Resource Assessment of Amala (Phyllanthus emblica L.
) in Bajhang District: A Detailed Study from Byansi and Rayal VDCs
A Report Prepared By District Forest Office, Bajhang Consultant: Khilendra Gurung June, 2008
I would like to acknowledge Mr. Sanjeev Kumar Shrestha, NTFP specialist- WUPAP for facilitating the field work to Bajhang district. I am particularly thankful to Mr. Lal Narayan Singh, DFO, Bajhang and other staffs of District Forest Office, Bajhang for providing information, survey data, necessary support and cooperation to carry out this work. I am grateful to teachers of Jana Priya Lower Secondary School, Jhuteda village and all the local people of Byansi and Rayal VDCs for providing me with the information of Amala availability areas and their traditional use practices in the study VDCs. I would also like to thank Mr. Keshab Raj Bhatta, Laxmi Raj Joshi, Kalyan Negi, Chakra Bahadur Kathayat, Junga Bahadur Bista, Tipure Upadhyaya and Ram Chandra Dhami –District Forest Office, Bajhang for assisting me in the field trip to Byansi and Rayal VDCs during the study period. Special thanks goes to Mr. Rupak Ram Joshi-Monitoring and Evaluation Officer, LDFB, Bajhang for the overall information of the area and for his kind cooperation during the study period.
Khilendra Gurung June, 2008
Table of Content
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Objectives CHAPTER TWO: STUDY AREA 2.1 Physiognomy of Bajhang district 2.2 Study area CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Data collection 3.2 Biophysical data 3.3 Inventory technique 3.4 Socio-economic data 3.5 Data analysis 3.5.1 Density 3.5.2 Frequency CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS 4.1 Areas of occurrence 4.2 Distribution spots of Amala 4.2.1 Byansi VDC 4.2.2 Rayal VDC 4.3 Density of Amala 4.3.1 Byansi VDC 4.3.2 Rayal VDC 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 3 3 1 2
4.4 Current stock of Amala 4.4.1 Byansi VDC 4.4.2 Rayal VDC 4.5 Species association 4.6 Fruiting and harvesting 4.7 Storage 4.8 Estimated yield 4.8.1 Byansi VDC 4.8.2 Rayal VDC 4.9 Local uses of Amala 4.10 Commercial uses of Amala 4.11 Trading of Amala 4.12 Identification of enterprises and their modalities to be set up in study sites CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION 5.1 Conclusion 5.2 Recommendations REFERENCES Lists of Tables Table 1: Density of Amala in Byansi VDC Table 2: Density of Amala in Rayal VDC Table 3: Total stock of Amala in Byansi VDC Table 4: Total stock of Amala in Rayal VDC Table 5: Frequency of associated species Byansi VDC Table 6: Frequency of associated species Rayal VDC
8 8 9 9 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13
14 14 16
8 8 9 9 10 11
Table 7: Potentiality for enterprise development in Byansi and Rayal VDCs 13
Abbreviations and acronyms
Degree Centigrade Asia Network for Sustainable Agriculture and Bioresources Community Forest User Group Centimeter Communication Diameter at Breast Height District Forest Office/Officer East Hectare His Majesty’s Government Kilogram Local Development Fund Board Leasehold Forest Limited Meter North Nepal Herbs and Herbal Products Association Number Nepal Swiss Community Forestry Project Personal Participatory Rural Appraisal Plant Village Development Committee Western Upland Poverty Alleviation Project
ANSAB: CFUG: cm: comm.: DBH: DFO: E: Ha: HMG: Kg: LDFB: LF: Ltd.: M: N: NEHHPA: No: NSCFP: pers.: PRA: Pt: VDC: WUPAP:
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction Bajhang district is rich in biological diversity that harbors several species of flora and fauna of tropical to alpine regions. The plant species of both ecological and economic significance have been distributed in the district which has been utilized by the local people in the form of timber, fodder, fuel wood and other materials for domestic uses. With variation in altitude, aspect and overall terrain, the district provides habitat for different life forms that are directly and indirectly useful for uplifting the livelihood of local people. In the varied habitats of the district, there are different plants occupying special habitats which are the assets of the district. The local people have been using them for their daily use as well as medicine and other purposes for long time. Plants of the region have been serving as the base of ethno-botanical knowledge. Besides all these facts, there are lots of species whose actual distribution and potentiality has not been assessed yet. The conservation, extension and utilization of such species can prove instrumental for the improvement of sustainable