Asian American Center for Advancing Justice

A Community of Contrasts
Asian Americans in the United States: 2011

Principal Researcher and Co-author

Co-author

Welcome introduction Executive Summary Population Economic Contributions Civic Engagement immigration Age Language Education income Employment Housing Health Policy Recommendations Ethnic Group Highlights Glossary Appendix A: Race & Ethnicity Appendix B: Asian Americans by State

1 2 3 6 11 13 17 23 24 30 33 39 43 46 50 55 58 AsiAn AmericAn center for AdvAncing Justice The Asian American Center for Advancing Justice (Advancing Justice) is a leading Asian American civil rights and social justice organization comprising four equal and independent affiliates: the Asian American Justice Center (AAJC), Asian Pacific American Legal Center (APALC), Asian American Institute (AAI), and Asian Law Caucus (ALC). Its mission is to promote a fair and equitable society for all by working for civil and human rights and empowering Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) and other underserved communities. Each affiliate’s staff has valuable expertise and deep experience. AAJC is one of the nation’s leading experts on issues of importance to the Asian American community and has enacted a sweeping range of programs on critical national concerns. APALC is the nation’s largest legal organization addressing the needs of Asian Americans and NHPIs by advocating for civil rights, providing legal services and education, and building coalitions. AAI is the Midwest’s leading panAsian organization dedicated to empowering the Asian American community through advocacy, research, education, and coalition building. ALC is the oldest legal organization in the country defending the civil rights of Asian American and NHPI communities and focuses on the needs of low-income, immigrant, and underserved communities. While well known in their individual spheres for their work and expertise, the affiliates of Advancing Justice have come together to build a stronger, more cohesive regional and national civil and human rights infrastructure for the Asian American community. We use our resources to provide valuable information to the community, work to address more issues in more places, impact a greater number of public debates, and help the voices of Asian Americans, NHPIs, and other marginalized and underserved communities be heard. Please email any questions regarding the report to: publications@advancingequality. org.

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Appendix C: Asian Americans by County 61 Appendix D: Socioeconomic Status Technical Notes Order Form

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welcome

For decades, Asian Americans have been among the fastest growing racial groups in the United States. The Asian American population is larger today than it has ever been in our nation’s history, growing both in places like California and New York, where large Asian American communities have existed for decades, and in parts of the country like the South, where smaller communities have more recently grown to a critical mass. As our communities grow, Asian Americans are making significant contributions to the economy and developing greater political power. At the same time, our population is incredibly diverse. With parts of the community thriving, those who struggle seem invisible. Many Asian Americans continue to face language barriers and struggle economically. The current recession poses even greater challenges to this vulnerable population. At this time of both challenge and opportunity, four organizations—the Asian American Institute, Asian American Justice Center, Asian Law Caucus, and Asian Pacific American Legal Center—have deepened their affiliation and come together to

form the Asian American Center for Advancing Justice. As independent organizations under one umbrella, we will continue to advance the goals we have always worked toward—promoting a fair and equitable society for all, strengthening civil and human rights, and empowering Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI), and other vulnerable communities. A publication of the Asian American Center for Advancing Justice, A Community of Contrasts: Asian Americans in the United States 2011 draws upon data from the 2010 Census, American Community Survey, and other sources to provide a detailed portrait of the Asian American community in the United States. The report also includes a number of policy recommendations based on the data that address critical concerns facing Asian Americans throughout the country. This national report is the second in a series and will be followed by regional reports on Asian American and NHPI communities in California, the West, the Midwest, the South, and the Northeast. Additional reports are also planned, including one focused on the NHPI community

and another on the economic contributions of Asian Americans and NHPIs. We would like to thank the sponsors who made this report possible, including the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation, the Cyrus Chung Ying Tang Foundation, and Bank of America. We would also like to thank those who contributed to this report, including staff at the Asian Pacific American Legal Center (Deisy Del Real, Victoria Wilson, Dan Ichinose, and Karin Wang) and Asian American Justice Center (Marita Etcubañez, Terry Ao-Minnis, and Olivia Chow). Special thanks to the National Coalition of Asian Pacific Americans (NCAPA) and our colleagues in Congress and philanthropy, who provided critical guidance on the content and structure of this report.

Karen K. Narasaki President and Executive Director AAJC

Stewart Kwoh President and Executive Director APALC

language. including Bangladesh.S. provide a wealth of information on Asian American communities. Because quantitative data on Asian Americans can be difficult to access and interpret. they are not comprehensive. Burma. First. third-generation English speakers and low-income refugees. U. education.S. coupled with significant social and economic diversity. more nuanced picture of one of our country’s most diverse and rapidly changing racial groups. Sri Lanka. many among the poorest in our nation. employment. 2 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . Department of Education. This rapid growth. housing. A Community of Contrasts: Asian Americans in the United States 2011 is the second in an ongoing series of reports that attempt to promote a better understanding of Asian American communities throughout the country by compiling the latest data on Asian Americans. Many were born in the United States. Korea. Survey of Business Owners. In gathering these data at the national level. Asian Americans have been among our nation’s fastest growing racial groups since discriminatory immigration quotas were eliminated in 1965 and now make up 6% of the country’s total population. U. It not only includes data on population. Taiwan. Nepal. Laos. Our ancestors hail from many countries. others work in restaurants or nail salons. Some are doctors or lawyers. China. Department of Homeland Security. including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We are Americans. government agencies. this report has two main goals. income. Census Bureau. these data paint a fuller. The statements and recommendations expressed in this report are solely the responsibility of the authors. Thailand. including the 2010 Census. Malaysia. Indonesia. but key socioeconomic characteristics such as age. Second. Together.S. The report draws these data from numerous sources. Pakistan. and health. Japan. the Philippines. This report supplements Census Bureau data with data from other sources. make Asian Americans a complicated group to understand and serve. and U. While data from the U. most are immigrants. American Community Survey.S. India. They will help stakeholders across the nation better respond to and serve our community of contrasts. immigration. foundations. and Vietnam. these data are critical to understanding and serving a population that includes both affluent. compiling this important information in a user-friendly manner makes it more manageable and likely to be used. Given the social and economic diversity within Asian American communities. and American Housing Survey. Cambodia.introduction Asian Americans come from all walks of life. it presents these data in a way that is accessible to community organizations. elected and appointed officials. Department of State. and corporations looking to better understand and serve Asian American communities. it works to provide disaggregated data on discrete Asian American ethnic groups. Current Population Survey.

The buying power of Asian American communities is also growing dramatically. According to the 2010 Census. New York. Of those eligible to register to vote. corporations. the Asian American population in the United States grew 46% between 2000 and 2010. Honoring the spirit of this directive and recognizing the importance of data that capture the unique needs and concerns of Pacific Islander communities. and Georgia grew fastest over the past decade. employing about 3 million people with an annual payroll of nearly $80 billion. citizens. Sri Lankans. this Executive Summary highlights some of them. from $269 billion to $509 billion. and consumer spending. including Latinos. According to the Census Bureau’s 2002 and 2007 Survey of Business Owners. While A Community of Contrasts includes many findings. Between 2000 and 2009. Policy makers and service providers in areas with established Asian American communities should determine whether existing services need to be modified to accommodate changing ethnic compositions. the report is a valuable resource to community organizations. Asian Americans make significant contributions to the economy through entrepreneurial activity. The Asian American and NHPI population is roughly one-third the size of the Latino population nationwide yet has half the buying power. foundations. Bilingual voter assistance required under the federal Voting Rights Act remains critical to ensuring Asian American voters have full access to the ballot. Texas. Produced by the Asian American Center for Advancing Justice. elected and appointed officials. South Asians. and casting ballots. Asian American entrepreneurs own over 1. revisions to Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive 15 called for the disaggregation of data on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. and others looking to better understand and serve one of this country’s fastest growing and most diverse racial groups. approximately 68% of Asian Americans old enough to vote are U. faster than any other racial group nationwide. Among ethnic groups. Arizona. and Get Out the Vote (GOTV) efforts are needed if Asian Americans are to realize their untapped political potential. According to the Census Bureau’s November 2008 Current Population Survey. the Asian American Center for Advancing Justice will release a separate national report in 2012 dedicated to Pacific Islanders. the buying power of Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) increased 89%. Asian Americans are the country’s fastest growing racial group. and New Jersey continue to grow. voter registration. and Indians. Greater naturalization. registering to vote. Pakistanis. NatioNal RepoRt oN Native HawaiiaNs aNd pacific islaNdeRs In 1997. Those in areas with less established but growing Asian American communities should work to improve their capacity to serve these emerging populations. establishing Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders as a distinct racial category for the purposes of data collection and reporting.executive SummAry A Community of Contrasts: Asian Americans in the United States 2011 compiles the latest data on Asian Americans at the national level. Asian Americans are becoming citizens. Once registered. government agencies. While large Asian American communities in California. job creation. . including Bangladeshis. Asian American firms were more likely than other firms to create jobs. 55% have done so.S. contributing to economic growth in the United States. North Carolina. saw the highest rates of growth. the rate of Asian American voter turnout still lags behind that of non-Hispanic Whites.5 million businesses. less established communities in Nevada.

roughly one in five Japanese. and create a process for immigrant students who have lived in the United States for most of their lives to obtain legal residency. Proportionately. assistance in Asian languages and greater opportunities to learn English promotes better access to good jobs. Hmong Americans have the lowest per capita income of any racial or ethnic group nationwide. and Cambodian Americans have poverty rates that approach those of African Americans and Latinos. This impacts their ability to integrate fully into American society or access critical services needed to survive. and Vietnamese Americans is similar to African Americans and Latinos.S. poverty rates have fallen for all Asian American ethnic groups since 2000. Immigrants continue to enter the United States from Asia in large numbers using almost every pathway. where all members of the household 14 years or older are LEP Providing . limiting employment opportunities for many in Southeast Asian communities. citizens. Impacting millions of Asian Americans. immigration policy should promote family unity. most English-proficient Asian American ethnic groups. roughly one in five Asian American households is linguistically isolated. The largest number come as the immediate relatives of U. social services. According to the U. state. From 2001 to 2010. 4 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . According to 2007–2009 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates. Laotian. and Indian Americans are LEP .immigration policies disproportionately impact Asian Americans. Bangladeshi. others struggle through severe poverty. language barriers continue to limit opportunities for millions of Asian Americans. approximately 60% of Asian Americans were born outside the United States. Asians made up 26% of refugee arrivals and 33% of people granted asylum. voting. Rates of limited-English proficiency vary by ethnic group. Yet challenges persist. healthcare. with a rough majority of Vietnamese and Bangladeshi Americans being LEP Even among the . contributing to an Asian American undocumented population bordering one million. and the judicial system for millions of Asian Americans. citizenship. provide a path to legalization and citizenship for the undocumented. Census Bureau’s 2007–2009 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates. roughly one out of every three Asian Americans are limited-English proficient (LEP) and experience some difficulty communicating in English. Filipino. With disproportionate numbers of Asian immigrants entering the country as professionals under employment-based preferences. Hmong. Yet disaggregated 2007–2009 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates data show that the educational attainment of Cambodians. While some in Asian American communities enjoy economic success and stability. Some Asian Americans struggle economically. particularly in light of the ongoing economic recession. while Hmong. a rate significantly higher than that of Latinos. Asian American educational attainment varies widely among ethnic groups. Federal. and local governments should establish or expand culturally and linguistically accessible public assistance programs to meet these needs. while equal numbers come under family-sponsored and employment-based preferences. According to 2007–2009 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates. Asian American educational attainment generally approaches or exceeds that of non-Hispanic Whites. In addition. Job training programs and vocational English language instruction should be targeted to Asian Americans with lower levels of educational attainment in an effort to increase access to good jobs. Immigrants from certain Asian countries wait decades to enter. Efforts to revoke the rights of noncitizens and harsh immigration enforcement measures have extremely disproportionate impacts on the Asian American community.S. Asian Americans are more likely than any other racial group to be foreign-born.

