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d) incentives. 2. Needs are correlated with ---a) positively; incentives b) negatively; incentives c) positively; drives d) negatively; drives 3. Many sexually active American adolescents fail to avoid pregnancy because: a) low sex guilt inhibits the careful planning of contraceptive use. b) they are ignorant concerning basic human reproductive functioning. c) sex education courses have actually discouraged contraceptive use. d) of all the above reasons. 4. For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce: a) homeostasis. b) a drive. c) an instinct. d) extrinsic motivation. e) metabolic rate. 5. For as long as she has been the plant manager, Juanita has welcomed input from employees and has delegated authority. Bill, in managing his department, takes a more authoritarian, iron-fisted approach. Juanita's style is one of leadership, whereas Bill's is one of leadership. a) task; social b) social; task c) directive; democratic d) democratic; participative 6. Because Brent believes that his employees are intrinsically motivated to work for reasons beyond money, Brent would be described as a(n) manager. a) directive b) autocratic c) theory X d) theory Y 7. In order to encourage achievement motivation in the classroom, students should be taught to attribute their good grades to: a) their own hard work. b) their own high level of intelligence. c) the easy nature of most academic tasks. d) their teachers' generous grading standards. e) their parents effective supervision of their study time. 8. Research on the sexual response cycle indicates that: a) males and females experience a similar refractory period following orgasm. b) women undergo a decrease in physiological arousal more slowly if they have experienced orgasm than if they have not. c) enough sperm may be released prior to male orgasm to enable conception. d) during the resolution phase sexual excitement increases in females but decreases in males. 9. The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of: a) extrinsic motivation. b) sexual disorders. c) hunger. d) boredom. e) anorexia nervosa. 10. Rodin found that, in response to the sight and smell of a steak being grilled: a) overweight people had a greater insulin response than people of normal weight. b) people of normal weight had a greater insulin response than overweight people. c) externals had a greater insulin response than internals. d) internals had a greater insulin response than externals. 11. Isaac, a 25-year-old law student, is heterosexual; his brother Chaim, a 21-year-old college senior, is homosexual. The brothers obviously differ in their: a) gender identity. b) sexual role. c) sexual orientation. d) gender type. e) gender schema.
12. The set point is: a) the stage of the sexual response cycle that occurs just before orgasm. b) the body temperature of a healthy organism, for example, 98.6 degrees F in humans. c) the point at which energy expenditures from exercise and from metabolism are equal. d) the specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time. 13. With regard to the incidence of premarital sexual intercourse among Americans during the 1940s, Alfred Kinsey found that: a) nearly all men and most women reported having premarital sexual intercourse. b) most men and nearly half the women reported having premarital sexual intercourse. c) most men but very few women reported having premarital sexual intercourse. d) very few individuals of either sex admitted having premarital sexual intercourse. 14. Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates that: a) women's sexual interests are not closely linked to the phases of their menstrual cycles. b) adult men who have been castrated show virtually no reduction in sex drive. c) sexual interests are aroused by decreased testosterone levels in women and increased testosterone levels in men. d) imprisoned male sex offenders typically experience lower-than-normal testosterone levels. 15. Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized by: a) an unusually high rate of metabolism. b) cyclical fluctuations between extreme thinness and obesity. c) frequent migraine headaches. d) an inappropriate fear of becoming obese. 16. Anorexia patients are most likely to have parents who: a) have physically or sexually abused their children. b) are high-achieving and protective. c) have been recently separated or divorced. d) are unconcerned about physical appearance and body weight. 17. Extrinsic motivation refers to: a) a rigidly patterned behavioral urge characteristic of an entire species. b) a physiological need that triggers arousal. c) a state of arousal that is triggered by a physiological need. d) a desire to perform a behavior in order to obtain promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment. e) the body's automatic tendency to maintain a constant internal state. 18. Increases in increase hunger, whereas increases in decrease hunger. a) insulin; glucose b) glucose; leptin c) leptin; orexin d) orexin; insulin 19. Recent evidence makes a preliminary link between homosexuality and: a) late sexual maturation. b) the age of an individual's first erotic experience. c) atypical prenatal hormones. d) early problems in relationships with parents. e) all of the above. 20. Describe the contrasting effects of directive management and participative management on employee morale. Discuss these differences in terms of Maslow's hierarchy of motives. Explain why the effectiveness of each style would depend on the personality traits and cultural background of the employees.
