. " Look here. at nine o clock on the morning month.

many readers will have no little difficulty in discovering Take your pencil you can arrange the three nines to represent twenty. My last go . But after the six counters . knows how to play this game. You make a square and each of the two players. (1) The first player should win ." we will now con- an extension of the game that is distinctly mentioned in the works of Ovid. the parent of " Nine Men's Morris/' referred to by Shakespeare in A Midsummer Night's Dream (Act ii. see it. Having examined " Noughts and Crosses. which they play alternately on to the nine points shown in the diagram. and expired in nine minutes. Noughts and Crosses. getting three in a line and so winning. only the most elementary is arithmetical signs are necessary. (2) the first player should lose or (3) the game should always be drawn. puts his mark (a nought or a cross. Plato's. It is. playing alternately. with the object of .. bered that nine was his lucky number. in fact. in a line wins with the exulting cry : " Tit. Three jolly butcher boys All in a row/' fect a very ancient game. Whichever player first gets three Every child of nine cells. Though the answer and see if absurdly when you it. one of three things must always happen. tat. Which is correct ? It is . 109. sider Ovid's Game.— — 156 — THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES It It will be rememwas evidently also out nine teeth. no. In solving the above simple little puzzle. But if the two players have a perknowledge of it. Scene 2) Each player has three counters. toe. as the case may be) in a cell with the object of getting three in a line.

the grass growing regularly lies the time It will be seen that the sting in the tail. That is the simple game. How many bullocks could I A : feed all on a forty-acre " ? field for six weeks.MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES are played they then proceed to *57 move (always to an adjacent unoccupied point) with the same object. he will continue with 5 to 6. Q a a whatever Black may do. if both players are equally perfect at the game what should happen ? Should the first player always win ? Or should the second player win ? Or should every game be a draw ? One only of these things should always occur. A child may propose a problem that a sage cannot answer. It is now 9. and Black has just played on point 7. That steady . The Fartner'^Oxen. and he will undoubtedly play from 8 to and then. Which is it? in. and so win. In the example below White played first. " That ten-acre farmer propounded the following question meadow of mine will feed twelve bullocks for sixteen weeks or eighteen bullocks for eight weeks. Now. White's move.

the contents of which evidently gave him a shock. yet they were free to revolve round the swivel in one piece. mansion that has figured Mr. one of the manon entering the room. At ten o'clock at night he dismissed the servants. spent most of the year at home. Now we come to the curious circumstance of the case. and would be sitting up late. a reputed millionaire. at a quarter to seven o'clock. found Mr. Grangemoor Park. Next morning. and actually welded together the three hands for the clock had a seconds hand that revolved round the same dial as the hour and minute hands. According to the evidence given. But although the three hands had become welded together exactly servants. But they would not move separately. He would require no attendance. for one of the servants was positive that she had heard loud conversation at a very late hour. right in the very centre of the face. It was clear that after the bullet had passed out of the dead man's head it had struck the tall clock in the room. It was supposed that after all had gone to bed he had admitted some person to the house. and had been stupidly spun round several times by the servants before Mr. on the day preceding the night of the crime he received much in by the second post a single letter. The Great Grangemoor Mystery. 112. Wiley Slyman was called upon the spot.— THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 158 growth of the grass yet to is such a reasonable point to be considered. Stanton so Mowbray was a very wealthy man. and lived quietly enough. shot through the head. The grass is. . assumed to be of equal length and uniform thickness in every case when the cattle begin to eat. residing in that beautiful old English history. The difficulty is not so great as it appears. and some readers it will cause considerable perplexity. and quite dead. as they stood in relation to each other at the moment of impact. He was a bachelor. if you properly attack the question. of course. saying that he had some important business matters to look into. . Mowbray lying on the floor.

the clock face in the illustration shows exactly sound of which nobody in the house had heard. his sagacity : .MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES Now. but what time on the fateful mornidentified it was of the first importance to fix the exact time of the pistol shot. Slyman was asked to give the police the benefit of and experience. The how the hands were Mr. and directly he was shown the clock he smiled and said found. For this and other reasons by several persons day before the murder. his innocence was established. If the crime took place after his departure. arrest in *59 inquiries by the police in the neighbourhood led to the London of a stranger who was as having been seen in the district the it ing he went was ascertained beyond doubt at away by train.

could he cut out of it ? Most people It is all a question of how you cut them out. was convicted on other evidence that was discovered but before he paid the penalty for his wicked act. The stranger was proved to be an old enemy of Mr. The hour hand. Can you also give the exact time ? 113. but their act of were welded instantaneously. or in some other manner obtained possession of a box of biscuits. would have more waste material left over than is necessary. How many The Tramps and the Biscuits. borrowed. example. An deep. on which he had written the precise moment of the crime. he admitted that Mr. and began it out.. Give me a few moments. In the night. while the others were fast asleep under the greenwood . by three and three-quarter inches each measuring two and a half inches by one inch and a half by one inch and a quarter. Mowbray's. to figure Mr. the dial. they would swing round of themselves into equilibrium. Slyman's statement of the time was perfectly correct. you beyond any doubt the exact time that the pistol was fired. servants have been revolving the welded hands. Four merry tramps bought. —Cutting a Wood Block. as they are free on the swivel. for exactly twenty minutes removed from the minute hand You the third of the circumference of attach a lot of importance to the fact that the is —that . Wiley Slyman took from his pocket a notebook. How many pieces could you get out of the block ? 114. You will notice that the three hands appear to be at equal distances from one another. In a few minutes he handed the police inspector a slip of paper.160 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES is " The matter supremely simple. found. economical carpenter had a block of wood measuring eight inches long by four inches wide pieces. is is. which they agreed to divide equally amongst themselves at breakfast next morning. and I no consequence whatever for although they can tell .

161 one man approached the box.077) II . taking a quarter of what they found and giving the odd biscuit to the dog. In the morning they divided what remained equally amongst them. acquired it ? What is the smallest possible number of first biscuits that there could have been in the box when they (2. The third and fourth men the of biscuits. taking a quarter of what remained and giving the odd biscuit to the dog. and again gave the odd biscuit to the animal. which he threw as a bribe to their dog. Every man noticed the reduction in the contents of the box.MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES tree. Later in the night a second man awoke and hit on the same idea. devoured exactly a quarter of odd one left over. but. made no comments. believing himself to be alone responsible. except the number did precisely the same in turn.

.

This table will at once give solutions for any number of cheeses with three stools. Number of Cheeses. The second row is found by adding the natural numbers together from the beginning. I will give my general of solution in the cases of 3. Triangular Numbers. Triangular Pyramids.SOLUTIONS THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES i. The numbers in the third row are obtained by adding together the numbers in the second row from the beginning. The fourth row contains the successive powers of 2. The Reve's Puzzle. The 8 cheeses can be removed in 33 moves. 10 cheeses in 49 moves. method and 5 stools. less 1. 3 5 4 5 1 7 7 17 31 15 3i 63 127 m 49 129 321 769 351 1023 2815 The first row contains the natural numbers. and 21 cheeses in 321 moves. 4. : Write out the following table to any required length Stools. Number 3 1 1 of Moves. for 163 . The next series is found by doubling in turn each number of that series and adding the number that stands above the place where you write the result. 3 4 5 1234567 1 1 3 4 6 10 10 20 15 21 35 56 28 84 Natural Numbers. The last row is obtained in the same way.

156. which will respectively take in. with four stools. In these cases there is. the previous column shows that we must make piles of 6 and which take 17 and 7 moves respectively that is. largest cheese in 1 move . If the number of cheeses in the case of four stools is not tri- angular. is The way to arrange the sacks of flour as follows : — 2. we first pile then we pile the six smallest cheeses in 17 moves on one stool the next 3 cheeses on another stool in 7 moves . 10. and 15 piles Similarly we moves. then remove the will . with five stools. and 4. " The Rook's Tour. we find from the third and sixth rows that 20 cheeses require 111 moves. But we also learn from the table the In the case of three stools. 7 in 127. and subsidiary tables This is the case with the Reve's 8 cheeses. 49. first and fourth rows tell us that 4 cheeses may be removed in 15 moves. 3. makes the number in the middle. then there will be more than one way of making the piles. are told that with five stools 35 cheeses must form of 20. and in all the necessary 49 moves. The Pardoner's Puzzle. 320. 5 in 31. Also. — 3. 78. But will be required. The diagram on page 165 will show how the Pardoner started from the large black town and visited all the other towns once. Here each pair when multiplied by its single neighbour 39. I will leave the reader to work out for himself the extension of the problem. always only one method of solution —that of piling the cheeses. the necessary method of piling. and 21 in 321 moves. See No. The second and fifth rows show that. The Miller's Puzzle. and once only. 10 may be removed in 49. and 35 cheeses 351 moves. 1 64 triangular and is for pyramidal numbers with five stools. and in the case of five stools pyramidal. and only five of the sacks need .— — THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES numbers with four stools. Thus. 4. with four stools and 10 cheeses. in fifteen straight pilgrimages. in M. finally replace the 6 in 17 : making then replace the 3 in 7 moves . 2." in A.

The Knight's Puzzle. 174. ®®©®0®®®OOQ ®©o®ooooooo ©0®®O*OOOOOO @®O©®0®OOOO 4. x 74» 58. 29. 39. .SOLUTIONS 165 CM} tHHHHHHH] [ r~i ]r~i j-~i 3~-i } IHHHH} IHHJ O-Ch-n' be moved. 58. 29. 156. 6 or 6. 78. but they all require the moving of seven sacks. with a rose at every corner. There are just three other ways in which they might have been arranged (4. How this . 2 or 3. 3). . The Knight declared that as many as 575 squares could be marked off on his shield.

E. S. . a. r. of the P are exactly the same size as those form K. with the one exception that the . p. H. . The puzzle propounded by the jovial host of the " Tabard " Inn Southwark had proved more popular than any other of the whole collection. h. 82 . O. . n. 6 K. 16 .— The of Host's Puzzle. . M. b. b. m. . Q." The host of the " Tabard " Inn thereupon proceeded to explain of these to the pilgrims how this apparently impossible task could be done. J. be formed . albeit one is of five pints and the other oi three pints. 57 E. D. I 32 I. C. and then. h. B. and there are 66 squares of . 3 . S. D. B. N. . I. " I see. 0. K. Y. G. E. Z. 15 G. f C. K. R. 6. i. F. N. 14 K. f K. K. 5. p. The total number is thus 575. u. . 2. M. P. This is correct. J.. H. L. G gives 48 . without using any other measure whatever. " that I have sorely twisted thy brains by my little piece of craft. X. F. O. N. t. P. 4 . allowed the barrel to run to waste — a proceeding against which . d. A. The good lady explained that a bung that is made fast in a is like another bung that is falling out of a barrel because one of them is in secure and the other is also insecure. J. 4 . 166 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES : result is achieved ing diagram this size to — may be realized by reference to the accompanyJoin A. F. g. and D. 19 U. H. 24 K. C. m. squares of the form B. 10 B. h. D. 33 . B. These groups have been treated as if each of them represented a different sized square. W. He first filled the 5-pint and 3-pint measures. C. T. z. e. q. r. 10 Q. 56 H.— The Wife barrel of Bath's Riddles. The little relationship poser is readily understood when we are told that the parental command came from the father (who was also in the room) and not from the mother. b. turning the tap. the size A. Q. 42 . my merry masters/' he cried. 32 . V. M. Yet it is but a simple matter for me to put a true pint of fine old ale in each two measures.

and two long diagonals now add up to 34 8. . The piece of tapestry fit had to be cut along the lines into three pieces so as to together and form a perfect square. He . . The contents. Clerk of Oxenford's Puzzle. illustration shows how the square is to be cut into four and how these pieces are to be put together again to make a magic square. do not affect the solution of the puzzle. four rows.SOLUTIONS the . . leaving one pint now in the 5-pint drank the contents of the 3-pint and finally drew off one pint from the barrel into the 3-pint. however. . in every case. 7. . 167 that the cask did not contain closed the tap company protested but the wily man showed that he was aware much more than eight pints of ale. . The pieces. He had thus obtained the . leaving one pint now in the barrel filled 3-pint from 5-pint allowed the company to drink the contents of the 3-pint filled the 3-pint from the 5-pint. emptied the 3-pint into the barrel transferred the two pints from the 5-pint to the 3-pint filled the 5-pint from the barrel. with the . It will be found that the four columns. then and emptied the 3-pint into the barrel filled the 3-pint from the 5-pint . to the great astonishment of the admiring crowd of pilgrims. required one pint of ale in each measure. The Tapiser's Puzzle.

9. This was. Then he removed the pillar. the quantity of wood that had been cut away. taking great care not to lose any of the sand. £ * £> <£ & £ 4 & * & * * S * * £ £ £ £ 6 & £ * * A & <* £ 4 & £ * # fr 6 £ £ <* t\ . therefore. The black dots indicate the squares on which the three arrows originally stood. so that still no arrow was in line with another. He then placed the carved pillar in this box and filled up all the vacant space with a fine. . which he carefully shook down until he could get no more into the box. pattern properly matched. 3 feet by 1 foot by 1 foot. The Puzzle of the Squire's Yeoman.3> <3* shows how to make the cuts and how to put the pieces together.i68 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES It was also stipulated must be as small as possible. filled a space equal to one cubic foot. of the three pieces in effect that one The illustration B & & a & & e & & * & e & # £ # * 6' <£ & # ^ & # & £ # <*• & O& £ & & # & £ # £ # # 5 & & ^ & & * * £ & £ £> 6 £ £ £ ? *p * <> £ S * * * * & £ £ # & * £ ^ * & <a <?• ^ <£> <& # * £ & * * * & * # 6 * &> £ £ $ £ & £ & & <* £ £ # £ & & & ^ # 6 * $ ^ t ^ & & & £ £ # & 6 $. The illustration will show how three of the arrows were removed each to a neighbouring square on the signboard of the " Chequers " Inn. — 10. while one of the pieces contains only twelve of the little squares. The carpenter said that he made a box whose internal dimensions were exactly the same as the original block of wood that is. on being shaken down alone in the box. dry sand. The Carpenter's "Puzzle. which.

ment C being at the top of the pack and G at the bottom. which is the required arrangefor the cards. Then write the first C against shown in and each successive letter against the second vacant. and so on. he will get the letters all placed in the following order :—CYASNPTREIRMBLUIRG. As there are eighteen cards bearing the letters "CANTERBURY circle. write the numbers 1 to 18 in letter a as 1." the diagram. P against 6. I against 10. number that happens to be This has been done as far as the second R.— SOLUTIONS 169 11. If the reader completes the process by placing Y against 2. The Nun's Puzzle. PILGRIMS. .

