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Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE

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Courses In
Electrical
Engineering
Volume III
ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY
EXAM QUESTIONS WITH SOLUTIONS
(2012 academic year)
By
Jean-Paul NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics)
M.Sc. (Electrical Engineering)
Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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Foreword
This is a compilation of some exam questions that I gave to my students during this
academic year. They are accompanied by solutions proposed by me. I will be delight
if this book can be of any use for you. I will also be very happy to receive any critic or
suggestion from you. I dedicate this book to my students of Class 6, Electrical
Technology, GTHS Kumbo, 2012 batch. They are a bit stubborn, but I like to teach
them. May you be blessed as you are using this book.
NGOUNE Jean-Paul.
17 May 2012.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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Acknowledgement
Most of the questions treated in this book are Probatoire Technique past questions
proposed by the Cameroon General Certificate of Education Board (GCEB) and the
Office du Baccalaureat du Cameroun (OBC).
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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Contents
Item Page
Foreword 2
Acknowledgment 3
Contents 4
First sequence exam with solution 5
Third sequence exam with solution 14
About the author 24
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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Courses In
Electrical
Engineering
Volume III
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY
FIRST SEQUENCE EXAM WITH SOLUTION
By
Jean-Paul NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics)
M.Sc. (Electrical Engineering)
Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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I ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS
1. Name three types of new and renewable energies used in the generation of
electrical energy.
2. Give the power in MW of the following generating stations:
a. Hydroelectric generating stations at Song Loulou, Edea , Lagdo, and Lom
Pangar;
b. The coal fired thermal station at Oyomabang;
c. The thermal generating station in Douala Bassa;
d. The heavy oil fired thermal station at Limb;
e. The gas fired thermal station at Kribi.
3. Give three advantages renewable energies over conventional energies.
4. Give the symbol of :
a. Nuclear power station,
b. Hydropower station;
c. Thermal power station.
5. In the Cameroonian electrical system, give an example of:
a. An interconnection substation;
b. A 225kV line;
c. A 90kV line.
6. A medium water fall hydropower station has the following characteristics:
Height of the water fall: 40m
Number of turbo-alternator groups: 10
REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON
Peace Work Fatherland

GTHS KUMBO/ ELECT DPT


FIRST SEQUENCE EXAM
Class: F
3
7
Option: Electrotechnology
Duration: 2H
Coefficient: 2
TECHNOLOGY
No document is allowed except the one given to
the candidates by the examiners
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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Pressure of the water in one penstock: 400m
3
/s
Acceleration of the gravity: 9.81m.s
-2
a. Calculate the total power of the water fall,
b. Give the type of turbine suitable,
c. Determine the electrical power sent to the network knowing that the efficiency
of each turbo-alternator group is 0.76 (it is assumed that the efficiency of the
step up transformer is equal to 1).
II POWER ELECTRONICS
Consider the following figure:
T
R
u(t)
uT
uo(t)
1. Give the name of component T.
2. Give the condition that should be fulfilled for the firing of T.
3. With the aid of a simple diagram, show how T is protected in the following
cases: a) Against fast turn on. b) Against fast turn off.
4. ft t u 2 sin 10 ) ( = . Draw in synchronism with u(t) the waveforms of u
T
(t) and
u
o
(t).
5. Give the differences:
a. Between the thyristors and the diode;
b. Between the TRIAC and the DIAC.
6. Sketch the characteristics of the following components: diode, DIAC, TRIAC,
BJT.