residents. The federal government should work with insurance companies and employers to expand access to affordable healthcare coverage for all U. adult English language learning. and Korean Americans renting rather than owning their own homes. Approximately 7% live in over-crowded housing. A Community of Contrasts 5 . The problem is compounded by large numbers of Asian Americans living in overcrowded housing. According to 2007–2009 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates. Hmong.unemployment has impacted Southeast Asian American communities. unemployment benefits. Access to affordable healthcare coverage is critical for Asian Americans. 2007–2009 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates shows that the most vulnerable in our community face high rates of joblessness. Yet this rate of homeownership lags significantly behind that of non-Hispanic Whites. and Cambodian Americans have unemployment rates higher than the national average. While the unemployment rate of Asian Americans is low relative to other groups. with a majority of Bangladeshi. and other diseases. Asian Americans would greatly benefit from expanding affordable housing and homeownership opportunities. Job training. Data from the Centers for Disease Control’s 2008 National Health Interview Survey show that Asian Americans are twice as likely than both non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans to have seen a doctor in the past five years. with nearly one in four Pakistani and Bangladeshi Americans being without health insurance. Social and economic data on Asian Americans. Asian Americans are also more likely than nonHispanic Whites to be uninsured. With disproportionate numbers in management and professional fields. and other safety net programs should be made accessible to these workers as they struggle to get back on their feet. many Asian Americans have been better situated than others to weather the current financial crisis. provide policymakers and service providers with critical information to guide sound decision making. Like other communities continuing to face recession. 59% of Asian Americans own homes nationwide. despite being more likely to develop hepatitis. including immigrants. Laotian. Hmong. particularly those disaggregated by Asian American ethnic group. stomach and liver cancer. twice the national average.S. Asian Americans continue to face housing concerns.

there are now over 17.40% 100% „ Source: U.579 1.9 million in 1990.538 Percent 64% 16% 14% 6% 2% 0.S.552 50. „ There are over 17. Asian Americans make up 6% of our nation’s total population.195 308.856 5. numbering only 6.594 42. which is single race. and are not exclusive of Hispanic origin. 6 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .817.225. single race and multirace combined. Population by Race and Hispanic Origin. Major races and ethnic groups ranked by United States percentage. United States 2010 race and Hispanic origin White Hispanic African American Asian American (AA) AIAN NHPI total Population number 196. non-Hispanic. Note: Figures are for the inclusive population.020.743 17. except for White.745.3 million Asian Americans living in the united States. Figures will not sum to total. more than at any other time in our nation’s history. Census Bureau.PoPulAtion our nation’s Asian American population has grown dramatically since discriminatory immigration quotas were eliminated in 1965.320.477.220. 2010 Census.3 million Asian Americans living in the United States.

Percent Population Growth by Race and Hispanic Origin.PoPulAtion GrowtH „ „ Asian American population grew 46% between 2000 and 2010. 2000 and 2010 Censuses. AiAn = American Indian and Alaska Native nHPi = Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander 7 . Census Bureau. In contrast.S. including both Latinos and African Americans. United States 2000 to 2010 Asian American 46% Hispanic 43% NHPI 40% AIAN 27% African American 15% Total Population 10% White 0 1% 10 20 30 40 50 Source: U. America’s non-Hispanic White population grew only 1% over the same period. Asian American population growth over the decade outpaced that of any other racial group.

California’s Asian American population remained by far the country’s largest. and Ohio). making it the country’s only majority Asian American state. Virginia.968 668.110. North Carolina.592 1.494 1.549.S.585 8 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . Nevada’s Asian American population more than doubled over the decade. and Georgia were the fastest growing nationwide between 2000 and 2010. and Hawai’i followed California in size.211 370. New Jersey.000 Asian Americans. Asian American populations in New York. „ Of 19 states home to more than 225.GeoGrAPHic diStribution „ Asian American populations in Nevada. States California New York Texas New Jersey Hawaii Illinois Washington Florida Virginia Pennsylvania Massachusetts Maryland Georgia Michigan North Carolina Source: U. Minnesota.607 252. six are in the South (Texas. Georgia. Michigan. and North Carolina) and four are in the Midwest (Illinois. Maryland. Florida.5 million in 2010.199 402.163 780. numbering over 5.694 604. Over 57% of Hawai’i’s total population is Asian American. States with Highest Growth of Asian Americans United States 2000 to 2010 % 15% 8% 4% 9% 57% 5% 9% 3% 7% 3% 6% 6% 4% 3% 3% u.666 795.S. 2010 Census. Texas.497 289.083 522.S.044 365. Census Bureau.251 573. Arizona. States Nevada Arizona North Carolina North Dakota Georgia New Hampshire Delaware Arkansas Indiana Texas Florida Virginia Idaho South Dakota Alabama % Growth 116% 95% 85% 85% 83% 80% 78% 77% 74% 72% 72% 71% 71% 70% 70% number 5. „ „ States with Highest number of Asian Americans United States 2010 u.587 394.556.

Ranked in Order of Population ethnic Group Chinese (except Taiwanese) number 3.673 3. Bangladeshi and Pakistani American populations doubled in size between 2000 and 2010. Census Bureau. 157% 100% 85% 68% 59% 58% 51% 44% 42% 41% 40% 39% 39% 34% Japanese 14% A Community of Contrasts 9 . Population Growth by Ethnic Group. They are followed in size by Filipinos.583 ethnic Group Laotian Taiwanese Bangladeshi Burmese Indonesian Nepalese Sri Lankan Malaysian Bhutanese number 232. Note: Population growth percentages for Burmese.706.200 95. 2010 Census.S.286 409.416. and Korean Americans.490 45. and Bhutanese excluded because these groups did not meet 2000 Census population thresholds to be counted as an ethnic category.etHnic GrouPS „ The country’s fastest growing Asian American ethnic groups were South Asian.737. 2000 and 2010 Censuses.270 59.794.667 260. Nepalese.063 1.130 230.300 100. numbering nearly 3.179 19.183. Chinese Americans continue to be the largest Asian American ethnic group. Asian American ethnic Groups United States 2010.163 276. Census Bureau.439 „ Filipino Indian Vietnamese Korean Japanese Pakistani Cambodian Hmong Thai „ Source: U.822 1.S.073 237.840 3. Indians. United States 2000 to 2010 Bangladeshi Pakistani Sri Lankan Indian Taiwanese Thai Indonesian Filipino Vietnamese Malaysian Hmong Korean Chinese (except Taiwanese) Cambodian Laotian Total Population 0 17% 10% 50 100 150 200 Source: U.433 1.304.381 26. Vietnamese Americans now outnumber both Korean and Japanese Americans nationwide.8 million nationwide. Vietnamese.382 147.

22% of Filipinos. Bangladeshi. Nepalese. and 16% of Malaysian Americans. 23% of Thai. Hmong.mixed-rAce PoPulAtion „ More than 15% of Asian Americans are of mixed race. Japanese Americans are most likely be of mixed race. only 6% of Vietnamese and 8% of Indians are multiracial. Among larger ethnic groups. „ „ Percent of Population that is mixed-race by Ethnic Group. 2010 Census. Among Asian American ethnic groups. Fewer than 5% of Burmese. followed by 26% of Indonesian. United States 2010 Japanese Indonesian Thai Filipino Malaysian Korean Chinese (except Taiwanese) Laotian Sri Lankan Taiwanese Cambodian Indian Vietnamese Pakistani Burmese Nepalese Bangladeshi Total Population Hmong Bhutanese 0 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 6% 6% 5% 10% 9% 8% 8% 8% 12% 14% 16% 23% 22% 26% 35% Source: U. More than one-third of Japanese Americans are multiracial. Census Bureau. Only 3% of all Americans are multiracial.S. and Bhutanese Americans are of mixed race. 10 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .

2009. that can be used on any expenditure.* *AA and NHPI data are not available separately. buyinG Power refers to the personal income. Asian Americans are an emerging consumer power whose market share is growing dramatically. “The Multicultural Economy 2009. employing a large number of workers and generating significant revenue.economic contributionS As Asian American communities grow. Selig Center for Economic ” Growth 69(3). United States 2000 to 2009 Hispanic Asian American & NHPI AIAN African American Total Population White 0 20 100% 89% 65% 54% 49% 46% 40 60 80 100 Source: Humphreys. Percent change in buying Power by Race and Hispanic Origin. This figure does not include savings from previous years or income that is borrowed. . so too have their contributions to the American economy. Asian Americans also own a disproportionate number of businesses. after taxes. Jeffrey M. „ Asian American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) buying power was $509 billion in 2009.

739.908.678 27.792 $5. **Source: Humphreys. paying out nearly $80 billion in payroll.910 employees (number) 52. 12 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . These businesses employed more persons and dispensed more in payroll than businesses owned by any other racial group.„ Asian American and NHPI* buying power nearly doubled between 2000 and 2009.** „ Asian American and NHPI* growth in buying power surpassed that of non-Hispanic Whites.092.552 185.201 2.908 revenues ($1.822. Census Bureau.118 Annual Payroll ($1.S.319.047. Selig Center for Economic Growth 69(3).930. African Americans.518. except for non-Hispanic Whites.217.310.864 236.247 $1.353. “The Multicultural Economy 2009. Approximately 26% of Asian American businesses had paid employees. generating over $506 billion in revenues.000) $10. 2009.636 Source: U.519.842 $6.240.990.161 909.260. growing 89% over a nine-year period.230.834 $34.807.109.357 $30.549.921.799 $4.000) $1.379 $79.037 37.334. These businesses generated more in revenue than businesses owned by any other racial group except non-Hispanic Whites. 2007 Survey of Business Owners. highest among all racial groups.751 $350. Jeffrey M.031.824. ” race and Hispanic origin of business owners United States 2007 race and Hispanic origin White Asian American Hispanic African American AIAN NHPI Total Population All firms (number) 22. and Native Americans over the same period. „ „ Asian American–owned businesses employed nearly 3 million Americans in 2007.** *AA and NHPI data are not available separately.5 million businesses in 2007.595.243 $135.459 $54.508 $23.691 37.661. „ Asian Americans owned over 1.816.714 $506.269 1.559 2.771 1.081 117.146 1.295. Note: Race and ethnic categories do not sum to the total population figures because “Hispanic” is treated as an ethnic category that overlaps with the racial categories.

registering to vote. they are becoming citizens. despite this. language and cost barriers to citizenship remain significant hurdles to full civic engagement.civic enGAGement Asian Americans are becoming a powerful political voice.S. Census Bureau. United States 2007 to 2009 Naturalized Not Naturalized White Asian American African American TotaI Population NHPI AIAN Hispanic 0 58% 57% 46% 43% 40% 32% 29% 20 40 60 80 42% 43% 54% 57% 60% 68% 71% 100 Source: U. and voicing their concerns at the ballot box. language barriers and voter identification requirements also affect voter registration and access to the polls. 3-Year Estimates. Percent of Foreign-born Population who Have naturalized by Race and Hispanic Origin. A Community of Contrasts 13 . Note: The foreign-born population includes both those eligible and ineligible to naturalize. 2007–2009 American Community Survey.

United States 2007 to 2009 Naturalized Not Naturalized Vietnamese Taiwanese Filipino Cambodian Laotian Chinese (except Taiwanese) Pakistani Hmong Korean Bangladeshi Thai Indian Sri Lankan Total Population Indonesian Japanese Malaysian 0 73% 67% 64% 63% 62% 60% 57% 57% 54% 50% 49% 47% 43% 43% 35% 33% 27% 20 40 60 80 27% 33% 36% 37% 38% 40% 43% 43% 46% 50% 51% 53% 57% 57% 65% 67% 73% 100 Source: U. May 2011.* *Source: Jeanne Batalova. Indian. citizens. Laotian. citizens. an increase from 50% in 2000. Indonesian. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. and Chinese American immigrants are citizens. ” Migration Policy Institute. „ „ Percent of Foreign-born Population who Have naturalized by Ethnic Group. In 2010. 14 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .S.„ Approximately 57% of Asian American immigrants are U. Filipino. and Thai American immigrants are citizens.S. Cambodian. 3-Year Estimates. Approximately 60% or more Taiwanese. more than 250. “Asian Immigrants in the United States. Sri Lankan.S. Japanese.S.000 Asian American immigrants became U. Nearly three out of four Vietnamese American immigrants are U. „ Fewer than half of Malaysian. Census Bureau. citizens.

000 530. asylees (4 years).000 50. Department of Homeland Security. In contrast.S. However. Lautenberg parolees.000 130. “Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population in 2009.000 120. A Community of Contrasts 15 .S. and those who adjusted to LPR status through cancelation of removal (2 years). United States 2008 country of birth Philippines China India Vietnam Korea* Japan Pakistan *Korea includes North and South Korea. additional criteria.000 Percent eligible to naturalize 51% 36% 40% 63% 58% 85% 42% Source: U. India.000 200. and Vietnam.„ The greatest number of legal permanent residents eligible to become citizens are from the Philippines. 5 years after obtaining Legal Permanent Resident (LPR) status except for the following immigrant categories: Spouses of U. citizens (3 years). only 36% of Chinese American legal permanent residents are eligible to become citizens.000 500. ” Note: Estimates assume that immigrants are required to reside in the U.000 110.S. legal Permanent residents 550. Approximately 85% of Japanese American legal permanent residents are eligible to naturalize. must also be met.000 190.000 320. and refugees.000 240.000 140. such as “good moral character” and basic English literacy.000 200. „ A leGAl PermAnent reSident is generally eligible to naturalize once she or he has held that status for five years. Asian American legal Permanent residents eligible to naturalize by Country of Birth.000 number eligible to naturalize 280.