But it is important sometimes to note whether or not the condition is that there shall be a given number of divisors and no more. . Thus in the case of my puzzle 7. . counting i and the number itself as divisors.560 = Powers = 3 Therefore 4x4x2x2 = 64 divisors. 7. 4. three and three. The least number is 7. Then the number of divisors will 1 be (p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) . and not to mention its size. .. and so on. while 24 has eight divisors. 2.. 3. 2. 7. 4. there- have ridden in single file. For example. The Merchant's Puzzle. 1. 8. numbers will divide a given number.560. 2. 1. the smallest number that has seven divisors and no more is 64. two and two. for no smaller number has more than sixty-four divisors. This puzzle amounts to finding the smallest possible number that has exactly sixty-four divisors. 2. 2 3 x 35 x 5 x 7 3 11 To find the smallest number that has a given number of divisors we must proceed by trial. 6. and might equally fulfil the conditions. As there are never more than . 3. 1. The men move in the following order : — 1. The fewest possible moves for getting the prisoners into their dungeons in the required numerical order are twenty-six. c are prime numbers. four and four. for it certainly would not be possible along an ordinary road ! To N. different . . The pilgrims might.— 170 —— THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 12. 6. b. 5. The stipulation as to " no more" was not necessary in the case of my puzzle. 6. 2. 5. 13. fore. where a. 3. The Man of Law's Puzzle. . in exactly sixty-four different ways. 8. 4. the last manner being in a single row of 7. . 1.560. let find N how many = a^ b q cr . The Merchant was careful to say that they were going over a common. 5. which includes as divisors and N itself.

into. in M. See also solution to No. p. there can be no ambiguity The diagram may be simplified by my " buttons and string " A :e> Xm of the simple . fully explained in A. 94. among eight out of eleven pie. actly the 15.— — SOLUTIONS 171 one vacant dungeon to be moved in the notation.. four will But five out of the eleven will only eat the only . The Cook's Puzzle. It then takes one forms of A or B. 230. pie There were four portions of warden and four portions of venison pasty to be distributed guests. his square The illustration shows clearly how the Weaver cut of beautiful cloth into four pieces of ex- same size and shape. In A we use counters in B we can employ rooks on a corner of a (123) chessboard. MM M < MK method. so that each piece contained an embroidered lion and castle unmutilated in any way. The Weaver's Puzzle. In both cases we have to get the order 4 5 6 > in J the (78 fewest possible moves. and the solution is much easier. 14.

) Where . I find that . beginning the count at the Doctor. .) = 75. The ladies would. the Sompnour.) = 10.). The Sotn/mour's Puzzle. The second count falls on who next steps out. and sis long as the Monk kept his animals within these limits the thing was always possible. therefore. The general solution to this puzzle is difficult. The first be seen in the illustration standing the second count of twenty-nine falls on the Shipman. The Monk's Puzzle. The number of dogs might vary from twenty to forty. (iii. The numbers of combinations are (i. 17. The Monk might have placed dogs in the kennels in two thousand nine hundred and twenty-six different ways.) where the other of the pair is given pie (iv. and she was told to begin her count at the Doctor of Physic. A great many people will give the answer by overlooking the fact that in forty cases in class (iii. (i. the Doctor. five first mentioned where only one of the accommodating pair is given pie (iii. 16. Any possible combination must the warden pie (ii. The number that the Sompnour confided to the Wife of Bath was twenty-nine. This is the point that upset the calculations of the company.—— 172 eat the pasty. Any multiple of 2.) into one of the following groups.) where both of the pair are given pie. THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES and two are fall is willing to eat of either. though the accommodating pair would be eating differently of the two dishes. as 185.) precisely the same eight guests would be sharing the meal as in class (ii. have been left in possession had it not been for the unfortunate error of the good Wife. (iv. distributed entirely among the . who will on her right.) = 50. (ii.) = 10 making in all 145 ways of selecting : — the eight participants. and the Miller. respectively who steps out of the ring. The remaining three counts fall on the Cook.520 added to 29 would also have served the same purpose. so that there should be ten dogs on every side.

19. the number of different 4 ion3 4. the number must not be less than zn nor greater than 4W. but it may be any number within these limits. — — — 1- L 1. if we count only those 45 arrangements that are fundamentally different. as the Monk himself did. The Puzzle of the Prioress. 18. may be placed in- + 6n3 + 1411 + i5n+ I In order that there may be n dogs on every side. An extension of the principle involved in this puzzle is given in No. will The fit curiously- may be cut into four pieces that together and . The Abbot shaped cross of Chertsey was quite correct.? —— SOLUTIONS 173 for n dogs on every side of the square. Every year she must necessarily end her tenth voyage at the island from which she first set out. But if we count ! — 4$ ^ + all reversals and reflections as different. and o T." See also " The Eight Villas " and " A Dormitory Puzzle " in A. There are just two hundred and sixty-four different ways in which the ship Magdalen might have made her ten annual voyages without ever going over the same course twice in a year. " The Riddle of the Pilgrims. 2 then n dogs (odd or even) ways.38n 2 -f 6211 + <n ~ jj j ways . where n is even. The Shiptnan's Puzzle. 42. in M.„ ^ + is -> where n is odd.

this little question has really engaged the attention of learned men for two hundred and fifty years but although Peter de Fermat showed in the seventeenth century how an answer may be found in two fractions with a denominator of no fewer than twenty-one figures. Thus Fermat. but nobody has ever published the much smaller result that I now print. as the circumferences of the two phials were one foot and two feet respectively and the find cubes of one and two added together make nine. An eminent actuary and another correspondent have taken the trouble to cube out these numbers. in 20. These numbers clearly must be fractional. then an answer would be that the cubes of f f ff ilff and ffft^lii added together make exactly 28. us that Here we have indeed a knotty problem. The Puzzle of the Doctor of Physic. Now. not only are all the published answers. The cubes of «f"o™*"j and £™7024«™ 03 added together make exactly nine. See also No.174 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES How M. " The Silver Cubes. by his method. this is form a perfect square. 31 in A. 61. and that similar solids are as the cubes of corresponding lengths. that I have seen inaccurate. and therefore these fractions of a foot are the measurements of the circumferences of the two phials that the Doctor required to contain the same quantity of liquid as those produced. tion. derive from it an . Our text-books tell all spheres are similar. Therefore. first obtained a negative solution in ." Given a known case for the expression of a number as the sum or difference of two cubes. we can. infinite number of other cases alternately positive and negative. starting from the known case i 8 + 2 3 = 9 (which we will call a fundamental case). If the phials were one foot and three feet in circumference respectively. what we have to is two other numbers whose cubes added together make nine. done is shown in the illustra- See also p. and they both find my result quite correct. by formula.

The Ploughman's Puzzle. We can say of any number up to 100 whether it is possible or not to express it as the sum of two cubes. xxx. 175 and from this his positive solution in bigger figures But there is an infinite number of fundamentals. planted so as to form as shows how the sixteen trees might have been many as fifteen straight rows with four trees in every row. Students should read the Introduction to Lucas's Theorie des Nombres. 21. . trial by his derived negative solution. and I found a negative fundamental solution in smaller figures than from which I obtained the result shown above. except 66. That is the simple explanation. p. Some years ago I published a solution for the case of -©•+©rof which Legendre gave at some length a " proof " of impossibility but I have since found that Lucas anticipated me in a communica- tion to Sylvester.— SOLUTIONS bigger figures. This is in excess of what was for a long time The illustration . still.

where the numbers on the sixteen bottles add up to 30 in the ten straight directions. 23.176 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES . 22. 6. formed one step further to the left. 9. . The trick consists in the fact that. is near the outer extremity of the King's below it on the left cheek. believed to be the maximum number of rows possible and though with our present knowledge I cannot rigorously demonstrate that " fifteen rows cannot be beaten. but it is absolutely necessary to begin at one of these points and end at the other. The square is. in fact. The Franklin's Puzzle. is The answer to this puzzle shown all in the illustration. left One point the other is eye . line The portrait may be drawn in a single because it contains only two points at which an odd number of lines meet. I have a strong " pious opinion that it is the highest number of rows obtainable. the six bottles (3. 10. 5. although and 15) in which the flowers have been placed are not removed. The Squire* s Puzzle. yet the sixteen need not occupy exactly the same position on the table as before.

If there had been a thousand coins there would be 7. A very little shown the reader the puzzle (2. in accordance with the stated conditions. in exactly 894. quite impossible of solution. The Parson* s Puzzle. any number was extremely hard to con12.112 ways. 177 The Friar's Puzzle.348 different ways. but struct.077) is examination of the original drawing will have have at first read the conditions. as he will 12 . It is a difficult problem in the partition of numbers. and the best method is to find the twelve separate formulas for the different congruences to the modulus 25. I have a single formula for the solution of it of coins in the case of four bags.— — SOLUTIONS 24. We have therefore to that.049. might have been placed in the The five hundred silver pennies four bags.

. ! 26. therefore. Though the plan showed all the bridges in It is not his parish. as shown. stated that the river did not take its rise in the parish. The answer would be. because we are told it " joined the sea some hundred miles to the south. The illustration will be cut into four pieces that show how the triangular piece of cloth may will fit together and form a perfect square.— 178 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES look for some loophole in the«actual conditions as they were worded. as That this was not prohibited we shall soon find. he could then and once only on his way to church. If the Parson could get round the source of the river. we must assume that it did. and since it leads to the only possible solution. Bisect to F making AB in D and BC in E EF equal to EB bisect AF . produce the in line AE G and describe the . it only showed " part of " the parish itself." while no parish ever extended a hundred miles cross every bridge once in the shown annexed illustration. It should be noted that we are clearly prevented from considering the possibility of getting round the mouth of the river. The Haberdasher's Puzzle.

produce EB . and make equal to BE the cuts. on 17th May 1905. M'Elroy. to H. I first I W. and also at the Royal Institution in the following month. you will now have the required directions for arc HJ. is due to Mr. the length of the side of the required square from E with distance EH. but though many hundreds of attempts were sent in there was not a single solver. with some examples of a general method for transforming all Superposition : rectilinear triangles into squares by dissection. in the more general form " A New Problem on : — a demonstration that an equilateral triangle can be cut into four pieces that may be reassembled to form a square. from the points D JK and K drop perpendiculars on EJ at L and M. at Burlington House.SOLUTIONS arc 179 is AHF." It was also issued as a challenge to the readers of the Daily Mail (see issues of 1st and 8th February 1905). If you have done this accurately. however. Credit. who alone sent me the correct solution when published the problem in the Weekly Dispatch in 1902. I exhibited this problem before the Royal Society. add an illustration showing the puzzle in a rather curious . and EH . C. describe the now.

In this reasoning. one direction they form the triangle. a " jump " to a straight line if you have a billion steps as it is at there is —that — . in M. formed of " steps " parallel to the sides of the square that path must be of the same length as the two sides. The Dyer's Puzzle. because it is .— 180 — THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES it practical form. The correct answer is 18. It does not matter if you have to use the most powerful microscope obtainable the rule is always true if the path is made up of steps in that way. The Great Dispute between little it the Friar and the Sotnpnour. see No. problem we attempted to show how. 27. where n represents the number of Of course where n is even the remainders in rows and columns will be even. 28. by sophistical may apparently be proved that the diagonal of a square is of precisely the same length as two of the sides. increasing the number of steps infinitely no limit whatever theoretically to the number of steps that can be made but you can never reach In fact it is just as much a straight line by such a method. 358 in A. You may go on is. For further solution. things. The general formula for six fleurs-de-lys for all squares greater than 2 2 is simply Six times the square of the number of combinations of n this : a time. taken three at fleurs-de-lys in the side of the square.816 different ways. The a very obvious puzzle was the shortest distance between two points fallacy if we admit that But where does the error come in ? is a straight line. it is perfectly true that so long as our zigzag path is Well. as was made in polished It will mahogany with brass be seen that the four pieces form a sort of chain. and where n is odd the remainders will be odd. become a straight line. and that when they are closed up in hinges for use by certain audiences. But the error lies in the assumption that such a zigzag path can ever to discover the fallacy. and when closed in the other direction they form the square.

the general formula is Thus in A. or. is 4(2" — 1). and the general solution for such cases. The general formula is 63. A n [4(2 — therefore the expression that D we the form of the Rat-catcher's Puzzle. but these two represent very i)] 2 . as in B. 5. the spherical surface of the above the brim of the vessel. C. is always spherical. 29. and 9 has a non-palindrome line (the word being BOY). letters. is The number ways [4(2" I - i)] 2 . By be well to give here a formula for the general most common forms of the diamondthe word " line " I mean the complete diagonal. B.504. be less convex . its middle letter in the centre. There is the whole thing in a nutshell. where the line contains 2n+ 1 Where the line is a single palindrome. number of letters in the sentence for such arrangements. and Hence the top diameter of any vessel at the summit of a mountain will form the base of the segment of a greater sphere than it would at the bottom. and it is a palindrome without diagonal readings. with letters. reader is therefore free to select any mountain he likes in Italy water must be less or elsewhere 30.! — — SOLUTIONS — 181 the very outset to pass from the two sides to the diagonal. in other words. This sphere. being greater. The Puzzle of of different the Canon's Yeoman. and In cases C and I have given above. have double palindromes. the lines respectively contain 5. Chaucer's Puzzle. and D. must (from what has been already said) surface of water or other liquid is The the greater any sphere the less is its convexity. when the is 2n + 1. think it will solution of each of the four letter puzzle. 7. This is . It would be just as absurd to say we might go on dropping marbles into a basket until they become sovereigns as to say we can increase the number of our steps until they become a straight line. and consequently The it will hold less at the top of a mountain than at the bottom.

where the line contains is different types. and this is what The formula for D is this x 7 + 5) x 2 2 "+ 2 + (2*+* x JL x 3 x {in LfL *) 2" + *.) specially in cases where they are possible and admitted readings may start anywhere (iii. the general expression cult case of I all. 257. but not the same letter twice in immediate succession. 4(z 2n — 2).l82 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES In C. Y B YOY YOBOY YOY Y L LEL LEVEL LEL L L NON NOOON NOONOON NOOON NON N N LEL LEVEL LEVEVEL LEVE LEVEL LEVEVEL LEVEL LEL L . .) no diagonal readings are allowed these have to be dealt with (ii. where it is impossible to go forwards and backwards in a reading without dition will be understood if repeating the first O touched —a proceeding which 5 I have said : is not allowed. In the example given there are therefore 400 readings for n = See also Nos. and 25S in A. using letters more than once in a single reading. 256. the reader glances at C.) readings may go backwards and forwards. 4^—1 far the letters. But D is by most diffi- had better here state that in the diamonds under consideration (i. This last con- — . very different. accounts for (« In the case its D it is greater difficulty.8 where the number of letters in the line is 4« + i. in M. 2.

money in the proportion of 7 to 1. As all three ate equal shares : of the bread.SOLUTIONS 31. Therethe Miller provided V* and ate f he contributed | to the Manciple's meal whereas the Weaver provided £. fore. 183 The Manciple's Puzzle. The simple Ploughman. and the Weaver only one. since they contributed to the Manciple . ate . who was so ridiculed for his opinion. Therefore. as it should be evident that each ate f of a loaf. must divide the eight pieces of . and conf tributed only £. . they in the same proportion. was perfectly correct the Miller should receive seven pieces of money.