Proposed by Mr. NGOUNE Jean-Paul,
PLET Electrotechnics, GTHS KUMBO.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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PROPOSITION OF SOLUTION
I ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS
1. New and renewable energies used in the generation of electrical energy:
- solar energy;
- wind energy;
- fuel cells (fueled by hydrogen)
- geothermal energy;
- tidal energy;
- biomass;
- biogas
2. Power in MW of generating stations:
Song Loulou 384 MW
Edea 264 MW
Hydropower plants
Lagdo 72 MW
H-O fired Limb 85 MW
Gas fired Kribi 150 MW
Logbaba 17.6 MW
Oyomabang 35.5 MW
Bafoussam 14.4 MW
Bassa 15 MW
Mefou (Yaound) 10.9MW
Thermal power plant
Djamboutou (Garoua) 20Mw
Lom Pangar storage dam
(started)
170 MW ( generating
30MW)
Nachtigal 280 MW
Song Dong 280 MW
Hydropower plants in
project
Mvembel 200 MW
3. Advantages of renewable energies over conventional energies:
Non polluting processes are used;
Perpetuity and renewability of cthe main source;
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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Low running cost (since the primary source of energy is very cheap, almost
free of charge)
4. Symbols for electrical power stations:
Nuclear
power station
Hydro power
station
Thermal
power station
5. In the Cameroonian electrical system:
a. Example of interconnection substation: Mangomb substation.
b. Examples of 225kV lines:
Mangomb Logbaba line;
Mangomb Oyomabang line;
Logbaba Bekoko line.
c. Examples of 90kV lines:
Bekoko Bafoussam line;
Bekoko limb line;
Oyomabang Mbalmayo line;
Bafossam Bamenda line.
6. Study of a medium water fall for hydropower generation.
Data:
H = 40m;
N = 10 (Number of T.A. groups);
q = 400m
3
/s;
g = 9.81m/s
2
;
a. Power of the water fall.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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MW P
W
h g q n P
6 . 1569
1569600000
40 81 . 9 400 1000 10
. . . .
=
=
=
=
b. Type of turbine suitable:
H = 40m; 30m < H < 200m.
The type of turbine suitable is Francis hydraulic turbine.
c. Electrical power sent to the network:
Water
fall
T.A.
groups.
Step up
Xformer
Pw nTA nXfo
Pelect
MW Pelect
Pelect
Pw Pelect
Xfo TA
896 . 1192
1 76 . 0 6 . 1569
=
=
=
II POWER ELECTRONICS
Let us consider the following figure:
T
R
u(t)
uT
uo(t)
1. T is a thyristor.
2. Conditions to be fulfilled for the firing of T.
A positive voltage superior to the forward voltage of the thyristors should be
applied across it: u
T
> V
0
(V
0
being the forward voltage of the thyristors).
A sufficient gate current should be sent to the gate: I
G
> I
gm
(I
gm
being the
minimal current that can fire the thyristors).
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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3. Protection of the thyristor.
a. Against fast turn on:
dt
di
is too high.
Remark:
An inductor is a currents inertia; it does not allow a rapid variation of electric
current through it. Therefore, when connected in series with a device it reduces the
gradient of current through that device with respect to time.
b. Against fast turn off:
dt
dv
is too high.
Remark:
A capacitor is a voltages inertia; it does not allow a rapid variation of voltage
across it. Therefore, when connected in parallel with a device, it reduces the gradient
of voltage across that device with respect to time.
4. ft t u 2 sin 10 ) ( = . Let us draw in synchronism with u(t) the waveforms of u
T
(t) and
u
o
(t).
Analysis of the functioning:
We assume that the firing angle of T is | | 0 e , in such a way that the firing signal
occurs at an instant
(

e
2
0
0
T
t (positive half cycle of the supply voltage u(t).
a. During the positive half cycle:
- For | |
0
0 t t e , T is not yet fired, therefore, it is OFF. The equivalent diagram of
the system can be drawn as follows.
0 V
0 A
u ( t )
u ( t )
0 ) (
); (
=
=
t u
t u u
o
T
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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- For
(

e
2
0
T
t t T is ON. The equivalent diagram of the system can be drawn
as follows:
0 V
u(t) u(t)
b. During the negative half cycle: u(t) < 0. T is therefore OFF. The equivalent
diagram of the system is as follows.
0 V
0 A
u(t)
u(t)
Waveforms:
0
0
0 t
t
t
u ( t)
u T ( t)
u o ( t)
T/2
T
) ( ) (
0 ) (
0
t u t u
t u
T
=
=
0 ) (
); (
=
=
t u
t u u
o
T
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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5.
a. The difference between the thyristor and the diode is that thyristors are controlled
unidirectional devices meanwhile diodes are non controlled unidirectional devices.
b. The difference between TRIAC and DIAC is that TRIAC are bidirectional
controlled devices meanwhile DIAC are non controlled bidirectional devices.