“Reported Voting and Registration of the Voting-Age Population. roughly 30% of Asian American voters were voting for the first time. Approximately 86% of Asian American registered voters cast ballots in the 2008 General Election. United States—November 2008 Percent of Voting-Age Population Who Were Citizens Percent of Citizens Voting Age Population Who Registered to Vote Percent of Registered Voters Who Voted 100 98% 90% 80 84% 74% 60 63% 94% 93% 86% 91% 90% 70% 68% 71% 59% 55% 40 20 0 Hispanic White African American Asian American Total Population Source: U. ” „ Only 68% of Asian Americans old enough to vote are citizens. a rate lower than that of non-Hispanic Whites.S. In both 2004 and 2008 General Elections. and Hispanic Origin. Race.* *Source: Project Vote.citizenship. November 2008 Current Population Survey. for States: November 2008. „ Only 55% of Asian Americans eligible to register to vote have registered. voter registration. „ „ 16 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . and voting by Race and Hispanic Origin. Census Bureau. by Sex. April 2011.

while others enter without documentation or fall out of status due to the difficulty of obtaining a visa. and 4% of non-Hispanic Whites were born outside the United States. increasing numbers of Asian Americans are native-born. 2007–2009 American Community Survey.immiGrAtion immigration is an integral part of the Asian American experience. Census Bureau. Percent of Population who Are Foreign-born by Race and Hispanic Origin. How an individual enters the united States greatly affects her or his economic and social well-being in this country. refugees. 3-Year Estimates. the highest proportion of any racial group nationwide. A Community of Contrasts 17 .6 million Asian American foreign-born entered the United States between 2000 and 2009. „ Despite being overwhelmingly immigrant. „ Nearly one in three of the 10. 8% of African Americans. United States 2007 to 2009 Asian American Hispanic NHPI Total Population African American AIAN White 0 5% 4% 10 20 30 40 50 60 8% 14% 13% 38% 60% Source: U. Some come as legal immigrants. only 38% of Latinos. immigrants from Asia continue to enter the united States in large numbers. In contrast.S. „ Approximately 60% of Asian Americans are foreign-born. The percent of Asian Americans nationwide born outside the United States decreased from 63% in 2000 to 60% in 2007–2009. or asylees.

2007–2009 American Community Survey. 18 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . the highest rate among Asian American ethnic groups. Japanese and Hmong Americans are the only ethnic groups with majority native-born populations. Indian. and Taiwanese Americans were born abroad. Bangladeshi. Roughly 7 in 10 Malaysian. United States 2007 to 2009 Sri Lankan Malaysian Bangladeshi Indian Taiwanese Pakistani Korean Indonesian Vietnamese Chinese (except Taiwanese) Thai Cambodian Laotian Filipino Hmong Japanese Total Population 0 76% 73% 73% 70% 68% 65% 65% 65% 64% 61% 60% 56% 55% 53% 44% 28% 13% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Source: U.„ More than three out of four Sri Lankan Americans are foreign-born. 3-Year Estimates. Among Asian Americans. „ Percent of Population who Are Foreign-born by Ethnic Group.S. Census Bureau.

770 156. Department of State.426 138.412 180. ” .000 300.S. Immigrants born in the Philippines must wait up to 7 years. “Visa Bulletin: Immigrant Numbers for July 2011. Asian Americans sponsor more than one-third of all family-based immigrants and have some of the longest wait times.769 449.871 159.000 200. FAmily-SPonSored viSAS: Immigrants born in mainland China and India must wait between 3 and 11 years.000 Source: U. and also includes replaced visas. *Source: U.000 500. Any changes would not be statistically significant.S.590 408. ” * FY2010 data are preliminary and are subject to change. “The Report of the Visa Office 2010.000 400.248 150.871 402. Department of State.103 159.025 470.465 389.100 171.demAnd For viSAS immigrant visas issued by the united States 2001 to 2010 Total All Asian Immigrant Admissions Total All Immigrant Admissions 2010 2009 2008 Year Immigrant Visa Was Issued 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 0 169.380 482.774 100.775 434. the longest wait time for any nation besides Mexico.385 468. Chart includes all visas issued to both permanent and nonpermanent immigrants. wAitinG PeriodS For viSAS* The waiting period for visas under both family-sponsored and employment-based preferences can vary widely depending on country.179 379.529 144. Immigrants born in the Philippines must wait between 3 and 23 years. emPloyment-bASed viSAS: Immigrants born in mainland China and India wait for up to 9 years.813 144.080 364.053 157.

599 21.896 8.000 150000 200. „ Bangladesh sent more immigrants to the United States than South Korea or Japan over the same period. 1.* *Source: The U. Department of State. those from Asian countries made up 26% of all refugee arrivals and 33% of all persons granted asylum. 350.837 4. ” *FY2010 data are preliminary and are subject to change.S.057 45.183 3.870 1. „ Between 2001 and 2010. the Philippines. and religious workers).000 350000 400.129 7.008 267. employer sponsorship.367 34.000 250000 300. the Special Immigrants program (Iraqi and Afghan translators. 52% of refugee arrivals from Asian countries were from Burma. and the Diversity Visa program. “The Report of the Visa Office 2010.S.880 8. Immigrant visas include any visas issued under the auspices of immediate relative and family sponsorship. and 68% of asylees born in Asia were from China.403 193. China.202 59. 2010.643 69.S.6 million immigrants entered the United States from Asian countries.809 42.* From 2001 to 2010.049 reFuGeeS And ASyleeS are persons who came to the United States to escape persecution in their country of origin.147 18. Visa Was Issued Bangladesh Pakistan South Korea Taiwan Hong Kong Japan Thailand Nepal Cambodia Burma Sri Lanka Indonesia Malaysia Singapore Laos Mongolia 0 84.045 5. Refugees are immigrants who applied for admission while living abroad.„ Among Asian countries. From 2001 to 2010. Any changes would not be statistically significant. . while asylees are immigrants who applied for admission at either a port of entry or within the United States. and India sent the most immigrants to the United States over the past decade.843 388 50000 100. This chart does not contain data on temporary visitors.694 286. Department of Homeland Security’s Yearbooks of Immigration Statistics. immigrant visas issued by the united States in Asian countries 2001 to 2010 Philippines China India Vietnam Country Where U. government workers.000 Source: U.

A majority of South Korean and nearly half of Indian. Mongolian.525 0. Laotian.746 289 8.522 33.S. citizens % 33% 5% 76% 34% 30% 32% 48% 63% 71% 24% 41% 54% 18% 47% 58% 37% 37% 32% 40% 44% 36% 6 0.276 1. Japanese.642 530 2.179 no.636 306 120 113 84 149 5 269 6.425 44.093 507 55 18 7 258 6 4. those born in Asia were more likely than other immigrants to enter under family-sponsored or employment-based immigration preferences. 6.027 84. and Philippine and nearly half of Indonesian and Pakistani-born persons obtaining LPR status in 2010 entered as the immediate relatives of U.973 59 18 508 66 788 2.896 6.S.916 847 34 704 320 1. 6071 11. citizens. Department of Homeland Security’s Yearbook of Immigration Statistics.167 89% 4% 21% 0% 2% 19% 0% 14% 0% 18% 20% 44% 3% 0% 2% 0% 13% 0% 46% 3% 13% no.351 195 1.196 14.461 3. 2010 country of birth FamilySponsored Preferences % Bangladesh Bhutan Burma Cambodia China Hong Kong India Indonesia Japan Laos Macau Malaysia Mongolia Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Vietnam total 41% D 4% 14% 19% 49% 21% 10% 2% 9% 59% 9% 1% 4% 34% 31% 8% 11% 10% 26% 4% 59% 24% 459 418 13.943 7 1.324 573 12 172 0 301 121 3.423 377 11.032 % 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 4% 1% 0% 1% 0% other % 19% D 3% 4% 0% 1% 0% 5% 4% 0% 5% 2% 14% 23% 0% 0% 2% 0% 19% 3% 1% 0% 2% no.S.and Singapore-born persons obtaining LPR status in 2010 entered under employmentbased preferences.leGAl PermAnent reSidentS „ While the largest number of Asian-born persons obtaining legal permanent resident (LPR) status in 2010 entered as the immediate relatives of U.S.and nearly half of Hong Kong–born persons obtaining LPR status in 2010 entered under family-based preferences.729 345 18.312 8. Over half of Macau.5% 38% 132.284 immediate relatives of u. Source: U.128 645 2. Asian Country of Birth. 2010.and Vietnamese.691 4. 80 0 2 15 140 4 195 39 25 5 0 12 2 9 72 86 11 93 14 20 64 122 1.800 no.831 1.610 1.198 731 21.935 28 604 2. citizens.5% no.006 employmentbased Preferences % 6% 0% 1% 2% 25% 19% 45% 17% 32% 5% 13% 30% 11% 11% 16% 11% 49% 52% 26% 31% 6% 1% 23% no.091 diversity refugees and Asylees % 1% 99% 329 115 23 30 58 138 218 4 7 40 80 1.949 464 31. „ „ Persons obtaining legal Permanent resident Status by Class of Admissions.3% D = Data withheld to limit disclosure.849 65 2.266 24.247 17. .090 530 360 79.445 113 14. 827 86 59 17. „ A majority of Cambodian.010 171 0. 2. 4.644 14 14 14 6 394 196 43 0 6.118 515 1.126 11.

dreAm Act StudentS Among the 2. Jeanne.S.000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: U.000 100.000 150. 2005 to 2010 300. 1 in 10 is of Asian origin. ” Note: Estimates of the unauthorized resident population are the remainder after estimates of the legally resident foreign-born population are subtracted from estimates of the total foreign-born population.000 Philippines 280. „ undocumented Asian American immigrant Population in the united States by Country of Birth. Department of Homeland Security. More undocumented immigrants were born in the Philippines than any other Asian country.000 China 130.undocumented PoPulAtion „ Approximately 1 million undocumented immigrants in the United States are from Asia.000 number of undocumented immigrants 250.000 200.000 Korea 170. July 2010. and Margie McHugh.1 million undocumented youth who would qualify for legalization through the DREAM Act. “Estimates of Unauthorized Immigrant Population residing in the United States: January 2010.000 India 200.** **Source: Batalova. .

„ Approximately 65% of Asian Americans are working-age adults between the ages of 18 and 64. Among Asian American ethnic groups. median Age and Age Group by race United States 2007 to 2009 race and Hispanic origin African American AIAN Asian American Hispanic NHPI White total Population median Age 30 31 33 27 26 41 37 0–17 30% 30% 26% 35% 35% 21% 24% 18–64 62% 62% 65% 60% 60% 63% 62% 65+ 8% 8% 9% 6% 6% 16% 13% „ „ median Age and Age Group by ethnic Group United States 2007 to 2009 ethnic Group Bangladeshi Cambodian Chinese (except Taiwanese) Filipino Hmong Indian Indonesian Japanese Korean Laotian Malaysian Pakistani Sri Lankan Taiwanese Thai Vietnamese total Population median Age 31 27 35 34 20 32 33 38 33 28 33 29 36 35 32 34 37 0–17 33% 32% 25% 28% 45% 26% 24% 24% 26% 32% 22% 34% 24% 19% 26% 28% 24% 18–64 64% 63% 65% 63% 52% 68% 70% 61% 66% 63% 74% 63% 68% 59% 70% 64% 63% 65+ 3% 5% 13% 10% 3% 6% 6% 15% 8% 5% 5% 4% 8% 9% 4% 8% 13% „ Source: U.S. A Community of Contrasts 23 . 2007–2009 American Community Survey. Over one-quarter of Asian Americans are children under the age of 18. a greater proportion than any other racial group. making them younger than both the overall U. Japanese Americans have the oldest median age (38). while Hmong Americans have the youngest (20). 3-Year Estimates.S.AGe Age affects both an individual’s opportunities and social service needs. Census Bureau. population (37) and nonHispanic Whites (41). Asian Americans are younger on average and have a higher proportion of working-age adults compared to other major racial groups. The median age of Asian Americans is 33.

coupled with a lack of available english classes. housing. such as healthcare. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. and roughly one-third is limited-english proficient (leP).S. United States 2007 to 2009 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 77% 71% 29% 20% 20% 8% Hispanic or Latino Asian American NHPI AIAN Total Population African American 6% White Source: U. Percent of Population who Speak a language other than english at Home for those 5 years of Age and older by Race and Hispanic Origin. reflecting the community’s rich immigrant character and diversity. and education. nearly three out of four Asian Americans speak a language other than english at home. 24 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . language is a formidable barrier impacting access to a range of vital services. 3-Year Estimates. social services. courts. Census Bureau.lAnGuAGe Asian Americans speak dozens of languages and dialects.

