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Original tutorial: Roger Thunvik (http://www.lwr.kth.se/Grundutbildning/1B1635/QH/CourseHome/index.htm) Updated by Emma Engström 26-Jan-10 This is a COMSOL Multiphysics tutorial adopted for the Bwaise III study case. It can be used to establish a preliminary model that can be further elaborated and improved. We will: first solve Richard’s (steady state) equation for variably saturated fluid flow, and then use this solution as an initial flow field in the computations for the contaminant transport. The idea with the first step is to create an appropriate steady-state flow field that we either can keep during the subsequent simulation of the contaminant transport, assuming that the fluid flow is constant, or else use as a basis before imposing time dependent inflow on the infiltration boundary (due to rainfall) and the lateral boundary. Later we will solve both these equations simultaneously, thus accounting for the transient fluid flow conditions. Modelling tips Notice: In this tutorial the font is italic when a word appears in the same way as in the Bwaise III Data Sheet, which is the file that contains all the relevant data (e.g. soil characteristics) needed for the model. In this tutorial the font is bold when a word appears in the same way as in the COMSOL graphical user interface. In COMSOL the name of a dependent variable is often the first letter of the corresponding physical quantity, e.g. the variable for pressure is called p and concentration c. In COMSOL, to denote the time derivative of a dependent variable, the variable gets the suffix t, e.g. the time derivative of pressure variable is called pt (and the x-derivative is px etc). In COMSOL, when a “physics”, such as Richard’s equation, is introduced, a so-called Application Mode Name will be associated with all predefined parameters for this physics, e.g. if you start using the Earth Science module and Richard’s equation the Application Mode Name is esvr and the moisture content is theta_esvr, the velocity components are u_esvr and v_esvr, the effective saturation is Se_esvr, etc. These parameters can then be used when coupling various equations to one another, or in the post-processing, to graphically display the results. For the Earth Science module and Solute Transport the application mode name is esst.

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There may be several versions of COMSOL (previously called FEMLAB) installed. Make sure that you start version COMSOL 3.5 Multiphysics. The default dimension in the Model Navigator is 2D (if we want to use 1D or 3D, then that must be specified). In 2D the coordinates are x and y, regardless if the problem is a vertical cross-section or a planar view. Before you start, make sure that you: Have reviewed the basic equation: Richard’s equation and its boundary conditions, including those for variably saturated flow. Have reviewed the concepts of retention curves, such as the Brooks and Corey and/or Van Genuchten formulae. These relationships are more or less a standard today, but you can also use your own curves in the modelling. Have reviewed the material properties of the soils in consideration. Between runs: Make it a habit to make safety backups, e.g. if we solve the problem for steady-state conditions it is a good idea to establish an initial setting, which can be used as a basis for later work with, a transient problem of fluid flow and solute transport. In the COMSOL graphical user interface, do this by selecting File→Save. When you restart (transient solution): Restart can be done in different ways and there are a few things to keep in mind: the simulation time (i.e. not the CPU-time) is not being updated. This means that you, in COMSOL, must modify the times under the Solver → Solver Parameters accordingly, to stick to a specified time schedule, e.g. an irrigation scheme. If your intention is to solve for steady state flow (to get an initial condition) then uncheck the Global Equations option. If you have time dependent boundary conditions then make sure that you remove the time dependency: switch from transient to stationary solution.

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................................ c. a..............................................................................................................6 Subdomain settings solute transport ......................................................................................................................................................................5 Specify constants ................................................................................................................................................................... VII... b. 19 Other resources ................................ a............................. 11 Initialize mesh ..............................................................6 Specify initial conditions ... 20 3 ............................ b..............................Basic modelling steps I................ b........ a........ VIII......................... IV....................................................................................9 (Advanced) adjust the right lateral outflow boundary ............................................. VI..............................................................................8 Split boundaries ... 13 Solve for fluid flow ........................................ c................................................................................................................................................ b.............. 16 Other 1D plots ..................................................................................................................... d.................................................. 11 Specify alternative mesh elements .................................................................. a..................................................... e........4 Define the physics ........................................................................................................... 16 Alternative settings/tasks .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Post-processing................................5 Subdomain settings flow ......................................................................4 Specify the geometry ........... 12 Solve the PDEs ................................................................................................................................ 10 Generate Mesh ... Set the physical environment ......8 Define boundary conditions ........ 17 Group tasks ............ 16 Infiltration plot ........................................ III........................................................................................................ d......................................... V...........................................................................................................................................................................7 Set vertical 2D cross-section – account for gravity ...................................4 Assign material properties ................................................................. 13 Solve for Solute Transport .......................................... II.... a.............................................................. IX................................... b.. b..........................................7 Boundary conditions ......8 (Advanced) adjust the upper infiltration boundary ......................................... a.........................................................

