Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE

1
Courses In
Electrical
Engineering
Volume IV
EECTRICAL MACHINES
EXAM QUESTIONS WITH SOLUTIONS
(2012 academic year)
By
Jean-Paul NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics)
M.Sc. (Electrical Engineering)
Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
2
Foreword
This is a compilation of some exam questions that I gave to my students during this
academic year. They are accompanied by solutions proposed by me. I will be delight
if this book can be of any use for you. I will also be very happy to receive any critic or
suggestion from you. I dedicate this book to my students of Class 6, Electrical
Technology, GTHS Kumbo, 2012 batch. They are a bit stubborn, but I like to teach
them. May you be blessed as you are using this book.
NGOUNE Jean-Paul.
17 May 2012.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
3
Acknowledgement
Most of the questions treated in this book are “Probatoire Technique” past questions
proposed by the Cameroon General Certificate of Education Board (GCEB) and the
“Office du Baccalaureat du Cameroun” (OBC).
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
4
Courses In
Electrical
Engineering
Volume IV
ELECTRICAL MACHINES
FIRST SEQUENCE EXAM WITH SOLUTION
By
Jean-Paul NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics)
M.Sc. (Electrical Engineering)
Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
5
I TECHNOLOGY
1. Define electrical generator.
2. Give two functions of yoke in DC machines.
3. What is the role of the commutator in DC generators?
4. Explain why the armature of electrical machines is made up of substances
having low hysteresis coefficient.
5. How can the strength of the magnetic field of an electromagnet be increased?
6. Cite the three main types of magnetic materials and give one example of each
of them.
7. Why are the armature core and the pole cores of a dc machine made up of
laminated steel?
II ELECTROTECHNOLOGY
Exercise 1: Shunt generator.
An asynchronous three phase motor drives a shunt generator which supplies in full
load a current of 40A under 320V. The useful power of the driving motor is equal to
20.614 kW at full load. Its armature resistance is 1.25Ω and its field resistance is
200Ω . Determine:
1. The useful power of the generator.
2. The current in the field circuit and in the armature.
3. The emf of the generator.
Exercise 2: Long shunt compound DC generator.
A 60kW long shunt compound wound dc generator delivers a rated current of 150A
at its rated voltage. Calculate:
1. The rated voltage.
REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON
Peace – Work – Fatherland
……………
GTHS KUMBO/ ELECT DPT
FIRST SEQUENCE EXAM
Class: F
3
6
Option: Electrotechnology
Duration: 2H30
Coefficient: 3
ELECTRICAL MACHINES
No document is allowed except the one given to
the candidates by the examiners
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
6
2. The resistance of the connected load.
If series field resistance, shunt field resistance and armature resistance are 0.075Ω ,
220 Ω and 0.15 Ω respectively. Calculate:
3. The shunt and series field currents.
4. The voltage across the armature.
5. The emf generated.
Exercise 3: Self inductance, AC circuits.
The electrical model of an asynchronous motor can be given by the following circuit:
t t v 314 sin 2 230 ) ( = ; Xm = 110Ω ; Rt = 900Ω ; r1 = 1.5Ω ; r2 = 48 Ω ; x = 6 Ω .
1. Determine the complex impedance of the branches AB and AC of the circuit.
2. Express the total impedance of the circuit in the form: Z = R + jX.
3. Determine the complex expression of the current I consumed by the circuit.