" some of the riddles that have put yet will would greatly tax the wit of the unlettered knave to rede I try to show the manner thereof in such way that^all may have understanding. " Of a truth. PUZZLING TIMES AT SOLVAMHALL CASTLE SIR HUGH EXPLAINS HIS PROBLEMS The friends of Sir Hugh de Fortibus were many of his strange puzzles that at a gathering so perplexed over of his kinsmen and I retainers he undertook to explain his posers.. For many there be who cannot of themselves forth 184 ." said he.

275. There are thus 26 strokes in all. Sir Hugh explained. 250. the fourth in 2 approaches and 1 drive. 200." he could play as follows line : — reached in 3 approaches. This is clearly correct. the second in 2 drives. the third in 2 approaches. that the length of any chain having like rings is equal to the inner width of a ring multiplied by the number of rings and added to twice the thickness It may be shown that the inner of the iron whereof it is made. 33. and 400 yards apart. " By my halidame ! " exclaimed Sir Hugh. which for their sins they some of yon do truly would they well know. width of the rings used in the tilting was one inch and two-thirds deserve. and will take pleasure therein/' 32. the seventh in 1 drive and 1 approach. the sixth in 2 drives and 1 approach.—— SOLUTIONS do all 185 their gain these things. and the feat cannot be performed in fewer. The Game of Bandy-Ball. then . for if we call the 125 stroke the " drive " and the 100 stroke The first hole could be the " approach. 325. mayhap. 375. Tilting at the Ring. the eighth in 3 drives. 350. in answer to this puzzle. he might go round the whole course in 26 strokes. " if varlets had been put in chains. if a man could always strike the ball in a perfectly straight and send it at will a distance of either 125 yards or 100 yards. but will yet study them to when they be given the answers. that as the nine holes were 300. 225. the fifth in 3 drives and 1 backward approach. and the ninth hole in 4 approaches.

you cannot go in and cells. lieth on . 34.." continued Sir Hugh. albeit. = 6 in. It will be noticed that every link put on the chain loses a length equal to twice the thickness of the iron. any place. x 3 + 1 in. by beginning at the one and ending at the other. THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES and the number of rings Stephen Malet did win was three. which be even numbers. certes. would be nine. x 9 + 1 in. two such odd cells. you must take heed that every cell hath two doors or four. = 16 in. thickness of the iron gives the exact length. passing through all the doors once and no more. and never more." and those that fell to Henry de Gournay The knight was quite correct. which have but three. to make our journey in many ways with mark that only one of these odd cells success. " how they may find the cell in the Dungeon of the Death's-head wherein the but 'tis easy withal when noble maiden was cast. so I pray you.i86 thereof. Thus De Gournay beat Malet by The drawing showing the rings may assist the reader of in verifying the answer and help him to see why the inner width number of links and added to twice the a link multiplied by the six rings. Beshrew me you do but know how to do it. except two Now. and if in. yet may we. for if in. In attempting to pass through ! every door once. out of But as there be but if the number of doors be an odd number. " Some here have asked me. The Noble Demoiselle.

my masters. 35. this placing of the figures I may be done than by the doing Therefore have in suchwise written the num- . is " It hath been said that the proof of a pudding eating thereof. therefore the cell with the star situated over the eye must be the one sought. and ever in the better by the teeth of Saint George I know no way of showing of how it. and one of the routes that will solve the puzzle perfectly certain that is The many It is shown by the dotted line. you must start at the lower star and end at the upper one left ." The drawing will make this quite clear to the reader. then. two " odd cells " are indicated by the stars. The Archery Butt.— SOLUTIONS the outside of the dungeon. so 187 perforce start therefrom. we must Marry. the noble demoiselle must needs have been wasting in the other.

having all their sides equal. I give one of these. The illustration will show how this was to be . if for every number in the accompanying drawing we substitute the difference between 37. 36." in all the twelve lines bers that they of three that are I think it well here to supplement the solution of De Fortibus with a few remarks of my own. In some cases there are several different solutions. with 13. Also exchange 18 with 12. Thus. from the arrangement in the original drawing. and any such number from 2 to 18 may occur. The Donjon Keep Window. 4. 8. To obtain the second solution exchange respectively 7. 2. In every instance there must be an even number in the central place. 17. it and 20. Every solution has its complementary.i88 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES do add up to twenty and three upon the butt. 5. we get the solution in the case of Similarly. In this case Sir Hugh had greatly perplexed his chief builder by demanding that he should make a window measuring one foot on every side and divided by bars into eight lights. excepting 30. 10. The nineteen numbers may be so arranged that the lines will add up to any number we may choose to select from 22 to 38 inclusive. but in the case of 23 there are only two. we may at once obtain a solution for the case of 38. 9. and the other numbers may remain unmoved. in the illustration. 15.

Moden. then each of the eight triangular lights is six inches on every side." exclaimed Sir Hugh de Fortibus when this puzzle was brought up. we get the ten pieces that together. and the arcs ac and bd being precisely similar. done in this wise.SOLUTIONS done. He showed that if the cuts be made as in Figure 1." said De Fortibus slyly to the architect. the four pieces will fit together and form a perfect square. master builder. " By the toes of St. seeing its exceeding difficulty. and ofttimes have I marvelled at the thing. " my poor wit hath never shaped a more cunning artifice or any more bewitching to look upon. if we there only regard the three curved lines. It came to me as in a vision." 37. cross. The Crescent and the Cross. " Of a truth. symmetrical Greek and form a perfectly The proportions of the crescent and . as in Figure 3. 189 It will be seen that if each side of the window measures one foot. as it is most certain it never could be." The worthy knight then pointed out that the crescent was of a particular and somewhat irregular form the two distances a to 6 and c to d being straight lines. " I did not tell thee that the window must be square. it is My masters and kinsmen. as shown in Figure 2. By — now making the straight cuts also shown in Figure fit 2.

is the answer 16. The Snail on the Flagstaff. and the solution can be demonstrated to be absolutely exact and not merely approximate. always passing from a letter to an adjoining one. ten lines or steps in multiply ten 2's ways. and truly the result. in which the problem is simplified by introducing the intermediate square.. all thou dost seek. 38. of proceeding (twice times two are four) ways of going on (twice times four are eight) and so there be two on until the end. Though it is there was no need to take down and measure the staff. . etc. all ye need do is to together.— go — i THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES the cross in the original illustration were correct. mark ye. The Amulet. 4." 39. Therefore. be reached in 2. 1024. 8. Each letter in order from A downwards may so : R R R A A A A O C C O A A A A A A D D D D D D D " . but it is far more difficult to understand than the above method. as there be from A to the bottom. 32. fine fellows/' said Sir Hugh to some who had besought him to explain. I have a solution in considerably fewer pieces. " that at the very first start there be two ways open whichever B ye select. r A B AAAAAAAA BBBBBBBBB RRRRRRRRRR AAAAAAAAAAA Now. undoubtedly necessary to find its height before the answer . The puzzle was to place your pencil on the A at the top of the amulet and count in how many different ways you could trace out the word " Abracadabra " downwards. there will be two several ways whichever R ye select.

but it was none the less clearly indicated to the reader who is sharp as long as . he evidently stands just six feet in his height will his boots 40. The shadow of the staff is the same length as Sir Hugh's height therefore this shadow is six feet long. the snail. be also just twice Us shadow. and it is a singular fact (though I cannot here show the subtle method of working) that the number. The number in a square indicates the length last puzzle The culty does not make a good . at Therefore we know that the the same place and time of day. flagstaff will. so that it reaches its journey's end on the tenth day. and the casket can have no other dimensions than 20 inches square. be seen in the original picture that Hugh's height all is just twice the length of his shadow. window which is Sir Hugh is In the original illustration to the donjon keep shown standing against a wall. This is the only possible solution. Lady Isabel's Casket was undoubtedly a hard nut. and order of those squares are determined by the given dimensions of the strip of gold. the window in Therefore. The accompanying diagram indicates exactly how the top of Lady Isabel de Fitzarnulph's casket was inlaid with square pieces of rare wood (no two squares alike) and the strip of gold 10 inches by a quarter of an inch. but perhaps diffipuzzle any the less interesting when we are shown the solution. At the end of nine days it is three feet from the top. really advances one foot in a day of twenty-four hours. be found by measurement to be just six times the inside height of the window. The reader will doubtless here exclaim.SOLUTIONS can be given. ! in these matters. Now. as stated to be one foot square on the inside. sizes. by climbing up three feet in the daytime and slipping back two feet by night. of Sir It will It 191 retainers was well known among the friends and Sir Hugh de Fortibus that he was exactly six feet in height. and the flagstaff must be twelve feet high. it was not stated in so many words. " This is all very well but how were we to know the height of Sir Hugh ? It was never stated how tall he was " No.

yet there be we may never bring within our undermany others with which we and they that . mind the lesson that our fleeting life is rounded and Whence we came and whither we go be riddles. " if the strange offspring of poor wit about which we have held pleasant counsel to-night hath mayhap had some small interest for ye. let these matters serve to call to beset with enigmas." he said. so the accuracy of the answer can be checked almost at a glance. and albeit such as these standing. Sir Hugh de Fortibus made some general concluding remarks on the occasion that are not altogether uninteresting to-day.192 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES in inches of the side of that square. my " Friends and retainers.

for out of such doth issue all manner of good in ways unforeseen for them that do come after us. and the wit. (2." .SOLUTIONS 193 do come after us will ever strive for the answer. it is well that we make the attempt for 'tis truly good and honourable to train the mind. Whether success do attend or do not attend our labour. and the fancy of man.077) iS .

7 to 10. we shall find that in every case we are obliged to place more than three persons in some of the rooms. it would have been possible to accommodate guests in any either 24. was possible to accommodate under the . to 2. If it The Riddle of the Pilgrims. 8 to 11. 1 and transfer it to basket No. 6 to 9. and eleven persons on each side of the building. 12 to 3.—— — — THE MERRY MONKS OF RIDDLEWELL 41. 30. If. on the other hand. 9 to 12. were not for the Abbot's conditions that the number of room may not exceed three. we try to put up 33. take the fish from basket No. making three revolutions in all. 39. 27. proceed as follows. it will be found necessary to leave some of the rooms empty. 36. or 42 pilgrims. where " 1 to 4 " means. 4 1 to 4. easy to solve in four revolutions. and complete the last revolution to 1. 39 many or 42 pilgrims. from 1. 10 to 1. are more 42. but the solutions in three difficult to discover. 24 pilgrims so that there shall be twice as But to accommodate sleeping on the upper floor as on the lower floor. announced (whom. The Riddle of the Fish-pond. Number the fish baskets in the illustration from 1 to 12 in the Starting is seen to be going. Thus we know it that the number of pilgrims originally it 194 will be remembered. Or you can proceed this way direction that Brother Jonathan : n : 4 to It is 7. 33. 3 to 6. 2 to 5. 36. 5 to 8. and that every room must be occupied.

of the same design. The secret consists in placing four of with four places that must be occupied by plain one kind and only three of each of the others. The accompanying diagram shows 2 • 1 T T 1 1 1 • 1 M 1 8 Rooms 1 « X. since three more than this number were actually provided with beds. ] — 1 6 Rooms on Upper Floor i 2"" T" 1 I on . it will be seen that there are eleven persons on each side of the building. you will be left tiles. on page 196. and twice as many above as below. and that.SOLUTIONS 195 conditions of the Abbot) must have been 27. 43. The Riddle of is the Tiled Hearth. Lower1 Floor on ] 1 T ]Y . instead of only three.Lower Floor 6 Rooms ±2 how they might be arranged. and if in each instance we regard the upper floor as placed above the lower one. . If after placing the four lions and only three plain tiles you fall into the error of placing four other tiles of another pattern. or diagonally) No tile is (either horizontally. with another are used. the total number of pilgrims was 30. The correct answer in line tile shown in the illustration vertically.

Now. the second transaction consists in taking away a fifth of the contents of the jug- a pint of water mixed with one-fifth of a quarter We thus leave behind in the jug four-fifths of a quarter of a pint of wine—that is. .196 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 44. After the first theft the wine left in the cask would be in the cask. There was a pint of wine in the bottle and a The question was pint of water in the jug. The Riddle of the Cellarer. a pint) of water. and the jug one pint of water mixed with a quarter of a pint of wine. Let us assume that the glass would hold a quarter of a pint. Th e : Riddle of the Sack of Wine. Did Brother Benjamin take more wine from from the jug ? Or did he take more water the bottle than water from the jug than wine from the bottle ? He did neither. one-fifth of of a pint of wine. After the first manipulation the bottle contains three-quarters of a pint of wine. The same quantity of wine was transferred from the bottle as water was taken from the jug. 45. and on thirty occasions There were 100 pints of wine a pint and replaced it with a pint of John the Cellarer had stolen water. one-fifth of a pint—while we transfer from the jug to the bottle an equal quantity (one-fifth of that is.