In the toolbar. go to: Options→Axes/Grid Settings. For variably saturated flow Richard’s equation applies (find the details in the Bwaise III Data Sheet): . . Specify the geometry We will now create a background grid that is sufficiently large to draw the features of interest in the flow domain: .5: .5 The Model Navigator will open.Bwaise III COMSOL Tutorial (Courtesy of COMSOL) I. .Specify x spacing: 0. y min: -1.Click on Application Mode Properties.Click the Add button and leave the dialog box open.5. x max: 15. then click OK. . .5→COMSOL Multiphysics 3.In the list of Application Modes. . .Click OK to open the COMSOL graphical user interface. y max: 0.1 and y spacing: 0.Enter the following settings: x min: -1.Click the Add button and leave the dialog box open.Change from Non-conservative to Conservative. Define the physics Open COMSOL 3. b. go to: Draw→Specify Objects→Rectangle 4 .5.In the toolbar.In the Space dimension list select 2D. To add the variably saturated solute transport equation (see the Bwaise III Data Sheet): . .Go to: Start→All Programs→COMSOL 3. The geometry of the flow domain will now be added according to the Conceptual model in the Bwaise III Data sheet (file name Bwaise III Data sheet.05.Uncheck the Axis equal box. We can later add more physics to the problem in the COMSOL window by clicking Multiphysics→Model Navigator in the toolbar. .pdf): .Click the Multiphysics button. select (click on the +) Earth Science Module→Fluid Flow→Richards’ Equation→Pressure analysis→Transient analysis. switch from NonConservative to Conservative (this enables adding fluid compressibility later on if we want to): .Select Earth Science Module→Solute Transport→Variably Saturated Porous Media→Transient analysis. then click OK. . Set the physical environment a. .Click on the Grid tab and uncheck the Auto box. In order to put the advective term inside the divergence operator.

Assign material properties The material properties are to be found in the Bwaise III Data sheet.Select Groups (click on the +) and click on unnamed1 (for one subdomain). such as infiltration rates and permeabilities: Go to Multiphysics→Solute Transport 5 . We will refer to some of these variables later in the modelling.Read the list of names of the Richards Equation application mode variables. e. After adding settings for each rectangle. . The variables of these PDEs can be found in the Model Tree on the upper left part of the screen: . when integrating some quantity over time. . . a. II.Select the Equation System below.Now select Solute Transport.In the Model Tree select Geom1 and Richard’s Equation (click on the +). click OK. . then click OK.Go to: Draw→Create Composite Object. This makes it possible to later on modify quantities. Subdomain Settings. If you later need to modify subdomain data. We will refer to some of these variables later in the modelling.Make sure Object Type is set to Solid for all domains.Select the Subdomain Settings and Variables to read the list of variables in both application modes (Richard’s Equation with suffix _esvr and Solute Transport with suffix _esst). . .Select Subdomain Settings (click on the +) to read the names of the Dependent variable (p). Height and Position according to the Bwaise III Data sheet. You should now have four separate subdomains. Groups and unnamed1. .g. . We will refer to some of these variables later in the modelling.Select the Subdomain Settings and Variables to read the list of variables in both application modes.Read the long list of names of the Solute Transport application mode variables. We will refer to some of these variables later in the modelling.Select all the domains in Object selection. We need to put the subdomains together.Below the Model Tree heading click on the central button (Detail). We will create a single flow domain.Select the Equation System below. . but keep four subdomains that may be assigned different characteristics: . . go to: Draw→Object Properties. . .Specify the subdomain settings for Width. but we wish to keep the internal boundaries. Specify constants We will specify some constants that we will use later on.

