The scale, a description, and the scoring are all listed below.

You are welcome to use the instrument for research, etc. The citation is: Masters, K. S., Ogles, B. M., & Jolton, J. A. (1993). The development of an instrument to measure motivation for marathon running: The motivations of marathoners scales (MOMS). Research Quarterly in Exercise and Sport, 64, 134-143. Psychometric data is available in the above article. Other evidence for validity can be found in the following articles: Ogles, B. M., & Masters, K. S. (2003). A typology of marathon runners based on cluster analysis of motivations. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 69-85. Ogles, B. M., & Masters, K. S. (2000). Older versus younger adult male marathon runners: Participative motives and training habits. Journal of Sport Behavior, 23(3), 1-14. Stoll, O., Wuerth, S., & Ogles, B. (2000). Zur Teilnahmemotivation von Marathon- und Ultramarathonlufern. [Participation motives of marathon- and ultra-marathon runners] Sportwissenschaft, 30(1), 54-67. Masters, K. S. & Ogles, B. M. (1998). Cognitive strategies relate to injury, motivation, and performance among marathon runners: Results from two studies. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 10, 281-296. Ogles, B. M., Masters, K. S. & Richardson, S. A. (1995). Obligatory running and gender: An analysis of participative motives and training habits. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 233-248. Masters, K. S. & Ogles, B. M. (1995). An investigation of the different motivations of marathon runners with varying degrees of experience. Journal of Sport Behavior, 18, 69-79. Ogles, B. M., Lynn, S. J., Masters, K. S., Hoefel, T., & Marsden, K. (1993-94). Runners' cognitive strategies and motivations: Absorption, fantasy style, and dissociative experiences. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 13, 163-174. Ogles, B. M. & Masters, K. S. (1992). Why marathoners run. Ohio Runner, 13(11), 5-7, 20.

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3. A score of 1 would indicate that the item is "not a reason" for running. To try to run faster. To compete with myself. To become less anxious. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 3 4 5 6 To help control my weight To compete with others To earn respect of peers To reduce my weight. To become more physically fit. To look leaner. 7. 5. To make my life more purposeful. To improve my health. 18. To reduce my chance of having a heart attack. 4. 16. To participate with my family or friends. 22. To improve my running speed. 17. To improve my self-esteem. 9. 21. To socialize with other runners. 13. A Most Important Reason 7 Not a Reason 1 2 1. 19. To become less depressed. 24. To add a sense of meaning to life. 20. To distract myself from daily worries. and scores in-between represent relative degrees of each reason. To make myself feel whole. 11. 2. 6. To make my family or friends proud of me. 23. .Please rate each of the following items according to the scale below in terms of how important it is as a reason for why you run. 15. a score of 7 indicates that the item is a "very important reason" for running. 10. To meet people. To earn the respect of people in general. To feel more confident about myself. To have something in common with other people. 12. 14. 8. To prolong my life. 25. 26.

27. . _____ To make my life more complete _____ To improve my mood. _____ To improve my sense of self-worth. 29. 28.

53. . 49. To get compliments from others. To feel a sense of achievement. 54. 34. People look up to me. It is a positive emotional experience. 43. 35.Not a Reason 1 2 30. 45. To see how high I can place in races. 31. To blow off steam. To have time alone to sort things out. 47. To stay in physical condition. 42. To beat someone I've never beaten before. Brings me recognition. To feel like a winner. 44. To see if I can beat a certain time. 32. 46. 52. To have time alone with the world. To visit with friends. 51. 33. 41. 39. 38. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 3 4 5 6 A Most Important Reason 7 To share a group identity with other runners. 48. To push myself beyond my current limits. 36. 50. To prevent illness. To make my body perform better than before. 40. To solve problems. To feel proud of myself. To get a faster time than my friends. 37. To feel mentally in control of my body. To feel at peace with the world. To concentrate on my thoughts. To get away from it all. 55. 56. To feel a sense of belonging in nature. To stay physically attractive.

Achievement Motives Competition .Table 1. to meet people. to reduce my chance of having a heart attack. to make my family or friends proud of me III. to become more physically fit. Social Motives Affiliation to socialize with other runners. to help control my weight. brings me recognition. to stay in physical condition Weight Concern to look leaner. Scales and Sample Items for the Motivations of Marathoners Scales. to prolong my life. people look up to me. General categories. to share a group identity with runners Recognition to earn respect of peers. Physical Health Motives General Health Orientation to improve my health. to reduce my weight II. to visit with friends. General Category Scale Sample Items _________________________________________________________________ _ I.

to feel at peace with the world . Psychological Motives Psychological Coping to become less anxious. to concentrate on my thoughts. to try to run faster IV. to distract myself from daily worries. to beat a certain time. to improve my mood.to compete with others. to push myself. to feel mentally in control of my body Life Meaning to make my life more purposeful. to feel more confident. to solve problems Self-Esteem to improve my self-esteem. to see how high I can place. to make myself feel whole. to feel a sense of belonging with nature. to get a faster time than my friends. to compete with myself. to feel a sense of achievement. to feel proud of myself. to beat someone I've never beaten before Personal Goal Achievement to improve my running speed.

46. 41. 43. 19. 53. 24. 18. 33 Psychological Coping .MOMS Scoring Instructions. No items are reverse scored. 16. 6.10. Average the items for each of the following nine scales.esteem . 47. 42 Personal goal achievement . 4. 20. 21. 22. 28.2. 44 weight concern . 32. 23. 36. 35. Health orientation .8. 40.1. 54 affiliation . 49. 56 . 51 competition . 52 recognition . 9. 38.13. 14. 50 Life Meaning .11. 29. 34. 31.3. 25.7. 48. 17. 45. 55 Self. 37.5. 12. 27. 39. 26. 30. 15.

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