" respecting which see A. they could who could form themselves — . ! W and did not care to cellarer face the task of making that long and tedious calculation in order to get the quantity " to a nicety. I have ascertained that the exact quantity of wine stolen would be 26. 1. . in M." as the wily had stipulated. The reader site is aware that there are prime numbers and compowhole numbers. Or 113 x 73* . The monks doubtless omitted the answer for the reason that they had no tables of logarithms. Crusaders. in a fraction of fifty-eight decimals 46. 73 by 73. Now. 197 99 pints . 47.176 into a square 776 by 776 form 113 squares of 5. 111. The Riddle of St. after the second theft the wine in the cask would be after the third theft Vxnf pints (the square of 99 divided by 100) there would remain \VVinf (the cube of 99 divided by the square of 100) . The and correct answer that there would have been 602. This by the ordinary method of calculation gives us a number composed of 59 figures to be divided by a number composed of 58 figures But by the use of logarithms it may be quickly ascertained that the required quantity is very nearly 73 T pints of wine left in the cask. after the stranger joined their ranks. Consequently the cellarer stole nearly 26. .1 = 776s This is a particular case of the so-called " Pellian Equation. 164. By A man who would involve the monastery deserved severe punishment.329 men that is.03 pints. The Riddle of is the Crusaders.. after the fourth theft there would remain the fourth power of 99 divided by the cube of 100 and after the thirtieth theft there would remain in the cask the thirtieth power of 99 divided by the twenty-ninth power of 100.SOLUTIONS . a simplified process of calculation.111 cannot be a prime number. p.0299626611719577269984907683285057747323737647323555652999 pints. Edmondsbury.

and 37 are unknown. of numbers of the form Lucas. Hoppe. who died in i486. I have given in these pages the factors where n = 7 and 17. . of the factors are (3. The factors when n = 19. he was led to investigate the case of n = 19. I0 ~ x . The difficulty lies wholly with those cases where n is a prime number.037 . of course. 16. i. and after long and He submitted his tedious work he succeeded in proving the number to be a prime. 198 because if it THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES were the only possible answers would be those proposed by Brother Benjamin and rejected by Father Peter.191 . See also the Introduction. or the answer would be indeterminate. if U Arithmetique Amusante. p. .649 5*3>239)> and (53 79 265371653). in his Treated generally. an Arabian mathematician In the and astronomer Talkhys. ings of the Society for 14th February 19 18. by Lucas is one giving all the factors of numbers of the above form up to w = i8.* * Mr.in equals 239 x 4649 (both primes). informs me that. called the Talkhys. any. Paris National Library are several manuscripts dealing with the and a commentary by Alkala^adi. But I read Lucas as stating that they are given in Talkhys. and a specially appointed committee of He refers me to the Proceedthat body accepted the proof as final and conclusive. and since each cat killed more mice than there were cats. Also it cannot have more than two factors. This can. (21. after reading my statement in the Introduction. and 13 are respectively (3 37). though an eminent mathematician reads him differently. 18. this problem consists in finding the factors. (41 271). 5. New York. and suggests to me that they were discovered by Lucas himself. by Ibn Albanna. It seems almost inconceivable that Arabians of that date could find the factors where w = i7. As a matter of fact. • • there are any. the answer must be 239 cats. but this has not been possible during Among the tables given the war. if .. proof to the London Mathematical Society. The factors when n = 3.763 43. 23. 11. gives a number of curious tables which he obtained from an arithmetical treatise. If n = 2. we get the prime 11. Oscar When n = 29. as given in my Introduction.iii. be settled by an examination of Talkhys. . of the first half of the thirteenth century.

.111 n = 18 = 111. 199 . two factors are (83 1.111. . Therefore we know that factors of .001 x 10. n = 9.111 x (9. .001 x (101) x 1. in n= x 1.909.000. The Riddle of the Frogs' Ring. When » = 2. 62. when n = % the when n = 6. is composite and can be working may 19 52579.111.SOLUTIONS . The fewest are 118. split into how the 48.003 77»843i839397) when w = 31. As for the even values of n. in in x 91 x 1. the prime number 11. possible moves in which this puzzle can be solved figures I will give the complete solution.001 In the above two tables n the form is of the form 4m + 2. one factor is 2791 and when ^ = 41. the following curious series of i .091) x (909.111 x 1.000.000.001 w = 14=1.001.111. they are n = 18 are 11 3 2 37 7 13 . .000.111 x 90. we have factors are 3 .100. .667. while the remaining factor .010. The black on . . they are 11 3 37 7 13 when 37 f 37 333. .091 factors this (11) Or we may put the way : n= 2= 6 = 111 n = 10 = 11. . 333*667.001 x (101) x 100. . When w : is of 4m the factors may be written down as follows n= 4= (11) n = 8 = (11) n = 12 = (11) n = 16 = (11) x (101) x (101) x 10. . This will show be simplified when n is not prime.001 x 100.010. . = (n) = (n) n = 10 = (n) w = i4=(n) n = i8= (11) 2 n= n= 6 x x 11.091) x 111.231).111. The numbers in brackets are primes. factors will doubtless interest the reader.

The law governing the sequence of moves is easily discovered by an examination of the simpler cases. the number of moves would be 62. 3. 2. 11. 10. 2. 11. where n = 2. see " The Grasshopper Puzzle " in A. 9. p. 4. 6. 193. 10. 8. 7. The general solution in the case of this puzzle is of course. 10. 9. If we give n the value 6. 3. 1. the expression is n2 + 411 + 2 moves. 7. 8. and each frog is allowed to be moved in either direction (leaping. in brackets are to be played five times over : 6. conditions. and 4. 12. 11 (6. 3. 10. 1). 5. 2. 4. 3. 5. 7. . 5. the black frogs have changed places with the white ones. where the number of frogs of each colour is n. and the numbers The following are the Whether you have to make a simple move or a leaping move will be clear from the position. 9. as in the example of the Frogs' Ring. 11. 8. For a general solution of the case where frogs of one colour reverse their order. 5. 7. 6. as you never can have an alternative. 2. 3. 4. 10. 8. the 6 and 7 must interchange. 5. 9. If. in AT. 8. instead of 11 and 12 changing places. leaving the blank space in the same position. 2. 11. 4. 6.200 white discs THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES move in the directions of the hands of a clock. We thus have made 118 moves within the stipulated. 9. 10. 4. 6. (7. 12. 3. 8. 5. 2. and 1 and 12 are side by side in the positions 3w2 + 2«-2 moves. 6. q. The moves enclosed white figures on black discs the other way. 11. 8. 7. 2. 4. 4. 10. 12). 3. over his own colour). in the order in which they move.

with which it is quite conceivable that he made good his escape from the dungeon. The Mysterious Rope. How did the jester find his to grope his He had simply wall. I will therefore submit to the reader my own views as to the probable solutions to the mysteries involved. but one-half the thickHe would thus be able to tie the two together and make a ness. If the reader tries the route to the right ." it that he cut into two parts." there is no record of his having ever done so. the dotted line will make the route clear he goes to the left. The Underground Maze. it does not follow each half the original length of the No doubt he simply untwisted the strands. 49.— — THE STRANGE ESCAPE OF THE KING'S JESTER Although the king's jester promised that he would " thereafter make the manner thereof plain to all. it into two ropes. in the same way he will be equally successful in fact. and so divided rope. When the jester " divided his rope in half. 50. way out of the maze in the dark ? way to a wall and then keep on walk- ing without once removing his when left hand (or right hand) from the Starting from A. the two routes unite and cover every part of the walls of the maze except those two detached parts on the left-hand side one piece like a — 201 . rope nearly twice the original length. each of the original length.

No English word begins with Y and has the two other letters consonants. or R as their second letter. 52. and the only vowel appearing anywhere on the dials is Y. This has often been put to a practical test. and How to Thread Them. there no English word composed of consonants alone.— — 202 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES . L. letters. and all the words of three letters ending in Y (with two consonants) either begin with an S or have H." in A. See W. and the only word that I can find is " PYX. Now. Rouse Ball's Mathematical Recreations. the boat would have been propelled forward. 51. See the article. But these four consonants do not appear. Crossing the Moat. had given a series of violent jerks. while standing in the bows." and there can be little doubt that this was the word. If end of his rope to the stern of the boat the jester had fastened the and then. This rule will apply to the majority of mazes and puzzle gardens but if the centre were en- closed by an isolated wall in the form of a split ring. Therefore Y must occur in the middle. is This puzzle entailed the finding of an English word of three each letter being found on a different dial. a No doubt some of my readers will smile at the statement man in a boat on smooth water can pull himself across tiller that with the rope ! But it is a fact. At any rate. U. The Secret Lock. W. and it is said that a speed of two or three miles an hour may be attained. in M. the jester would simply have gone round and round this ring. " Mazes. it solves our puzzle. and the other like a distorted E. .

we find that there is no difficulty in once entering all the gardens but one before reaching the last garden containing the exit B. of a truth... and no garden may be entered twice. when the jester got to the gateway where the dotted line makes a sharp bend. ^ 203 The Royal Gardens. The difficulty is to get into the garden with a star. . and never more than once. .." If we follow the route shown in the accompanying diagram. because I put my foot and part of my body in it and I did not enter the other garden twice. entered every one of the sixteen gardens once. The trick consists in the B j \ 1 . he discovered it was a false alarm and leaving the other.... -" I 1 1 fact that i i L •A you may enter that starred garden without necessarily If." in A. withdrew.. he could truly say: "I entered the starred garden. his intention had been to hide in the starred garden. r «». and it was doubtless that which the jester intended.. because if we leave the B garden we are compelled to enter it a second time before escaping.— SOLUTIONS 53.. upon the star." This is the only answer possible. See "The Languishing Maiden.!. after once going in I never left it until I made my exit at B. because. This puzzle must have struck " The jester said : many I readers as being absolutely had. +F+ H . impossible. m \ m % "ill" .. but after he had put one foot through the doorway. in M...

.— 204 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 54. Bridging the Ditch. all his difficulties The king's jester might thus have well overcome and got safely away. as he has told us that he succeeded in doing. is The If solution to this puzzle best explained by the illustration. in the manner shown. he had placed his eight planks. across the angle of the ditch. he would have been able to cross without much trouble.

does not contain the solutions of the mysteries. She proposed that ten lumps of sugar sleeve." old gentleman's young lady relative. One cup holds seven lumps. The Three Teacups. 55. it can be correctly stated that every cup contains an odd number of lumps. another holds one lump.THE The SQUIRE'S CHRISTMAS PUZZLE PARTY TRICKS WERE DONE HOW THE VARIOUS made by the record of one of Squire Davidge's annual " Puzzle Parties. who had often spent a merry Christmas at Stoke Courcy Hall. Miss Charity Lockyer clearly must have had a trick up her and I think it highly probable that it was conceived on the following lines. so that there should be an odd number of lumps in every cup. So I will give my own answers to the puzzles and try to make them as clear as possible to those who may be more or less novices in such matters. It is evident . while the third cup holds three lumps. By placing the cup that holds one lump inside the one that holds two lumps. should be placed in three teacups. The illustration perhaps shows Miss Charity's answer. and the figures on the cups indicate the number of lumps that have been separately placed in them.

leaving 19). third of of a goose over (that is.—The Eleven Pennies. 58. The number 56. 4f+i. There are in they are : solutions to this puzzle. This puzzle.! — — THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES — 206 that if a cup contains another cup all fifteen different it also contains the contend of that second cup. : then add four (to those already From taken away) and you leave nine in the second heap of those the eleven coins take five — removed 57. or 5 geese. what remained and a third master. leaving 24) had left and gave him a fifth of a goose " for the missus " (that is. Farmer Rouse sent exactly 101 geese to market. It is rather evident that the trick in this puzzle was as follows . Jabez first sold Mr. leaving 50) he then sold Farmer Avent a . The Chalked Numbers. 8|-+f or he next sold Ned Collier a fifth of what he 9 geese. The Christmas Geese. 5°i+h or 5 1 geese. . It will be noted that the outer cup of the pair may itself be empty. leaving 33) what remained and three-quarters of a goose over (that is. Hov 109 307 127 505 325 first 703 523 4 163 3 3 1 4 5 901 721 5 4 361 181 1 two numbers in a triplet represent respectively the of lumps to be placed in the inner and outer of the two cups that are placed one inside the other. i6f+|. with . he then sold Widow Foster a quarter of or 17 geese. Jasper Tyler half of the flock and half a goose over (that is. He then took these 19 back to his . little jest and the face of the roguish on the part of Major Trenchard is another trick boy on the extreme right.

and end at the second sprig of holly. There are a good many different routes for passing from one of sprig of holly to the other in the smallest possible number moves . we strike out the puddings in twenty-one straight strokes. in each case. but diagonal. 9 stands on his head and so converts his number into 6. and 2 3 6 7—1 4 5 — — — 59. under the condition of visiting every square once and once only. There are just three other ways in which the boys may be grouped 1136 8 2 4 5 7. For if it were desired to move. This makes the total 36 an even number and by making boys 3 and change places with 7 and 8. whatever that secret might be.SOLUTIONS 207 the figure 9 on h. we get 1 2 7 8 and 5346. the feat is impossible. 1 4 6 7 —2 3 5 8. It is the Starting at the pudding all with holly at the top left-hand corner. I have no doubt (bearing in mind the Major's hint as to the numbers being " properly regarded ") that his answer was that depicted in the illustration. taste the steaming hot pudding at the end of the tenth stroke. where boy No. from one corner square to the other corner square on the same re-entrant. Here we have an example of a chess rook's path that is not between two squares that are at the greatest possible distance from one another. the figures 4 of which. showed clearly that he was in the secret. Tasting the Plum Puddings.s back. add up to 18. is The diagram only way will show how this puzzle within the conditions laid down. to be solved.

60. with the following additions and exceptions : No male kissed a male no man kissed a married woman except his own wife . This was intro- q Q a q a a-@ a~c% - duced to stop a plurality of solutions called by the maker of chess problems " cooks. In making a list of the . Under the Mistletoe Bough. I have recorded of these fourteen of these. except for the condition that the tenth stroke shall end at the steaming hot pudding.208 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES I —twenty-one—but have not counted them. and the widows did not kiss each other. Any one would serve our purpose. Every kiss was returned. all the bachelors and boys kissed all the maidens and twice the widower did not kiss anybody. performance was to count as one kiss. and the double girls . else Everybody was found to have kissed everybody . I cannot make a positive statement on the point at the time of . — writing. once under the mistletoe." I am not aware of more than one solution to this puzzle but as I may not have recorded all the tours. and possibly there are more.

See also No. 7 Married couples 14 3 3 Widows 12 Bachelors and Boys 12 10 10 Maidens and Girls Total 39 Persons every one of these 39 persons kissed everybody else of kisses would be 741 and if the 12 bachelors and boys each kissed the 10 maidens and girls once again. 20. and the other must measure ££fff inch. 61. 42 kisses lasses kisses. as no male kissed another male. One of the silver cubes must measure 2f §f|f inches along each edge. " The Puzzle of the Doctor of Physic/' (2. once. the number . making a total of 861 kisses. we must deduct if Now. multiply each number he will find that when added together the contents exactly equal seventeen cubic inches. no limit to the number of different dimensions that will sum shall be exactly seventeen cubic inches. and the result. is. we must add 120. we must deduct 3 . represents exactly the number of kisses that were actually given under the mistletoe bough.SOLUTIONS 209 company. If the reader likes to undertake There is give two cubes whose the task of cubing each number (that twice by itself). 645. We have. we can leave out the widower altogether. The Silver Cubes.077) 14 . because he took no part in the osculatory exercise. we must deduct 171 and as no widow kissed another widow. But as no married man kissed a married woman other than his own wife. Here is the answer in the smallest possible numbers. . therefore. to deduct 42+171+3=216 kisses from the above total of 861.