porosity ( s) and Liquid fraction residual ( r).Go to Multiphysics→Richard’s equation .scaling coefficient δts1 o Liquid volume fraction o Pore volume fraction s o x-velocity [m/s] 6 .Go to Physics→Subdomain Settings . Storage term (S).. select Specific storage.Go to Options→Constants and add constants according to the Bwaise III Data sheet. which implies that Compressibility of the fluid ( f) and solid ( s) must be specified. assign the following material properties for each domain: Liquid fraction saturated.Go to Physics→Subdomains Settings .According to the Bwaise III Data sheet. set the Time change in liquid volume fraction to Time change in pressure head .Select the Brooks & Corey tab . You may define new constants whenever you’ll find it convenient during your work. . Make sure that all subdomains are assigned properties. .Choose the Flow and Media tab and in the Subdomain selection select all domains .Click OK. . assign the Brooks and Corey material constants for each domain: Inverse of the air entry value Pore size index (n = λ).Select the Coefficients tab . which is water (we assume that the fluid density is constant.According to the Bwaise III Data sheet. . specify: o Time. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks).Click in a domain to select it. b. but we can put an expression for the relationship between concentration and temperature if this would be important to the problem). and Connectivity index (l).In the drop down menu Constitutive relation. Subdomain settings flow . Notice also that these parameters may be subject to changes. Subdomain settings solute transport Now the subdomain settings will be defined: .For all domains.Click OK. . select Brooks & Corey. c.According to the Bwaise III Data sheet.e. i. and Density of the fluid (ρf).

α1 *m+ o Dispersivity.Go to Multiphysics → Solute Transport . The reason for defining tscale in Constants is that we now can apply it to Richard’s equation as well. the pressure hence depends linearly on the elevation. respectively. longitudinal. direction 2. transverse.Go to Multiphysics → Richard’s equation Go to Physics→Subdomains settings Click on the Init tab Select all domains Set the initial value (using the predefined quantities in COMSOL): p(t0) = rhof_esvr*g_esvr*(y+1) Click OK. click OK . so we must account for gravity.- - o y-velocity [m/s] o Liquid source Qs [1/s] o Specific Capacity C [1/m] o Time change in pressure head δHp/δt *m/s+ Choose the Liquid tab Set the Dispersivities according to the Bwaise III Data sheet o Dispersivity. Our assumption is that initially the bottom layer: Layer D is saturated and that the remaining part of the flow domain is unsaturated.Choose the Flow and Media tab and set x-velocity and y-velocity to u_esvr/tscale and v_esvr/tscale. As the water is assumed to be incompressible. reasonable initial conditions for pressure (the variable we solve for in Richard’s equation) need to be specified. We guess that the pressure p(t0) = 0 at y = -1. e. This is done by specifying the direction and quantity of gravity (9. d. . Hence p(t0) = ρf * gravity * (y +1). α2 *m+ Click OK. if we are using Particle tracing in the postprocessing then we will also have to account for the time scale. Specify initial conditions In order for a solution to converge.) . For simplicity we assume that the initial pressure is hydrostatically distributed.Select all domains. .Go to Multiphysics → Richard’s equation .Choose the Coefficients tab and set Time-scaling coefficient to tscale. 7 . Set vertical 2D cross-section – account for gravity The flow domain considered is a vertical section.82 m/s2). direction 1.Go to Physics → Subdomain settings . (Moreover.Go to Physics → Subdomain settings .

g_esvr.6 to add a point at (12.82. One part will be subject to infiltration and the other part will be considered impervious.Click OK. such as C. will be. The discontinuity in the time derivative coefficients. may cause numerical problems if the boundary conditions are changed at the same time as the material properties vary. Thus. We will add one point along the outlet boundary to facilitate convergence of the solution.- - Go to Physics→Scalar variables Specify Name. Define boundary conditions The boundary conditions on each of the segments will be specified. b. the level of the water table.6: . We may need to add more points on this boundary later. i. . .Specify x: 3 and y: 0 to add a point at (3. 8 . of which three are internal (between the layers).-0. po is a prescribed pressure. .e.0) and click OK. at y = 0. a. III. due to roofs and other impervious surfaces. then click OK. It will be placed where we the estimate that the water table level will be. The time derivative of the present formulation of Richard’s equation contains a coefficient for the specific moisture capacity: C = (which is multiplied with to obtain ). To split the boundary we need to insert a new point: . However. 9. Expression. Unit and Description according to: D_esvr. m/s2 and Gravity.6). y.Specify x: 12 and y: -0. depending on what the solution. to allow us to modify the boundary conditions at part of the outlet boundary we will add an extra point on here. Check the Synchronize equivalent variables box. Boundary conditions To facilitate boundary conditions settings: .Click on the options you wish to activate.Go to Draw →Specify Objects→Point. . m and Elevation/vertical axis. in the equations: n represents the normal to the boundary. No is a prescribed flux. Split boundaries The geometry that we have created has twelve boundaries (segments). the conceptual sketch (see the Bwaise III Data sheet) shows that we need to divide the upper boundary. A problem with this formulation is that C will be discontinuous if the flow domain is heterogeneous.Go to Options →Visualization/Selection Settings.Go to Draw →Specify Objects→Point.