2007–2009 American Community Survey. Vietnamese. Hmong. Laotian. A Community of Contrasts 25 . „ „ Percent of Population who Speak a language other than english at Home for those 5 years and older by Ethnic Group. more than one in three Japanese Americans continue to speak a language other than English at home. Pakistani. 3-Year Estimates. Taiwanese. and Cambodian Americans speak a language other than English at home.„ Approximately 71% of Asian Americans speak a language other than English at home. Despite being disproportionately native-born relative to other Asian American ethnic groups. United States 2007 to 2009 Bangladeshi Hmong Pakistani Vietnamese Taiwanese Laotian Cambodian Indian Chinese (including Taiwanese) Sri Lankan Korean Indonesian Thai Malaysian Filipino Japanese Total Population 0 92% 91% 86% 84% 82% 81% 81% 77% 75% 72% 71% 67% 66% 65% 57% 36% 20% 20 40 60 80 100 Source: U. More than 80% of Bangladeshi. Census Bureau.S.

441.540 326.310 304.E.319 11.573 116.380.045 132. Census.030 527. Source: U. 2007–2009 American Community Survey.822 74.481 457.119 22.311 181. India.S.840 13. or the Philippines. Over two-thirds of Asian Americans speak a language originating from China.C.799 1.015 148.504 53. 2005 to 2009 language Chinese Tagalog Vietnamese Korean Hindi Japanese Urdu Gujarati Punjabi Bengali Mon-Khmer.486 76.200.501 „ „ „ Approximately 10 million Americans speak one of the 33 Asian languages categorized by the U.336 13. The largest group of languages spoken by Asian Americans is composed of languages from China.377 37.S.041.240 34.453 1.102 209. 26 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .547 57.709 1.lAnGuAGeS SPoken number of Asian language Speakers in the united States by Language.835 188. Census Bureau.758 23. *Includes Pakistani along with other languages spoken in Pakistan.436 37.* Malay Cebuano number 2.770 171.452 185.186 142. 5-Year Estimates. Cambodian Hmong Telugu Laotian Thai Tamil Malayalam Formosan Ilocano Indonesian Marathi Kannada Nepali Burmese Visayan (not including Cebuano) Sinhalese Pakistan N.

3-Year Estimates. Despite continued immigration. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. Rates of limited-English proficiency among Latinos have seen a similar decline.S. Census Bureau. rates of limited-English proficiency among Asian Americans have fallen since 2000. „ Percent of Population who Are limited english Proficient for those 5 years of Age and older by Race and Hispanic Origin. A Community of Contrasts 27 . when 36% of Asian Americans were LEP. from 41% in 2000 to 38% in 2007–2009.limited enGliSH ProFiciency „ Approximately 32% of Asian Americans are limited-English proficient (LEP) and experience some difficulty communicating in English. 2007 to 2009 Hispanic 38% Asian American 32% Total Population 9% NHPI 8% AIAN 6% African American 3% White 2% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Source: U.

S. Census Bureau. Hmong. over half of Vietnamese and nearly half of Bangladeshi Americans are LEP . 2007 to 2009 Vietnamese Bangladeshi Cambodian Hmong Taiwanese Chinese (except Taiwanese) Korean Laotian Thai Indonesian Pakistani Malaysian Indian Sri Lankan Filipino Japanese Total Population 0 51% 46% 43% 43% 43% 42% 41% 40% 36% 30% 28% 23% 22% 22% 19% 18% 9% 10 20 30 40 50 60 Source: U. Korean.„ Among Asian American ethnic groups. „ Percent of Population who Are limited english Proficient for those 5 years of Age and older by Ethnic Group. nearly one in five are LEP . 2007–2009 American Community Survey. Limited English proficiency among Sri Lankan Americans increased from 18% in 2000 to 22% in 2007–2009. including Japanese and Filipino Americans. only Sri Lankan Americans have seen an increase in limited English proficiency since 2000. Over 40% of Cambodian. 3-Year Estimates. and Laotian Americans are LEP . „ „ Among Asian American ethnic groups. 28 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . Even among the most English proficient Asian American ethnic groups. Chinese. Taiwanese.

11% of Indian. linGuiSticAlly iSolAted HouSeHoldS Households in which all members 14 years old and older speak English less than “very well. and 29% of Chinese American households are linguistically isolated. Census Bureau.S. and 12% of Sri Lankan American households experience linguistic isolation. Note: The ethnic group percentages included in this graph do not include mixed-ethnicity and mixedrace people. and British Commonwealth territories. 31% of Korean.S. a decrease from 25% in 2000. 5-Year Estimates. ” Percent of linguistically isolated Households by Ethnic Group. A Community of Contrasts 29 . Among Asian American ethnic groups. 2005 to 2009 Vietnamese Korean Chinese (except Taiwanese) Bangladeshi Laotian Thai Hmong Indonesian Cambodian Malaysian Japanese Sri Lankan Pakistani Indian Filipino Total Population 0 35% 31% 29% 25% 22% 21% 21% 20% 20% 19% 16% 12% 12% 11% 8% 5% 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Source: U. 12% of Pakistani. „ „ Despite their origins in former U. 35% of Vietnamese. 8% of Filipino.linGuiStic iSolAtion „ Approximately 21% of Asian American households are linguistically isolated. 2005–2009 American Community Survey.

a closer look at data from the u. 3-Year Estimates. and opportunities to build assets. 30 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . Census Bureau. census bureau reveals large disparities between Asian American ethnic groups. while this is generally true.educAtion Asian Americans are often thought of as having high levels of formal education. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. with the educational profiles of some communities similar to latinos and African Americans.S. employerprovided healthcare.S. United States 2009 High School Degree or Higher Bachelor’s Degree or Higher White Asian American NHPI Total Population African American AIAN Hispanic 18% 16% 13% 17% 31% 49% 90% 86% 85% 85% 81% 80% 61% 28% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Source: U. this suggests that many Asian Americans lack the credentials necessary to access secure and living wage jobs. „ Asian Americans are less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to hold a high school degree. educational Attainment by Race and Hispanic Origin.

are more likely than nonHispanic Whites to hold a high school degree. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. Indonesian. United States 2007 to 2009 High School Degree or Higher Bachelor’s Degree or Higher Taiwanese Indonesian Japanese Malaysian Sri Lankan Korean Filipino Indian Pakistani Total Population Thai Chinese (except Taiwanese) Bangladeshi Vietnamese Laotian Cambodian Hmong 0 12% 14% 14% 20 40 27% 66% 62% 61% 60 28% 42% 50% 47% 55% 46% 47% 46% 57% 56% 52% 73% 96% 94% 94% 93% 93% 92% 92% 68% 91% 87% 85% 84% 82% 81% 72% 80 100 Source: U. and Indian Americans. eight Asian American ethnic groups. while only 12% of Laotian Americans have graduated from college. educational Attainment by Ethnic Group.S. Japanese. Census Bureau. Malaysian. 3-Year Estimates. „ In contrast. A Community of Contrasts 31 . Only 61% of Hmong Americans hold a high school diploma. Cambodian. Sri Lankan. Laotian. and Vietnamese Americans is lowest among Asian American ethnic groups and similar to those of Latinos and African Americans. Korean.educAtionAl AttAinment „ The educational attainment of Hmong. Filipino. including Taiwanese.

S. 2009 Hispanic 34% 16% 8% 1% 1% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Asian American & NHPI American Indian White African American Source: U. National Center of Education Statistics. National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP). Department of Education. *National English Language Learner Status data do not provide separate figures for Asian Americans and NHPIs. Percentage of Fourth Graders (for reading Assessment) with english language learner Status by Race and Hispanic Origin. 2009 Reading Assessment. 32 . Institute of Education Sciences.enGliSH lAnGuAGe leArnerS „ Approximately 16% of Asian American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) students are English language learners (ELL). second highest among racial groups.

585 $40. Asian Americans earn more per capita income than latinos or African Americans but less than non-Hispanic whites despite comparable rates of educational attainment.S.664 $38. . including non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans. their income is better measured by per capita income. Because Asian Americans also have larger households. HouSeHold income For ASiAn AmericAnS miSleAdinG Asian Americans are more likely than other racial groups. 3-Year Estimates.735 $28.506 $57. resulting in an inflated household income. to have three or more workers per household.369 Asian American Total Population NHPI $19.933 $17. United States 2007 to 2009 Per Capita Household Income White $31. which adjusts for household size. Household income by Race and Hispanic Origin. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. yet data by ethnic group show that per capita income and poverty rates for some Asian American ethnic groups are similar to those of latinos and African Americans.100 $55.020 $17. Per capita income vs.515 $34.income income is a key barometer of socioeconomic status.549 $15.906 $68. Census Bureau.549 $51.342 $27.920 AIAN African American Latino 0 $20K $40K $60K $80K Source: U.

100 $26. United States 2007 to 2009 Taiwanese Indian Malaysian Sri Lankan Japanese Chinese (including Taiwanese) Total Population Korean Filipino Indonesian Pakistani Thai Vietnamese Bangladeshi Laotian Cambodian Hmong 0 $10. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. Indian.799 $25.949 10K 20K 30K 40K $16. half falling below and half above the median household income. Per capita incomes vary considerably by Asian American ethnic group. . Hmong Americans have a per capita income lower than any racial group nationwide.831 $30. 3-Year Estimates.542 $33.061 $38. and Japanese Americans exceed that of non-Hispanic Whites.312 $36.Per cAPitA income „ Asian American per capita income falls below that of non-Hispanic Whites but exceeds that of every other racial group. „ The per capita incomes of Hmong. Per capita incomes of Taiwanese. falling below even that of Latinos.585 $15.480 $31. Malaysian.S.533 Source: U. Laotian.118 $25. Cambodian. „ „ Per capita income by Ethnic Group.264 $32. and Bangladeshi Americans fall below that of African Americans. Sri Lankan. Census Bureau. mediAn HouSeHold income divides the income distribution of households (all persons living in the same residence) into two equal parts.940 $27. Per cAPitA income is the mean income computed for every man.729 $24. and child in a particular group.708 $21.784 $16. It is derived by dividing the total income of a particular group by the total population of that group. woman.663 $21.

the percentage of Asian Americans living beneath the federal poverty line decreased slightly from 2000. with some among the most impoverished in the country. Poverty rates by Race and Hispanic Origin. While poverty among all Americans has increased. United States 2007 to 2009 African American AIAN Hispanic Total Population NHPI Asian American White 0 5 25% 23% 22% 14% 14% 11% 10% 10 15 20 25 Source: U. „ „ The Poverty tHreSHold used by the Census Bureau in 2009 was an annual income of $21. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. A Community of Contrasts 35 .954 for a family of four.S. when 13% of Asian Americans were poor. not family poverty. Census Bureau. a rate that exceeds that of non-Hispanic Whites but falls below the national average.Poverty by rAce „ Approximately 11% of Asian Americans live below the federal poverty line. 3-Year Estimates. Note: Chart contains data for all individuals living beneath the federal poverty line. Poverty varies considerably among Asian American ethnic groups.

not family poverty. a rate that exceeds that of Latinos and African Americans. Indian. less than 10% of Filipino. 36 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . Malaysian. a rate that exceeds the national average. Roughly one in five Cambodian and Bangladeshi Americans lives in poverty. Census Bureau. United States 2007 to 2009 Hmong Bangladeshi Cambodian Pakistani Vietnamese Total Population Thai Laotian Korean Taiwanese Indonesian Chinese (except Taiwanese) Malaysian Sri Lankan Japanese Indian Filipino 0 26% 20% 18% 15% 14% 14% 14% 13% 13% 12% 12% 12% 10% 9% 8% 8% 6% 5 10 15 20 25 30 Source: U. „ „ Poverty rates by Ethnic Group. Note: Chart contains data for all individuals living beneath the federal poverty line. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. and Sri Lankan Americans live below the poverty line. In contrast. Japanese. 3-Year Estimates.Poverty by etHnic GrouP „ Over one in four Hmong Americans lives below the federal poverty line.S.

