ZONING AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS

Z O N I N G A N D R E G U L AT I O N S

DEVELOPMENT CONTROLS

Land use planning and development control can be defined as 'government delineation and restrictions of rights over land within specific area or zone. The development controls are necessary to control the production of built environment. Development controls like zoning are important to regulate the property rights, which help in the functioning of this land and real estate markets. Development control intervenes in the process of land development, occupancy, land-use, construction to allow or reserve the transaction according to rules and regulations prescribed. Regulation is important to make the market and development more efficient. Zoning was a result of urban reform movements of the early 2oth century to prevent overcrowding and to protect existing residential and commercial neighbourhoods from encroaching development.

4. which was enforced to institutionalize comprehensive planning. In other words Zoning is a tool to achieve Comprehensive Planning. 3. Comprehensive planning encourages government to think about all aspects of community. town. The present condition of the community (Goals Proposed And Proportions Achieved) How did the community reached this point? (Planning Strategy) What was the target end? (Restating The Aims And Goals) How it can get there? ( Redefining/Realigning The Strategy) Zoning is one of the reforms of the planning policies. . city and the way in which they are interrelated. Comprehensive planning takes into consideration the following facts: 1.ZONING REGULATIONS The relevance of zoning regulation is discernable only under ‘COMPREHENSIVE PLANNING’. 2.

ZONING REGULATIONS Zoning regulation is a tool to implement the policies and goals established in a community’s plan as they relate to land use. C. When the population goes on increasing. Zoning was originally a method of safeguarding against incompatible land uses. D. 1. the concentric circles are again surrounded by people these areas are called the suburbs of the city. B. This type of growth is natural and totally unplanned. It is the distribution or division of land (in town planning) into particular zones based upon some criteria or principles. The growth of buildings which spread from a center in all directions is called concentric growth. The following elements of city growth are given importance while zoning an area. These types of buildings usually form a ring and consists of residential buildings surrounded by commercial areas. Concentric growth : A. . It specifies activities allowed on each parcel of land as well as any associated standards or exceptions.

. New towns: New towns should be provided room for in zoning of site 2. the planner must keep in mind the convenience of existing towns. railway line. Zoning should be done in such a way so as not to disturb the ecosystem of the already existing town. Zoning should also be done in such a way that in future new towns can be made and there is room for expansion of the zone. The existence of boundaries depends on the rule of law. Sometimes boundaries are broken and two zones seem to mix. river. Boundaries are the important element in zoning. Usually the boundaries between two zones can be road. 3. Flexibility: A. 5. D. B. The zoning of an area should be such so as to provide maximum comfort and convenience to people. a wall or a green belt. 4.ZONING REGULATIONS Boundary : A. B. C. Green belt is preferred to all others. B. While zoning and planning new towns. This type of area is then called transition zone. Existing towns : A.

as depicted on a zoning map. type. the authority of cities to control zoning arose from a need to control the location and proximity of uses. was one of the first cases where zoning regulations were constitutionalized. Faith in scientific planning and administrative control. Need to control abuses of uncontrolled private development. . 3. Ohio . 1.ORIGINS OF ZONING Zoning was originally used to regulate the location. During the 1920s. Division of city into districts with regulation within each district. and density of development within a community through the delineation of one or more zones or zoning districts. 2. Early examples where zoning regulation was applied Village of Euclid.

TYPES OF ZONING .

Stipulating limitations on the magnitude of development activity that is allowed to take place on lots within each type of district. EUCLIDEAN ZONING Most prevalent.TYPES OF ZONING 1. 3. . Residential (single-family). Commercial. used extensively in small towns and large cities alike. Typical types of land-use districts in Euclidean zoning are: 1. 2. The segregation of land uses into specified geographic districts and dimensional standards. Industrial. 4. Also known as "Building Block" zoning. Residential (multi-family). characterized by: 1. 2.

Building affordable housing units. Mitigation of environmental impacts.TYPES OF ZONING 2. Providing public amenities. Often uses a points-based system allowing developer to gain credits for meeting established zoning goals through selecting from a 'menu' of compliance options like 1. 3. 2. PERFORMANCE ZONING Uses performance-based or goal-oriented criteria to establish review parameters for proposed development projects in any area of a municipality. . etc.

