# Important Yarn parameters and

Yarn diameter and Count Relationship between yarn count and diameter is dependent upon specific volume of yarm. Specific volume, v, is the ratio of the volume of yarn to that of the same weight of water. Specific volume of yarn depends upon the raw material, type of spinning system, twist factor and spinning parameters. Ring spun yarns have a lower specific volume than rotor spun yarns. Acrylic and woolen yarns have a higher specific volume than cotton yarns. Specific volume reduces with increase in twist factor. If d is diameter in inches of yarn of count C v = 858Cd2. (1/d) = 29.3√C. Specific volume of yarn is usually 1.1 to 1.2. If speific volume is assumed as 1.1 (1/d) = 28√C. If d1 is diameter in cm and N is the count in tex units then d1=√N/267.3.

Twist Factor Twist factor indicates the amount of twist put into the yarn and determines among other things the strength, elongation, specific volume, liveliness of yarn. If twist factor is k and t is twists per inch then, k = t/√C. If fibres follow helical path, Twist factor is equal the angle surface fibres make with axis of yarn tan x = √Πdt =√Π(√v)k/29.3 =0.107k(√v) When v = 1.1 tanx = k/9. Tenacity Tenacity denotes intrinsic strength of yarn. Strength of yarn is dependent on count and its intrinsic strength. It is usual to refer to tenacity by the term Breaking length. This is the length whose weight is equal to the breaking strength of yarn. If lea strength is used to denote strength, intrinsic strength is given by CS where C is count and S is breaking strength. This is commonly known as CSP or count strength product. As CS reduces with count, corrected CSP is determined by correcting for the deviation of actual count from nominal. If C1is the actual and C nominal count, corrected CSP = CS - (C1 - C)18. If strength is by single thread then tenacity is given by S/N where S is breaking strength and N is count in tex. Irregularity Irregularity is an important characteristic of yarn that determines appearance, sale value of yarn and fabric. It also has considerable influence on strength realisation from fibre and performance of yarn. The best possible regularity that can be achieved by current spinning is that with random arrangement of fibres. Irregularity due to random arrangement of fibres, CVr, is given by CVr = (√(1002 + CVf2))/n where CVf = Coefficient of variation of weight per unit length of fibre n = Number of fibres in yarn crosssection. CVf for cotton varies within and between bolls, between lots, stations but has a value roughly equal to 30%. In the case of wool it is around 50% and for synthetics around 10%. Upon putting this figure in the above formulae, CVr = 106/√n for cotton =112/√n for wool =102/√n for synthetics. Index of Irregularity Index of Irregulaity = Actual CV of yarn/CVr. Index of irregularity indicates the scope for improving the spinning processes for getting better regularity. Imperfections These represent outlayers of variations in yarn which have a profound influence on appearance of yarn and fabric and performance of yarn. Uster imperfection tester measures three types of imperfections viz Thin places, Thick places, Neps. Nep is differentiated from a thick place by the length of the defect. The

They also affect the performance of yarn in weaving and knitting. bad piecings etc.instrument evaluates nep as a thick place whose length is shorter than 4mm and longer thick places are evaluated as thick.1 to 1cm B .+100% F G o Long thick places of E category are known as 'Spinner's double' and are caused by lashing of an end with adjoining end at roving or ring frame. blow room. Size of fault 8 . split sliver in creel of roving. Faults show prominently in fabric and lead to rejections. broken seeds. o Long Thick Faults 5 catergories of long thick faults are measured by classimat.0. 4 classes of each of these faults are measured as indicated in Table below. Faults of 4cm and above are caused by slubs. mal functioning of stop motion at drawframe.above 4cm +100 to +150% A1 B1 C1 D1 +150 to +250% A2 B2 C2 D2 +250 to +400% A3 B3 C3 D3 above +400% A4 B4 C4 D4 o Very short thick places are caused by the presence of seed coats. trash in the case of cotton and cutterfibres in synthetics. sliver splitting in creel at roving and long overlap of sliver at the time of sliver break at drwaframe. Uster Classimat has facility to detect faults as per their size and length. .32cm above 32cm +45 .1 to 2cm C . Short Length Faults Size of Fault A . drafting faults in roving and drawing. Medium size short thick places are caused by embedded fluff.Above 8cm length and above +100% crosssection size. o Long Thin Faults 4 types of thin places are measured Size of Fault 8 .32cm above 32cm -30 to -45% H1 I1 -45 to -75% H2 I2 o Long thin faults are due to raw material defects. Neps are influenced by fibre properties and blow room. • Faults Faults are seldom occuring defects as agaist imperfections which are frequent occuring defects. undrafted ends.2 to 3cm D . Thick places are influenced by fibre properties. carding and combing and drafting conditions. Longer and thicker size faults show up prominently and are termed as objectionable o Short Length faults 16 categories of short length faults are measured by Classimat. loose lint among others. F and G faults are due to drafting defects at earlier stages. carding and combing conditions. Thin(%) Thick (%) Nep (%) -30 +35 +140 -40 +50 +200 -50 +70 +280 -60 +100 +400 • Thin places are influenced by fibre properties combing and drafting conditions. E .

