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Asian American Center for Advancing Justice

A Community of Contrasts
Asian Americans in the United States: 2011

Principal Researcher and Co-author

Co-author

Welcome introduction Executive Summary Population Economic Contributions Civic Engagement immigration Age Language Education income Employment Housing Health Policy Recommendations Ethnic Group Highlights Glossary Appendix A: Race & Ethnicity Appendix B: Asian Americans by State

1 2 3 6 11 13 17 23 24 30 33 39 43 46 50 55 58 AsiAn AmericAn center for AdvAncing Justice The Asian American Center for Advancing Justice (Advancing Justice) is a leading Asian American civil rights and social justice organization comprising four equal and independent affiliates: the Asian American Justice Center (AAJC), Asian Pacific American Legal Center (APALC), Asian American Institute (AAI), and Asian Law Caucus (ALC). Its mission is to promote a fair and equitable society for all by working for civil and human rights and empowering Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) and other underserved communities. Each affiliate’s staff has valuable expertise and deep experience. AAJC is one of the nation’s leading experts on issues of importance to the Asian American community and has enacted a sweeping range of programs on critical national concerns. APALC is the nation’s largest legal organization addressing the needs of Asian Americans and NHPIs by advocating for civil rights, providing legal services and education, and building coalitions. AAI is the Midwest’s leading panAsian organization dedicated to empowering the Asian American community through advocacy, research, education, and coalition building. ALC is the oldest legal organization in the country defending the civil rights of Asian American and NHPI communities and focuses on the needs of low-income, immigrant, and underserved communities. While well known in their individual spheres for their work and expertise, the affiliates of Advancing Justice have come together to build a stronger, more cohesive regional and national civil and human rights infrastructure for the Asian American community. We use our resources to provide valuable information to the community, work to address more issues in more places, impact a greater number of public debates, and help the voices of Asian Americans, NHPIs, and other marginalized and underserved communities be heard. Please email any questions regarding the report to: publications@advancingequality. org.

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Appendix C: Asian Americans by County 61 Appendix D: Socioeconomic Status Technical Notes Order Form

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welcome

For decades, Asian Americans have been among the fastest growing racial groups in the United States. The Asian American population is larger today than it has ever been in our nation’s history, growing both in places like California and New York, where large Asian American communities have existed for decades, and in parts of the country like the South, where smaller communities have more recently grown to a critical mass. As our communities grow, Asian Americans are making significant contributions to the economy and developing greater political power. At the same time, our population is incredibly diverse. With parts of the community thriving, those who struggle seem invisible. Many Asian Americans continue to face language barriers and struggle economically. The current recession poses even greater challenges to this vulnerable population. At this time of both challenge and opportunity, four organizations—the Asian American Institute, Asian American Justice Center, Asian Law Caucus, and Asian Pacific American Legal Center—have deepened their affiliation and come together to

form the Asian American Center for Advancing Justice. As independent organizations under one umbrella, we will continue to advance the goals we have always worked toward—promoting a fair and equitable society for all, strengthening civil and human rights, and empowering Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI), and other vulnerable communities. A publication of the Asian American Center for Advancing Justice, A Community of Contrasts: Asian Americans in the United States 2011 draws upon data from the 2010 Census, American Community Survey, and other sources to provide a detailed portrait of the Asian American community in the United States. The report also includes a number of policy recommendations based on the data that address critical concerns facing Asian Americans throughout the country. This national report is the second in a series and will be followed by regional reports on Asian American and NHPI communities in California, the West, the Midwest, the South, and the Northeast. Additional reports are also planned, including one focused on the NHPI community

and another on the economic contributions of Asian Americans and NHPIs. We would like to thank the sponsors who made this report possible, including the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation, the Cyrus Chung Ying Tang Foundation, and Bank of America. We would also like to thank those who contributed to this report, including staff at the Asian Pacific American Legal Center (Deisy Del Real, Victoria Wilson, Dan Ichinose, and Karin Wang) and Asian American Justice Center (Marita Etcubañez, Terry Ao-Minnis, and Olivia Chow). Special thanks to the National Coalition of Asian Pacific Americans (NCAPA) and our colleagues in Congress and philanthropy, who provided critical guidance on the content and structure of this report.