4. Determine the active and the reactive power consumed by the circuit.
5. Deduce the complex expression of the currents passing through branches AB
and AC.
Proposed by Mr. NGOUNE Jean-Paul,
PLET Electrotechnics, GTHS KUMBO.
C
B
A
x r1
r2 Rt Xm V(t)
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
7
PROPOSITION OF SOLUTION
I TECHNOLOGY
1. An electrical generator is an electromagnetic converter that permits to
transform mechanical energy into electrical energy.
2. Two functions of the yoke:
- It provide a mechanical protection to the machine;
- It carries coils and other parts such as mechanical parts;
- It acts as a magnetic circuit where magnetic flux circulates (it canalize the
flux).
3. The commutator permits to convert alternating current from the armature into
direct current in the external load.
4. The armature of electrical machines is made up of substances having low
hysteresis coefficient in order to reduce hysteresis losses in the armature.
5. The strength of the magnetic field of an electromagnet can be increased using
the following methods:
- By increasing the current supplying the electromagnet;
- By inserting an iron core within the electromagnet;
- By adding the number of turns of coil of the electromagnet.
6. Magnetic materials:
- Ferromagnetic materials: iron, nickel;
- Paramagnetic materials: Oxygen, aluminium, platinum;
- Diamagnetic materials: Nitrogen, water, silver, bismuth.
7. Armature core and pole core of DC machines are made up of laminated steel
in order to reduce Eddy current losses.
II ELECTROTECHNOLOGY
Exercise 1: Shunt generator.
Data: I = 40A; U = 320V; Pin = 20.614kW
Ra = 1.25Ω ; Rsh = 200Ω .
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
8
RSH
E
RA
LOAD
U
Ish
I
1. Useful power of the generator:
2. Current in the field circuit and in the armature:
A
R
U
I
sh
sh
6 . 1
200
320
= = =
A I I I
sh a
6 . 41 = + =
3. Emf of the generator:
V U I R E
a a
372 320 6 . 41 25 . 1 = + × = + =
Exercise 2: Long shunt compound dc generator.
Data: P = 60 kW; I = 150A; Rs = 0.075Ω ; Rsh = 220 Ω ; Ra = 0.15 Ω .
E
RA
RS
RSH LOAD
Ua
Ish
I
U
1. Rated voltage:
V
U
P
U 400
150
60000
= = =
W P
P
I U P
12800
40 320
=
× =
× =
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
9
2. Resistance of the connected load:
O = = = 66 . 2
150
400
I
U
R
3. Shunt an series field currents:
A
R
U
I
sh
sh
81 . 1
220
400
= = =
A I I I
sh S
81 . 151 = + =
4. Voltage across the armature:
( ) V U I R U
U I R U
S S a
S S a
38 . 411 400 81 . 151 075 . 0
0
= + × = + =
= ÷ ÷
5. Emf generated:
V U I R E
U I R E
a a a
a a a
151 . 434 38 . 411 81 . 151 15 . 0
0
= + × = + =
= ÷ ÷
Exercise 3: Self inductance, AC circuits.
Let us consider the following circuit:
t t v 314 sin 2 230 ) ( = ; Xm = 110Ω ; Rt = 900Ω ; r1 = 1.5Ω ; r2 = 48 Ω ; x = 6 Ω .
1. Determination of impedances:
- Branch AB:
( )( )
jXm Rt
jXm Rt
Rt jXm Z
AB
+
×
= =
C
B
A
x r1
r2 Rt Xm V(t)
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
10
( )
| |O = + =
+
=
+
÷
=
+
=
+
×
=
o
AB
AB
j Z
j j j
j
j
j
j
Z
03 . 83 18 . 109 38 . 108 24 . 13
8221
108900 891000
121 8100
11 90 9900
11 90
9900
110 900
110 900
- Branch AC:
( )
| |
o
AC
AC
j Z
jx r r Z
91 . 6 86 . 49 6 5 . 49
2 1
= + =
+ + =
2. Total impedance of the circuit:
( )( )
( ) ( )
| | | | | |
| |
| | O + = =
=
+
×
=
+
×
= =
j Z
j Z Z
Z Z
Z Z Z
o
T
o
o o o
AC AB
AC AB
AC AB T
03 . 20 60 . 36 69 . 28 73 . 41
25 . 61 45 . 130
91 . 89 71 . 5443
38 . 114 74 . 62
91 . 6 56 . 49 03 . 83 18 . 109
3. Total current consumed by the circuit:
| |
| |
| |A
Z
V
I
o
o
o
T
69 . 28 51 . 5
69 . 28 73 . 41
0 230
÷ = = =
4. Active and reactive power consumed by the circuit:
Z
T
= R + jX
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= =
= =