Common examples include FAR (floor-area-ratio) bonuses for affordable housing provided onsite and height limit bonuses for the inclusion of public amenities on-site. . Base level of prescriptive limitations on development will be provided and an extensive list of incentive criteria will be established for developers to adopt or not at their discretion. INCENTIVE ZONING : (Implemented in Chicago and New York City) Intended to provide a reward-based system to encourage development that meets established urban development goals. A reward scale connected to the incentive criteria provides an enticement for developers to incorporate the desired development criteria into their projects.TYPES OF ZONING 3.

District standards regulate the physical aspects of development and include related design standards for structures. parks. Design standards are typically described and presented graphically. streets. emphasizes form over function.TYPES OF ZONING 4. FORM-BASED ZONING Developed and promoted by urban designers and architects. . and other public and private space.

COMPONENTS OF ZONNING .

2.COMPONENTS OF ZONING Zoning is typically a practice of designating permitted uses of land based on mapped zones which separate one set of land uses from another. Zoning Map : Map delineating the districts in which the provision of ordinances apply. Ordinances: Defining the regulations. and also a restrain on the configuration of the structure on the site. The regulations that are specified in the zoning include the use of land /property. Zoning basically is composed of two parts: 1. .

conditional use permits.ZONING ORDINANCES Zoning Ordinances typically do the following: 1. Establish development standards such as building height. Divide a city into various land use designations. 2. 3. Provide for conditional and accessory uses. lot coverage. 4. design review and zone changes or text amendments. . 5. List permitted uses within those designations. signage and landscaping. Provide for administrative procedures for variances. setbacks. parking.

. They should detail out the area. can have schools and commercial centres marked on the zoning plan to help in the development of the area. in a manner that helps in the development of the defined district. The shape. The zoning plans created should help in establishing balanced community design. The zoning plans should serve as refinements to the comprehensive plans. size and location of these districts are in accordance with the comprehensive plan. An area identified for single Family dwellings in comprehensive plan.ZONING PLANS AND DISTRICTS Zoning plan is prepared for the community and is divided into districts. and should promote neighbourhood development. in which the land is classified for certain restricted uses.

C. Urbanisation has been restricted to protect or enhance the growth and development of the community. flood prone areas. 2. B. B. where infrastructural support requires large financial backing. according to local customs and requirements. Permits the use of land consistent with economically feasible agricultural enterprise. In urban areas the lot sizes vary from 25 to 1 acre. The classification differs for different communities. 1. AGRICULTURAL LAND: A. Include areas of scenic or historic importance. .ZONING PLANS AND DISTRICTS Different land uses are identified under the zoning district maps. There is a prohibition/ restriction of urbanisation in this area. OPEN LAND: A. areas too steep to build upon.

Poultry raising. C. Some agricultural activities are also permitted in this classification. for e. B. ESTATE: A. . This land use classification of single family dwelling units for nuclear families is not feasible in most of the cities as it is not a very sustainable concept. Minimum lot are along with lot width is specified.g. In single family districts land uses are restricted to a single dwelling unit per lot.ZONING PLANS AND DISTRICTS 3. The lot sizes vary from 20. C. D.000 square feet. B. 4. Help in creating country side character in certain suburban areas. SINGLE FAMILY: A.000 to 40. Are residential development of large sized lots.

allows flexibility for lots of varying size. It is generally four times the density of single family district. This known as multiple family district. 6. This district classification permits two dwelling units within single structure. 5. TWO FAMILY: 1. A district that allows more than one single family dwelling is permitted. rather than specifying two units per lot regardless of the area of the lot. MEDIUM DENSITY: 1. if the lot area in single family district is 4000 sqft. . with minimum lot area per dwelling unit. With the provisions of 20-40 dwelling units per net acre in large cities. 2. 3.ZONING PLANS AND DISTRICTS 4. MULTIPLE FAMILY: 1. then in medium density it would be 1000 sqft per dwelling. to occupy a single lot. In this type of classification density is specified. Uniform density provision. Medium density provisions vary from large cities to small towns. 2. 3.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMPREHENSIVE PLAN AND ZONING PLAN .