Karen K. Narasaki President and Executive Director AAJC

Stewart Kwoh President and Executive Director APALC

Asian Americans have been among our nation’s fastest growing racial groups since discriminatory immigration quotas were eliminated in 1965 and now make up 6% of the country’s total population. Thailand. This report supplements Census Bureau data with data from other sources. Current Population Survey. The report draws these data from numerous sources. Together. Department of Homeland Security. Census Bureau. Laos. Malaysia. most are immigrants. others work in restaurants or nail salons. Taiwan. Given the social and economic diversity within Asian American communities. Survey of Business Owners. they are not comprehensive. Nepal. The statements and recommendations expressed in this report are solely the responsibility of the authors.S. Cambodia. They will help stakeholders across the nation better respond to and serve our community of contrasts. and health. education.introduction Asian Americans come from all walks of life. and U. Many were born in the United States. Indonesia. While data from the U. compiling this important information in a user-friendly manner makes it more manageable and likely to be used. these data are critical to understanding and serving a population that includes both affluent.S. and corporations looking to better understand and serve Asian American communities. it presents these data in a way that is accessible to community organizations. American Community Survey. First. Korea. language. including Bangladesh. India. Some are doctors or lawyers. China. including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pakistan. Because quantitative data on Asian Americans can be difficult to access and interpret. immigration. Sri Lanka. We are Americans. Second. these data paint a fuller. employment. Burma. make Asian Americans a complicated group to understand and serve. U. more nuanced picture of one of our country’s most diverse and rapidly changing racial groups. It not only includes data on population. it works to provide disaggregated data on discrete Asian American ethnic groups. this report has two main goals. and Vietnam. U. third-generation English speakers and low-income refugees. coupled with significant social and economic diversity. In gathering these data at the national level. and American Housing Survey. provide a wealth of information on Asian American communities. but key socioeconomic characteristics such as age. Department of Education. 2 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .S. housing. the Philippines.S. many among the poorest in our nation. Department of State. foundations. This rapid growth. including the 2010 Census. A Community of Contrasts: Asian Americans in the United States 2011 is the second in an ongoing series of reports that attempt to promote a better understanding of Asian American communities throughout the country by compiling the latest data on Asian Americans. elected and appointed officials. income. Japan. Our ancestors hail from many countries. government agencies.

S. Texas. According to the Census Bureau’s November 2008 Current Population Survey. Asian Americans make significant contributions to the economy through entrepreneurial activity. contributing to economic growth in the United States. While A Community of Contrasts includes many findings. Sri Lankans. NatioNal RepoRt oN Native HawaiiaNs aNd pacific islaNdeRs In 1997. North Carolina. Between 2000 and 2009. government agencies. registering to vote. job creation. and Indians. voter registration. less established communities in Nevada. corporations. Policy makers and service providers in areas with established Asian American communities should determine whether existing services need to be modified to accommodate changing ethnic compositions.executive SummAry A Community of Contrasts: Asian Americans in the United States 2011 compiles the latest data on Asian Americans at the national level. Asian Americans are becoming citizens. 55% have done so. New York. Asian American firms were more likely than other firms to create jobs. establishing Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders as a distinct racial category for the purposes of data collection and reporting. faster than any other racial group nationwide. and Get Out the Vote (GOTV) efforts are needed if Asian Americans are to realize their untapped political potential. Honoring the spirit of this directive and recognizing the importance of data that capture the unique needs and concerns of Pacific Islander communities. approximately 68% of Asian Americans old enough to vote are U. Of those eligible to register to vote. Those in areas with less established but growing Asian American communities should work to improve their capacity to serve these emerging populations. the Asian American population in the United States grew 46% between 2000 and 2010. According to the 2010 Census. saw the highest rates of growth. . The Asian American and NHPI population is roughly one-third the size of the Latino population nationwide yet has half the buying power. Arizona. elected and appointed officials. and New Jersey continue to grow. While large Asian American communities in California. According to the Census Bureau’s 2002 and 2007 Survey of Business Owners. Among ethnic groups. Asian American entrepreneurs own over 1. The buying power of Asian American communities is also growing dramatically. Once registered. the rate of Asian American voter turnout still lags behind that of non-Hispanic Whites. the buying power of Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) increased 89%. and casting ballots. including Bangladeshis. Bilingual voter assistance required under the federal Voting Rights Act remains critical to ensuring Asian American voters have full access to the ballot. Produced by the Asian American Center for Advancing Justice. and Georgia grew fastest over the past decade. Pakistanis. employing about 3 million people with an annual payroll of nearly $80 billion. Greater naturalization. foundations. Asian Americans are the country’s fastest growing racial group. this Executive Summary highlights some of them. and consumer spending. the Asian American Center for Advancing Justice will release a separate national report in 2012 dedicated to Pacific Islanders. revisions to Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Statistical Policy Directive 15 called for the disaggregation of data on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. from $269 billion to $509 billion. including Latinos. the report is a valuable resource to community organizations.5 million businesses. citizens. and others looking to better understand and serve one of this country’s fastest growing and most diverse racial groups. South Asians.