sin
cos
2
2
VI XI Q
VI RI P
Where  is the power factor of the circuit.
Var XI Q
W RI P
11 . 608 51 . 5 03 . 20
17 . 1111 51 . 5 6 . 36
2 2
2 2
= × = =
= × = =
We can still proceed as follows:
( )
( ) Var VI Q
W VI P
39 . 608 69 . 28 cos 51 . 5 230 sin
71 . 1111 69 . 28 cos 51 . 5 230 cos
= × = =
= × = =


5. Currents in the branches AB and AC:
ZAB ZAC
I
Iab Iac
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
11
Using current divider theorem, we have:
( )
| | | |
| |
| |A I
Z Z
Z
I
o
o
o o
AC AB
AC
AB
03 . 83 106 . 2
25 . 61 45 . 130
69 . 28 51 . 5 91 . 6 86 . 49
÷ =
÷ ×
=
+
=
( )
| | | |
| |
| | A I
Z Z
Z
I
o
o o
AC AB
AB
AC
91 . 6 61 . 4
25 . 61 45 . 130
69 . 28 51 . 5 03 . 83 18 . 109
÷ =
÷ ×
=
+
=
END.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
12
Courses In
Electrical
Engineering
Volume IV
ELECTRICAL MACHINES
THIRD SEQUENCE EXAM WITH SOLUTION
By
Jean-Paul NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics)
M.Sc. (Electrical Engineering)
Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
13
PART ONE : TECHNOLOGY
1. Explain why the series field DC motor rotates at high speed at no load when it
is supplied at his nominal voltage.
2. For each of the following electrical machines, cite a magnetic material which is
used in the manufacturing of the magnetic circuit: a) transformer; b) DC
machine stator, c) permanent magnet DC motor.
3. Give the role of the “isoptherme” in an AC electrical machine.
4. Give the role of the excitation resistance in a DC motor.
5. Give the role of auxiliary commutation poles in a DC motor.
6. Give the differences between an asynchronous squirrel cage motor and an
asynchronous wound winding motor.
7. Name the test which is conducted in order to determine iron and friction losses
in a DC motor.
PART TWO: ELCTROTECHNOLOGY
Exercise 1: Shunt generator
The open circuit characteristics at 1000rpm of a 4 pole, 220V shunt generator with 72
slots and 8 conductors per slot with armature conductors lap connected is as follows:
Field current (A) 0.25 0.5 1 2 3 4 5
emf (V) 25 50 100 175 220 245 255
The field circuit resistance is 75Ω .
1. Explain how this test was carried out
REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON
Peace – Work – Fatherland
……………
GTHS KUMBO/ ELECT DPT
THIRD SEQUENCE EXAM
Class: F
3
6
Option: Electrotechnology
Duration: 03H
Coefficient: 3
Written paper
ELECTRICAL MACHINES
No document is allowed except the one given to
the candidates by the examiners.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
14
2. Plot the curve and determine: a) The emf induced due to residual magnetism;
b) The emf generated at the given field resistance when the generator is under
normal operation.
3. The useful flux per pole.
4. The residual flux.
Exercise 2: Series motor
The starter of a Peugeot 504 (a series motor) takes 200A under a voltage of 12 V.
Under these conditions, it runs at 1000rpm and delivers a useful power of 1500W.
The constant losses are estimated at 100W. Calculate: a) The power absorbed by
the starter. b) Its efficiency. c) Its useful torque. d) The joule losses. e) The total
resistance (armature + field windings). f) The back emf of the motor. g) Determine the
direct starting current. h) What is the value of the resistance to be connected in series
with the motor to limit the starting current to 240A?
Exercise 3: Three Phase asynchronous motor
A three phase asynchronous motor, with the stator coupled in delta, is supplied by a
network supply of 380V, 50Hz. Each phase of the stator has a resistance 0.4Ω . At no
load the motor rotates at 1500rpm and absorbs a power of 1150W; the current in a
line is 3.2A. A test at a nominal load, under the same voltage of 380V, 50Hz has
given the following results: Slip g = 4%; Power absorbed: Pa = 18.1kW; Line current:
I = 32A.
1. For the no load test, calculate: a) the stator copper losses when the motor rotates
at no load. b) The stator iron losses knowing that the mechanical losses are 510W.
2. For the nominal load test, determine: a) The power factor. b) The speed of rotation.
c) The frequency of the rotor current. d) The stator copper losses. e) The rotor copper
losses. f) The useful power. g) The efficiency of the motor. h) The useful torque