Forms framework for urban structure. and other urban redevelopments. COMPREHENSIVE PLAN : A. E. Comprehensive plan adopted as a resolution by government body. Policy and program for related land-use activities. B. Specifying the zoning for land-use. Have the policies for the development of the whole city. . C. C. D. with penalties associated with violation. ZONING PLAN : A.COMPREHENSIVE PLAN/ ZONING PLAN 1. 2. Standards of population density. streets and highways. recreation and conservation. mass transit. Design of circulation system. sub-division expansion etc. Zoning is not a substitute neither a an alternative to the comprehensive planning procedure. F. Translates the general framework into precise plans. B. Zoning plan is adopted as legal ordinance.

HEIGHT AND BULK ZONING .

Sound control. Ventilation. 4. thus enriching the quality of space. sidewalks. Adequate sunlight. Ensures adequate distances between buildings. Also this would help in providing car parking space. The importance of this zoning control lies in the fact is that it ensures the provision of light and air not only inside the buildings but also on site. 3. parks. green spaces. 2. .HEIGHT AND BULK ZONING One of the most important aspects of zoning is the relationship between buildings and the space around them. Privacy Important to establish a link between amount of building floor space and exterior circulation including streets. The need to establish this relationship is to provide: 1. between building and road.

. The provision of these setbacks ensures that sunlight is available to the road or street in front of the massive structure. including 1. which restrict the type of use permitted in a given area. or commercial. Floor-area-ratios (FAR). 2. Such provisions are separate from use-based zoning regulations. side and rear setbacks are used to define the zoning envelope on the site. 2. industrial. Setback requirements (Zoning Envelope) 3. in which front. Is an important aspect of bulk zoning. such as residential. Zoning envelope 1. Open space requirements.HEIGHT AND BULK ZONING Bulk zoning regulations restrict the density in a given area through a variety of buildingspecific measures.

. B. Example : Site Area = 10.HEIGHT AND BULK ZONING FLOOR AREA RATIO 1. 2. This is the most flexible zoning control. Method for controlling density of lots. OPEN SPACE AND LOT COVERAGE RATIOS 1. The ground coverage has two aspects: A. 2. 3. FAR refers to the ratio of built floor area in a building to the size of the lot on which it stands. Regulates the open spaces on site. Ground Coverage = 30% This ensures that the building footprint would not exceed 3000 sqft. Ensure that a minimum portion of a given lot is left open to the sky or that a maximum portion of the lot is built upon. 3. and that the open space not be less than 7000 sqft.000 sqft. Defines the building envelope.

e. open space. agricultural. Zoning is used to regulate the location. amount of space occupied. . such as how much landscaped space. and parking must be provided. Densities at which those activities can be performed (from Low-Density housing -Single family homes to high-density -high-rise apartment buildings). residential. impervious surface.ZONING OBJECTIVES Zoning includes regulation of the 1. these regulations. the proportions of the types of space on a lot. type. and density of development within a community. 3. Height of buildings. Compatible activities on the lot (i. commercial or industrial). Zoning criteria and methods are not fixed. traffic lanes. 2. as depicted on a zoning map. through the delineation of one or more zones or zoning districts. but vary with the communities adopting. the location of a building on the lot (setbacks).

.ZONING DEFICIENCIES Objectives Of Zoning : 1. 1. For example single-family dwellings are permitted in multiple dwelling districts. For ex: provision of residential units in industrial areas reduces the efficiency of services for industrial operations. Establishes urban development norms or standards. 2. The above mentioned goals have not been completely fulfilled in any of the zoning ordinances. Provisions of mixed land-use concept is not economically sound. Provision of livable conditions in and around the built environment. Certain zoning regulations have provisions of lesser economic classification in zones of greater economic intensity. Reduces the safety and conveniences of the residential community scattered throughout the industrial districts. 2. Controlling the growth of cities. 3. which have incompatible economic functions. and both uses are permitted in commercial districts.

affecting both over built and under built properties. This leads to formation of land plots with incompatible land uses. Saturation point of land development has been reached because of high permissible zoning volume.ZONING DEFICIENCIES Zoning and planning compatibility can only be achieved by restricting the uses of land to the one. If the land is used for activities designated in the zonal plans. . and spread of uneconomical land activities. Unplanned mixture of different land uses are detrimental to the quality of physical environment. the growth of unsustainable economic activities would be discouraged. This physical deficiency results in economic malfunctioning. which is designated in the zoning plan. Areas of land zoned for their respective uses are generally more than required in the cities. Thus compatibility instead of similarity should be achieved in land uses. resulting in lesser opportunities for neighbors.

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