To specify Solute Transport Boundary Conditions: .Go to Multiphysics→Richard’s equation. The time it takes for all water to infiltrated is calculated by integrating the infiltration flux over both space and time.Click on one boundary at a time to define its settings according to the Bwaise III Data sheet. D is the water level elevation internal to the boundary. . if a boundary is expected to be unsaturated at all times No flux should be set. In order to find the pond volume the initial pond height is integrated over the infiltration area and the inlet flux is found by integrating the flux over the infiltration area. In the Bwaise III area the intensive rains often result in flooding and usually it takes some time (a couple of days) for the water to infiltrate into the soil. then Mixed boundary conditions should be set. which depends on the properties and conditions of the soil (e.Go to Physics →Boundary settings. then skip the following two sections (c and d). We will use the COMSOL Integration Coupling Variables which give the value of an integral over a boundary: . etc.Specify Name inlet_flux Expression –flux_esvr (the normal is directed out of the subdomain) . If the boundary might be a leaking one (seepage face). here called inb_flux. If you want a quick solution. A negative sign indicates outward flux and a positive sign indicates inward flux.Click on Multiphysics → Solute transport. .Go to Multiphysics→Richard’s equation. In general.Go to Physics →Boundary settings. . c. can be obtained by solving the differential equation: 9 .Rb represents the resistance to flow in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary. pb is the pressure at the external edge of the resistive layer.). .Click on the infiltration boundary (TL in the Bwaise III Data sheet sketch) . (Advanced) adjust the upper infiltration boundary The upper infiltration boundary demands some modifications.Click on one boundary at the time to define its settings according to the Bwaise III Data sheet.g.Go to Options →Integration Coupling Variables→Boundary Variables . . The total amount of water infiltrated into the ground.Specify Name pond_volume Expression pond_height . the pF-curves. hydraulic conductivity.Click OK. saturation. and Db is the water level elevation external to the boundary. the time depends on the infiltration rate. To specify Fluid Flow Boundary Conditions: .

together with the physical expression for the boundary condition. This is a complicated 10 .tstart [1/s]. it has been earlier defined in Constants. Now adjust the boundary condition at the infiltration boundary: . inb_flux is the total amount of water infiltrated into the ground. There may be a need for smoothing transients such as infiltration impact at a given time. Set Equation to inlet_flux – inb_fluxt. d.Click on the infiltration boundary (TL in the Bwaise III Data sheet sketch) . the Heaviside smoothening parts. specified p) to zero flux conditions (N0=0) and the other way around when the next irrigation phase begins. which is a high number and not a physical quantity. Go to Physics →Global Equations.Set N0 equal to stiff_spring[m/(s*Pa)] * (-p +0. zero flux conditions will apply. deltime[1/s]) where pond_volume is the the available amount if irrigation water. then click OK.= inlet_flux = the space integrated flux along the infiltration boundary. and deltime and deltol are the transition intervals. (Advanced) adjust the right lateral outflow boundary The right hand boundary condition varies from no flow condition above the water table to flow condition below the water table (sketched in the Bwaise III Data sheet). called flc2hs in COMSOL.001) to force the pressure p to remain close to zero and to allow the flux to vary almost freely. The flux is set to the high stiff spring value multiplied with (-p + 0. tstart and tfinal is the start and stop time of infiltration. such as various time and flux conditions.inb_flux[1/m^3]. In order to obtain this double boundary condition one uses the technique of a so called stiff-spring.001) * flc2hs (t[1/s] . respectively. To specify flux to occur at certain times only. t is time. Set Init(ut) to 0. which can be done by using the smoothened Heaviside function (equal to zero for a negative input argument and equal to one for a positive input argument).Go to Physics →Boundary settings . Set Name to inb_flux. In COMSOL the derivative - is written as inb_fluxt. During the infiltration process. COMSOL allows us to include logical functions. Set Init(u) to 0. We can then rewrite the differential equation as inlet_flux – inb_fluxt = 0. When all water has infiltrated. it is assumed that ponding conditions prevail at the boundary until all water has infiltrated. deltime[1/s]) * flc2hs (pond_volume[1/m^3] . Hence the boundary condition must be changed from head conditions (Dirichlet condition. deltol[1/m^3]) * flc2hs (tfinal[1/s]-t[1/s].