SUBJECT MASTER: NGOUNE Jean-Paul,
PLET Electrotechnics, GTHS KUMBO.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
15
AKNOWLEDGEMENT
Almost all the exercises solved in this document are past “Probatoire Technique”
examination questions proposed by the Cameroon General Certificate of Education
Board (CGCEB).
PROPOSITION OF SOLUTION
PART ONE TECHNOLOGY:
1. At no load, armature current and consequently the field flux is very is very
small. This leads to the increasing of the speed of DC series motor, since the
speed is inversely proportional to the armature current (to the field flux).
u
÷
= ¬ ÷ = u =
K
RaIa U
N RaIa U N K E
b
, so when the armature current (and
consequently the field flux) is small, the speed N increases. This is why it is
forbidden to start DC series motor at no load.
2. Magnetic material used for magnetic circuit:
Machine Magnetic material
Transformer Silicon steel
DC machine stator Cast iron
Permanent magnet DC motor Cast iron, ALNICO (Aluminium, Nickel,
Cobalt)
3. The role of “isotherme” is to regulate the temperature of motor coils to a
constant value.
4. The excitation resistance permits to regulate the field current flowing in the
field coil of the machine, and therefore to regulate the field flux of the machine.
5. The role of the auxiliary commutation poles (interpoles) is to improve on the
commutation by combating the emf of commutation induced when a section is
crossing the neutral line.
6. Difference between squirrel cage motor and asynchronous wound winding
motor:
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
16
Wound winding rotor Squirrel cage rotor
Higher starting current Moderate starting current because of
starting rheostat.
We can get access to rotor windings
through slip rings
Rotor conductors are not accessible
Permits smooth starting Can be directly started
7. The test that permits to determine iron and friction losses is the no load test.
PART TWO: ELECTROTECHNOLOGY
Exercise 1: Shunt generator
Data: N = 1000rpm; 2
2
4
= = p ; U = 220V; Z = 72x8 = 576; lap connection;
Rsh = 75Ω ; shunt generator.
1. Test procedure for the plotting of open circuit characteristics.
The connection of the DC generators for the determination of the open circuit
characteristics is as follows.
A
V G
If
0A
E
+
-
Rh
The field current I
f
is varied rheostatically and its value measured by an ammeter.
The speed si kept constant and the generated emf in the load is measured by the
voltmeter V. The corresponding values are recorded and the graph of E = f(If) is
plotted.
2. Plot of the curve.
The curve is sketched on the page below (the curve normally should be plotted son a
graph paper.
Scale: 1A = 1cm (abscissa) 10V = 1cm (ordinate)
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
17
260
1 2 3 4 5
If (A)
E(V)
0
S T
6 7
R
A
150
10
a) To know the value of the emf induced due to the residual magnetism, we just
have to project the curve back ward to cut the ordinate axis (point A). We
obtain E
0
= 10V
b) The emf for a field resistance of 75Ω
To know the maximum emf the generator will generate on normal operation, we
should draw the shunt resistance line.
To draw the shunt resistance line, take any value of If (for example, let us take 2A),
multiply this value by the shunt resistance Rsh = 75Ω . Mark the corresponding point
on the ordinate axis. Let that point be R. 75x2 = 150V, hence, R(2A, 150V).
Draw the line joining the origin O and the point R, it cuts the open circuit
characteristics at the point S.
Draw a horizontal line from S to T. OT gives the maximum emf generated with 75Ω
as shunt resistance.
From the curve we can read: OT = E =210V (almost)
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
18
3. Useful flux per pole.
A
p ZN
E
2
60
×
u
= ; Lap winding A p = ¬ 2
Hence,
mWb
ZN
E ZN
E
875 . 21
1000 576
210 60
60
60
=
×
×
= u
= u ¬
u
=
4. Residual flux.
mWb V E E 04 . 1 10
0
= u ¬ = = .
Exercise 2: Series motor
The stator of the Peugeot 504 is a series motor having the following characteristics:
I = 200A; U = 12V; N = 1000rpm; Pu = 1500W; Pc= 100W.
Ra
Eb
Rs
U
a) Power absorbed by the starter.
W UI P 2400 200 12 = × = =
b) Efficiency.
% 5 . 62
2400
1500
= = =
P
Pu