' That settles it. and no doubt they were close to their destination. of the Club succeeded in discovering One by one the members the key to the mystery of the Ambiguous Photograph. 63. But it is clear that the rain was only a sudden shower. The Ambiguous Photograph." he said. Lord Marksford would not be likely to walk about the streets of Paris with a lady's coat over his arm unless he was accompanying the owner. after reading the message. You might notice that the lady was lightly clad. . Mystery was very Yet it was an ingenious trick that the two criminals adopted. because the buttons are on the left side. and she did not think it worth while to put the coat on. except Churton. who was at length persuaded to " give it up. The Cornish Cliff Mystery. " Here you are. and it would have completely succeeded had not our friends from the Puzzle Club accidentally appeared on Melville's explanation of the Cornish Cliff simple when he gave it.— THE ADVENTURES OF THE PUZZLE CLUB 62. As they were talking a waiter brought a telegram to Baynes." Herbert Baynes then pointed out to him that the coat that Lord Marksford was carrying over his arm was a lady's coat. and therefore the coat might well be hers. Find lady was the : * passing through Paris. He was therefore walking with the lady. " A wire from Dovey Don't bother about photo." gentleman's sister. whereas a man's coat always has the buttons on the right-hand side.

51246. the large footprints were sometimes impressed over the smaller ones. and there being no o will produce a number with exactly the same five figures. and so be put on the wrong scent. but will make a deeper impression with the It will also account for the fact that toes in walking backwards. Here are the other eleven numbers 24651. 57834> 75231. with : Lamson's larger boots in his hands. to lead the police to discover the prints. The pocket-book foot- was intentionally dropped. but never the reverse larger footprints . is reached the cliff. The Mystery of Ravensdene Park. carrying his own boots. the result is 12964. When Lamson and Marsh what happened Marsh alone walked to the top of the cliff. The Runaway Motor-Car. Now. This little manoeuvre accounts .— — SOLUTIONS the scene. for the smaller footprints showdeeper impression at the heel. 78624. 93 and 101 in these pages. 64." section of A. and 86251. 87435. for showed a shorter a man will necessarily take a smaller stride when walking backwards. — 211 This stile. Russell found that there are just twelve five-figure first that have the peculiarity that the — — two figures multiplied : — t 65. and the larger prints a deeper ing a impression at the toe for a man will walk more heavily on his heels when going forward. namely. also for the circumstance that the stride. there are The diagrams show that two different ways in which the routes of the various persons involved in the Ravensdene . Compare with the problems in " Digital Puzzles. 65983. in M. and with Nos. 65281. 72936. 14926. if we multiply 14 by 926. in a But only one of these twelve begins with a 1 different order. The number of the motorcar was therefore 14926. 42678. Arrived at the edge of the he changed the boots and walked backwards to the stile. numbers by the last three all the figures being different. which contains the same five figures.

without any path ever crossing another. then solve the equation y2+z2 =3 2 which will come out in — One method of solving this problem of triangle APB in . is as follows.70537 acres in area.62746 acres. But it will be found that the only persons who could have approached Mr. Hastings did not leave his friend's house until midnight. Find the area terms of x. howa fact that the butler retired to bed five minutes before midnight. B J crossing a path were the butler. and 4 furlongs respectively from successive corners. Similarly find value of z2 in terms of x . #4 -20#2 =-37. Divide by x and then square. It depends whether the butler. E. we get the area of the field as 20. and as there are ten acres in one the form square furlong. C. A.37254 acres. and the gamekeeper.212 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES Mystery may be traced. 2. E.37254 acres. The Buried Treasure. \ and the man. then the field would have been 209. Double the result =xy. Therefore the criminal must have been the man who entered the park at C. went to the south or the north of the hall. Had the measurements been 3. the side of the square. and we have the value of y2 in terms of x. If we take the negative root of the equation. 179. this equals 179. Cyril Hastings without 1 * 2. The field must have contained between 179 and 180 acres to be more exact. Therefore x2 = 10+ 763=17. whereas Mr. very nearly. in which case the treasure would have been buried outside .937254 square furlongs. It was. went to the north or the south of the gamekeeper's cottage. 66. ever.

condition that the treasure But this solution is excluded by the was buried in the field. .SOLUTIONS the field. . " states clearly that the The document and that the treasure is buried in it. 213 as in Diagram 2." . The words were. . field is square.

the two must be placed in one of the corners.— The The it Postage Stamps Puzzles. 5S . It will be seen that the amount in each corner is a fractional one. 6d 4s Is 5s. I give the arrangement requiring the fewest possible current English coins fifteen. 64.— THE The PROFESSOR'S PUZZLES 67. the sum required in the total being a whole number of shillings. point of this puzzle turns on the fact that if the magic square were to be composed of whole numbers adding up 15 in all ways. first of these puzzles is based on a similar principle. though is really much easier. because the condition that nine of the 214 . The Coinage Puzzle. 4s. and these are supplied in the puzzle by the 4s. 2 s. 5V 64. — 68. Otherwise fractions must be used. &> employment of sixpences and half-crowns. 2s6i.

1 if \i* 3<I 9a J Od E3 Is. All the 4*. The . and the conditions did not forbid this omission. 6d. and diagonals add up is. There is no stamp on one square. rows. show the solution to the second stamp puzzle. though how they are to be placed requires a little thought 4kJ u 34 i* 2i \B 5d 4i &' lid. or trial until one knows the rule respecting putting the fractions I give in the corners. u L 1 „„ 5<L columns. I also the solution. 2a „ „.SOLUTIONS 215 stamps must be of different values makes their selection a simple matter.

. Chang. 3f 4. 2-|d. $d. 5.. only one solution (not counting a reversal) to this puzzle.. is.. magic square if we can write them thus 6d.. as the Professor said. o may occur once (as in the solution to No. as follows — 2 —1 12 567 13 14 69. in shillings : 2 4i 5 7 If 5i 71 § there are to be nine different numbers. 22). but not necessarily the same as the horizontal. the Coinage Puzzle. £1. 2J. iod. 3.. 2d. if. The Frogs and Tumblers. numbers are in arithmetical progression But any nine numbers will form a i. gd.. i\d. 67. 2s. the numbers are.. Yet one might construct squares with : negative numbers.. 4^.. y 5s. 2. the artful. — and £5. In the first solution the . The frogs that jump are George in the third horizontal row. 4}. the numbers of which may be written : 012 567 2I3 10 11 12 Also in the case of the solution to No. 6d. 10s. t \d. id. that there is It is perfectly true. looking batrachian at the end of the fourth row and Wilhelmina. . This happens in the case of the second solution. : 123 7 8 9 13 14 15 where the horizontal differences are all alike and the vertical differences all alike...—— — — 216 — — THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES in circulation are these : stamps at present 3^..

70. who can only leap short distances in consequence of chronic rheumatism. . symmetrical arrangement. be found that Romeo reaches Juliet's balcony after house once and only once. not counting the turn he makes at starting. oo®ooooo OOOOQOOO ®. it will be found that of the eight frogs no two are in line vertically. removes somewhat unwillingly to the glass just above him the eighth while Wilhelmina. it looks ridiculously simple. This is rather a difficult puzzle. performs the very creditable saltatory feat of In their new shown accompanying diagram. Romeo and hit Juliet. ooooo®oo in the <s> leaping to the fourth tumbler in the fourth row. — . with its pretty.00000® o o o o o o o ® o o o 0000 o o o q o o ® o o © 0000 o . horizontally. though. and making fourteen turnings. with all the sprightliness of in the third row row . Yet when the solution. it is " just one of those puzzles that a person might solve at a glance " by pure luck. to the second tumbler in the seventh 217 George jumps downwards Chang. These are It will visiting every . as the Professor re- on the solution.— SOLUTIONS the fair creature in the seventh row. 00. or diagonally. positions. marked when Hawkhurst is seen. as her youth and sex.

71. and the problem can only be solved by the route shown or its reversal. In order to take his trip through all the white squares only with the fewest possible turnings. Romeo would do well to adopt turnings the route I have shown. by means of which only sixteen The Professor informs me that feat. are required to perform the . Romeo's Second Journey.218 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES the fewest turnings possible.

There are two or three positions into which four frogs may jump so as to form five rows with four This is * $^ JS^ % ^>. the frog in the middle of the upper row. or sion to 219 common or garden snail. by N. 72. respectively .W. whose the Professor forgot to state. solution. suffering from rheumatism.— SOLUTIONS the Helix Aspersa. — name . The Frogs who would a-wooing go.E. but the case arrangement. ''^ §£ in each row. show the reader the positions which they originally occupied. I have given is the most satisfactory The frogs that in order to have jumped have left their astral bodies behind. as explained above in the Frogs and Tumblers makes the shortest jump of all a little distance between the two rows . goes direct S. Chang. has a peculiar aver- making turnings—so much so that one specimen with which he made experiments went off in a straight line one night and has never come back since. one of those puzzles in which a plurality of solutions is practically unavoidable. and N. while the frog in the middle of the lower row. George and Wilhelmina leap from the ends of the lower row to some distance N. by N.

leave your opponent an even number of similar groups.— . . for example. . as the order of the groups is of no importance. : To win . but only by knocking down the sixth or tenth kayle (counting the one already fallen as the second). Whatever the second player now does. . . . and the reverse prob- The illustration will 220 . Let us suppose that he knocks down the single one then we play to leave him 00 0000000. . as the case may be. and this leaves in either case 000 0000000. . . show how the thirteen pieces can be put together so as to construct the perfect board. we can always leave him either o o. or o o o o. Suppose. The Game of Kayles. . 74- The Broken Chessboard. . . ydu knock down two in the other triplet if -he knocks down the central kayle in a triplet. . . at -this game you must. . As the game is started with the arrangement o 00000000000. that you leave him these groups o 000 000. if he knocks' down a single. however he may play. . Now. the first player can always win. . In this way you must eventually win. and the latter wins also because. MISCELLANEOUS PUZZLES 73. Then whatever he does in one group you repeat in a similar group. whatever he does we can afterwards leave him either 000 000 or o 00 000. you knock down the central one in the other triplet. . sooner or later. this can always be resolved into an even number of equal groups. leave for the amusement of the reader. Now. you knock down a single if he knocks down two in one triplet. or 00 The complete anafysis I can now 00. We know why the former wins.

and indicate in every case the relative positions of the spider and the fly. It will be seen that the spider actually passes along five of the six sides of the room ! Having marked the is route. so that the cardboard may be laid flat on the table. and the straightened course which the spider must take without going off the cardboard. I show four of these ways. fold the box up (removing the side the spider does not use). the . Then the box may be cut in various different ways. for it is only 40 feet in length (add the square of 32 to the square of 24 and extract the square root). These are the four most favourable cases. Imagine the room to be a cardboard box. Though this problem was much discussed in the Daily Mail from 18th January to 7th February 1905. 4. 293 and 294 in A. 75. and the If appearance of the shortest course rather surprising.SOLUTIONS 221 lem of cutting these particular pieces out entertaining. when it appeared to create great public interest. and it will be found that the shortest route is in No. it was actually first propounded by me in the Weekly Dispatch of 14th June 1903. in M. The Spider and the Fly. will be found equally Compare with Nos.

718 feet. he would have gone 42 feet Route No. 3 is 40. 4. two men he gave two large and three small bottles of wine. 5. ToltT 2 A \$&$-' ntt FLOOR •*"' . and 6 feet from the ceiling and the 76. and two large and one small empty bottle.— THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES ! 222 spider shortest route (that had taken what most persons will consider obviously the shown in No. L+ " a FLOOR " y 4 '' • A . 2. and the same number of each size of bottle. The Perplexed Cellarman. and Route No. first Brother John gave the man three large bottles and one empty bottles. and one large and three small of the other To each . small bottleful of wine. 2 is 43.174 feet in length. Each of the three then receives the same quantity of wine. 3. i).''I 3 '" £ FLOOR a floor I will leave the reader to discover which are the shortest routes when the spider and the fly are floor respectively.

A very short examination of this puzzle game should convince the reader that Hendrick can never catch the black hog. so easy that there is no necessity whatever to give the line of play. Lower the piece on the will the piece of bunting is to be cut into " tooth. and that the white hog can never be caught by Katriin. a Dutchman cannot catch a black hog. with the roses symmetrically placed. first So if the player just determines that he will send Hendrick no and Katriin after the black one. without ! difficulty. The fact is. curious as it must at first sight appear. We thus. Each hog merely runs in and out of one of the nearest corners and can never be captured. solve the puzzle in real life. in fact. The diagram shows how two pieces. 223 Making a Flag. 154 in Catching the Hogs. by means of the game. in M.— — SOLUTIONS 77. why the Dutchman and his wife could not catch their after the white porker difficulty . It will be found interesting to compare this with No." and they right one form a perfect square. and a Dutchwoman can never capture a white one But each can. It is. catch one of the other colour. A. 78. he will have whatever in securing both in a very few moves.

The Chinese Railways. between the man or woman and the hog. . is 6 (an even number). the hog can never be captured where the number of squares is even. you make 10 or 17 and win. however. therefore they may easily capture those behind them. 10. 17." The rule. The number of squares between Hendrick and the black hog. The little principle involved in this puzzle is that known to chess-players as " getting the opposition. Where the number of squares on the same row. It is not a matter for wonder that the representatives of the five countries It would have puzzled the engineers interested were bewildered. you play a 2 and score 12. and if at any stage he drops out of the series. But the number between Hendrick and the white hog. so that no line shall ever cross another. The Thirty -one Game. in the case of my puzzle (where the moves resemble rook moves in chess. It is. If after your lead of 5 he plays anything but another 5. is i (an odd . with the added condition that the rook may only move to an adjoining square). 24. you step in and win. The first player may also win by leading a 1 or a 2. and this appears to be the method that would require the shortest trains five possible mileage. and between Katriin and the black one. This puzzle was artfully devised by the yellow man. well worth the reader's study. 3. Then as often as he plays a 5 you play a 2. and between Katriin and the white hog. is simply this. therefore these individuals cannot catch the animals they are facing. By leading with a 5 the first player can always win. Diagram 1 shows directions for the systems of lines. each went after the wrong animal.— 224 pigs : THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES in their simplicity and ignorance of the peculiarities of Dutch hogs. but the play is complicated. number). If your opponent plays another 5. is odd. 31. a capture is possible. 80. a good deal to construct those circuitous routes so that the various might run with safety. 79.

in succession will show that we may continue this " winding up " process for ever . (2.SOLUTIONS The reader may wish to know how many there are to the puzzle. another 4. and as there will always be an unobstructed way (however long and circuitous) from stations B and E to their respective main lines. doubtedly is. and I will explain why. as it un3. like other lines. If we simply consider the case of line A alone. 3. and another 5. 2.077) 15 . another If 3 is different from 2. 225 different solutions answer that the number is indeterminate. then one route would be Diagram 2. if railway lines. it is evident that the number of routes for line A alone is infinite. 4. Therefore the number of complete solutions must also be infinite. have no breadth and indeterminate. then we must regard 5 as different from 4. 5. But a this I should To glance at the four diagrams. unless .