Click on Mesh → Free Mesh Parameters.. Below the water table (where Rb > 0) the boundary condition mimics a wall with thickness Tb and hydraulic conductivity K. Initialize mesh . Rb_new= KC/(rhof_esvr*g_esvr*Tb). e.Select Extra fine and Remesh.Click on Mesh → Free Mesh Parameters. will be modified with logical operators to create a flow condition below the water table (Rb > 0) and a no flow condition above it (Rb <= 0). Generate Mesh a. The elevation just inside the domain from the wall is D and the elevation just outside is Db. defined in Constants earlier. However. this is usually too coarse to obtain the stipulated accuracy required for our calculations. To adjust the Mesh: .boundary condition (a seepage face) to deal with numerically. It is very hard to beforehand exactly say how fine we must refine the mesh. To refine the mesh further: . By default we will get an element mesh. It is especially difficult to model sharp fronts and problems with high Peclet numbers. . Since the wall does not exist we use the K for the corresponding layer and set the thickness to a very small number (0. The term Rb_new is the intrinsic value of Rb for the wall (i.e. The term Rb. We can later easily compute the Peclet numbers to check which areas that might need being further refined. the strength of the material contrasts and the sharpness of the contamination front. then click OK. . This results in a much finer mesh. . The water pressure outside the wall Pb is set to zero which implies that water is not ponding (there is air outside the wall). Some experimentation may be necessary to establish appropriate settings.Go to Physics→Boundary Settings. especially for unsaturated flow conditions.Select the right outflow boundary (RC2 in the Bwaise III Data sheet sketch) . . . . Db to y and Pb to 0. Hence Db=D=y since the wall is vertical. Now update the boundary conditions so that flow occurs where y<-1 at start and where p>0 onwards: .g.5 for the two top domains and 11 IV. This depends on many factors.Select Predefined mesh sizes.Click on Mesh →Initialize mesh.Set N0. external conductance.001 m). Our solution will not converge. without the logical operator modifications) and it equals the hydraulic conductivity of the wall divided by the thickness and the weight per unit volume of the fluid. .Choose the Subdomain tab and set Maximum element size to o 0.Adjust Rb to KC/(rhof_esvr*g_esvr*Tb) *((y<=y0 )*(t==0) + (p >= 0)*( t>0)) . We decide that flow (saturated conditions) exist either below the elevation y0 (=-1) at initial time (t ==0) or where p > =0 at later times (t >0).

click OK. which will create some new internal segments.5 o Set Number of edge elements so that the sum adds up to 9 in the vertical direction for each subdomain. We can get an even finer mesh by defining the mesh for each boundary. select all subdomains and set Method to Quad. In some cases it is better (from a numerical point of view) to use a mesh of quadrilateral elements instead of triangular elements (hexahedrons instead of tetrahedrons).For each boundary o choose Constrained edge element distribution o Set Element ratio to 0.Go to Mesh → Mapped Mesh Parameters .Specify x: 3.Go to Draw → Specify Objects→Point . .075 for the top Rightmost boundary (TR in the Bwaise III Data sheet) and o 0.Click Remesh and OK.Select the Subdomain tab .- o 0. This requires that we are consistent with the number of elements in the two opposite boundaries (otherwise the topology of the geometry will be invalid): . If you click on a subdomain its Edge groups will be displayed (group 1 is the bottom of the subdomain. b. Firstly. Select the Boundary tab and set Maximum element size to o 0. and 100 in the horizontal direction for each subdomain.5. Specify alternative mesh elements By default we will get a mesh of triangular elements in 2D (or tetrahedral elements in 3D).Go to Mesh → Mapped Mesh Parameters .Choose the Subdomain tab. we will add two extra points.Go to Draw → Specify Objects→Point .0 and y: -1.Set Predefined mesh sizes to Extra fine for all domains. which makes it possible refine the mesh in their near vicinity: . click OK. group 2 the right side of the domain etc). . both with Method Triangle. at least for our simple configuration). The Group numbers usually come out directly as they should (so you won’t have to modify them.05 for the other horizontal boundaries.Choose the Boundary tab . To create a mesh of quadrilateral elements: .Specify x: 3. then click OK. then click OK. 12 . To make a finer mesh: .Click on Mesh → Free Mesh Parameters.25 for the two bottom domains.0 and y: -0. .