Approximately one-fifth of Korean. Cambodian.S. and Bangladeshi American communities have the highest proportion of children and seniors who live in poverty. „ Poverty rates of Seniors (Ages 64+) by Ethnic Group. United States 2007 to 2009 Korean Hmong Laotian Cambodian Chinese (except Taiwanese) Vietnamese Bangladeshi Thai Total Population Taiwanese Pakistani Indian Sri Lankan Indonesian Filipino Japanese Malaysian 0 21% 20% 19% 19% 17% 16% 16% 11% 10% 10% 9% 9% 8% 8% 7% 6% 2% 5 10 15 20 25 Source: U. Hmong.Poverty AmonG cHildren And SeniorS „ „ Nearly one-third of Hmong American children live in poverty. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. Census Bureau. 3-Year Estimates. and Laotian American seniors live in poverty. A Community of Contrasts 37 . Hmong. Cambodian.

and 6% of Laotian Americans accessed cash public assistance. and Thai Americans access cash public assistance. „ Percent of Population who receive cash Public Assistance by Ethnic Group. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. Only 2% of all Asian Americans access cash public assistance. 38 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . 8% of Cambodian. and Laotian Americans are more likely than any racial group to access cash public assistance. approximately 13% of Hmong. Sri Lankan. Cambodian. Note: Data on Malaysian Americans not reported. Census Bureau. United States 2007 to 2009 Hmong Cambodian Laotian Vietnamese Bangladeshi Total Population Korean Indonesian Filipino Chinese (except Taiwanese) Thai Taiwanese Sri Lankan Pakistani Japanese Indian 0 13% 8% 6% 4% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 3 6 9 12 15 Source: U. Roughly 1% of Indian. Taiwanese. 3-Year Estimates.S. the lowest rate among racial groups. Japanese. In 2007–2009. „ Other Asian American ethnic groups are far less likely to access cash public assistance. Pakistani.cASH Public ASSiStAnce „ Hmong. compared to 5% of African Americans and 4% of Latinos.

unemployment rate by Race and Hispanic Origin. some Asian American ethnic groups suffer unemployment rates similar to latinos and African Americans. Source: Economic Policy Institute. once unemployed. United States 2007 to 2009 African American AIAN NHPI Hispanic Total Population Asian American White 0 3 6% 6% 6 9 12 15 8% 9% 10% 13% 13% Source: U. while Asian Americans as a group have low unemployment rates and are disproportionately employed in managerial or professional occupations. employment is particularly important.S. 3-Year Estimates.emPloyment An individual’s employment affects her or his standing on a number of key economic indicators. „ During the second quarter of 2010. Asian Americans are likely to be unemployed for longer periods than any other racial group. while 39% had been unemployed for more than a year. 52% of unemployed Asian Americans had been unemployed for more than six months. „ While Asian Americans have lower unemployment rates relative to other racial groups. because the majority of Asian Americans are workingage adults. A Community of Contrasts 39 . February 2011. some Asian American ethnic groups have unemployment rates similar to Latinos and African Americans. including income and whether one has health insurance. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. Both rates exceeded those of any other racial group. Census Bureau.

Census Bureau. The Center for ” Economic and Policy Research. Note: Chart contains data for civilian labor force only. Source: Schmitt. 2007–2009 American Community Survey.* *AA and NHPI data are not available separately. union memberSHiP • From 2003 to 2007. Roughly 1 in 10 Hmong. “Unions and Upward Mobility for Asian Pacific American Workers. January 2011. and Cambodian Americans have unemployment rates higher than Latinos and similar to African Americans. Asian Americans and NHPIs unionized at a slightly higher rate than workers overall (11%). Laotian. unemployment rate for those 16 years of Age and older by Ethnic Group. John. and Nicole Woo. 3-Year Estimates. Hye Jin Rho. .unemPloyment „ Hmong.S. Laotian. United States 2007 to 2009 Hmong Laotian Cambodian Total Population Pakistani Vietnamese Bangladeshi Thai Sri Lankan Korean Indonesian Indian Filipino Chinese (except Taiwanese) Taiwanese Japanese Malaysian 0 2 11% 10% 10% 8% 8% 7% 7% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 5% 5% 4% 4 6 8 10 12 Source: U. Asian American workers who were unionized earned 14% more than nonunionized Asian American workers.* • At 12%. and Cambodian Americans in the civilian labor force are without work.

etc. media. police.occuPAtion „ Nearly half of employed Asian Americans are working in management and professional fields. Cambodian. trAnSPortAtion. etc. „ occuPAtionS key conStruction. firefighting. bus driving. law. Note: Chart contains data for civilian labor force only. Census Bureau. 3-Year Estimates. Production. caregiving. Asian American occupations for those 16 years of Age and older United States 2007 to 2009 50 Asian American Total Population 47% 40 30 34% 26% 17% 20 21% 14% 23% 16% 10 0 Construction. And mAteriAl movinG: carpentry. engineering. extrAction. Extraction. A Community of Contrasts 41 . construction. fishing. transportation. & Material Moving Occupations Management & Professional Occupations Sales & Of ce Occupations Service Occupations Source: U. While Asian American ethnic groups with the lowest poverty rates (Filipino. etc. mAnAGement And ProFeSSionAl: science. arts. farming. medicine. and material moving occupations. and Hmong Americans) tend to work in production. SAleS And oFFice: sales. tailoring. those with the highest poverty rates (Bangladeshi. piloting. and Japanese Americans) are concentrated in management and other professional occupations. architecture. Service: healthcare support. Indian. food service. Transportation. etc. Production. administration. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. electronic assembly. education.S.

fishing.S. and forestry industries. Transportation. Census Bureau. 3-Year Estimates. Production. 42 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .occuPAtion And Poverty TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS Construction. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. and Material Moving Management & Professional Sales & Of ce Service occupation for ethnic Groups with low Poverty rates United States 2007 to 2009 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 14% 9% Filipino Indian 7% 26% 20% 20% 11% Japanese 14% 27% 22% 41% 35% 25% 17% 64% 49% Total Population occupation for ethnic Groups with High Poverty rates United States 2007 to 2009 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Bangladeshi Cambodian Hmong Total Population 17% 17% 24% 21% 19% 20% 24% 19% 22% 17% 32% 33% 36% 36% 35% 25% Source: U. Extraction. Note: Charts exclude percentages of workers active in the farming.

they fall well below those of non-Hispanic Whites. While rates of homeownership among Asian Americans exceed those of Latinos and African Americans. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. while 41% rent their homes. Census Bureau. Percent of Population who Are Homeowners vs. Rates of homeownership vary by Asian American ethnic group.HouSinG Housing is a fundamental human need. „ Approximately 59% of Asian Americans are homeowners. despite these challenges. 3-Year Estimates. A Community of Contrasts 43 . Asian Americans are much less likely than nonHispanic whites to own their own home and often live in overcrowded conditions. United States 2007 to 2009 Renter Owner African American Hispanic NHPI AIAN Asian American Total Population White 0 55% 51% 52% 44% 41% 34% 27% 20 40 60 80 45% 49% 48% 56% 59% 66% 73% 100 Source: U.S. renters by Race and Hispanic Origin. Asian Americans are less likely to utilize government-subsidized housing programs.

„ Percent of Population who Are Homeowners vs. 44 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . United States 2007 to 2009 Renter Owner Bangladeshi Hmong Korean Cambodian Malaysian Thai Pakistani Indonesian Indian Sri Lankan Chinese (except Taiwanese) Laotian Japanese Filipino Vietnamese Taiwanese Total Population 0 56% 52% 51% 49% 47% 45% 45% 45% 44% 39% 38% 37% 37% 37% 36% 34% 34% 20 40 60 80 44% 48% 49% 51% 53% 55% 55% 55% 56% 61% 62% 63% 63% 63% 64% 66% 66% 100 Source: U. Filipino. However. less than half of Bangladeshi. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. Vietnamese. and Sri Lankan Americans are homeowners. Census Bureau.S. 3-Year Estimates. and Korean Americans own their homes. Japanese. Hmong. Laotian. Chinese.HomeownerSHiP „ Over 60% of Taiwanese. renters by Ethnic Group.

A Community of Contrasts 45 .overcrowded HouSinG „ Approximately 7% of Asian Americans live in overcrowded households in which there is more than one person per room. 3-Year Estimates. only 3% of the total population and 1% of non-Hispanic Whites live in such conditions. United States 2007 to 2009 Hmong Bangladeshi Pakistani Cambodian Laotian Vietnamese Filipino Sri Lankan Indian Chinese (except Taiwanese) Thai Malaysian Korean Indonesian Total Population Japanese Taiwanese 0 32% 24% 14% 14% 11% 8% 8% 6% 6% 6% 5% 5% 5% 5% 3% 3% 2% 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Source: U. Despite large numbers living in overcrowded conditions and facing a high housing burden. Nearly one-third of Hmong and one-quarter of Bangladeshi Americans live in overcrowded housing.S. In contrast. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. „ „ Percent who live in overcrowded Housing by Ethnic Group. Census Bureau. Asian Americans are underrepresented in government-subsidized housing with only 3% of Asian Americans benefitting.

single-race only. Roughly 3 out of 10 Asian Americans and NHPIs* have been tested for HIV. Vietnamese. Vietnamese. 2004–2006. „ Approximately 4% of Asian Americans and NHPIs* have not seen a health professional in more than five years. Korean. yet Asian Americans are less likely to have seen a health professional in the past five years and are more likely to be uninsured. Focus of this report is the following selected Asian subgroups: Chinese. a rate lower than all racial groups. 394. Asian Americans are more likely than other racial groups to develop hepatitis and stomach and liver cancers. ” Note: The racial categories represented in this chart are non-Hispanic. and Korean. Filipino.** *Asian American and NHPI data are not made available separately.HeAltH Health concerns include both disease and the ability to treat disease. United States 2004 to 2006 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 6% „ 4% 3% 2% 2% Hispanic Asian American & NHPI AIAN African American White Source: National Interview Survey’s “Health Characteristics of the Asian Adult Population: United States. Advance Data No. and Asian American women 65 years or older are more likely to commit suicide. Asian American youth are more likely to consider suicide. Indian. The Asian American sample included in this study includes Americans of Chinese. last Sought a Health Professional more than 5 years Ago by Race and Hispanic Origin. 46 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . January 2008. and Filipino descent. a rate twice that of non-Hispanic Whites. 2008. Japanese. ** Source: National Health Interview Survey. January 22. Indian.

html. Focus of this report is the following selected Asian subgroups: Chinese. Hispanic Origin. SEER Cancer Statistics Review. a rate higher than those of all other racial groups.cancer. Japanese. United States 2004 to 2006 Asian American & NHPI Hispanic White AIAN African American Chinese Korean Filipino Indian Japanese Vietnamese 0 1 4% 3% 3% 3% 2% 6% 6% 5% 5% 3% 2% 2 3 4 5 6 Source: National Interview Survey’s “Health Characteristics of the Asian Adult Population: United States. 2004–2006. Advance Data No. Vietnamese.gov/statfacts/html/breast.11. Chinese and Korean Americans are twice as likely as non-Hispanic Whites to contract hepatitis. January 22. 24.14. Indian. except for American Indians and Alaskan Natives. 2008. and Ethnic Group. Filipino. and all Asian American ethnic groups. Roughly 4% of all Asian Americans have the disease.** *Source: National Health Interview Survey. and Korean.* Asian Americans and NHPIs have the highest incidence of stomach and liver cancers. ” Note: The racial categories represented in this chart are non-Hispanic. 394.HeAltH diSPAritieS „ Asian Americans are more likely than any other racial group to contract hepatitis.15 http://seer. January 2008. 1975–2008. Approximately 14% of Indian Americans have diabetes.15. Tables 5. single-race only. „ „ Percent of those 18 years of Age and over with Hepatitis by Race. **Source: NCI 2011. A Community of Contrasts 47 . Asian American and NHPI data are not made available separately.