21. Over the past 50 years, American women have expressed satisfaction with their physical appearance and have experienced a(n) incidence of serious eating disorders. a) increasing; decreasing c) decreasing; decreasing b) increasing; increasing d) decreasing; increasing 22. The refractory period is: a) the moment before orgasm during which sexual arousal is maintained at a fairly high level. b) the stage of the sexual response cycle during which sexual excitation reaches its climax. c) the span of the monthly female reproductive cycle during which ovulation occurs. d) the time span after orgasm during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm. 23. Which theory would be most likely to predict that rats are motivated to explore precisely those areas of an experimental maze where they receive mild electrical shocks? a) arousal theory b) incentive theory c) instinct theory d) drive-reduction theory 24. On some college football teams, players are rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold star on their helmets. This practice best illustrates the use of: a) set points. b) intrinsic motivation. c) incentives. d) participative management. 25. With a single transplanted gene, scientists can now cause male to display homosexual behavior. a) rats b) chimpanzees c) dogs d) fruit flies 26. About 8 months ago, I4-year-old Shelley went on a drastic weight-loss diet that caused her to drop from 110 to 80 pounds. Although she is now dangerously underweight and undernourished, she continues to think she looks fat. Her frustrated father recently forced her to eat a peanut butter sandwich, but Shelley immediately went to the bathroom and threw it all up. Shelley most clearly suffers from: a) obesity. d) hypermetabolism. b) an abnormally low set point. e) anorexia nervosa. c) bulimia nervosa. 27. Research on sexual orientation indicates that: a) virtually all cultures in all times have been predominantly heterosexual. b) homosexuality is more common among women than among men. c) compared to heterosexual women, lesbian women are more likely to demonstrate masculine traits. d) about 10 percent of men are exclusively homosexual. e) compared to heterosexual men, homosexual men are more likely to demonstrate feminine traits. 28. With respect to sex research and human values, the text suggests that: a) sexual activity is largely a medical and biological issue, not a moral issue. b) scientific methods prevent sex researchers from being influenced by their own personal values. c) researchers should not reveal their sexual values because sexual standards are a matter of personal taste. d) sex research and education should be accompanied by open consideration of sexual values. 29. Two rats have escaped from their cages in the neurophysiology lab. The technician needs your help in returning them to their proper cages. One rat is grossly overweight; the other is severely underweight. You confidently state that the overweight rat goes in the " -lesion" cage, while the underweight rat goes in the" -lesion" cage. a) hippocampus; amygdala b) amygdala; hippocampus c) lateral hypothalamus; ventromedial hypothalamus d) ventromedial hypothalamus; lateral hypothalamus
30. In animals, destruction of the lateral hypothalamus results in -' whereas destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus results in _ a) overeating; loss of hunger d) increased thirst; loss of thirst e) increased metabolic rate; weight loss b) loss of hunger; overeating c) an elevated set point; a lowered set point 31. Obese mice eat less, become more active, and lose weight after they have been injected with: a) insulin. b) glucose. c) leptin. d) estrogen e) testosterone. 32. The proper use of condoms: a) completely prevent HIV infections and reduces the risk of all other STDs. b) dramatically reduces the risk of HI V infections and completely prevents transmission of all other STDs. c) fails to reduce the risk ofHIV infections but completely prevents transmission of all other STDs. d) dramatically reduces the risk of HI V infections but fails to prevent the transmission of certain other STDs. 33. Theory X is to as theory Y is to _ a) extrinsic motivation; intrinsic motivation b) participative management; directive management c) social leadership; task leadership d) informative rewards; controlling rewards 34. For two weeks, Orlando has been on a hunger strike in order to protest his country's involvement in what he perceives as an immoral war. Orlando's willingness to starve himself in order to make a political statement conflicts with the theory of motivation advanced by: a) Kinsey. b) Murray. c) Keys. d) Masters and Johnson e) Maslow. 