If you already have solved the equation system once. hence de-select the other “physics”. Solve for fluid flow First remove all time-dependent settings: . Solve the PDEs a. . . .Select the right outflow boundary.Choose the tab Output.e. .Select the infiltration boundary. . . Applied gravity forces Physics →Scalar variables → D_esvr →y (in 2D). .Go to Mesh → Mesh statistics.Set the boundary conditions to Atmospheric .Go to Physics→Boundary Settings. We start by solving for steady state flow conditions. Refined the element mesh. but it is very hard beforehand to exactly say how fine the mesh must be for the solution to converge.Click Remesh.Click Solve and you should get an image of the Pressure field. .Go to Solve → Update Model. hence de-select the other “physics”.Select only Richard’s Equation. If you didn’t get a successful solution then you may first check the following things. e. To see mesh data: . how strong the material contrasts are and how sharp the contamination front is. Go to Solve → Solver Parameters and choose the Stationary tab Check Highly nonlinear problem 13 V. that you have: Entered fluid density in SI-units (water density is typically around 1000 kg/m3).Select only Richard’s Equation.Choose the General tab and set Analysis types to Stationary.Set the boundary conditions to N0=N0. i.Choose the Stationary tab and set Linearity to Nonlinear and click OK. update: .. click OK. as this depends on many factors.Go to Multiphysics→Richard’s Equation. we must make sure that we will only try to solve for the “physics” that we have assigned properties to: .Go to Solve → Solver Manager and choose the tab Solve for . We use the coarse mesh: . It is especially difficult to model sharp fronts and problems with high Peclet numbers. Sharp fronts give rise to what usually is referred to as numerical dispersion. . Before trying to solve this equation system.Go to Solve → Solver Parameters. As you can see there are many options.g. .

with intermediate storage of solutions at 0. It might be physically unsound. then click Apply. click OK.Set Times to or 0:1/6:10. click OK.Choose the tab Surface and set Predefined quantities to Effective Saturation. .1 seconds. 14 - - . To check your solution further: . . the default the setting is 0:0. Solve for Solute Transport For a time-dependent solution. Set the boundary conditions to Atmospheric. We will modify these values by setting: 0:600:36000. Go to Physics→Boundary Settings.Go to Postprocessing → Plot Parameters . implying that the water table is varying with time we must solve simultaneously for the fluid flow and the solute transport. The flow field above will be used as the initial conditions for time dependent simulation of solute transport. click Apply. Select the right outflow boundary. . . or If the infiltration rate during the transient solute transport is different than that at steady state. click Apply . b. which means to store the solution values every 10 minutes until we have solved for one hour (36000 seconds).Choose the tab Contour and check the Contour plot. If you got a pressure field that looks reasonable then: . If this does not work you have to go through all settings again. The real world is full of such problems.Select Velocity field as predefine quantity instead of Pressure gradient.Choose the Arrow tab and check the Arrow plot.Go to Solve → Solver Parameters and select the General tab.1:1. or in the worst case your problem is “simply” ill-posed or say formulated too difficult.Set Predefined quantities to Pressure and set the Vector with isolevels to 0. which implies solving the problem for 1 second. There are two alternatives to continue: If the infiltration rate during the transient solute transport is constant (the same as that of the steady solution) we can solve for solute transport only and keep the steady state fluid flow field constant. For the first scenario (constant infiltration): Go to Multiphysics→Richard’s Equation.Increase the Maximum number of iterations from the default value to for example 35.Change arrow Color to white. if time-scaling is used then (if scaled to hours) Times should be set to 0:1/6:10: .