livelihoods of the people residing in the regions. Amala (Phyllanthus emblica L.) is a medium sized deciduous tree about 15m high of the family Euphorbiaceae that occurs throughout Nepal ranging from 100-1600m. It is also found in India, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, South China and Southeast Asia (Manandhar, 2002; NEHHPA, 2005). In Bajhang district, the distribution of Amala has been reported in Kaphalseri, Pipalkot, Khiratadi, Sunkuda, Rayal, Maulali, Byansi, Matela, Kandel, Malumela, Koiralakot, Pauwagadhi, Lamatola, Subeda, Rithapata, Chainpur VDCs of Bajhang (pers. comm.); however the actual status of the distribution and their economic potentiality has not been studied. The fruit is sour and its juice is considered cooling, diuretic, laxative; useful for burning sensations of the heart and urinary discharge, thirst, diseases of the heart, liver complaints and eye troubles. The fruit is a rich source of Vitamin C. The dried fruit is detergent and is employed for washing the head in some parts of Nepal. It is one of the ingredients of ‘Chyawanprash’ and ‘Triphala’- the infusion of three Myrobalans: Emblica (Phyllanthus emblica), Chebulic (Terminalia chebula) and Belleric (Terminalia bellirica), which is stomachic and cooling and considered as tonic
(Manandhar, 1989; ANSAB, 2003). The dried fruit is also valued in cases of hemorrhage, jaundice, dyspepsia, diarrhea and dysentery (HMG, 1970; Manandhar, 2002). The dried Amala fruit crushed with the fruit of Harro (Terminalia chebula) is taken with water or milk for the remedy of stomach disorders. The fruit is eaten raw and also pickled. The fruits, leaves and bark all contain tannin and are used for tanning purposes in various parts of Nepal (Manandhar, 1989; ANSAB, 2003). In this strength of information and taking into consideration the potentiality of the species in the district, District Forest Office (DFO), Bajhang/Western Upland Poverty Alleviation Project (WUPAP)/ Local Development Fund Board (LDFB), Bajhang wished to carry out the detail assessment of Amala in the Southern region of Bajhang (Byansi and Rayal VDCs). 1.2 Objectives The overall objective of the study is to explore the sites of Amala distribution and the sites potential to extend them in Southern part of Bajhang. The specific objectives are as follows: • • • • • • To observe and verify the survey data collected by DFO To assess the availability and distribution sites of Amala in Southern part of Bajhang To map potential spot having Amala within the study area through participatory approach To document the current use pattern of Amala in the study area To prepare the management plan of Amala To identify the potential community based forest enterprises that can be set up
CHAPTER TWO: STUDY AREA 2.1 Physiognomy of Bajhang district Bajhang district lies in the far western region in Seti Zone of Nepal. By covering an area of 3, 47,559.40 ha, it lies at 290 29’–300 09’ N latitude and 800 46’–810 34’ E longitude. The altitudinal range varies from 915–7077m representing tropical, temperate and alpine types of climate. The district is surrounded by the Tibetan plateau and Humla to the North, Bajura and Humla to the East, Darchula and Baitadi to the West and Doti and Baitadi to the South. Saipal Himal, Arya Himal and Nampa Himal are the major Himalayan peaks. Seti River, Surma Sarovar, Tima Pond, Khaptad Lake, Lokund Lake, Khapar Pond, Tilsari Lake and Ramcha Pond are the major lake and river system. Only 12% of the total land area of the district is suitable for agriculture and 29.47% area is covered with forest. Bushy types of vegetation are of special interest in the district. The average rainfall in the district is 1343.9mm.The average temperature of the district was recorded as 18.60C as highest temperature and 5.70C as lowest temperature. The ecological zones of the district encompass Riverine (Dalbergia-Acacia), Chir Pine, Alder, Himalayan Oak-Laurel, Mixed Rhododendron-Maple, Temperate Mountain Oak, Fir-Hemlock-Oak, Rhododendron, Birch-Rhododendron, Moist Alpine Scrub and Upper Alpine Meadows forest and vegetation types. 2.2 Study area The study area viz. Byansi VDC lies in the Central and Rayal VDC lies in the Southern part of Bajhang district. The forest areas of Rijekhola, Pairadi, Kuliban Kalemelo, Bahaselo, Sajhamelo, Saltang, Painsej around Jhuteda village were the study areas in Byansi VDC. Similarly, forests around Deura, Chandam, Jhadikhet, Pathoda and Chaudalo were the main fields of study area for the observation and measurement of Amala resource. The map of the study area is shown below.