healthcare. with a rough majority of Vietnamese and Bangladeshi Americans being LEP Even among the . while Hmong. Asians made up 26% of refugee arrivals and 33% of people granted asylum. and Vietnamese Americans is similar to African Americans and Latinos. This impacts their ability to integrate fully into American society or access critical services needed to survive. Hmong. poverty rates have fallen for all Asian American ethnic groups since 2000. The largest number come as the immediate relatives of U. Laotian. social services. Job training programs and vocational English language instruction should be targeted to Asian Americans with lower levels of educational attainment in an effort to increase access to good jobs. roughly one in five Japanese. and create a process for immigrant students who have lived in the United States for most of their lives to obtain legal residency.S. where all members of the household 14 years or older are LEP Providing . state. Bangladeshi. a rate significantly higher than that of Latinos. Rates of limited-English proficiency vary by ethnic group. According to the U. Proportionately. others struggle through severe poverty. 4 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . roughly one out of every three Asian Americans are limited-English proficient (LEP) and experience some difficulty communicating in English. Yet disaggregated 2007–2009 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates data show that the educational attainment of Cambodians. Immigrants continue to enter the United States from Asia in large numbers using almost every pathway. Yet challenges persist. Asian American educational attainment varies widely among ethnic groups. Impacting millions of Asian Americans. Immigrants from certain Asian countries wait decades to enter. With disproportionate numbers of Asian immigrants entering the country as professionals under employment-based preferences. roughly one in five Asian American households is linguistically isolated. citizenship. language barriers continue to limit opportunities for millions of Asian Americans. From 2001 to 2010. most English-proficient Asian American ethnic groups. limiting employment opportunities for many in Southeast Asian communities. contributing to an Asian American undocumented population bordering one million. immigration policy should promote family unity. and Cambodian Americans have poverty rates that approach those of African Americans and Latinos. and Indian Americans are LEP . Some Asian Americans struggle economically. Census Bureau’s 2007–2009 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates.immigration policies disproportionately impact Asian Americans. According to 2007–2009 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates. In addition.S. provide a path to legalization and citizenship for the undocumented. Asian Americans are more likely than any other racial group to be foreign-born. Hmong Americans have the lowest per capita income of any racial or ethnic group nationwide. Asian American educational attainment generally approaches or exceeds that of non-Hispanic Whites. According to 2007–2009 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates. citizens. approximately 60% of Asian Americans were born outside the United States. and local governments should establish or expand culturally and linguistically accessible public assistance programs to meet these needs. particularly in light of the ongoing economic recession. Federal. assistance in Asian languages and greater opportunities to learn English promotes better access to good jobs. Filipino. voting. and the judicial system for millions of Asian Americans. while equal numbers come under family-sponsored and employment-based preferences. While some in Asian American communities enjoy economic success and stability. Efforts to revoke the rights of noncitizens and harsh immigration enforcement measures have extremely disproportionate impacts on the Asian American community.

2007–2009 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates shows that the most vulnerable in our community face high rates of joblessness.unemployment has impacted Southeast Asian American communities. with nearly one in four Pakistani and Bangladeshi Americans being without health insurance. adult English language learning. 59% of Asian Americans own homes nationwide. provide policymakers and service providers with critical information to guide sound decision making. Asian Americans continue to face housing concerns. Yet this rate of homeownership lags significantly behind that of non-Hispanic Whites. including immigrants. Job training. residents. twice the national average. While the unemployment rate of Asian Americans is low relative to other groups. Like other communities continuing to face recession. Data from the Centers for Disease Control’s 2008 National Health Interview Survey show that Asian Americans are twice as likely than both non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans to have seen a doctor in the past five years. The problem is compounded by large numbers of Asian Americans living in overcrowded housing.S. particularly those disaggregated by Asian American ethnic group. Access to affordable healthcare coverage is critical for Asian Americans. stomach and liver cancer. A Community of Contrasts 5 . unemployment benefits. despite being more likely to develop hepatitis. Asian Americans are also more likely than nonHispanic Whites to be uninsured. With disproportionate numbers in management and professional fields. Laotian. Approximately 7% live in over-crowded housing. and Cambodian Americans have unemployment rates higher than the national average. many Asian Americans have been better situated than others to weather the current financial crisis. According to 2007–2009 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates. Social and economic data on Asian Americans. with a majority of Bangladeshi. and other safety net programs should be made accessible to these workers as they struggle to get back on their feet. Asian Americans would greatly benefit from expanding affordable housing and homeownership opportunities. Hmong. and other diseases. and Korean Americans renting rather than owning their own homes. Hmong. The federal government should work with insurance companies and employers to expand access to affordable healthcare coverage for all U.