Set Analysis types Richard’s equation to Stationary. 15 . click OK. Set Solver to Time Dependent. click OK. To display the concentration: . Set the boundary conditions to N0=N0.Go to Solve → Restart. see section III Advanced) for flow: . click OK.Go to Postprocessing → Plot Parameters.Set Particle type to Massless. Set Analysis types Richard’s equation to Transient. and choose the General tab. Then solve the PDEs: Go to Solve → Solver Parameters. Choose the Initial Value tab and check the Current solution in Initial value. . As for the flow field. Choose the Solve For tab and select ODE. Choose the Output tab and select ODE.Choose the Surface tab and set Predefined quantities to Solute Transport→ Concentration. . Go to Solve → Restart and repeat a couple of times to see the concentration moving.Go to Physics→Boundary Settings. Richard’s equation and Solute Transport.Choose the Particle Tracing tab. Go to Solve → Solver Parameters. Set Analysis types Solute Transport to Transient. the current solution (the Steady State previously obtained) will be used: . Choose the Output tab and select Solute Transport. click OK. For the second scenario (if the infiltration rate varies with time): Make sure that the boundary conditions are transient (vary with time. Check your solution further: . Richard’s equation and Solute Transport. Go to Solve → Solver Manager. Choose the Initial Value tab and select the Initial value expression evaluated using current solution.- Select the infiltration boundary.Go to Multiphysics→Richard’s Equation. . .Check the Current solution in Values of variables not solved for and linearization point. click OK. Set Analysis types Solute Transport to Transient. Go to Solve → Solver Manager. Choose the Solve for tab and select Solute Transport. Set Solver to Time Dependent. and choose the General tab.

click OK. This requires that we either solve an ODE (Global Equation) or use a Weak Formulation. . to be integrated across the infiltration boundary: . We may also be interested in integrating some quantities over time. The idea is to display the results and check that the mass balances make sense. These problems are acceptable and we can choose to plot only the values up to cmax (e. To plot the variation of pollutant concentration with depth: . defined in Constants). The most straightforward approach is that of the Global Equations. Post-processing a. for example the total amount of infiltrated water or mass across a boundary in connection with irrigation.Specify y-axis data Expression to inlet_ndflux.015kg/m3. Other integration variables apply to boundaries.Select the vertical boundary segments on the left side.g. . Other 1D plots To find the concentration by depth plot: The concentration values may become unrealistic in certain areas due to numerical problems typically occurring at certain spots. b. .Choose the General tab and check Line/Extrusion plot. .Select the infiltration boundary and specify Name and Expressions according to the Bwaise III Data sheet. The variables are usually quantities obtained by integration of variables or expressions over boundaries or subdomains. . To plot the advection. Go to Solve → Restart.Click OK. 0.Go to Options → Integration Coupling Variables → Boundary Variables. then click OK.VI. . . Infiltration plot To evaluate various mass balances we wish to define the subdomain and boundary quantities below.Click Title/Axis to specify axis and titel.Specify the y-axis data Expression to c*(c<=cmax) + cmax*(c>cmax). display settings can be adjusted by clicking on the Palette. . . To define quantities. such as total flow and mass fluxes.When the figure is generated.Choose the General tab and select all output times.Click on Line Settings to adjust line format. such as concentration fronts of the flow domain.Choose the Line/Extrusion tab.Choose the Line/Extrusion tab and check Line/Extrusion plot.Go to Postprocessing → Domain Plot Parameters. .Specify x-axis data to t (time). . dispersion and total mass flux through the infiltration boundary: . .Go to Postprocessing → Domain Plot Parameters. . Check the Use setting from Initial value frame in Values of variables not solved for and linearization. 16 .