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Data collection Both biophysical and socio-economic information were collected. Biophysical data were collected and analyzed to find the status of Amala in the area such as distribution, diversity, yield and so on. Socio-economic data were collected to find local uses of the species, its potentiality in the area and concerned issues. The study made use of both primary and secondary information related to the objectives. Primary data were collected using different tools like observation, measurements, group interview, consultation with key informants and other relevant PRA tools. The school teachers, local leaders, hotel owners, shepherds, farmers were the main key informants interviewed. The secondary information was collected from related publications, research papers, DFO and other documents as per necessity. The secondary data were collected for the verification of primary data and additional information as well. 3.2 Biophysical data The observations and necessary measurements took place in the selected clusters. It is the best way to sample populations for which there are no convenient lists or frame. It is based on the fact that the species thrives more or less in natural groups or clusters. It is also the way to minimize travel time in reaching scattered units of data collection. Participatory forest inventory techniques as prescribed by NSCFP (2002) were also used to find out as well as to analyze the complex and most interdependent variables like fruiting status, resource condition and yield potentiality. Villagers from the nearby settlements participated in the inventory and assessments. 3.3 Inventory technique
Quadrats of 10 x 10m2 in square plots were laid down randomly and the species was counted and enlisted in each plot. Also, all the associated species were recorded. Generally the plant having DBH more than 10cm is considered as matured tree. But, Amala is a small tree and in practice the plants with DBH about 5cm are fully matured. So, 5cm DBH is proposed as matured tree for Amala. From different plots, human interference in Amala was analyzed by observing the number of cut stumps.
Associated plant species were identified on the basis of consultant’s knowledge and with the help of reference literatures such as Polunin and Stainton (1997) and Stainton (1997) and consultation with local people. 3.4 Socio-economic data Participatory mapping, key informant interview and other PRA tools were applied for collecting relevant social and economic information. Key informants were usually the local leaders, traders, elderly persons having adequate knowledge and experiences, teachers and elite people either single or in groups, DFO staffs and other relevant persons. Verbal open ended questions were asked for the interview and discussions. The consultant explored the sites of Amala distribution in the region on the basis of information provided by the local informants and records provided by DFO, Bajhang. 3.5 Data analysis Collected data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Data obtained by using PRA tools were analyzed qualitatively in descriptive methods; whereas data obtained from inventory technique were analyzed quantitatively. For vegetation sampling of Amala, frequency and density were analyzed according to Zobel et al. (1987). Quantitative characters for vegetation analysis were calculated by using the following formulae: 3.5.1 Density Density in general is the total number of individuals of a species in relation to definite area, which gives the numerical strength of a species in given community (Zobel et al., 1987). Hence, density is calculated by using the following formula:
Density ( pt / ha ) = Total number of individuals of species" A" x 10,000 Total number of quadrats sampled x Area of quadrats (m 2 )
The frequency refers to the degree of dispersion in terms of percentage occurrence (Zobel et al., 1987). The frequency of the associated species was calculated as follows:
Frequency ( F ) =
Total number of plots in which species" A" occured x 100 Total number of plots sampled
CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS 4.1 Areas of occurrence Naturally growing Amala was found in dry, sandy loam and clay or mixture of all different proportions. Moreover, sandy and gravel soil is regarded as the best soil for the growth of Amala. South, Southwest and West facing slopes - exposed to Sunlight as well as open areas are the best growing sites for Amala. Moreover, Amala was recorded between ca. 950-1300m in Rayal VDC whereas it was recorded between ca. 1000-1400m in Byansi VDC. 4.2 Distribution spots of Amala 4.2.1 Byansi VDC Regarding the distribution spots of Amala in Byansi VDC of Bajhang, the following are the availability sites: 1. Rije Khola Leasehold forest (LF) (East to Jhuteda village-2) 2. Pairadi LF (East to Jhuteda village) 3. Kuliban LF (East to Jhuteda village) 4. Kalemelo Community forest (CF) (In between Kitkida and Jhuteda) 5. Sajhamelo area (In between Kitkida and Jhuteda) 6. Bahaselo LF (Below Jhuteda village-1) 7. Saltang forest (West to Jhuteda village-1) 8. Painsej forest (Below Neta village) 4.2.2 Rayal VDC Similarly, the following spots are the availability sites of Amala in Rayal VDC: 1. Khochadhar (Deura) 2. Kharke khola LF (Chandam) 3. Naru LF (Jhadikhet)
4. Tig forest (In between Pathoda and Rayal) 5. Masinchaur forest (Above Chaudalo village) 4.3 Density of Amala 4.3.1 Byansi VDC The highest density of Amala in Byansi VDC was recorded in Sajhamelo area (900 individual per hectare) followed by Pairadi LF (500 individual per hectare) and Kalemelo CF (500 individual per hectare), whereas the lowest density was recorded in Kuliban LF (200 individual per hectare). Table 1: Density of Amala in Byansi VDC SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Spots Rije Khola LF Pairadi LF Kuliban LF Kalemelo CF Sajhamelo area Bahaselo LF Saltang forest Painsej forest No. of plants No. of quadrats 1400 1000 400 1000 900 2400 2500 1500 4 2 2 2 1 8 6 4 Density/ha. 350 500 200 500 900 300 416.67 375
4.3.2 Rayal VDC The highest density of Amala in Rayal VDC was recorded in Khochadhar area (500 individual per hectare) followed by Masinchaur forest (267 individual per hectare) and Naru LF (250 individual per hectare), whereas the lowest density was recorded in Kharke khola LF (50 individual per hectare). Table 2: Density of Amala in Rayal VDC SN 1 2 3 4 5 Spots Khochadhar Kharke khola LF Naru LF Tig forest Masinchaur forest No. of plants 500 400 500 1000 1600 No. of quadrats 1 8 2 6 6 Density/ha. 500 50 250 166.67 266.67
4.4 Current stock of Amala 4.4.1 Byansi VDC It is estimated about 32183 Amala resource was recorded in about 86 ha. area in Byansi VDC. The current stock of Amala in Byansi VDC was recorded highest in Bahaselo LF (9000 individuals) followed by Saltang forest (8333 individuals) and Painsej forest (3750 individuals), whereas the lowest stock was recorded in Kuliban LF (1000 individuals). Table 3: Total stock of Amala in Byansi VDC SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Spots Rije Khola LF Pairadi LF Kuliban LF Kalemelo CF Sajhamelo area Bahaselo LF Saltang forest Painsej forest Total Density/ha. 350 500 200 500 900 300 416.67 375 Total area (ha.) 8 6 5 5 2 30 20 10 86 Total stock 2800 3000 1000 2500 1800 9000 8333.33 3750 32183.33
4.4.2 Rayal VDC It is estimated about 12917 Amala resource was recorded in about 80.5 ha. area in Rayal VDC. The current stock of Amala in Rayal VDC was recorded highest in Masinchaur forest (5333 individuals) followed by Tig forest (3333 individuals) and Naru LF (2500 individuals), whereas the lowest stock was recorded in Khochadhar (250 individuals). Table 4: Total stock of Amala in Rayal VDC SN 1 2 3 4 5 Spots Khochadhar Kharke khola LF Naru LF Tig forest Masinchaur forest Total Density/ha. 500 50 250 166.67 266.67 Total area (ha.) 0.5 30 10 20 20 80.5 Total stock 250 1500 2500 3333.33 5333.33 12916.67
4.5 Species association Various plant species were recorded from the study sites of Byansi and Rayal VDCs of Bajhang as the associated species of Amala. Among them few plant species with high frequency and ecological similarities are expected as the true friends of Amala. The lists of associated species with Amala in Byansi and Rayal VDCs are given in table 5 and 6 respectively. Table 5: Frequency of associated species Byansi VDC SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Species Acacia sp Agave cantula Roxb. Albizia sp Artemisia indica Willd. Asparagus racemosus Willd. Bauhinia purpurea L. Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC. Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. Boehmeria sp Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Rchb. Ex Meisn. Bombax ceiba L. Cassia sp Cissampelos pareira L. Colebrookea oppositifolia Sm. Combretum sp Coriaria napalensis Wall. Eupatorium sp Ficus oligodon Miq. Ficus sp Hypericum sp Jatropha curcas L. Juglans regia C. DC. Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Mull. Arg. Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Osyris wightiana Wall. ex Wight Phyllanthus urinaria L. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Prinsepia utilis Royle Prunus cerasoides D.Don Punica granatum L. Pyracantha crenulata (D.Don) M. Roem. Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Rhus javanica L. Ribes sp Frequency (%) 37.50 100.00 62.50 100.00 100.00 37.50 75.00 37.50 25.00 12.50 37.50 62.50 87.50 87.50 62.50 100.00 62.50 62.50 37.50 75.00 37.50 62.50 37.50 62.50 62.50 62.50 12.50 50.00 62.50 37.50 87.50 100.00 100.00 62.50 62.50