35. Research has found that an animal's sexual orientation can be altered by: a) manipulations of prenatal hormone conditions. c) injections of sex hormones in early adulthood. b) destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus. d) destruction of the amygdala. 36. Darren, a sales clerk at a tire store, enjoys his job, not so much for the money as for its challenge and the opportunity to interact with a variety of people. The store manager asks you to recommend a strategy for increasing Darren's motivation. Which of the following is most likely to be effective? a) Create a competition among the salespeople so that whoever has the highest sales each week receives a bonus. b) Put Darren on a week-by-week employment contract, promising him continued employment only if his sales increase each week. c) Leave Darren alone unless his sales drop and then threaten to fire him if his performance doesn't improve. d) Involve Darren as much as possible in company decision making and use rewards to inform him of his successful performance. 37. An aroused or activated state that is often triggered by physiological need is called a(n): a) instinct. b) incentive. c) drive. d) intrinsic motive. 38. Ifresearchers wanted to improve upon the scientific accuracy of Alfred Kinsey's research on American sexual practices, their first concern should involve: a) using telephone rather than face-to-face interviews. b) interviewing a larger number of people. c) having females rather than males interview the female respondents. d) interviewing a more representative sample of the American population.
39. In his study of men on a semistarvation diet, Keys found that: a) the metabolic rate of the subjects increased. b) the subjects eventually lost interest in food. c) the subjects became obsessed with food. d) the subjects' behavior directly contradicted predictions made by Maslow's hierarchy of needs. 40. Accepting attitudes toward homosexuals are common among men than women and _ common among those who believe sexual orientation is genetically rather than environmentally determined. a) more; more b) less; less c) more; less d) less; more 41. Why do people with a high need for achievement prefer tasks of moderate difficulty? a) They are afraid of failing at more difficult tasks. b) They want to avoid the embarrassment of failing at easy tasks. c) Moderately difficult tasks present an attainable goal in which success is attributable to their own skill. d) They have high extrinsic motivation. 42. Instinct theory and drive-reduction theory both emphasize factors in motivation. a) environmental b) cognitive c) psychological d) social e) biological 43. On the basis of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, one would be least likely to predict that a: a) starving person might sell his child to obtain food. b) teacher with high self-esteem might seek a career change to use his abilities more fully. c) successful business executive might show greater concern for his family relationships than for becoming president of his corporation. d) prisoner might choose to die rather than betray his country. 44. Alcohol consumption self-awareness and sexual inhibitions. a) increases; decreases b) decreases; decreases c) increases; increases d) decreases; increases 45. Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet: a) became apathetic and lost interest in food. b) remained interested in food but avoided talking or thinking about it. c) lost interest in sex and social activities. d) became increasingly preoccupied with political and religious issues. 46. An explanation of motivation in terms of homeostasis is best illustrated by the concept of: a) instinct. b) set point. c) refractory period. d) extrinsic motivation. 47. The text suggests that a "neophobia" for unfamiliar tastes: a) is more common in children than in adults. b) protected our ancestors from potentially toxic substances. c) may be an early warning sign of an eating disorder. d) only grows stronger with repeated exposure to those tastes. e) does all of the above. 48. When an organism's weight rises above its set point, the organism is likely to experience a(n): a) decrease in both hunger and basal metabolic rate. b) increase in hunger and a decrease in basal metabolic rate. c) decrease in hunger and an increase in basal metabolic rate. d) increase in both hunger and basal metabolic rate. 49. It is characteristic of bears to hibernate. This behavior is an example of: a) intrinsic motivation. b) an instinct. c) homeostasis. d) an incentive. e) a drive.