then click Apply. .Go to Physics → Point Settings .Set Predefined quantities to Outward flux.Choose the Weak tab .Choose the Line/Extrusion tab. To calculate the pf-curve (the saturation variation with depth): . which is equal to the concentration C0* rain infiltration N0* segment length. . . To calculate the total lateral outflow over time: . hence when solving for steady state that the Weak Form must be unchecked in the solver manager. click Apply.Select the lateral outflow boundary.Go to Postprocessing → Global Variables Plot. To plot the mass of infiltration: . Alternative settings/tasks To calculate the amount of mass advectively transported across the infiltration boundary.Specify constr to 0 .Go to Postprocessing → Boundary Integration. click OK.Specify Name incoming_mass and Expression C0* N0 * (tfinal-tstart)*leng.In the Cross-section line data specify: x0: 10.Specify Expression to incoming_mass. point .After the figure is generated. click on the palette to adjust the plot.Find the value of the total outward flux in the lowest part of the screen.Go to Multiphysics → Weak form. x1: 10 and y0: -1. .Select a point.Specify dweak to u_test*u_time .Set x-axis data to t.5. . one can: . . . . then we must ensure that only the 17 .Choose the Init tab and set u(t) to 0. click on Expression and choose Predefined quantities: Effective saturation. then click Apply. click on Expression and specify (-y) . To integrate variables over time: .Under x-axis data. Point (wp) equation. click OK. click OK The Weak Form is only applicable for us for the transient solution.Go to Options → Expressions → Boundary expressions .In Predefined quantities select Geometry and mesh→y-coordinate.Go to Postprocessing → Cross-section Plot Parameters. . . Keep in mind also that if we are applying the Weak Form.Specify weak to u_test*inlet_cflux . .- Under x-axis data. y1: 0.Select the infiltration boundary. . VII.

. otherwise we are most likely to get an error message about a singular matrix.When the figure is generated.Choose the Line/Extrusion tab and check Line plot. . . For integrals applying to subdomains (e. .Select all output times. such as the integration over time of some quantity.Click on Line Settings to adjust line format. .Specify y-axis data Expression to subdomain_sorbed. select Van Genuchten. We will now define a function that specifies the relation between depth and air entry value. To plot the amount of adsorbed mass. or user-defined parameter values): .Go to Multiphysics→Richard’s equation .Specify x-axis data to t (time).Go to Multiphysics→Solute Transport.Choose the General tab and select Line/Extrusion plot. 18 . for both solute transport and flow according to the Bwaise III Data sheet.Go to Postprocessing → Domain Plot Parameters. .Go to Options → Integration Coupling Variables → Subdomain Variables. be active. respectively. display settings can be adjusted by clicking on the Palette .Click OK. then click OK. . Note that any predefined quantity can be plotted with this option.Go to Physics→Subdomains Settings . Modify Air entry value: The air entry value will increase width depth. .Go to Options→Functions.Specify subdomain integration expressions.Physics→Subdomain settings.Repeat for subdomain_solute and subdomain_mass. .g.Click in a domain to select it. To add sorption type: .Click Title/Axis to specify axis and titel. solute and total mass in the subdomains: . sorbed mass): .points that we have assigned equations to. . . All other points must be unchecked. . Find the table for air entry in the Bwaise III Data sheet. A good interpolation method is cubic splines: . To change retention and permeability relationships (Van Genuchten. .Choose the Solid tab and set Sorption Isotherms to Freundlich or Langmuir and specify the Freundlich and Langmuir constants.In the drop down menu Constitutive relation.

on the flow and on the contamination pattern Put together a small report . choose Use data from Table in the drop down menu.- Click on New. The Boundary conditions can be modified according to the alternative settings in the Bwaise III Data Sheet. Specify Function name AirEntry. VIII. Choose Interpolation method Cubic spline and Extrapolation method Constant. Langmuir versus Linear Sorption Group 7 Investigate the impact of having free drainage on the bottom boundary . Group tasks Suggested lab exercise tasks for the groups Group 1 Investigate impact of the infiltration rate on the response time for the water table to raise to the ground surface Group 2 Investigate the impact of the lateral (base) flow rate on the contamination transport Group 3 Investigate the impact of the retention curves . and click OK.A comparative study of using the Brooks and Corey versus the Van Genuchten analytic functions Group 4 Investigate (general) impact of sorption on the movement on the contamination plume Group 5 Investigate the sensitivity to the dispersivity coefficients Diffusion? Group 6 Investigate the impact of sorption .A comparative study of Freundlich. Click OK Call this function by writing AirEntry(x). Choose Interpolation. Dispersivities A task for one of the groups will be to check the sensitivity of the output results (for example the spreading of the contamination plume) to the dispersivities.3-4 pages. 19 . Set AirEntry value dependence on depth according to the Bwaise III Data sheet.

se/products/multiphysics/research/tutorials/ 20 . see http://www.comsol. see http://www.comsol.se/showroom/animations/ For COMSOL tutorials. Other resources This file is based on the website (where more information can be found) http://www.kth.lwr.se/Grundutbildning/1B1635/QH/CourseHome/index.IX.htm For COMSOL animations.

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