82. may appear. for it is a very simple matter to find one of the multipliers. I calculate. The Wizard's Arithmetic. which is 86. and 9) it is not possible. one place may be left vacant. or that are not in such progression. it is evident that. With any reasonable limitation number would. but only under particular conIn the case of our puzzle there would be no difficulty ditions. surprising though 81. restricting these " windings up. Now. I is absent. If a square be formed of the former class. The positions This is a little novelty in magic squares. every row. in making the magic square with 9 missing but with 1 missing But a (that is. The clown that has a 9 on his body is portrayed just at the moment when two balls which he is juggling are in mid-air. These squares may be formed with numbers that are in arithmetical progression. This puzzle is both easy and difficult. although the clown equal to £ and therewho bears the figure . the number of solutions. using 2. The troupe can consequently be grouped in the following manner : 7 246 5 3 8 . If some clear condition. and each of the two diagonals now add up to 12. since the recurring decimal . 4.§ is fore to 1. If we multiply . 5. of these balls clearly convert his figure into the recurring decimal .0 Every column. 3. glance at the original illustration will show that the numbers we have to deal with are not actually those just mentioned. be little short of two it thousand. 8. there would be no great difficulty in giving the of the kind. The Eight Clowns.—— 226 — THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES number of parallel lines that it is we are told the greatest possible to construct in certain places. .0." were given. the man who bears the figure 9 by this simple artifice has for the occasion given his figure the value of the number 1. 6. This is the correct solution to the puzzle. 7.

There are ten such numbers in each case. only the following twelve numbers These are the only 83. the result may always be multiplied by 83 in the wizard's peculiar manner. ever has a remainder 43 when divided the dividend will be the required multiplier for 83. is 227 all we need do is to place the 6 in front and the 8 behind in order to get the correct answer. But the second number and the number to be is no less than 16393442622950819672131 14754098360655737704918032787. if you prefix to 41096 the number 41095890. repeated any number of times. . or 9. all you have to do is to place another 1 at the beginning and another These two. multiplied — ! If we add the figures of any number together and then. My by process is now as curious as it it is simple in working." and of 697 This digital analysis is extensively dealt with in A. etc. or 9 and 9. This can only happen when the roots of the two numbers are 2 and 2. 81. it is 4. 6. 87. it is evident that the digital roots of the two numbers required by the puzzle must produce the same root in sum and product. is 8. I then have left. . 42. for reasons that I will not enter into. I 73. 3. 51. 8. Thus. out of the original sixty. I write out all the sixty. but the number to be multiplied may always be increased. 41. Thus. if necesI call sary. Therefore the twofigure multiplier must have a digital root of 2. 84. 93. we at last get a single-figure number. It is 71. Adding o's to the second say if 30000. I get 73. I deduct 10 and call figure. the digital root of 521 . The numbers 21 and 62 I reject on inspection. This the " digital root. not to be found by mere trial. in M. or 5 and 8. Now. 53. and where the two figures are alike (thirty-six numbers in all) also all remaining numbers where the first figure is odd and the second figure even (seven numbers) also all multiples of 5 (three more numbers). 5. and 71.SOLUTIONS 8 by 86. and 7 at the end a considerable saving of labour the example shown by the wizard. or 3 and 6. again add. If you want to multiply this by 71. 688.. then I strike out all those numbers where the second figure is higher than the first. 63. First trying 83. are the only two-figure multipliers. 86. possible multipliers that I have really to examine.

(7 x 61 = 427) after producing the long dividend at the beginning of this article. It solution is as follows : Place this rather lengthy number ribbon. It clearly follows that an unlimited number of multiplicands for each multiplier. taking 86. In trying the even numbers there are two cases to be conThus.228 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES The only I the 43 in this way..— The Ribbon Problem. 300.. divided by 61 gives a remainder 42. the digits place is 6. and see that 60 divided by 76 is o. The on the 3617. Those who are familiar with the principle of recurring decimals (as somewhat explained in my next note on No. the other example. etc. Multiply the one by seventeen and the other by forty-seven. the example given on page 129. 83. say j T> to a decimal . we get a solution. and 71 are the only three possible multipliers. to give the same order viously given can be multiplied the limit 9 in The number preby any number up to 16. Now. may 021276595744680851063829787234042553191439be multiplied by any number up to 46 inclusive of figures in the ring. divided by 76 leaves either 22 or 60 (because 3x6 and 8x6 both But I reject the former on inspec8).109. 86. In transforming a vulgar fraction. The fact is these two numbers are simply the recurring decimals that equal TV and TV respectively. etc. or 43 after rejecting the 8. and the dividend is 4.096 x 83. sidered. The other multipliers fail to produce a solution. 83. leaving a remainder 60. "The Ribbon Problem ") it will understand the conditions under which the remainders repeat themselves after certain periods. I made order to put readers off the scent. and you will get all nines in each case. multiplier of 3 that produces an 8 in therefore multiply 73 by 6 and get 438. It Therefore 8x86 = 688.000 divided by 73 leaves the remainder 43. when produce tion. and will only find necessary in two or three cases there is to make any lengthy divisions. with the 7 added. will be found in the case of 71 that 100000. To this I add the 6 mentioned above and get 41. we may say that if 60000. so 83.

2 and . since every additional figure in a never-ending decimal dividend as carries us nearer and nearer to exactitude.0588235294117647. or |.1 and . etc. etc. but you will get these decimals. it clearly follows that your decimal never will come to an end if any other factor than these occurs in the denominator of your vulgar fraction. SOLUTIONS fraction. etc. where.05: because the denominators are all composed of 2 and 5 factors. since all powers of 10 can only contain factors of the powers of 2 and 5. But if you wish to convert £. . adding as many noughts to the we like until there is no remainder.5.058823 85 Now.142857142857142857. |. in the division sum above.04 and -^ give us . In the case of " The Ribbon Problem ") TV (in to be .125 \ and 7/5 give us . or until we have carried it as far as we require.. in the first case.. and . your division sum will never end. the successive remainders are .. . 229 we proceed as below.. . we find the circulating period Now. £. Tjs . the 3 keeps on repeating for ever and ever in the second case the 6 is the repeater. J. or until we get a recurring series of figures. and .25. Thus.166666. and in the . and | give us the exact decimals. . 17) 100 (. last case we get the recurring period of 142857.33333.

Thus 999999 (six 9's) is divisible by 7. less one. etc. six Therefore. when our ribbon rule breaks down and another law comes 11. 3. multiply by 4. and so on. though frequently fewer is 9's will suffice for one for in. . etc. if we if we multiply by 6.. Thus. since the o and 7 at the ends of the ribbon may not . etc. 4. and that of the be seen that every number we multiply our ribbon number numbers in the inner ring its position indicates exactly the point at which the product will begin. .230 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES and these numbers It will if i. from 1 to 16 occurs once. 14. 9. eighteen 9*s by 19. 10. I have inserted around the inner ring of the diagram. exception of 2 and the number is itself. will exactly divide without remainder a number consisting of as many nines as The kernel of the puzzle 5. 9 consecutive multipliers divisible by two by by 13. : 1 to 16 and get the desired is this Any prime number. with the which are the factors of 10. sixteen 9's are divisible by 17. We can therefore multiply by any number from result. the product will be 235. This always the case. 15. by any one 352. 6.

But in order to have the pieces in squares exactly equal in require six pieces. We next examine 47. Thus. it. A * the squares had not to be size. full beginning of this If you cut any of these period circulators in half and place one half under the other. you will find that they will add up all 9's so you need only work out one half and then write down the complements. but there are reasons . form a second square. will not do. our remainders. always making 9 when added. the other two squares being entire. and 6 will form the thirdis \ sJ ^s -all 2 1 3 of exactly the same . therefore. we must seek a fraction with a prime denominator ending in 7 that gives a full period circulator. I ought perhaps to point out that in limiting our multipliers to the first nine numbers it seems just possible that a short period circulator might give a solution in fewer figures.SOLUTIONS 231 be removed. as size. 4 'and 5 will and pieces size. 3. We try 37.027. if you add 05882352 to 94117647 the result is 99999999. because 37 exactly divides 999]. and so with our long solution number. in the ribbon above. for thinking it improbable. . 1 2. the same the carpet could be cut in four T2 any one of the three manners In each case the two pieces shown. and find that it gives a short period decimal. Note also in the diagram above that not only are the opposite numbers on the outer ring complementary. a complete square. but that opposite numbers in the inner ring. in 46 figures. marked A will fit together and form one of the three squares. are also complementary. and find that it gives us the full period circulator. If The Japanese Ladies and all the Carpet. at the article. 84. we shall shown in the larger diagram. pieces No. adding to 17 in every case.

of course. Then LP will be the side of all the three squares of combined area equal to the large square as QNLO. The reader can now last page. It will be seen that I have here given the reverse method first BD. of our puzzle In the case : we can proceed as follows Make LM equal to half the diagonal ON. which requires no finding. cut out without difficulty the six pieces. each equal to BF. I am showing the quite general method for converting rectangles to squares. The six pieces produced are numbered as in the diagram on last page. and BF will be the required side of the square. (midway between A q ts| to cut the three small squares into six pieces to form a large square. making F I / H 7\ 4 1 \ 3 2 1 5 K 6 <* 1 A BC equal to L B 1 Then place the point of the compasses at E and C) and describe the arc AC. Now mark off AG and DH. Produce AB to C. and make the cut IG. then the mean proportional of the two sides of the rectangle will be the side of a square of equal area. Draw the line NM and drop from L a perpendicular on NM. Produce the line BD. shown in the numbered square on the . at once place our compasses at E. perpendicular to ID. and also the cut HK from H.— : 232 If THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES with the three equal squares we form the rectangle IDBA. but in this particular case we may. cutting the arc in F.

were in line with the North Pole. and only once. It obviously does not affect the problem whether this seventh row is a hundred miles long or a hundred feet. It might have struck the reader that the story of the bear impaled on the North Pole had no connection with the problem that followed. which cannot be obtained in any other way.— — SOLUTIONS 233 85. As a matter of fact it is essential to a solution. so long as they were really in a straight line a point that might perhaps be settled by the captain's pocket compass. But it is a different matter when Captain Longbow informs us that " they 1 there were " seven rows of four they were grouped as shown in the diagram. Eleven bears cannot possibly be arranged to form of themselves seven rows of bears with four bears in every row. had so placed themselves that For if bears. and finish . that impaled animal would complete the seventh row of four. It The English Tour. might was required to show how a resident at the town marked A visit every one of the towns once. as indicated. so that three of the bears. — 86. Captain Longbow and the Bears.

his departure to the other port. shall find that two towns. " This would be easy enough if he were able to cut across country by road. It was said. lie on the sea When he reaches one of these towns he takes line. in M. After the solver has demonstrated to his satisfaction that cannot be done in accordance with the conditions as he at first understood them. This problem should be compared with No. we carefully look again at the map. but he is not/' Now. it up his tour at Z. 250. therefore. as well as by rail. we coast. and two only. The annexed on board a coasting vessel and sails illustration shows.234 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES This puzzle conceals a little trick. he should carefully examine the wording in order to find some flaw." in A. although he road. It can be simplified in practically an . by a dark the complete route. nothing is is prohibited from cutting across country by said about his going by sea IjFlf. " The Grand Tour.

but as there is here no choice on the from A. equally 89. This last number she could divide . L 9—7. E 2—4. You may accept the invitation to " try to do it in twenty moves. 2 moves. The smallest possible number of eggs that Mrs. E 4—6. identical 87. B 7—5. The fewest possible moves are twenty-six. The Eccentric Market-woman. . Covey could have taken to market is 719. Play the cars so as to reach the following positions : E5678 — ^-^ = = 4 10 moves. 143. 94. among her thirteen friends. first 235 stage See also The ChifU'Chemulpo Puzzle. giving each 11. 179 and after the fourth. The Primrose Puzzle. This means that you take B. The solution is as follows. solve this puzzle are : The two words that BLUEBELL and PEARTREE. * 88. Place the letters as follows B 3—1. and she would not have broken an egg. U 5—3. solution to No. After selling half the number and giving half an egg over she would have 359 left after the second transaction she would have 239 left after the third deal." but you will never succeed in performing the feat. 1234 E56 123 87 56 E3I2 87 = 4 5 moves.SOLUTIONS manner. —= o moves. the solutions are necessarily quite different. E >87654321 Twenty-six moves in all. L 9—2. . L 6—8.

because these letters interchange without destroying the words. The Round Table. B C C D E F G D B G E F D B C F G E G B F E C D F C E G D B E D G F B C C E B G F D D G C F E B B F D E G C E F D C G B G E B D F C F G C B E D E B F C D G G C E D B F F D G B C E A will circular table. 226 in A. and write it down on 1 and so on. Here is the way of arranging the seven men : — A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Of course. 90. in the Daily Mail for the 13th and 16th October 1905. jump from 3 to 1. The solution depends on finding those words in which the second and eighth letters are the same. The comparatively easy method . and also the fourth and sixth the same. Compare with No.— 236 • THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES . course. pink) would also solve the puzzle if it MARITIMA (or sea- were an English word. and it has Of since been discussed in various periodicals by mathematicians. be next to the man at the I first gave this problem for six persons on ten days. in M. at a end of the line. The second word can be inserted in the same order. it is is easily seen that the i^~" I maximum number of sittings for n persons M^ZJ' ways.