50. During the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle: a) women undergo a decrease in physiological arousal more rapidly if they have just experienced orgasm than if they have not. b) women are less likely than men to be aroused to yet another orgasm. c) men undergo a decrease in physiological arousal less rapidly if they have just experienced orgasm than if they have not. d) women generally return to an unaroused physiological state more rapidly than do men. Which of the following was not identified as a contributing factor in the high rate of unprotected sex 5l. among adolescents? d) Ignorance a) alcohol use e) thrill-seeking b) mass media sexual norms c) guilt related to sexual activity 52. The brain area that when stimulated suppresses eating is the: a) lateral hypothalamus. c) lateral thalamus. b) ventromedial hypothalamus. d) ventromedial thalamus. 53. Mark's intrinsic motivation to play baseball in college is most likely to be reduced when his attention is focused on: a) mastering the physical skills necessary to play effectively. b) learning the essential rules of the game. c) developing the comradery with fellow players necessary for effective teamwork. d) playing well enough to secure an athletic scholarship. e) engaging in entertaining practice drills that prepare him for competitive play. 54. Investigations of how men and women view body image found that: a) men and women alike expressed significant self-dissatisfaction. b) men and women alike accurately assessed the body weight for their own sex that the other sex preferred. c) men tended to rate their current weight as corresponding both to their ideal weight and to women's ideal weight for men. d) women tended to be satisfied with their current body weight but to think that men preferred a thinner body shape for women. 55. Destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus of a rat is most likely to: a) lower its set point for body weight. b) cause it to stop eating. c) lower its blood insulin level. d) facilitate conversion of its blood glucose to fat. 56. George, a 33-year-old lawyer, experiences premature ejaculation. Research suggests that his disorder can be eliminated by: a) engaging in sexual activity less frequently. b) eliminating his high level of sexual guilt. c) uncovering the unconscious fears that underlie his problem. d) providing therapy designed to raise his self-esteem. e) repeatedly engaging in genital stimulation that is discontinued as the urge to ejaculate arises. 57. Ted is an amateur golfer who has a high need for achievement. Research suggests that Ted most likely prefers playing golf on courses that for him are: a) very easy. b) moderately difficult. c) extremely difficult. d) very easy or very difficult.
58. Generalizing from laboratory research, husbands and wives who want to heighten their level of sexual arousal will benefit most if the husband listens to a tape having a theme and the wife listens to a tape having a theme. a) sexually explicit; romantic c) romantic; romantic b) romantic; sexually explicit d) sexually explicit; sexually explicit 59. Of the following parts of the world, teen intercourse rates are highest in: a) Western Europe. b) Canada. c) the United States. d) Asia. e) Arab countries. 60. Motivation is defined by psychologists as: a) an impulse to accomplish something of significance. b) rigidly patterned behavioral urges characteristic of all people. c) a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal. d) the cause of behavior. 61. When peoples' need to belong is fulfilled through close relationships, they are less likely to: a) commit suicide. c) suffer psychological disorders. b) contract physical illness. d) experience any of the above. 62. Antonio, a sixth-grader, has just brought home a 100-word spelling test on which he spelled 75 words correctly. If Antonio's parents want to effectively encourage high levels of achievement in their son, they should tell him: a) "We love you no matter what grades you receive." b) "What's important is that you do your best always." c) "Let's see if you can raise your next test score 5 points by studying harder. " d) "If you can't perform much better on your next test, you won't be allowed to watch television before bedtime." 63. Beginning with the most basic needs, which of the following represents the correct sequence of needs in the hierarchy described by Maslow? a) safety; physiological; esteem; belongingness and love; self-fulfillment b) safety; physiological; belongingness and love; esteem; self-fulfillment c) physiological; safety; esteem; belongingness and love; self-fulfillment d) physiological; safety; belongingness and love; esteem; self-fulfillment e) physiological; safety; self-fulfillment; esteem; belongingness and love 64. Mary loves hang-gliding. It would be most difficult to explain Mary's behavior according to: a) incentives. c) drive-reduction theory. b) achievement motivation. d) Maslow's hierarchy of needs. 