36 Rosa sp 75.00 37 Rubus ellipticus Sm. 87.50 38 Saccharum spontaneum L. 12.50 39 Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. 37.50 40 Sapium insigne (Royle) Benth. ex Hook. f. 100.00 41 Sclepias sp 37.50 42 Smilax sp 75.00 43 Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels 62.50 44 Toona ciliata M. Roem. 62.50 45 Urtica dioica L. 25.00 46 Verbascum thapsus L. 75.00 47 Wikstroemia canescens Meisn. 12.50 48 Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz 62.50 49 Zanthoxylum nepalense Babu 62.50 The main associates of Amala in Byansi VDC were Agave cantula (100%), Artemisia indica (100%), Asparagus racemosus (100%), Coriaria napalensis (100%), Pyracantha crenulata (100%), Pyrus pashia (100%) and Sapium insigne (100%). Table 6: Frequency of associated species Rayal VDC SN Species Frequency (%) 1 Acacia catechu (L. f.) Willd. 100 2 Acacia sp 80 3 Agave cantula Roxb. 100 4 Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. 80 5 Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC. 80 6 Cassia tora L. 20 7 Cissampelos pareira L. 80 8 Coriaria napalensis Wall. 80 9 Diploknema butyracea (Roxb.) H.J. Lam 80 10 Euphorbia royleana Boiss. 80 11 Jatropha curcas L. 20 12 Lantana camara L. 100 13 Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Mull. Arg. 100 14 Pinus roxburghii Sarg. 80 15 Punica granatum L. 80 16 Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don 80 17 Rubus ellipticus Sm. 80 18 Sapium insigne (Royle) Benth. ex Hook. f. 100 19 Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) Kuntze 80 20 Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz 100 21 Xeromphis spinosa (Thunb.) Keay 80 22 Zanthoxylum nepalense Babu 80 Similarly, the main associates of Amala in Rayal VDC were Acacia catechu (100%), Agave cantula (100%), Lantana camara (100%), Mallotus philippensis (100%), Sapium insigne (100%) and Woodfordia fruticosa (100%).
4.6 Fruiting and harvesting Flowering of Amala occurs from May-August and fruiting takes place during JuneSeptember. Fruits are ready for the harvest from October-December. Fruits are collected by handpicking, swinging the branches and cutting small branches. 4.7 Storage Harvested fruits are kept for 10 minutes in boiling water to separate the flesh and seed for long term storage. The separated flesh are Sun dried and stored. 4.8 Estimated yield According to the local collectors, a medium sized and medium aged Amala tree can yield 20-30kg fruits and fully matured large tree yields up to 80kg fruits annually. Thus in average, Amala tree can produce about 50-55kg fruits per year. 4.8.1 Byansi VDC In Byansi VDC very few medium sized Amala trees were recorded, about 90% plants were found as saplings with less than 5cm DBH. This implies that out of total stock of 32183 plants, only 3218 Amala can yield fruit ca. 50kg per year. Therefore, in average the yield of Amala fruits in Byansi VDC can be estimated to be ca. 161 tons per year. According to Amala processor at Ayurvedic Company of Kathmandu, the fleshy part occupies only 30% of the total weight of fruit. Furthermore, after boiling and drying only 10% of the fleshy parts can be obtained. Therefore, in average the yield of dry Amala in Byansi VDC is estimated to be 4.8 tons per year at present. 4.8.2 Rayal VDC Similarly in Rayal VDC about 90% plants were found as saplings with less than 5cm DBH. This implies that out of total stock of 12917 plants, only 1292 Amala can yield fruit ca. 50kg per year. Therefore, in average the yield of Amala fruits in Rayal VDC can be estimated to be ca. 65 tons per year. And subsequently the average yield of dry Amala in Rayal VDC is estimated to be 2 tons per year at present. 4.9 Local uses of Amala The local people of Byansi and Rayal VDC use to eat fresh fruits and sometimes make pickle for the household use. Large trees are cut for firewood and leaves are used for fodder. 4.10 Commercial uses of Amala