by Race/Ethnicity and Sex. United States. Journal of the American ” Medical Association. the highest suicide rates for women ages 65 and older were among Asian Americans and NHPIs.* *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System data reported in CDC. From 2002 to 2006. 9 (2). ” „ Percentage of High School Students who Attempted or Seriously considered Suicide by Race and Hispanic Origin.. a rate higher than both African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 1998. California. report symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). **Source: Mollica et al. Vol. with 6.4 suicides per 100.** *Source: Marshall et al.* • A 1998 study of 51 Vietnamese ex-political detainees found higher rates of PTSD and depression than in a comparison group. 2009. and 51% reported major depression. ” . “Mental Health of Cambodian Refugees 2 Decades After Resettlement in the United States. “The Dose-Effect Relationships between Torture and Psychiatric Symptoms in Vietnamese Ex-Political Detainees and a Comparison Group. 2009. “National Suicide Statistics at a Glance: Suicide Rates Among Persons Ages 65 Years and Older. 2002–2006. 2005. reFuGee And ASylee mentAl HeAltH • Approximately 62% of Cambodian Americans in Long Beach.Suicide „ Approximately 15% of Asian American high school students have seriously considered attempting suicide. United States 2009 20 Seriously Considered Attempting Suicide 19% 15 19% 15% 12% 15% Attempted Suicide 13% 10% 8% 8% 4% 13% 10 5 5% 0 NHPI AIAN Hispanic Asian American African American White Source: The Asian and Pacific Islander American Health Forum’s tabulation of the 2009..000.

and only 10% have Medicaid coverage. In comparison. „ Percent uninsured by Ethnic Group. and Cambodian Americans is uninsured. Korean. 1-Year Estimates.inSurAnce „ More than one in five Pakistani. medicAre And medicAid • Approximately 34% of Asian Americans over the age of 65 only have Medicare coverage. Japanese Americans are most likely to have health insurance. 29% of non-Hispanic Whites rely solely on Medicare. • Approximately 74% of Asian Americans under the age of 65 have private health insurance. .* *Source: The Asian and Pacific Islander American Health Forum Tabulation of the 2008 NHIS reported data in CDC. Among Asian American ethnic groups.S. 2007 to 2009 Pakistani Bangladeshi Korean Cambodian Vietnamese Thai Laotian Hmong Total Population Indonesian Taiwanese Indian Chinese (except Taiwanese) Filipino Japanese 0 5 23% 23% 22% 21% 19% 19% 19% 16% 15% 15% 14% 12% 12% 11% 8% 10 15 20 25 Source: U. 2010. Census Bureau. Bangladeshi. 2007–2009 American Community Survey.

candidates. ƒ The Department of Justice and state and local voting officials must ensure compliance with and enforcement of Section 203 of the Voting Rights Act. In the absence of immigration reform at the federal level. and the government should promote citizenship through greater investment in civics courses. denied meaningful educational and employment opportunities. state.S. exploited by unscrupulous employers. resulting in a patchwork of laws. yet there is insufficient public and private investment in programs supporting immigrant integration. Waiting times for family visas can be as long as 23 years. including voters who are not fully fluent in English. many states have attempted their own “fixes” to immigration law. The fate of aspiring new Americans hinges on a broken immigration system. Nearly 60% of Asian Americans are foreign-born. immigrants are separated from their families. foundations. registering to vote. Many of the over 1 million Asian American noncitizens who have met the residency requirements to naturalize will need assistance to become U. ƒ Foundations. Asian American voter turnout still lags behind that of non-Hispanic Whites. Only 55% of Asian Americans eligible to register to vote have registered. many of which are harmful to communities and undermine America’s most fundamental values. immiGrAtion Every aspect of immigration policy affects Asian Americans. 50 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . and casting ballots.Policy recommendAtionS civic enGAGement Asian Americans are increasingly becoming citizens. ƒ The federal government should make naturalization and immigration fees affordable and ensure sufficient funding to USCIS to expeditiously process citizenship applications. Under the current system. Approximately one million Asian Americans are undocumented. which provides for language assistance to communities that meet certain requirements. Communities with significant populations of Asian American voters should consider providing voluntary language assistance. political parties. and local agencies and elected officials should guarantee equal access to voting by combating discriminatory voting practices that deny or abridge the right of Asian Americans and others to vote. But significant hurdles hindering full political participation and civic engagement remain. adult English language learning. and prevented from contributing fully to American society. and naturalization assistance. ƒ Federal. citizens. Voter protection laws should be vigorously enforced and policies and practices that impose additional barriers to voting should be opposed. ƒ Corporations. and other stakeholders should increase their investment in voter registration and mobilization efforts targeting Asian American communities.

S. ƒ Congress should amend immigration laws to allow U. including reclassifying spouses and minor children of permanent residents as “immediate relatives” to allow families to reunite without having to endure years of separation. including ensuring adequate funding. preferably through comprehensive reform. and in some communities. immigration law and policy.S. ƒ Our system of family immigration provides new immigrants with an integration network and safety net. citizens and permanent residents to sponsor their same-sex.ƒ Congress and the President need to address every aspect of the broken immigration system. but many who seek to learn find the demand for English courses greater than the supply.S. ƒ Public and private institutions need to ensure meaningful access to programs and services for limited-English proficient individuals. fairness. ƒ Women are more reliant on family-based immigration than men. including immigrant youth who have lived in the United States most of their lives. while also guaranteeing full labor and immigration protections. A Community of Contrasts 51 . and actively enforcing Title VI requirements and Executive Order 13166. ƒ Congress and the courts should preserve the long-established constitutional rule that children born in the United States are U. a cornerstone of U. Repairs to our employment immigration system should not come at the expense of family unity. ƒ Congress should expand legal channels for workers to come to the United States by raising the number of employment-based visas for high-skilled and less-skilled workers. About one-third of Asian Americans have limited proficiency in English. ƒ Congress should provide a path to legalization and citizenship for undocumented immigrants. which contains many important civil rights protections. nearly half are LEP Both public and private institu. which means that women are overrepresented in visa backlogs. lAnGuAGe Many Asian Americans are recent immigrants: 1. tions must dismantle the barriers that prevent limited-English proficient individuals from accessing safety net services and the justice system. supporting the hiring of bilingual staff and translation of materials. Congress should support changes to the visa system. citizens. The guarantee of “birthright citizenship” is found in the Fourteenth Amendment. and due process in immigration hearings and overhaul the immigration detention system. ƒ Congress should restore judicial discretion. foreign-born partners. Asian Americans recognize that English is a gateway to citizenship and upward mobility.6 million Asian immigrants arrived in the United States within the last decade.

ƒ Government, corporations, foundations, and other stakeholders need to invest in high-quality bilingual K–12 education that promotes English language acquisition as well as academic achievement. ƒ Both the public and private sectors need to provide sufficient funding to meet the demand for English language programs for adults. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) and adult educational systems need to be reformed and better funded to provide for this need. educAtion It is in the education context that the term “model minority” is most often used to describe Asian Americans. While many in the Asian American community are well educated, others do not complete high school. Many Asian Americans who came as refugees have levels of educational attainment similar to Latinos and African Americans. ƒ Government, corporations, foundations, and other stakeholders should improve K–12 programs to better address the cultural and linguistic barriers that contribute to educational disparities, including improving programs for English language learners. ƒ Government agencies and educational institutions should protect and promote affirmative action programs in education. Asian Americans should be included in affirmative action programs, particularly underrepresented groups such as Southeast Asians. income And emPloyment Asian Americans occupy both ends of the socioeconomic spectrum. The per capita income of Asian Americans approaches that of non-Hispanic Whites, but more than 1 in 10 Asian Americans live in poverty. While almost half of Asian Americans work in management and professional fields, Asian Americans work in all occupations, including sales, services, construction, and production. ƒ Federal, state, and local governments need to strengthen and expand access to safety net programs, including public assistance and unemployment benefits, particularly during times of recession when needs are especially acute. Public benefits must be culturally and linguistically accessible. ƒ While many Asian Americans have high educational attainment and work in professional fields, some face a “glass ceiling” that blocks their professional advancement. Corporations, law firms, government agencies, academic institutions, and other employers should implement equal opportunity programs that remove barriers to advancement in the workplace. ƒ Federal, state, and local agencies should include Asian Americans in equal opportunity programs, including minority contracting programs. Asian Americans face ongoing discrimination in public contracting and

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should be included in minority set-aside programs and allowed to complete for government contracts on an equal footing. ƒ Government agencies at all levels need to ensure vigorous enforcement of employment and labor laws, including antidiscrimination provisions and protection against retaliation for workers who assert their rights. This enforcement must extend to workers regardless of immigration status and ensure that all workers are protected. ƒ Government agencies, unions, and employers should protect collective bargaining rights and support workers’ rights to unionize and organize to challenge unfair employment practices. HouSinG Access to quality affordable housing, whether rented or owned, is key to economic stability. Asian American homeownership rates are lower than those of non-Hispanic Whites. A significant percentage of Asian Americans live in overcrowded housing, but only 3% of Asian Americans live in government-subsidized housing. ƒ Federal, state, and local agencies and private companies need to expand affordable housing and homeownership opportunities for Asian American families. ƒ All levels of government should vigorously enforce laws prohibiting predatory lending practices that target immigrant communities, individuals with limited-English proficiency, and other vulnerable communities. ƒ With many people losing their homes in the foreclosure crisis, federal, state, and local governments need to fund and expand housing counseling services and consumer protection agencies, such as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. HeAltH Having access to affordable quality healthcare is a basic human need. Asian Americans need access to quality, affordable health care that is linguistically and culturally appropriate. Asian Americans face specific health disparities, including high rates of hepatitis, liver cancer, and stomach cancer. ƒ Federal, state, and local governments and private entities such as insurance companies and employers should expand access to affordable healthcare coverage for all U.S. residents, including immigrants. ƒ All levels of government, community-based organizations, and those in the health industry should outreach to and educate Asian Americans about the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act so they can benefit from the expanded availability of healthcare insurance. 

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ƒ The federal government and courts should broadly interpret and fully enforce the antidiscrimination provisions of the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act. ƒ Those in the healthcare industry and federal, state, and local governments need to ensure meaningful access to quality healthcare for persons who are not fluent in English. They can accomplish this by supporting efforts to provide health services in a linguistically and culturally appropriate manner and by removing barriers to enrollment. ƒ The federal government should fully fund or expand programs such as Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program to ensure Asian Americans with low incomes are able to access basic healthcare services, providing a vital lifeline for the most vulnerable members of our communities. dAtA collection And reSeArcH Socially and economically diverse and growing dramatically, Asian American communities are complicated to understand and serve. Data collection and research play a critical role in providing policy makers and service providers the information they need to identify community needs and target programs in the most cost-effective manner possible. While the Census Bureau has provided a wealth of disaggregated data on Asian American communities, few other federal, state, or local agencies collect or disseminate disaggregated data, address language barriers in the Asian American community’s ability to participate in research efforts, or reach sufficient sample size in surveys of smaller ethnic groups to provide meaningful findings. ƒ Data and research produced by both governmental and nongovernmental entities must include data on Asian Americans, disaggregated by ethnic group where possible. Researchers should work to improve the quantity and quality of survey data on Asian Americans by conducting outreach, translating and administering survey instruments, and providing assistance to respondents in Asian languages and oversampling Asian American ethnic groups. ƒ Federal, state, and local governments and private foundations should re-examine whether adequate resources are being directed to studying and serving the needs of Asian American communities, particularly Southeast Asians. Government can draw upon the knowledge and experience of community members through the formation of Asian American advisory groups. In many areas, government programs and social service agencies are faced with having to serve greater numbers even as funding is cut. In some areas, Asian American populations may be without linguistically and culturally appropriate programs altogether. It is critical that sufficient funding is directed to meet the needs of diverse Asian American communities.