6 Characteristics of power electronic components:
0
ID
VD
Vbr
Vf V+
V-
0
I+
I-
Diode Characteristics TRIAC Characteristics
- Vbo
+Vbo
0 0 Vce
Ic
Ib
Vbe
Ib1
Ib2>Ib1
Ib3>Ib2
Ib4>Ib3
Ib5>Ib4
Ib6>Ib5
Ib7>Ib6
Ib1
Ib2>Ib1
Vce1
Vce2>Vce1
Vce1
Vce2>Vce1
V+
V-
I+
I-
Vbo+
Vbo-
Ibo-
Ibo+
DIAC Characteristics BJT Characteristics
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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Courses In
Electrical
Engineering
Volume III
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNNOLOGY
THIRD SEQUENCE EXAM WITH SOLUTION
By
Jean-Paul NGOUNE
DIPET I (Electrotechnics), DIPET II (Electrotechnics)
M.Sc. (Electrical Engineering)
Teacher in the Electrical Department, GTHS KUMBO, Cameroon.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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PART ONE : ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
I. Generation :
1. Give two advantages and two disadvantages of wind power generation over
nuclear power generation.
2. Define renewable energy. Apart from wind energy; cite three other forms of
renewable energy.
3. According to you, why has Cameroon chosen hydroelectricity as the main
method of power generation?
4. Name in Cameroon: a) an interconnection substation, b) A distribution station.
5. Give in MW, the power of the following generating stations:
a) The hydroelectric generating station at Songloulou;
b) The coal fired thermal station at Oyomabang;
c) The thermal generating station at Bamenda.
II. Electrical wiring system.
1. Give one advantage and one disadvantage of each of the following systems:
a) Overhead wiring system;
b) Underground wiring system.
2. Explain the reasons for the use of high voltage (HV) for the transmission of
electrical energy.
3. A conduit carries the following symbol: ICO5APE16. Give the meaning of each
indication.
4. Name two rooms of a domestic house where it is forbidden to use wooden
skirting trunking.
5. Give the size of conductor that can be used to supply the following loads:
REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON
Peace Work Fatherland

GTHS KUMBO/ ELECT DPT


THIRD SEQUENCE EXAM
Class: F
3
7
Option: Electrotechnology
Duration: 03H
Coefficient: 2
Written paper
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY
No document is allowed except the one given to
the candidates by the examiners.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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a) incandescent lamp;
b) water heater
c) electric cooker
III. Safety
1. Give two methods used for the protection of persons against electrical shocks
resulting from direct contact.
2. In the neutral regime IT:
a) Which device is used for the protection of the network against overload?
b) Which device can be used to detect the first insulation fault?
c) Which procedure can be used to allocate the first insulation fault?
PART TWO: POWER ELECTRONICS
1. Name three application areas of power electronics.
2. Name three criteria of selection of a Zener diode.
3. Name three elements that facilitate the selection of a power diode.
4. Name two methods of triggering thyristors.
5. What is the difference between natural switching and controlled switching?
6. What are the advantages of controlled switching over natural switching?
7. Consider the single phase rectifier of the figure below.
D
R
E
Uc v
Vd
0 t
v(t)
T/2
T
i
a) Draw in synchronism with v, the waveforms of Uc(t), i(t) and Vd(t).
b) Give the expression of the maximum reverse voltage supported by the diode.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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PART THREE: ELCTRICAL MACHINE CONTROL
1. The name plate of a three phase squirrel cage motor contains the following
information: 220V/380V-50Hz; 8 . 0 = Cos ; % 90 = ; 22kW. The motor is used to drive
a wagon which carries logs of wood. The supply network is from AES-SONEL of
220/380V+N.
a) Define each parameter found on the nameplate.
b) Can this motor support star-delta starting? Justify you answer.
c) Name one possibility which can be used to limit the transient phenomenon
occurring during the passage from star to delta connection of the star-delta starting.
d) Give two methods that can be used for breaking this motor.
2. Give the role of the squirrel cage found on the stator of some three phase
alternator.