Amala fruit is very popular all over the world especially in Eastern world. It has high demand especially in India and Nepal because of its importance as the source of Vitamin C and it is the main ingredient of Triphala, Chyawanprash and other Ayurvedic medicine. According o Kunwar (2006), annually 50 tons of Amala fruit is collected and exported from Nepal. Dabur Nepal alone collects and processes 30 tons of Amala fruit per year. Other companies that collect and process Amala fruits in Nepal are Gorkha Ayurved Company P. Ltd., Singha Durbar Vaidyakhana, Fleur Himalayan P. Ltd. Nardevi Ayurved Hospital, Sri Krishna Aushadhalaya. 4.11 Trading of Amala There is no trading of Amala fruits in the study areas to till date. The following may be the reason for Amala fruit getting less importance in the study areas: 1. Unaware of its commercial values 2. Traditional living style 3. Transportation constraints 4.12 Identification of enterprises and their modalities to be set up in study sites On the basis of the resource availability, possibility of handover processing technology/equipments and market linkage potentiality, the following are the potential enterprise that can be set up in the study VDCs. Table 7: Potentiality for enterprise development in Byansi and Rayal VDCs SN NTFPs/ Products Potentiality for enterprise development 1 2 Rittha (Sapindus mukorossi) Seeds of Chiuri (Diploknema butyracea) Ban phanda (Lantana camara) Ketuki (Agave cantula) Cultivation in the marginal lands and trading of fruits Edible oil/ghee expelling Modality of enterprise Proprietorship/household level Proprietorship/household level Proprietorship/household level Proprietorship/household level
Bio briquette making from hardwood Fiber processing and weaving sitting mat/mattress
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION
5.1 Conclusion There is lack of adequate information among the local community regarding the use and benefits of Amala fruits. Except for making pickle neither the collection nor the processing of the fruits takes place in the region, indicates that the local use of Amala is mostly limited to fuel wood. The local uses of Amala in the study area in comparison to its potential uses are almost negligible till now. Therefore, it is relevant to insist here that the possible commercial and domestic uses of its fruits have remained unexploited due to the lack of adequate knowledge on this plant. The curiosity shown by some local people reveals that some innovative people in the locality will certainly start to collect Amala fruits and process them in the near future for marketing, if the technical and financial support is provided to them. The collection, processing and marketing of Amala fruits not only generates the income to the local people for their livelihood support but also ensures the conservation of the resources in the areas. The occurrence of Amala nearby the settlements will be beneficial to carry out small scale processing of fruits in household level. It needs neither huge collection of fruits nor the large amount investment in the beginning. Therefore, the species is potential for the small scale income generating activities of the local people. In conclusion, the species is of tremendous potential for the area if the following recommendations are included in the management plan for their effective implementation.
5.2 Recommendations The local communities play a crucial role for the conservation and sustainable utilization of the resources in their localities. Conservation and sustainable management are the ever raised issues, but why and how to conserve and manage are the big questions challenging ever. Therefore, the following steps are recommended for addressing conservation and livelihood issues of local communities by promoting Amala in the study VDCs:
1. Awareness programs (workshops, exhibitions, exposure visits and demonstration of the products) on the importance of Amala; conservation and sustainable utilization, cultivation and harvesting at local level need to be conducted. 2. Capacity building/strengthening the concerned FUGs on institutional development, governance/equity, fund mobilization, financial management, record keeping, benefit sharing mechanism etc. should be initiated. 3. Field based training package on Amala promotion; time and technique of collection, local processing technology, storage, quality control, packaging and cultivation should be conducted. 4. Development of biological sustainable harvesting system; block rotation system preferable for harvesting/ participatory monitoring system should be prepared for each user groups. 5. Detailed assessment of the potential enterprises that can be set up in the study VDCs should be conducted in collaboration with various user groups. 6. Feasibility study on market linkage, technology transfer, equipments and availability of skill manpower should be conducted for each product line. 7. Micro-credit facilities should be provided for the initiation of small scale enterprises. 8. Initiation for the management and conduction of pilot model enterprise for Amala processing. 9. Establishment of marketing information system (MIS) on Amala and other NTFPs at the road head centers and Chainpur.
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