As I had myself only recorded seventeen. t pp. and have written out schedules for every number up to 25 inclusive. in accordance with the conditions. D. quotes the statement that there are just twenty-one solutions to the little problem on which this puzzle is based. are extremely difficult. I examined the matter again. these last four being all powers of 2 + 1. not counting the reversals and in ways these arrangements as different.— The Four The number of Porkers. 92.312. The odd numbers. and the boxes may therefore be arranged. however. where n I for all even numbers. The case of has been solved also by W. Nash. Jaenisch. however (though not without much difficulty). The Five Tea Tins. I discovered a subtle method for solving all cases. and 33. He will find it an extraordinarily hard nut. I will leave my readers to discover for themselves how the figures are to be arrived at.— SOLUTIONS for solving all cases 237 Ernest Bergholt. a solution that I is a prime + 1 was first discovered by then pointed out the form and construction of had obtained for 10 persons. 91. 206. Perhaps the reader will like to try his hand at 13. including the example that I gave. in his Analyse Mathematique au jeu des £checs (1862). and for a long time no progress could be made with their solution. in 91. 205. 9. and found that reflections of .584 different ways.728. the only numbers that could be worked being 7 (given above) and 5. which the four pigs may be placed in the thirty-six sties in accordance with the conditions is seventeen. Bewley found a general method n The in solutions for all cases up to 12 inclusive are given in A. But the necessary deductions for cases where changes of boxes may be made without affecting the order ing the pictures. There are twelve ways of arranging the boxes without considerIf the thirty pictures were all different the answer would be 93. of pictures amount to 1. from which E. At last. M. 17.

provided that the pigs are not forbidden to be in line with one another . Therefore the pigs may be placed in (2 x 2) + (4 x 1) + (8 x 14) = 120 different ways by reversing and reflecting all the seventeen forms. Arrange the blocks so as to form the two multiplication sums 915 x 64 and 732 x 80. The Number Blocks. 160304 G. 261005 P. and in the third row of the sixth column. The figures indicate the rows. in the fourth row of the third column. Thus. 306104 — be found that forms N and Q are semi-symmetrical with regard to the centre. 160025 F. in the sixth row of the fourth column. but there is only one way of doing it (if we do not count reversals as different). 104603 B. The arrangement E is that which I gave in diagram form : A. as follows 105030. 140520 E. . and the product in both cases will be the same : 58. 104603 means that we place a pig in the first row of the first column.— — 238 he was in THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES error. and. 140502 D. 136002 C. in no row of the fifth column. yield by reversal and reflection eight : 93. in no row of the second column. 206104 K. H is quarter-symmetrical. doubtless. and their positions show the columns. 250014 M. 261040 Q. 260015 O. 205104 It will J.560. 201405 H. . and therefore give only two arrangements all the fourteen others arrangements each. Here are the seventeen answers. 250630 N. each by reversal and reflection that form and gives only four arrangements while . had mistaken reversals for different arrangements. 241005 L. Three pigs alone may be placed so that every sty is in line with a pig. 201605 I.

230. move in the top and so on In A.. The smallest possible number of moves is eleven for the foxes and eleven for the geese. Foxes and Geese. then move in the second line. solving the puzzle twenty-two that is. A comparison with the illustration on page 141 will show that I have there dispensed with the necessity of explaining the knight's move to the uninstructed reader moves. The . p. I have explained fully my "buttons and string " method of solving puzzles on chequered boards.: 6 — SOLUTIONS 239 94. the reader will play the first in the top line. then the second alternately. Here is one way of — 10—5 11— 12- -7 5--12 8- 6—1 9 7—6 4-9 1—8 12—7 2—9 1—8 10—5 3--4 -3 —10 8--3 5—12 6—1 7—2 3—4 the line. In Diagram A is shown the puzzle in the form in which it may be pre- /2\ Z=22 £i. in M. 4 r S & 6 9 ^*?o 44 by lines that indicate those sented on a portion of the chessboard with six knights. first 9— I0 4—n move Of course.

Now compare page 141 with Diagram B. The shaded part the wood . to avoid being one move from a fox and to enable the fox on 11 to come on to the ring.240 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES two puzzles are the same thing in different dress. The reader will now satisfy himself without any difficulty that the puzzle requires eleven moves for the foxes and eleven for the geese. — — and 85. discarded. then it is clearly best to play 10—5 and not 12—5 for the foxes. When they are all on the circle. that is The way in which the piece E fits into the piece is F will be obvious to the eye of the reader. D are the corners of the table. He will see that a goose on 1 or 3 must go to 8. It is thus rendered ridicuSee also notes on solutions to Nos. 95. taking care to reserve 8 3 and 5 12 for the final moves. B. Robinson Crusoe's Table. then they simply promenade round it in a clockwise direction. A. C. piece of The diagram shows how the wood should be cut in two pieces to form the square table-top. If we play !_8. 13 lously easy by this method. and it will be seen that by disentangling the strings I have obtained a simplified diagram without altering the essential relations between the buttons or discs.

that. Therefore the roll it into cylindrical side. we may take 120 to be the only — — answer that is acceptable. etc. leaves the remainder 1.) and 16 ft. 98. The rectangular of water closed cistern that shall hold a given quantity and yet have the smallest possible surface of metal must be a perfect cube that is. and the zinc required will be 600 square feet.000 cubic feet of water the internal dimensions will be 10 ft. and it will involve the plumber in a trifling loss not worth considering. 3. x 6.480. 97. you take a sheet of paper and mark it with a diagonal you will find that when you form. by 9 leaves 3.077) 16 . line. (one-fifth of 200 ft. — In the case of a cistern without a top the proportions will be exin the second case. It will be seen that the spiral (in one complete turn) is merely the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle.3 ft. x 12. If The Nelson Column. The next number is 360. when divided by 7. The Perplexed Plumber.—— — SOLUTIONS 96. up to 15. and by 14 leaves 8.6 ft. For 1. it will (2. x 10 ft. at which the buyer will not complain. by 13 leaves 3. X 10 ft. a cistern every side of which is a square. 8 in. the lengths of the two sides of the triangle are 40 ft.6 ft. The number must be the least common multiple of 1. These are the " exact proportions " asked for The exact dimensions cannot be given. In the puzzle given. The cistern will hold a little too much water. 241 The Fifteen Orchards.. is a close approximation. 2.. of which the length and width of the paper are the other two sides. but 12. Such a number is 120. with the line outffl appear as in Figure B. as in Figure A. by 11 leaves 10. actly half a cube. but as we have no record of a tree especially a very young one bearing anything like such a large number of apples.

8 in. If . numbers. and is The only set of three five figures respectively. All that is necessary is to add the two distances at which they meet to twice their difference. without repetition the first two numbers multiplied together make . distance should be more than two- 100. On the Ramsgate Sands. A curious feature of the puzzle is — the fact that with the dimensions given the result is exactly the sum of the height and the circumference. the third. put another way. only the thirds of the second. that will fulfil the required conditions 27x594 = 16. Here is may be formed without breaking the one way of effecting the arrangements. A A A A A A B C C D E F G E G I K M D G J M C F E I M D H L F K C H M E G M F L E K H I J B D F I L B C G K J B G K H L I L J M L E H K B F J D B I D J C H Join the ends and you have the six rings. 4 in. 99.— — — 242 hypotenuse five THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES is 43 ft. Lucas devised a simple mechanical method for obtaining the n rings that may be formed under the conditions by 2n + 1 children. The Two Errand Boys. which is the distance required.038. or one mile. Thus 720 + 400 + 640 = 1760 yards. Just six different rings conditions. three. These three numbers contain all the nine digits and o. Or. The length of the garland is therefore times as long 216 ft. of two. The Three Motor-Cars. three times the first distance less the second distance will always first give the answer. 101. and the second is exactly twenty-two times the first.

A Reversible Magic Square. many correct answers. 5. under the conditions. The Tube Railway. and each of the two 61 11 xx 61 29 4 69 11 IX 71 IX 61 XS 12 61 n diagonals. Here there are nine sections or " lines/' but it is impossible for a train. whether you turn the page upside down or The reader will notice that I have not used the figures 3. all the rows. There are 640 different routes.694 = 17.—— 1 . . four. 4. such as 3 x 5. It will different. and five figures respectively. and be seen that in the arrangement given every number is all the columns. In the following table by " directions " is meant the order of stations this kind is not practicable. 8. not. though 102. SOLUTIONS there would be 243 the numbers might contain one. or 103. to traverse more than seven of these lines in any route. 19 21 add up 179. one answer to the problem no easy matter to prove that this is the case.082 but it is a curious fact that there is only it is as propounded. o. A general formula for puzzles of We have obviously only to consider the variations of route between B and E.

how long it must have been. It must have been at least three cables long. But Simon persisted in assuming that the cuts were made transversely. therefore yields only one route. seven-line . but piece. explained (and the point is quite as veracious as the rest of his yarn) that his cuts were plete length made longitudinally ! The comwas therefore only three cables.. „ 36 n — — — — — — . We thus see that there are just is 640 different routes in which the correct answer to the puzzle. and three ways of getting from D BDCE admits of no variation . „ 36 y. Each of the three pieces was clearly three cables long. 6 r 9 12 36 36 36 72 432 640 all. the "direction" irrespective of "routes. The Skipper and the Sea-Serpent.— 244 — THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES BCDE B gives Thus. 104. . Total . however. . though it might have been (the skipper's statement apart) anything from that up to nine cables." to nine " routes. 9 6 „ 18 6 „ „ » i* .> 3 routes 1 it » 2 four-line 2 „ 6 five-line 2 „ . according to the straight from the tip of the nose to the tip of the tail direction of the cuts. and that therefore the complete length was nine cables. it it t> 18 2 six-line :2 . But the " direction C. or across. The skipper. the same as each Simon was not asked the exact length of the serpent. 2 two-line directions of 1 three-line 1 ." because there are three ways of getting from " to E.

Society. six ladies would do it in twice the time four and a half months longer which is the correct answer. it should be held that the sisters might not. because. It instantly begins slipping while sleeping. six would be his Consequently. although they were not (except the sisters) kissed by him in return ? No . it could with the same exertion crawl 5 ft. " Everybody kissed everybody else. 106. How long will it it take over the remaining 18 ft. At the end of seventeen days the snail will have climbed 17 ft. not one of whom was a sister. the bashful young man himself/ Might this not be held to imply that all the ladies immodestly kissed the curate. in twelve hours* ascent. in that case.— — SOLUTIONS 105. during the daytime. If the snail can climb 3 ft. of course. In rowing up a river we have the stream against us.. which is contrary to the conditions. twelve could do the work in four and a half months. If there — 245 The Dorcas all. all of whom must have been his sisters. and overcome the tendency to slip 2 ft. The Adventurous Snail. At first sight there might appear to be some ambiguity about the words. it would be found that there must have been twelve girls. except. and at the end of its eighteenth day-time task it will be at the top. There- the twelve ladies. And the reference to the ladies who might have worked exclusively of the sisters shuts — ' out the possibility of this. sisters. down the other side at the end of the eighteenth day of twenty-four hours. ? If it slips 2 ft. If. were twelve ladies in among the the curate fore. again. and will be 2 ft. a at night clearly . according to the wording. I reply that in that case there must have been twelve girls. leaving twelve there would be 132 kisses more to be exchanged with —six to be given by him and six to be received. of if ladies alone. in climbing up. although he kissed them. have kissed their brother. overcomes the tendency to slip 2 ft. but in coming down it is with us and helps us.

h = height. p. a = area of the given triangle . therefore. up exactly twenty days. ft. but When we may find as many as we choose if in fractions/' he curiously over- looked the obvious fact that required answer in integers you give all your sides a common denominator and then cancel that denominator you have the ! Every reader should know that if we take any two numbers. It can. sent me from New York. area. Montucla.m. Therefore. Here m and n are called generating . the remaining 18 in exactly it and down.. and the whole journey. . then . gives a descending progress of 9 in the twenty-four hours. " Sat up last night till 4 a. ft. Let z = generators. equal in area to any given R. in going down. to find three equal rational-sided right-angled " but could not find three I found two triangles.246 day on the carries it ft.' The following is a subtle formula by means of which we may always find a R. . a and b + c. This. 107. 5 ft. m and n. with the night slip. can be found in whole numbers. . equal to each other. in his edition of Ozanam's Recreations in Maihematies. THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES level. numbers. ! hypotenuse. then m2 + n2 m2 -n2 and 2mn will be the three sides of a rational right-angled triangle. if we form and b. b = base. the 7 in twelve hours —that is.A. a a and This is the little ' . The Four Princes.A. ft. over a tempting problem. they will all be of equal problem respecting which Lewis Carroll says in his diary (see his Life and Letters by Collingwood. following simple formula. To form three such triangles of equal area. same exertion by personal exertion it and 2 by slip.T. three triangles from the following pairs of c. declared that " No more than three right-angled triangles. will take do two days. where m is the greater we use the number : mn + m2 + n2 = a m2 -n2 = b 2mn + n2 = c Now. 343).T.

's of may be found in whole numbers. we shall get at once a solution in whole numbers. . 42. and we get the required answer in fractions. will The fourth pair of values I is 63. which give the generators These three pairs of numbers solve the 37> 7 37 33 37> 4°indeterminate equation.A.b 3 a = 341. 108. as required. . n . If we can find another > > > pair of values. 91. . which give the generators is done. in the manner shown. from the numbers 3 and 4. as b . the thing generators give the last triangle. The reader that there is understand from what have written above equal area that no limit to the number of rational-sided R.880. is These values are 56. 5i8 280 231 1320 .A. 55.— SOLUTIONS all 2 — 247 we have to do is to form a R. . from showing how get these figures. : The following is the simple solution of the three nines puzzle 9 + 9 •9 To divide 18 by 9. from the generators z and 40. and give each side the denominator 2z(b2 -h?). . 96. original triangle If we multiply all three sides of the by the denominator. Plato and the Nines.9 (or nine-tenths) we.880 square furlongs. fully must here explain. have found 91. . that the first three triangles are obtained. which The next best answer that I derived from 5 and 6. multiply by 10 and divide by The result is 20. I will however. 85 . 91. in I 2442 2960 6160 2458 2969 6161 I The area refrain in every case is 341. of course. .T. Second Prince Third Prince Fourth Prince „ . The answer follows :- to our puzzle in smallest possible numbers 1418 is as First Prince .T.

us. . and he can only win through Cross's blunders. We find from the farmer's statements that 6 bullocks keep down the growth in a 10-acre field. that will we may divide the bullocks in each case in two parts —one part to eat the increase. first and second moves. or again be beaten with certainty. If Nought leads with a side. The first as the size of the field. and will not depend on the . Neither player could ever win except through the blundering of his opponent. or Nought may beat him with certainty. sides. but to ensure it the first player must play to two adjoining corners (such as 1 and 3) on his once. both players must be very careful to prevent a loss. in his Newton has shown Universal Arithmetic. Cross must take the centre at once. The game then requires great care on both in. solution here : Ovid's Game. and 6 bullocks eat the grass on 10 acres in 16 weeks. Cross must take a corner. Sir Isaac The Farmer's Oxen. If Nought (the first player) takes the centre.248 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 109. This should always end in a draw. : The solution is as follows Between two players who thoroughly understand the play every game should be drawn. and in addition inversely with the time. If Nought takes a corner on his first play. provided he plays to the centre on his first move. and the other the accumulated grass. vary directly time the second part will also vary directly as the size of the field. Noughts and Crosses. Therefore. no. 24 will keep down the growth on 40 acres. as there are numerous pitBut Nought may safely lead anything and secure a draw. falls. The is The first player can always win. But a good variation of the game is to bar the centre for the first move of the first In that case the second player should take the centre at player. if 6 bullocks keep down the growth on 10 acres.