Since part of the fibres are common to both crossections. The amplitude of the variations are sorted as per their wavelength and plotted as a amplitude vswavelength curve. there will be a positive auto correlation coefficient. o Spectrogram Spectrogram is a fourier analysis of variations present in the material. Corrleation coefficient between points x aprt.(x/3la)) Where lais mean fibre length. In between these two peaks. r(x) = I/la (l . The spectrogram of a yarn due to random fibre arrangement has a "hill" whose maximum wavelength lies in the region of 2. wollen and other material with variable staple diagram. For lengths below fibre length. This enables one to find out how much the actual variance length curve deviates from the ideal. then the plot of r(l) against l is Correlogram. there will be a valley. Let t1 and t2 denote thickness(or weight per unit length) of yarn at points separated by 's' distance Auto Correlation Function r(s) = (N(∑titi+s . If x is varied keeping L constant. A shorter but a smaller amplitude wave will also be found at half the fibre length and this is a lower harmonic. With cut staple fibres peak value of spectrogram lies at 2.5 to 3 times fibre length. correlogram is determined by the fibre length distribution of cotton. On the top of it. Variance length curve is related to correlogram of yarn as indicated below B(x) = B(O)(2/L2) (x-u)r(u)du where r(u) denotes auto correlation coefficient of thickness between points u distance apart. In cotton. if x is kept constant and L is varied. medium term variations arise from roving frame and long term variatons from drawframe. medium and long term variations present in a yarn. if there are no other irregularities( no extra auto correlation coefficients) where lc is length biassed mean length of fibre. When x is less than lt. the spectrogram has a hump like shape with maximum around 2 to 3 times mean length. waves introduced by drafting waves is superimposed. For lengths longer than longest fibre length. Wavelength of drafting wave is also 2. Irregularity in a yarn is given by Variance(x L).5 to 3 times fibre length and so in normal yarn the "hill" is pronounced depending upon the amplitude of drating wave. the curve obtained is known as Within length curve or VL curve. B(x) = Variance of weight of lengths x long. Variance length curve shows the amount of short. Correlogram is a useful tool for detecting the presence of periodicities in yarn. where lt is half the length biassed mean fibre length of fibre. At lengths shorter than longest fibre length.o Correlogram If r(l) is the (Auto)correlation coefficient of thickness( or weight per unit length)of yarn at points 'l' apart. Here L denotes the total length of yarn taken for study and x denotes the length of pieces cut from the yarn and weighed. This is a very useful tool in characterising the various types of irregularities in yarn and will assist in locating processes which require improvement. variance length curve obtained is known as Between length curve or BL curve. BL curve is influenced by fibre length distribution of fibre as some fibres will be common to both sections.lc B(x) = B(O)(1 .x) f(l)dl where la is mean fibre length and f(l) is frequency of fibres of length l and lm is maximum fibre length o Variance Length curve Variance length curve is a graph relating variance of weight of length of yarn and the length. On the other hand. While short term variations come from ring frame.∑ti∑ti+s)/∑{(N∑ti2 -∑(ti)2)(N∑ti+s2 -∑(ti+s)2)}. .7 times fibre length. B(x) = B(O)lc/x.

) . bi and ni denote the number of white. It also gives their wavelength which can be used to trace the cause of periodicity and rectify it. 2. So spectrogram is a useful tool for detecting the periodicities in the material. g = number of groups of white fibres in the strand. Index of blend variability is a quantity used to assess the extent of departuture of actual blend variation from random mixing. 1. p proportion of white fibres and q is proportion of black fibres in yarn. Π = (w . (Not updated in real-time.g)/g. grade. spectrogram will show a sharp peak at the point corresponding to wavelength of periodicity. Inadequate intermixing of components within a cross section.148 times. OE rotor yarns have a peak at a slightly lower length than ring yarns because fibres are curled with hooks leading to a lower projected length on yarn axis.p ni)2/pqni) where wi. Variations in blend proportion of the component fibres in cross section along the length of yarn 2.Π = proportion of white fibres that have a white right hand neighbour. IBI compares the observed deviation in blend proportion in each section against theoretically estimated value of that section and determines the avearge of this over a number of sections.  Longitudinal blend variation If black and white fibres are randomly mixed. Degree of mixing is the ratio gactual/grandom This Article has been viewed 8. white fibres in cross section will have a mean equal to np and a variance equal to npq where n is the avearge number of fibres in yarn cross section.Two measures of intimacy mixing are used 1.o Thus spectrogram of cotton yarns has a maximum at 6 to 8cm. of woolen yarn at about 20cm. Two types of blend variability have to be minimised. Blend Variability Blend variation is an important parameter to be controlled in blends in view of their influence on appearance. fault incidence. This represents the minimum blend variability that will be present in yarn with the best possible mixing of components. If mixing is random Π= p. Measure of mixing.Index of mixing.  Intimacy of lateral mixing To assess intimacy of mixing the ribbon of fibres emerging from front roller nip is examined. Index of blend irregularity = √((1/N)∑((wi . black and total number of fibres in a crossection and N total number of yarn cross sections examined. g = npq. When periodic variation is present. and sale value of fabric.