65. Randy, who has been under a lot of stress lately, has intense cravings for sugary junk foods, which tend to make him feel more relaxed. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for his craving? a) Randy feels that he deserves to pamper himself with sweets because of the stress he is under. b) The extra sugar gives Randy the energy he needs to cope with the demands of daily life. c) Carbohydrates boost levels of serotonin, which has a calming effect. d) The extra sugar tends to lower blood insulin level, which promotes relaxation. 66. Effective managers have been found to demonstrate levels of task leadership and _ levels of social leadership. a) high; low b) low; high c) low; low d) high; high 67. Which theory of motivation most clearly emphasizes the importance of genetic predispositions? a) Theory X b) instinct theory c) Theory Y d) arousal theory
68. Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies? a) instinct theory b) drive-reduction theory c) incentive theory d) arousal theory 69. Informative rewards motivation, and controlling rewards motivation. a) increase intrinsic; decrease extrinsic d) increase intrinsic; decrease intrinsic b) increase extrinsic; decrease intrinsic e) increase extrinsic; increase extrinsic c) decrease extrinsic; decrease extrinsic 70. Mr. Porter believes that aggression is an unlearned behavior characteristic of all children. He obviously believes that aggression is a(n): a) extrinsic motive. b) homeostatic mechanism. c) instinct. d) intrinsic motive. 71. One problem with the idea of motivation as drive reduction is that: a) because some motivated behaviors do not seem to be based on physiological needs, they cannot be explained in terms of drive reduction. b) it fails to explain any human motivation. c) it cannot account for homeostasis. d) it does not explain the hunger drive. 72. Which of the following is not an example of homeostasis? a) perspiring in order to restore normal body temperature b) feeling hungry and eating to restore the level of blood glucose to normal c) feeling hungry at the sight of an appetizing food d) All of the above are examples of homeostasis. 73. Although Jan appears to be underweight, she is afraid of becoming fat and consistently restricts her food intake. Although Gene appears to be overweight, he enjoys eating and always eats as much as he wants. Explain how their different reactions to food might result from (a) differences in their inner bodily states and (b) differences in their reactions to external incentives. 74. The most basic or lowest-level need in Maslow's hierarchy of human motives includes the need for: a) self-esteem. d) food and drink. b) love and friendship. e) achievement. c) religious fulfillment. 75. Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that: a) homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been sexually abused during childhood. b) homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been overprotected by their mothers. c) homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been raised in a father-absent home. d) homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been exposed to a gay or lesbian schoolteacher. e) the reported backgrounds of homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar.
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Page: 451 18. a Page: 429 19. c Page: 445 20. (No answer.) Page: (None) 21. d Page: 433 22. d Page: 437 23. a Page: 425
24. c Page: 425 25. d Page: 445 26. e Page: 432 27. a Page: 442 28. d Page: 446 29. d Page: 429 30. b Page: 429 31. c Page: 430 32. d Page: 442 33. a Page: 455 34. e Page: 426 35. a Page: 445 36. d Page: 453,456 37. c Page: 425 38. d Page: 435 39. c Page: 428 40. d Page: 446 41. c Page: 450 42. e Page: 424-425 43. d Page: 426 44. b Page: 441 45. c Page: 428 46. b Page: 430 47. b Page: 431
48. c Page: 49. b Page: 50. a Page: 51. e Page: 52. b Page: 53. d Page: 54. c Page: 55. d Page: 56. e Page: 57. b Page: 58. d Page: 59. a Page: 60. c Page: 61. d Page: 62. c Page: 63. d Page: 64. c Page: 65. c Page: 66. d Page: 67. b Page: 68. d Page: 69. d Page: 70. c Page: 71. a Page:
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Page: 425 73. (No answer.) Page: (None) 74. d Page: 426 75. e Page: 443
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