and second hands. 32 T\ sec. 27^ sec. there are eleven times in twelve hours when the hour hand is exactly twenty divisions ahead of the minute hand. 5 m. This is the correct and only possible answer to the in one piece. 54 min. then 12 eat the grass on 10 acres in 8 weeks. Stanton Mowbray struck the very centre of the clock face and instantly welded together the hour. and keep on sider the former case. and if we look at all our eleven times we shall find that only in the last case given above is the seconds hand at this distance. 112. The illustration showed that we had only to conIf we start at four o'clock.— SOLUTIONS Again. and the illustration of the clock face bore out the statement. that the hour and minute hands were exactly twenty divisions apart. or. to three o'clock. 54 min. If we now examine the clock face. minute. " the third of the circumference of the dial/' Now. 27T T sec. Therefore the shot must have been fired at 2 h. 3 8 32 T T sec. . at 5 min. The puzzle was tions of the three puzzle. put the other way. adding 1 h. we shall find that the seconds hand is nearly twenty-two divisions behind the minute hand. the last being 2 h. We were also told. 48 192 „ „ „ . The Great Grangemoor Mystery. the grass growing all regularly the time. so that all revolved to tell from the fixed relative posihands the exact time when the pistol was fired. and we find that 88 oxen fed on a 40-acre meadow for 6 weeks. exactly. and eleven times when the minute hand is exactly twenty divisions ahead of the hour hand. „ „ 64 4° 40 40 »» 8 2 „ „ „ „ „ 6 Add may be the two results together (24 + 64). Another addition brings us back to four o'clock. 249 we find that if 6 bullocks eat the accumulated grass on 10 acres in 16 weeks. we shall get all these eleven times.. We were told that the bullet that killed Mr.

in nth of the number of biscuits. the length of the block by half an inch.i) n . The Tramps and of biscuits the Biscuits. from evident that they were of that miniature description The general solution is that for n men the number must be m(nn+1 ) -(n-i). the final distribution that finds favour in the nursery. though in the case of two men. Each man will receive m(n . where m is any integer.— Cutting a Wood Block. after giving the every case each man steals an odd one to the dog. and it will be found that eight blocks may easily be cut out of each slab without any further waste. when m = 1. First reduce only twenty-four can actually be cut from the block. each one and a quarter inch thick. . Though the cubic contents are sufficient for twenty-five pieces. 114. Of course. only benefits the dog.— 250 THE CANTERBURY PUZZLES 113. The which it smallest is number must have been 102 1. The smaller piece cut off Cut the larger piece constitutes the portion that cannot be used.1 biscuits at the final division. into three slabs.

The. 147. 250. Chinese Railways. See Arithmetical Puzzles. Bottles. Chaucer's Puzzle. The. 88. 137. 224. 111. 39. 119. 196. 103. 204. Canterbury Puzzles. 61. 67. 143. 139. Archery Butt. 137. 99. 168. 220. The Nine. 21. 139. Ball. 122. 29. 241. Biscuits. Chifu-Chemulpo Puzzle. Chessboard Problems. 191. Measuring the. Cutting the. The. 28. 148. Chessboard. Clowns. 89. Age and Kinship Puzzles. 237. 124. 31. Adventures of the Puzzle. 122. The. 187. Capt. Sharing the. 107. 238. 92. 51. 214. 198. 231. 46. Cutting a Wood. 135. The. Coin Magic Square. 125. The. W. 26. Albanna. 138. 51. 246. 83. Making. 163. Bandy-Ball. 212. Canon's Yeoman. The Sixteen. Lady Isabel's. 90. 107. Canterbury Pilgrim's Puzzle. 38. 171. 36. Combination and Group Problems. Carpet. 185. Alkalacadi. 206. Cellarman. Lewis. Bridging the Ditch. 32. Cellarer. Column. 235. 151. Bridges. 61. Coinage Puzzle. Four Money. 89. Clifi Mystery. The Cornish. Bags. 54. Clock Puzzle. The Tramps and Block. Buttons and String Method. 73. 25. 86. 32.. 128. The Eight. 190. Blocks. 152. 153. 233. The Riddle of the. 60. 154. Bottles. 59. 210. 111. Chalked Numbers. 239. 237. 146. 132. 20. The. Arrows. 167. 73. 125. The Nelson. Rouse. Ale. 45. 64. Amulet. 64. The Number. W. 48." 64. 41. Longbow and the. 205.116. Christmas Puzzle Party. 160. Casket. Cheeses on Stools. Club. 65. 122. 145. 130. 58. Brooch.113. Carroll. 157. Algebraical Puzzles. 56. . 150. Bergholt. 134. Card Puzzle. Buried Treasure. 18. 161. The Perplexed. 23. 141. 158. 50. E. 128. 45. Cutting the. Arithmetical Puzzles. 127. The Game of. 147. 55. Cats and Mice. 34. 70. Ernest. 75. 75. The Broken. Carpenter's Puzzle. 74.INDEX " Abracadabra. 158. 250. 226. Cloth. 210. Bears. 160. D. 131. Cisterns. 82. 198. 119. Puzzle of the. Clerk of Oxenford's Puzzle. Japanese Ladies and. Astronomical Problem. the. The Squire's. 24. 33. Ibn. 29. 72. 122. Bewley. 94. 129. 202. 114. 55 f 181. The Eight. 181. 46. 91. 222.

88. Geese. 135. Escape of the King's. The. 60. 83. Sixty-four. 101. Selling the. Kayles. The. Daily Mail. 121. The Riddle of the. 105. 201. 113. 198. Frogs' Ring. Isabel's Casket. 28. Fleurs-de-Lys. Crescent and the Cross. 99. 228. Counting out Puzzle. Grangemoor Mystery. 39. 236. 239. 158. Dungeon. 170. 237. 220. 51. 26. 194. The Christmas. 221. 51. 248. 181. Moving. 188. Digital Analysis. 124. See Combination and Group Problems. 186. P. Geometrical Problems. Recurring. Puzzle. . Group Problems. 82. 39. 78. Ditch. Eggs. The. 180. 189. 157. 118. Oscar. The. 18. Hogs. 148. 76. 46. Counter Problems. 62. 144. 191. 26. 35. The Nine. 36. 50. 123. 44. Combination and. 174. 240. 131. Portrait of King. Cubes. The Riddle of the. The. Executioner. Gardens. 210. 69. 131. 49. The Nine. 197. 124. The. Robinson. Crossing River Problems. 70. 154. The Two. Jaenisch. Kennels. Friar and Sompnour'g Dispute. 246.252 INDEX Fermat. 78. Dispute between Friar and Sompnour. Knight's Puzzle. Making a. Diamond Letter Puzzles. Dissection Puzzles. 67. 231. The. 118. 135. Hoppe. 49. 63. 245. Host's Puzzle. Strange 78. 90. 174. 176. Donjon Keep Window. 223. 206. 153. Bridging the. 92. The Riddle of the. 129. 24. The. The. 29. Sums of Two. 178. Haberdasher's Puzzle. 199. 165. Franklin's Puzzle. King's Jester. Flag. 131. 42. Catching the. Escape of King's Jester. 223. 82. 116. 209. 46. The Puzzle of the. 88. 216. Divisors of Numbers. 35. Footprints Puzzles. Fly. The Spider and the. Cornish Cliff Mystery. 125. 180. 50. Strange Escape of the. de. The. 201. 151. 74. 147. Decimals. The Strange. 209. Flour. 121. The Death's-head. 142. Dungeons. 139. Frogs and Tumblers. The. Demoiselle. 52. 221. The. 174. 30. The Noble. 35. 123. Edward. Doctor of Physic. The Royal. 219. Japanese Ladies and the Carpet. The. Dorcas Society. The. 69. The Nine Sacks of. 62. Farmer's Oxen. To Find. 180. 177. 166. Friar's Puzzle. 228. 171. 249. 83. 229. 140. Jester. 203. Errand Boys. 146. 179. Crusoe's Table. 136. 142. 206. 201. Cook's Puzzle. The Game of. who would a-wooing go. 157. 103. 26. 67. 204. 59. Dormitory Puzzle. Dyer's Puzzle. 141. Crusaders. The. The. 41. 242. Foxes and Geese. 77. Fallacy of Square's Diagonal. The. The Silver. Lady. Eleven Pennies. 63. 78. Games. Fish-pond. Puzzles. 52. 156. The. Four Princes.

Pilgrimages. 89. 175. 118. Nines. 68. 205. 88. C. W. 220. Magdalen. 149. 233. Noble Demoiselle. 90. 96. 183. 31. 198. Miscellaneous Puzzles. The. 143. The. Lucas. Monks of Riddlewell. Problems. The Carved Wooden. Nelson Column. 36. Sir Isaac. The. The. Plumber. Miller's Puzzle. 73. 208. Ozanam's Recreations. Parental Command. A Reversible. 237. Palindromes. 241. 34. 147. The Runaway. Oxen. The Four. Mystery of Ravensdene. Measuring. 211. 246. The Squire's Christmas Puzzle. 248. 191. 248. 55. Prioress. 237. 202. 138. 43. The Ambiguous. 172. The Fifteen. Man of Law's Puzzle.. Plum Puddings. The Secret. A. 41. and. The Merry. Manciple's Puzzle. Pie and the Pasty. Ones. Orchards. 46. 29. 248. 235. 242.. 72. 139. 110. 157. The Underground. See Measuring. Magic Square. 41. Money. Weighing. 105. Newton. 253 Blocks. Dividing the. 169. Park. The Four. Longbow and the Bears. The Eccentric. Pennies. 247. 210. Number V Ariihmetique Amusante. 116. Plato and the. The. 175. 206. 68. 44. 86. W. 202. Party. Pellian Equation. Pilgrims' Manner of Riding. 153. 238. Postage Stamps Puzzle. Primrose Puzzle. 173. 179. Nun's Puzzle.. 128. 80. The Farmer's. The. 94. Moat. 211. 29. 132. Measuring. Edouard. Plato and the Nines. 17. 156. Partition of. Problems. 26. 235. 164. Motor-Car. The. Locomotive and Speed Puzzle. 67. 214. 194. Motor-Cars. 156. 103. The. 197. 149. 248. 154. Ovid's Game. 43. The. Tasting Points and Lines 133. Capt. Packing Puzzles. 170. The. Phials.INDEX Lady Isabel's Casket. . The Two. The Puzzle of the. Photograph. The Perplexed. Noughts and Crosses. The. 224. 194. 91. Chart of the. 194. 112. 247. The Three. 70. 135. The Riddle of the. Market Woman. The. 57. 112. Parson's Puzzle. Square Problems. 177. 214. 207. The. 201. 42. The Fifteen. 28. 164. and Packing Puzzles. Merry Monks of Riddlewell. Letter Puzzles. 206. 56. The. The. 31. 146. 154. Numbers composed only of. 241. 21. Monk's Puzzle. 175. 242. Moving Counter Problems. 25. 243. 198. 103. Opposition in Chess. Lock. 47. Legendre. 16. See Countef The Eleven. Porkers. Princes. Professor's Puzzles. Moving. 144. 241. 81. 25. Weighing. 246. 246. Lord. 148. 193. Maze. 79. Montucla. Numbers on Motor-Cars. 33 170. 39. Merchant's Puzzle. Nash. Pillar. 18. 32. 147. 75. 160. The Chalked. the. Crossing the. 34. 186. Ploughman's Puzzle. Under the. 59. Marksford and the Lady. 111. M'Elroy. The. Pardoner's Puzzle. Mistletoe Bough. 136.

Spider and the Fly. Ribbon Problem. 196. 184. 142. The Merry Monks 68. Sack Wine. 201. 167. 59. 173. 18. Puzzle. 58. 40. 212. Table. See Tea Tins. The Skipper and the. 244. The Adventurous. Counting Postage. Spherical Surface of Water. 115. Square. the. Square and Triangle. 49. 153. on a. Robinson Crusoe's. 180. 242. mysterious charm of. River Crossing Problems. Trees. Tramps and the Biscuits. 38. 152. Reve's Puzzle. How to solve. 147. Puzzle. The Riddle of the. 244. 218. Teacups. 150. The. The. • INDEX Snail on the Flagstaff. The Three. of. The Riddle of. 74. Unsolved. 217. 15. 127. 137. 176. 16. 83. Visiting the. The. Superposition. 18. The. Puzzle Club. Puzzling Times at Solvamhall Castle. Route Problems. 107. 11. Robinson Crusoe's Table. Triangular. at. Three Squares from One. Skipper and the Sea-Serpent. 181. The Chinese. 134. 51. Sylvester. Problem on. Sophistical. 107. The Tube. . 130. 45. Tour. 224. 233. 163. The. 190. 224. Cutting the. Edmondsbury. 87. 214. Sea-Serpent. 147. 49. 137. The. The Five. 217. Mystery of. Rook's Path. 236. 105. Solvamhall Castle. 24. 86. Unioursal and. 125. The. 12. Problem 231. 150. —— The The The The The exact conditions of. The Postage. nature variety of. The. 228. 245. Snails. How they are made. The. Triangles of Equal Area. 20. Sands. 179. 205. Riddlewell. of. 240. old. Shipman's Puzzle. Square Field. Tiled Hearth. 134. 30. Thirty-one Game. 16. 149. The. Triangle and Square. 116. 243. Tapestry. The English. 131. Ramsgate Sands. 112. 137. of. The. 121. Squire's Christmas Puzzle Party. Yeoman. 160. 75. Magic Squares of. Railways. utility of. 72. 242. On the. Sompnour's and Friar's Dispute. Puzzling Times 58. 172. Shield. of the. Puzzle. The. 175. 184. 185. 221. The Sixteen Oak. Talkhys. 82. The. 112. Squares. Squares Tilting at the Ring. 56. Towns. 240. 246. 194. Romeo and Juliet. Riddles. 65. Pyramids. The Puzzle 168. On the Ramsgate. Ravensdene Park. Romeo's Second Journey. 94 210. 250. 13. 236. Adventures of the. 207. 13. 31. 27. Stamps. The. 205. The Round. Treasure. 134. 163. 237. 14. The. Rope. Railway Puzzle. The. 211. The. The Two. The Mysterious. 114. Tapiser's Puzzle. 30. 71. 195. 142. 137. Round Table. 79. 44. 197. Rat-catcher's Riddle.254 Puzzles. 198. The Riddle of St. Unicursal. The Buried.

73. Wife of Bath's Riddles. 188. 27. 129. 160. Measuring. 60. 56. and Packing Puzzles. 163. 90. Cutting a. Wizard's Arithmetic. 83. Weighing. 250. The. Wine. The Donjon Keep. 241. The. 179. 45. 171. Tube Railway. 40. The. 48. 149. 134. Wood Block. 166. 226. Weaver's Puzzle. Window. The. . 105. Weekly Dispatch. 127. PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN AT THE PRESS OF THE PUBLISHERS. Wreath on Column. 243. 35. 221.INDEX Triangular numbers. Unicursal 255 and Route Problems. THE END. 146. 62. 149. Stealing the. See Measuring.

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