3. Which advantage does a deep slots or double cage induction motor have over a
normal induction motor?
4. Universal motor: a) explain the functioning of this motor. b) Give one domain of
application of this motor.
5. PLC: a) Give the meaning of PLC. b) Define the capacity of a PLC and precise its
unit. c) In which type of memory the instructions of a PLC are stored?
Subject Masters: Mr. AYUK Daniel, PLET.
Mr. NGOUNE Jean-Paul, PLET.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Almost all the exercises solved in this document are past Baccalaurat Technique
examination questions proposed by the Cameroon General Certificate of Education
Board (CGCEB).
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
18
PROPOSITION OF SOLUTION
PART ONE: ELECTRICAL NSTALLATION
I. Generation
1.a. Advantages of wind power generation over nuclear power generation:
Wind energy is plentiful and inexhaustible (cannot end).
It is renewable and non polluting.
It requires a low running cost.
1.b disadvantages:
Wind energy is unreliable (because sufficient speed of wind is not always
available).
The amount of power produced is far less than that can be produced by
nuclear energy plant.
The connection of wind farms to the national grid always requires
sophisticated electrical and power electronic devices (the frequency of the
network is constant when that of wind turbines is fluctuant)
2. Renewable energies are energies that cannot exhaust because their sources are
naturally renewed. Other forms of renewable energies apart from wind energy are:
Solar energy;
Hydro energy;
Geothermal energy;
Biogas;
Ocean energy (tidal)
Fuel cells ( supplied by hydrogen produced from electrolysis using
renewable electricity)
3. Cameroon has chosen hydroelectricity as the main method for power
generation because of the availability of many important rivers in Cameroon
(Cameroon has the second hydro potential in Africa, just behind the DRC). On
the other hand, hydropower plants do not require high running costs.
4. Interconnection substations in Cameroon are: Mangombe, Bekoko,
Oyomabang, Logbaba... Distribution substations are Limbe, Bafossam,
Mbalmayo, Kumbo
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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5. Power of generating substation:
Generating stations Power in MW
Hydro station at Song-loulou 384MW
Thermal station at Oyomabang 40x0.8 = 32MW
Thermal station at Bassa 25x0.8 = 20MW
Thermal station at Bamenda 20MW
II. Electrical wiring system:
1.a Advantages and disadvantages of overhead wiring.
Advantages Disadvantages
Low inductance
Low cost
Easy installation
Frequent cut of lines
Affected by lighting
Lack of aesthetics
Exposed to atmospheric
conditions
1.b Advantages and disadvantages of underground system.
Advantages disadvantages
Does not disturb air navigation;
Not affected by lighting, falling
trees,
Low amount of power failure
Difficult and costly installation,
Need installation map before
maintenance can take place,
Difficult to extend the network.
High capacitance.
2. Energy is transmitted in high voltage in order to reduce copper losses along the
lines. As consequence, we have the following advantages:
Less cross sectional area of conductors can conveniently be used because
current is not much;
Increases transmission efficiency;
Permits interconnection between electrical networks of neighbouring countries.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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3. Signification of the symbol ICO5APE16:
I: Insulating material
C: Flexible, bendable,
O: ordinary,
5: Protection against mechanical constraint
A: Resistant to chemical effect,
P: Non propagation of flame,
E: Resistance to water or moisture,
16: External diameter of conduit.
4. Wooden skirting trunking should not be used in the following rooms:
Lavatory toilet;
Bath rooms;
Kitchen.
5. Size of conductors required for loads:
Appliance Size of conductor
Incandescent lamp 1.5mm
2
Water heater 2.5mm
2
Electrical cooker 4mm
2
or 6mm
2
III. Safety.
1. Two methods of protection of persons against direct contacts.
Appropriate and double insulation;
Extra low voltage use.
2.a In the neutral regime IT, the device which is used to protect the network against
overload is a circuit breaker or a fuse.
2.b The device that can be used to detect the first insulation fault is Permanent
Monitory Device (IMD) or a permanent isolation controller.
2.c The procedure used to allocate the first isolation fault consist of using a
mega-ohmeter to measure the resistance between each line and the mass, so as to
detect an eventual isolation fault.