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S. vietnAmeSe AmericAnS Vietnamese Americans are the fourth largest Asian American ethnic group. Nearly one in five are limited-English proficient. FiliPino AmericAnS Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American ethnic group nationwide. and per capita income exceeds those of the total population. The vast majority of Filipino American legal permanent residents (89%) immigrated as the immediate relatives of U. Approximately 64% are foreign-born. Vietnam remains the fourth largest sender of immigrants among Asian countries. Chinese Americans are nearly twice as likely as the total population to live in overcrowded housing.S. Filipino Americans are nearly three times as likely to live in overcrowded housing than the total U. citizen or under family-sponsored preferences. The vast majority of Vietnamese American legal permanent residents (95%) entered the United States as the immediate relatives of U. median. Despite their material success. Approximately 45% of Indian American legal permanent residents immigrated to the United States under employment-based preferences. citizens or under family-sponsored preferences. over one in five Indian Americans is limited-English proficient. and 40% of the foreign-born population entered the United States between 2000 and 2010. Indian Americans have generally achieved professional and economic success. and 19% entered the United States between 2000 and 2010. while 25% obtained employment-based visas. Twenty-seven percent of the foreign-born Filipino American population entered the United States between 2000 and 2010. citizens or under family-sponsored preferences. and 53% came as the immediate relatives of U. and 29% are linguistically isolated. population. Approximately 53% of the population is foreign-born. The majority (64%) works in a management or professional occupation and their household. While the largest number entered before 1990. citizens or under family-sponsored A Community of Contrasts 55 . Approximately 70% of Indian Americans are foreign-born. Forty-two percent of Chinese Americans are limited-English proficient.S.S. Chinese immigrants continue to arrive on American shores at a steady pace. The majority of Chinese American legal permanent residents (53%) obtained immigrant visas as the immediate relatives of a U. The remaining 11% entered the United States under employment-based preferences.S.toP Five lArGeSt GrouPS cHineSe AmericAnS Chinese Americans are the largest Asian American ethnic group nationwide. One of the oldest Asian American ethnic groups. with 29% entering between 2000 and 2010. having grown by 68% between 2000 and 2010. indiAn AmericAnS Indian Americans are the third largest and fourth fastest growing Asian American ethnic group. Approximately 61% are foreign-born.

Nearly one in four are without health insurance. both highest among Asian American ethnic groups. The majority (52%) entered under employment-based preferences. and 29% of the foreign-born population entered between 2000 and 2010. Approximately 8% live in overcrowded housing. Only 6% entered under employment-based preferences. and one-quarter live in linguistically isolated households. Approximately 71% of Korean Americans speak a language other than English at home. Nearly three out of four Bangladeshi American legal permanent residents entered as the immediate relatives of U. koreAn AmericAnS Korean Americans are the fifth largest Asian American ethnic group. while 48% entered as the immediate relatives of U. A large minority (19%) entered through the Diversity Visa program. Nearly three out of four Vietnamese American immigrants have become U. 41% are limited-English proficient. Over one in five Korean Americans are without health insurance.S. Approximately 73% are foreign-born. having grown 157% from 2000 to 2010. citizens or under family-sponsored preferences. Over half of Vietnamese Americans are limited-English proficient and over one in three are linguistically isolated. Nearly half (46%) are limited-English proficient. citizens or under family-sponsored preferences. PAkiStAni AmericAnS Having doubled in size from 2000 to 2010. toP Five FASteSt GrowinG GrouPS bAnGlAdeSHi AmericAnS Bangladeshi Americans are the fastest growing Asian American ethnic group over the past decade. Language barriers pose a significant problem to many Bangladeshi Americans. Among Asian American ethnic groups.preferences. highest among Asian American ethnic groups. Approximately 65% are foreign-born. making them twice as likely as the total population to do so.S. Bangladeshi Americans are least likely to own their own home. citizens. and 31% live in linguistically isolated households.S. Pakistani Americans are the second fastest growing and seventh largest Asian American ethnic 56 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . and 41% of the foreign-born population entered the United States between 2000 and 2010.

and per capita incomes exceed those of the average American. Sri Lankan Americans are three times as likely as the average American to hold an advanced degree and almost twice as likely to work in a management or professional occupation. median. Sixty-six percent arrived as the immediate relatives arrived as the immediate relatives of U. and 16% entered under employment-based preferences.S. and 42% of the foreignborn population entered the United States between 2000 and 2010. and asylee preferences. Approximately 65% are foreign-born. They have the highest rates of homeownership and are the least likely to live in overcrowded housing. Roughly 81% of Pakistani American legal permanent residents entered the country as the immediate relatives of U.S. Thirty-one percent arrived under employment-based preferences. Language access remains a pressing issue. Despite their origins in a former British commonwealth. 72% of Sri Lankan Americans report speaking a language other than English at home. Among Asian American ethnic groups. A substantial minority (19%) entered under the Diversity Visa program. citizens or under family-sponsored preferences. making them over four times as likely as the general population to do so.S. indiAn AmericAnS See page 55. and the remaining 33% entered under diversity. 26% entered under employment-based preferences. refugee. Approximately 76% are foreign-born. A Community of Contrasts 57 . having grown 85% over the decade. and 25% of the foreign-born population entered between 2000 and 2010. Approximately 42% of Sri Lankan American legal permanent residents immigrated as the immediate relatives of U. citizens or under family-sponsored preferences. Sri Lankan Americans are one of the few Asian American ethnic groups whose household. tAiwAneSe AmericAnS Taiwanese Americans were the fifth fastest growing Asian American ethnic group between 2000 and 2010. however. as 43% are limited-English proficient. Approximately 14% of Pakistani Americans live in overcrowded housing. Sri lAnkAn AmericAnS Sri Lankan Americans were the third fastest growing Asian American ethnic group between 2000 and 2010. Roughly one-third is limited-English proficient. citizens or under family-sponsor preferences. and 34% of the foreignborn population entered between 2000 and 2010. Taiwanese Americans have the highest educational attainment. Approximately 68% are foreignborn. and more than one in five is limited-English proficient.group. with 96% holding a high school degree and 72% holding a bachelor’s degree.

Thailand. 2009) ” diversity visa (dv) Type of visa drawn from countries with low rates of immigration to the United States. Cambodia. It is derived by dividing the total income of a particular group by the total population of that group. Family preference categories include sons and daughters (over the age of 21) of U. in this report we refer only to foreign-born individuals who have obtained citizenship in the United States. India. immediate relatives of u. Japan. Mongolia. voluntary departures and withdrawals under docket control. ” linguistically isolated households Households in which all members 14 years of age and older speak English less than “very well. an adopted orphan.S. asylees are those who applied at either a port of entry or while residing in the United States. Taiwan. Island Areas (such as Guam. buying power The “total personal income of residents that is available. Sri Lanka. the spouses and children of legal permanent residents (LPRs). Pakistan. North Korea. returns Voluntary returns. (Humphreys. ” median household income A measurement of income that divides the income distribution of households (all persons living in the same residence) into two equal parts. Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . and Vietnam. poverty A measure of income relative to the federal poverty threshold (the poverty line). and the siblings of U. citizen. the U. sponsor. after taxes.S. Laos. Malaysia. Unlike other immigrant types. or the Northern Mariana Islands). family-sponsored preferences Type of visa based on family relationships. Department of Homeland Security as including Bangladesh.S.S. Bhutan. public assistance income Income that includes general assistance and Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). foreign-born People not born in the United States. 58 naturalization Refers to the process through which a foreignborn individual becomes a citizen of a new country. Singapore. but it does not include dollars that are borrowed or that were saved in previous years. East Timor. Burma.S. Virgin Islands. and therefore a petition is not needed. Refugees are those who applied for admission while living outside the United States. for spending on virtually everything that they buy. and child in a particular group. Adjusted for family size. Immediate relative is defined as being a spouse. Nepal. Hong Kong. the 2009 Census Bureau poverty threshold was $21. Diversity visas do not require a U. an unmarried child under 21 years of age.GloSSAry Asian countries: Defined by the U. half falling below and half above the median household income. Indonesia. citizen. overcrowded housing Having more than one person per room.S. refugees and asylees Persons who moved to the United States to escape persecution in their country of origin.S. limited-english proficient Persons who speak English less than “very well. woman.954 annually for a family of four. China. This does not include Supplemental Security Income (SSI) or noncash benefits such as food stamps. Maldives.S. The terms “public assistance income” and “cash public assistance” are used interchangeably in the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS) data products. or the U. citizens Type of visa based on a close family relationship with a U. Philippines. Separate payments received for hospital or other medical care (vendor payments) are excluded. citizens. or parent of a U. per capita income The mean income computed for every man.S. Puerto Rico. Macau. removal The expulsion of an unauthorized immigrant from the United States either because of inadmissibility or deportability. South Korea. citizens.

301 874.552.841 2.439 17.073 237.416.2% 0.599 1.11% 100% % Growth 2000 to 2010 39% 44% 68% 42% 39% 14% 100% 34% 40% 58% 17% 59% 157% NR 51% NR 85% 41% NR 46% 3.052 186.538 2010 % of total 64% 16% 14% 6% 2% 0.840 3.063 1. Non-Hispanic Hispanic African American Asian American American Indian Alaskan Native Native Hawaiian Pacific Islander total 2000 number 194.26% 0.381 26.706.815 1.906 % of total 69% 13% 13% 4% 1% 0% 100% number 196.818 36.587 18.364.667 260.774 35.743 17.583 232.898.737.594 42.15% 0.300 100.179 19.183.419.228.320.421.828 % of AA total 23% 20% 16% 10% 10% 10% 2% 2% 2% 1% 2% 1% 0% NR 1% NR 0.119.020.856 5.130 230.828 4.736 1.220.223.203 144.304.310 150.427 1.822 1.309 206.200 95.305.283 198.414 281.745.APPendix A: rAce And etHnicity race and Hispanic origin White.382 147.195 308.490 45.412 NR 63.320.856 .073 NR 24.566 NR 11.2% NR 100% number 2010 % of AA total 22% 20% 18% 10% 10% 8% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.4% 100% % Growth 2000 to 2010 1% 43% 15% 46% 27% 40% 10% Asian American ethnic Groups Chinese (except Taiwanese) Filipino Indian Vietnamese Korean Japanese Pakistani Cambodian Hmong Thai Laotian Taiwanese Bangladeshi Burmese Indonesian Nepalese Sri Lankan Malaysian Bhutanese Asian American total 2000 number 2.932 204.148.270 59.734.552 50.898.34% 0.433 1.579 1.225.477.795 57.899.794.817.286 409.434 11.673 3.163 276.

812 208.779 95.7% 1.013 304.931 39.281 17.107 11.356 703.8% 1.873 7.5% 2.212 162.6% 1.110.1% 2.7% 1.561 40.9% 1.1% 1.776 118.292 230.666 795.701 32.857 18.4% 0.674 67.930 77.1% 1.1% 1.333 16.251 573.7% 0.390 17.916 238.083 522.132 242.101 6.088 151.579.601 264.9% 2.339 120.219 18.0% 3.5% 0.592 1.672 127.918 % of Total 12% 6% 3% 6% 58% 4% 7% 2% 4% 2% 4% 5% 2% 2% 2% 3% 6% 1% 2% 4% 3% 3% 2% 1% 1% 1% 2010 AA Population 5.9% 1.8% 1.044 365.398 % of Total 15% 8% 4% 9% 57% 5% 9% 3% 7% 3% 6% 6% 4% 3% 3% 5% 9% 2% 4% 5% 4% 4% 3% 2% 2% 2% % Growth 2000 to 2010 34% 33% 72% 52% 11% 41% 53% 72% 71% 62% 49% 55% 83% 39% 85% 52% 116% 49% 95% 46% 54% 65% 47% 74% 62% 65% 2000 States AA Population 64.211 370.062 32.494 1.587 394.622 6.619 28.119 37.9% 0.2% 2.8% 1.827 11.828 % of Total 1% 1.560 29.856 % of Total 1.2% 2.2% 100% % Growth 2000 to 2010 31% 43% 50% 60% 68% 70% 50% 67% 54% 77% 51% 52% 30% 80% 78% 40% 71% 50% 55% 39% 48% 58% 70% 85% 64% 30% California New York Texas New Jersey Hawaii Illinois Washington Florida Virginia Pennsylvania Massachusetts Maryland Georgia Michigan North Carolina Minnesota Nevada Ohio Arizona Oregon Colorado Connecticut Wisconsin Indiana Missouri Tennessee Louisiana Oklahoma Kansas Utah South Carolina Alabama Iowa Kentucky Alaska Arkansas Nebraska New Mexico Rhode Island New Hampshire Delaware Mississippi Idaho District of Columbia Maine West Virginia Montana Vermont South Dakota North Dakota Wyoming Total 60 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .329 136.216 9.9% 5.320.335 84.748 75.3% 3.200 644.456 159.723 56.956 11.585 247.6% 3.814 238.350 58.414 112.281 185.685 1.513 126.522 33.465 10.8% 0.967 4.741 333.750 123.3% 1.5% 1.210 68.155.694 604.729 17.898.232 473.556.7% 2.686 25.2% 1.193 6.6% 2.512 62.698 26.4% 0.589 157.169.6% 1.163 780.029 50.036 64.649 395.401 26.456 36.763 34.839 76.4% 2.497 289.193 524.809 26.571 113.049 48.463 10.9% 4.009 4.692 44.8% 1.0% 1.199 402.1% 0.80% 100% 2010 AA Population 84.4% 7.944 23.5% 2.907 186.408 199.943 40.APPendix b: AA PoPulAtion by StAte 2000 States AA Population 4.2% 1.80% 0.368 102.607 252.458 43.768 72.4% 1.290 19.402 44.170 83.9% 2.1% 0.559 248.968 668.1% 0.1% 1.482 10.5% 2.