c) Useful torque.
m N
N
Pu
T T
N
nT Pu . 33 . 14
1000 14 . 3 2
1500 60
2
60
60
2
2 =
× ×
×
= = ¬ = =



d) Joule losses.
Let us first draw the power stages chart.
Pin
Pj
Pm
Pc
Po = Pu
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
19
From the chart, we have:
( ) ( ) W Po Pc Pin Pm Pin Pj 800 100 1500 2400 = + ÷ = + ÷ = ÷ =
e) Total resistance (armature + field)
O = = = + ¬ + = 02 . 0
200
800
) (
2 2
2
I
Pj
Ra Rs I Rs Ra Pj
f) Bock emf.
( ) ( ) V I Rs Ra U E I Ra Rs E U
b b
8 200 02 . 0 12 = × ÷ = + ÷ = ¬ + + =
g) Direct starting current.
At starting, Eb = 0, hence,
( )
A
Rs Ra
U
I
st
600
02 . 0
12
= =
+
=
h) Value of the resistance to be connected in series with the motor to limit the
starting current to 240A.
Eb
Ra
Rst Rs
U
With Eb = 0 at starting, we have:
( )
( ) O = ÷ = + ÷ = ¬
+ +
÷
= 03 . 0 02 . 0
240
12 0
Rs Ra
I
U
Rst
Rst Rs Ra
U
I
st
st
.
Exercise 3: Three phase asynchronous motor.
Data: Stator Delta connected; U = 380V; R = 0.4Ω ; Ns = 1500rpm; Po = 1150W;
Io = 3.2A; Pmec = 510W (friction +windage); g = 4%; Pa = 18.1kW; I = 32A.
1. For the no load test:
a) Stator copper losses
W RI
I
R RI Pjs
p
096 . 4 2 . 3 4 . 0
3
3 3
2 2
0
2
0 2
= × = = |
.
|

\
|
= =
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
20
b) Stator iron losses.
The power consumed by the motor during the no load test is equivalent to the sum of
iron losses, mechanical losses (windage + friction) and stator copper losses; hence
we have:
( ) ( ) W Pjs Pmec Po Pi Pjs Pmec Pi Po 904 . 635 096 . 4 510 1150 = + ÷ = + ÷ = ¬ + + =
2. For nominal load test:
a) Power factor.
8593 . 0
2 32 380
18100
3
cos cos 3 =
× ×
= = u ¬ u =
UI
Pa
UI Pa
b) Speed of rotation.
( ) ( ) rpm g Ns Nr
Ns
Nr Ns
g 1440 04 . 0 1 1500 1 = ÷ = ÷ = ¬
÷
=
c) Frequency of rotor current.
Hz f g fr 2 50 04 . 0 . = × = =
d) Stator copper losses
W RI
I
R Pjs 6 . 409 32 4 . 0
3
3
2 2
2
= × = = |
.
|

\
|
=
The following formula can also be used.
W
Io
I
Pjso Pjs 6 . 409
2 . 3
32
096 . 4
2 2
= |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
=
e) Rotor copper losses
The power stage chart for the asynchronous motor can be drawn as follows:
Pin
Pi
Pjs
Pinr
Pjr Pmec
Pm
Po
( ) W Pjs Pi Pa g Pinr g Pjr 18 . 682 904 . 635 6 . 409 18100 04 . 0 ) ( . = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = =
f) Useful power.
W Pmec g Pinr Pmec Pjr Pinr Po 316 . 15862 510 ) 04 . 0 1 ( 496 . 17054 ) 1 ( = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
21
g) Efficiency of the motor.
% 63 . 87 8763 . 0
18100
316 . 15862
= = = =
Pa
Po

h) Useful torque
m N
N
Po
T T
N
NT Po . 24 . 105
1440 28 . 6
316 . 15862 60
2
60
60
2
2 =
×
×
= = ¬ = =



END
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
22
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
NGOUNE Jean-Paul was born in Foreké-Dschang,
Republic of Cameroon in 1984. He is a holder of a
Master Degree in electrical engineering, obtained in
2010 in the Doctorate School of the University of Douala
(UFD-PSI). He is also a holder of a DIPET II and a
DIPET I respectively obtained in 2009 and 2007 in the
Advanced Teacher Training College for Technical
Education (ENSET de Douala).
He is currently a permanent teacher of Electrical
Engineering at the Government Technical High School
of Kumbo, North-West region, Cameroon. His domain of
research concerns the improvement of energy
conversion techniques for an efficient generation of
electrical energy from renewable sources (especially
wind and solar energy, small and medium scale
hydropower) and digital designing using FPDs.
The author is looking for a Ph.D program in his domain
of research (he has not yet found it). Any suggestion for
this issue will be warmly welcome.
NGOUNE Jean-Paul, M.Sc., PLET.
P.O. Box: 102 NSO, Kumbo, Cameroon.
Phone: (+237) 7506 2458.
Email : jngoune@yahoo.fr
Web site: www.scribd.com/jngoune

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