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
21
PART TWO: POWER ELECTRONICS
1. Application areas of power electronics
Machine control;
Power transmission;
Transport (Tramways, high speed trains)
Electronic and electric appliances
2. Three criteria of selection of Zener Diode:
Zener voltage;
Power dissipated;
Reverse current;
Coefficient
Z
Z
I
V
A
A
.
3. Elements facilitating the selection of a power diode:
Maximum reverse repeatitive voltage (V
RRM
)
Maximum forward current (I
FM
)
Junction temperature (T
j
)
Reverse recovery time (t
rr
)
4. Two methods of triggering thyristors.
V
AK
>0, and a sufficient gate current is available (I
g
>I
gm
),
V
AK
>V
BO
, V
BO
being the break over voltage (voltage above which the thyristor
conducts without being fired.
High
dt
dv
or
dt
di
;
5. For natural switching, the switch is opened or closed depending only on the
voltage across it; for controlled switching, the switch is closed only when in addition
to the voltage being positive across it, a control signal is sent to it.
6. Advantages of controlled switching over natural switching.
Flexibility (large range of variation of quantitative performances of controlled
converters depending on the firing angle);
Efficiency greater than that of non controlled switches.
7. Let us consider the rectifier circuit below:
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
22
D
R
E
Uc v
Vd
0 t
v(t)
T/2
T
i
a. Waveforms of v(t), uc(t), i(t) and vd(t) in synchronism.
0
0
0
E
E
-E
v(t)
uc(t)
i(t)
vd(t)
t
t
t
T/2
T
b. The maximal reverse voltage supported by the diode is V
dmax
= V
max
+ E.
PART THREE: ELECTRICAL MACHINE CONTROL
1.a Definition of each parameter
220V: Voltage that one winding can support;
380V: Voltage that two windings can support;
50Hz: Supply frequency;
cos : Power factor;
: Efficiency;
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
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22kW: Useful or output power.
1. b No, motor cannot support star-delta starting because, when switched to delta,
the supply voltage will be more than the voltage supported by one winding.
1.c Transcient phenomenon can be limited when passing from star to delta
connection by inserting delta resistances in the star-delta starting ( the process of
starting become as follows: Star Delta resistance Delta).
1. d Two methods for breaking this motor are :
Injection of direct current,
Counter current method.
2. The role of the squirrel cage found on the stator of some three phase alternator is
to assist the stator of the alternator.
3. Advantages of deep slots or double cage induction motor over a normal induction
motor.
Reduction of starting current;
Improvement of starting torque.
4. a. An universal motor is a series motor works both in ac and dc.
4.b. Domains of application of universal motors:
Machine tools;
Cleaner;
Drill;
5.a PLC = Programmable Logic controller;
5.b The capacity of a PLC is the amount of instructions that the PLC can store. The
unit of measurement is the kilobit (kb).
5.c. The types of memories in which the instructions of a PLC can be stored are:
EPROM or EEPROM.
END
Exam questions with solutions_2012_Jean-Paul NGOUNE
24
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
NGOUNE Jean-Paul was born in Forek-Dschang,
Republic of Cameroon in 1984. He is a holder of a
Master Degree in electrical engineering, obtained in
2010 in the Doctorate School of the University of Douala
(UFD-PSI). He is also a holder of a DIPET II and a
DIPET I respectively obtained in 2009 and 2007 in the
Advanced Teacher Training College for Technical
Education (ENSET de Douala).
He is currently a permanent teacher of Electrical
Engineering at the Government Technical High School
of Kumbo, North-West region, Cameroon. His domain of
research concerns the improvement of energy
conversion techniques for an efficient generation of
electrical energy from renewable sources (especially
wind and solar energy, small and medium scale
hydropower) and digital designing using FPDs.
The author is looking for a Ph.D program in his domain
of research (he has not yet found it). Any suggestion for
this issue will be warmly welcome.
NGOUNE Jean-Paul, M.Sc., PLET.
P.O. Box: 102 NSO, Kumbo, Cameroon.
Phone: (+237) 7506 2458.
Email : jngoune@yahoo.fr
Web site: www.scribd.com/jngoune