926 552. California Kings County.556 76. California Orange County.454 % of Total 16% 6% 17% 9% 7% 18% 11% 11% 5% 12% 12% 15% 45% 7% 11% 6% 18% 47% 4% 7% 8% 9% 6% 4% % Growth 2000 to 2010 40% 34% 52% 62% 43% 150% 32% 38% 63% 161% 101% 47% 17% 36% 83% 41% 23% 19% 55% 68% 42% 41% 87% 25% Los Angeles County.502 54.785 % of Total 13% 28% 15% 62% 19% 23% 11% 5% 13% 33% 8% 6% 13% 15% 7% 10% 22% 7% 13% 3% 5% 7% 6% 12% 2010 AA Population 1. California Pierce County.960 618.215 45.541 42.720 77.810 82.059 159. California Montgomery County.563 76.242 597.180 % of Total 15% 35% 20% 62% 25% 29% 13% 7% 17% 36% 11% 7% 17% 20% 11% 13% 28% 23% 17% 4% 7% 10% 8% 16% % Growth 2000 to 2010 20% 34% 41% 10% 28% 35% 38% 26% 52% 14% 38% 45% 51% 52% 130% 27% 27% 67% 48% 100% 126% 54% 59% 40% 2000 Counties AA Population 100.529 284. Massachusetts A Community of Contrasts 61 .357 65.124 92. New York San Mateo County.780 60.360 % of Total 11% 4% 14% 5% 5% 12% 9% 9% 4% 8% 8% 10% 48% 5% 7% 5% 15% 48% 3% 5% 7% 7% 4% 8% 2010 AA Population 140. New Jersey Dallas County.224 90.542 155. Hawaii Hennepin County.803 35.551 217.773 167.542 101.359 69.209 74.748 590. California Maui County. California Cook County. California Middlesex County.384 433. Michigan Solano County.605 109.009 98. Washington Oakland County.038 288.869 407.724 61.984 362.749 37.750 72.778 121. Washington Orange County. Pennsylvania Fort Bend County.993 62. Arizona Riverside County.477 206. Virginia Clark County.775 199. California Santa Clara County.245.911 539.268 156.472 97.307 48.656 70. Texas Collin County. Nevada New York County.403 59.160 212. Hawaii Broward County. Texas San Joaquin County. Minnesota Snohomish County. Florida Travis County.921 60.203 77.272 193.722 199. Hawaii Queens County.958 67.019 462. New Jersey Hawaii County.831 106.076 74.818 113. Washington San Francisco County.489 280. Texas Gwinnett County.710 156. California Tarrant County.456 97. Georgia Hudson County.APPendix c: AA PoPulAtion by county 2000 Counties AA Population 1.340 107.720 106.261 423. California Honolulu County.977 52.351 253.355 100. Maryland Bergen County.252 68. Florida Suffolk County. California Middlesex County.302 140.584 91.675 71. California Nassau County. Illinois King County.969 83.601 41.852 180.929 330.710 151.341 241. Massachusetts San Bernardino County.393 116.263 101.944 82.941 73. New York Philadelphia County. California Maricopa County.549 70. Texas DuPage County. New Jersey Contra Costa County.826 69.949 295.691 161. Texas Sacramento County.413 132.148 45.294 182. California San Diego County.435 42.867 440.647 207. Illinois Fresno County. California Fairfax County.553 326.497.141 154.856 48. Texas Ventura County. New York Harris County.810 70. New York Alameda County.134 97.346 287.

median Age NHPI Hispanic African American AIAN Asian American White total Population 26 27 30 31 33 41 37 Homeownership (%) African American NHPI Hispanic AIAN Asian American White total Population 45 48 49 56 59 73 66 crowded Housing (%) NHPI Hispanic Asian American AIAN African American White total Population 13 13 7 6 4 1 3 below Federal Poverty line (%) African American AIAN Hispanic NHPI Asian American White total Population 25 23 22 14 11 10 14 cash Public Assistance (%) AIAN NHPI African American Hispanic Asian American White total Population 6 6 5 4 2 2 2 High School degree (%) Hispanic AIAN African American Asian American NHPI White total Population 61 80 81 86 85 90 85 median Age Homeownership (%) 20 27 28 29 31 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 38 Bangladeshi Hmong Korean Cambodian Malaysian Pakistani Indonesian Thai Indian Sri Lankan Chinese Laotian Filipino Japanese Vietnamese Taiwanese (except Taiwanese) crowded Housing (%) 44 48 49 51 53 55 55 55 56 61 62 63 63 63 64 66 Hmong Bangladeshi Pakistani Cambodian Laotian Vietnamese Filipino (except Taiwanese) below Federal Poverty line (%) 32 24 14 14 11 8 8 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 3 2 Hmong Bangladeshi Cambodian Pakistani Vietnamese Thai Korean Laotian Chinese (except Taiwanese) cash Public Assistance (%) 26 20 18 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 12 10 9 8 8 6 Hmong Cambodian Laotian Vietnamese Bangladeshi Filipino Chinese Korean Indonesian Pakistani Thai Indian Japanese Sri Lankan Taiwanese Malaysian (except Taiwanese) High School degree (%) Hmong Cambodian Laotian Vietnamese Bangladeshi Chinese Thai Pakistani Indian Korean Filipino Malaysian Sri Lankan Indonesian Japanese Taiwanese (except Taiwanese) Hmong Cambodian Laotian Pakistani Bangladeshi Indian Thai Korean Malaysian Indonesian Filipino Vietnamese Chinese (except Taiwanese) 13 8 6 4 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 NR 61 62 66 72 81 82 84 87 91 92 92 93 93 94 94 96 Chinese Sri Lankan Indian Indonesian Korean Malaysian Thai Japanese Taiwanese Taiwanese Indonesian Malaysian Sri Lankan Indian Japanese Filipino Taiwanese Sri Lankan Japanese 62 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .APPendix d: Socioeconomic indicAtorS.

669 $53.934 $54.269 51 46 43 43 43 42 41 40 36 30 28 23 22 22 19 18 Chinese Korean Laotian Thai Indonesian Pakistani Malaysian Indian Sri Lankan Filipino Japanese Chinese Japanese Sri Lankan Malaysian Indian Taiwanese Sri Lankan Filipino Taiwanese Indian Malaysian A Community of Contrasts 63 .596 $86.767 $68.920 $55.480 $33.119 $55.664 $68.940 $16.906 $57.061 $31.118 $30.953 $47.342 $31.906 $62.585 $16.united StAteS 2007 to 2009 Per capita income Hispanic African American AIAN NHPI Asian American White total Population $15.100 median Household income African American AIAN Hispanic White NHPI Asian American total Population $34.927 $76.515 $40.312 Bangladeshi Hmong Cambodian Korean Vietnamese Laotian Thai Indonesian Pakistani Japanese Chinese (except Taiwanese) Foreign-born (%) Sri Lankan Bangladeshi Malaysian Indian Taiwanese Indonesian Korean Pakistani Vietnamese Chinese Thai Cambodian Laotian Filipino Hmong Japanese (except Taiwanese) naturalization rate of Foreign-born (%) 76 73 73 70 68 65 65 65 64 61 60 56 55 53 44 28 Malaysian Japanese Indonesian Sri Lankan Indian Thai Bangladeshi Korean Hmong Pakistan Chinese Laotian Cambodian Filipino Taiwanese Vietnamese (except Taiwanese) limited english Proficiency (%) 27 33 35 43 47 49 50 54 57 57 60 62 63 64 67 73 Vietnamese Bangladeshi Cambodian Taiwanese Hmong (except Taiwanese) $45.660 $63.506 $17.420 $73.369 Foreign-born (%) Asian American Hispanic NHPI African American AIAN White total Population 60 38 14 8 5 4 13 naturalization rate of Foreign-born (%) Hispanic AIAN NHPI African American Asian American White total Population 29 32 40 46 57 58 43 limited english Proficiency (%) Hispanic Asian American NHPI AIAN African American White total Population 38 32 8 6 3 2 9 Per capita income Hmong Cambodian Laotian Bangladeshi Vietnamese Thai Pakistani Indonesian Filipino Korean (except Taiwanese) median Household income $10.585 $38.708 $24.735 $27.729 $25.799 $55.038 $50.663 $25.020 $28.549 $17.799 $26.831 $32.933 $19.949 $15.784 $21.455 $77.549 $51.744 $65.542 $21.264 $36.533 $38.210 $60.

Ph. Jeffrey M. U. and the undocumented population.projectvote. American Community Survey (ACS) 2005–2009 5-Year Estimates. refugees. 2002–2006. ” Project Vote.S. http://www.eeoc. “Health Characteristics of the Asian Adult Population: United States.tecHnicAl noteS measuring the characteristics of racial and ethnic groups Since 2000. workS cited Barnes.. “Unions and Upward Mobility for Asian Pacific American Workers. Hye Jin Rho.org/USfocus/display.cfm?ID=841 ” National Health Interview Survey. 64 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .S. Humphreys. Exceptions include the measurement of the White population. ” In this report.migrationinformation. Baker. “Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States. John.. Patricia M. including the 2010 Census.org/pubs ” /DREAM-Insight-July2010. data from the American Community Survey (ACS) were preferred. Department of Homeland Security’s Population Estimates February 2011: 1-7. http://www.S. 2008. and Nicole Woo. Reality: An Analysis of Potential DREAM Act Beneficiaries.pdf Migration Policy Institute. population growth. January 2008. Written Testimony of Algernon Austin.D. February 2011. Various reports are also cited. Data on race are generally available from the Census Bureau in two forms.S. it complicates the use of data on racial and ethnic groups. The National Health Interview Survey’s Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics No. . for those of a single racial background (referred to as “alone”).org/publication /hidden_disadvantage/ Hoefer. 2008 Current Population Survey (CPS).pdf Schmitt. 2009. “Health Characteristics of the Asian Adult Population: United States. May 2010. “National Suicide Statistics at a Glance: Suicide Rates Among Persons Ages 65 Years and Older.S.epi. Patricia F Adams. Department of Education’s 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).org/images/publications/Reports%20on%20the%20Electorate ” /FINAL%20First-Time-Voters-in-2008-Election. November 2009. Where data on population characteristics are available from multiple sources. and Bryan C. Nancy Rytina. “Asian Immigrants in the United States. Similarly. http://www. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. United States. Other data included in the report include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2008 National Health Interview Survey. and 2008 American Housing Survey. January 2010. which is defined here as non-Hispanic White “alone. the United States Census Bureau has allowed those responding to its questionnaires to report one or more racial or ethnic backgrounds. January 22. 394: 1-22. “First-Time Voters in the 2008 Election. July 2010. “Dream vs. Advance Data No. asylees.gov/eeoc/meetings/2-16-11/austin. ” Sources of data used in this report Most of the data included in this report are drawn from the United States Census Bureau. “Hidden Disadvantage: Asian American Unemployment and the Great Recession” http://www. ” Economic Policy Institute. American Community Survey (ACS) 2007–2009 3-Year Estimates. ” Center for Disease Control and Prevention. data on ethnic groups are generally available as “alone” or “alone or in any combination. April 2011. 394. 2004–2006. Georgia Business and Economic Conditions 69 (3). to the U. by Race/Ethnicity and Sex. 2007 Survey of Business Owners. http://www. Third Quarter 2009. May 2011. While this better reflects America’s diversity and improves data available on multiracial populations. Michael. 2004–2006. Department of Homeland Security data on legal permanent residents. and population characteristics by racial and ethnic group are measured for the “alone or in combination” population unless otherwise noted. and U. and Eve Powell-Griner. and for those of either single or multiple racial backgrounds (referred to as “alone or in combination with one or more other races”).cfm Economic Policy Institute.migrationpolicy. ” The U. population. Department of State data on visas issued. U. given its inclusion of disaggregated data by Asian American ethnic group. American Community Survey (ACS) 2009 1-Year Estimates. ” Migration Policy Institute. “The Multicultural Economy. Center for Economic and Policy Research: 1–11. with multiracial people captured in an independent category.

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