9 million in 1990. more than at any other time in our nation’s history.745.020. non-Hispanic. Census Bureau.579 1.594 42. „ There are over 17. Figures will not sum to total.320. single race and multirace combined.3 million Asian Americans living in the united States. Major races and ethnic groups ranked by United States percentage.817. which is single race. except for White.856 5.743 17. Asian Americans make up 6% of our nation’s total population.S. 2010 Census. there are now over 17. 6 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . United States 2010 race and Hispanic origin White Hispanic African American Asian American (AA) AIAN NHPI total Population number 196. numbering only 6.538 Percent 64% 16% 14% 6% 2% 0. Population by Race and Hispanic Origin. and are not exclusive of Hispanic origin.220.PoPulAtion our nation’s Asian American population has grown dramatically since discriminatory immigration quotas were eliminated in 1965.40% 100% „ Source: U.195 308.3 million Asian Americans living in the United States. Note: Figures are for the inclusive population.225.552 50.477.

America’s non-Hispanic White population grew only 1% over the same period. In contrast. Percent Population Growth by Race and Hispanic Origin. United States 2000 to 2010 Asian American 46% Hispanic 43% NHPI 40% AIAN 27% African American 15% Total Population 10% White 0 1% 10 20 30 40 50 Source: U. Census Bureau. AiAn = American Indian and Alaska Native nHPi = Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander 7 .S.PoPulAtion GrowtH „ „ Asian American population grew 46% between 2000 and 2010. Asian American population growth over the decade outpaced that of any other racial group. 2000 and 2010 Censuses. including both Latinos and African Americans.

211 370. and Hawai’i followed California in size. „ „ States with Highest number of Asian Americans United States 2010 u. Texas.083 522. States California New York Texas New Jersey Hawaii Illinois Washington Florida Virginia Pennsylvania Massachusetts Maryland Georgia Michigan North Carolina Source: U.585 8 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .GeoGrAPHic diStribution „ Asian American populations in Nevada. Arizona. and Georgia were the fastest growing nationwide between 2000 and 2010. Asian American populations in New York.S.694 604. and North Carolina) and four are in the Midwest (Illinois. Minnesota.497 289. Georgia.199 402. Census Bureau. and Ohio). California’s Asian American population remained by far the country’s largest.163 780.549.000 Asian Americans.587 394. New Jersey. Florida.607 252.556. North Carolina. numbering over 5.968 668.5 million in 2010.S.666 795. „ Of 19 states home to more than 225.044 365. Over 57% of Hawai’i’s total population is Asian American. States Nevada Arizona North Carolina North Dakota Georgia New Hampshire Delaware Arkansas Indiana Texas Florida Virginia Idaho South Dakota Alabama % Growth 116% 95% 85% 85% 83% 80% 78% 77% 74% 72% 72% 71% 71% 70% 70% number 5. Virginia.494 1. Maryland. Michigan.592 1.251 573. making it the country’s only majority Asian American state.S. Nevada’s Asian American population more than doubled over the decade. States with Highest Growth of Asian Americans United States 2000 to 2010 % 15% 8% 4% 9% 57% 5% 9% 3% 7% 3% 6% 6% 4% 3% 3% u.110. six are in the South (Texas. 2010 Census.

2000 and 2010 Censuses. United States 2000 to 2010 Bangladeshi Pakistani Sri Lankan Indian Taiwanese Thai Indonesian Filipino Vietnamese Malaysian Hmong Korean Chinese (except Taiwanese) Cambodian Laotian Total Population 0 17% 10% 50 100 150 200 Source: U. Ranked in Order of Population ethnic Group Chinese (except Taiwanese) number 3. Asian American ethnic Groups United States 2010. Nepalese. Census Bureau. They are followed in size by Filipinos.130 230.490 45.163 276. Indians.073 237.300 100.583 ethnic Group Laotian Taiwanese Bangladeshi Burmese Indonesian Nepalese Sri Lankan Malaysian Bhutanese number 232.822 1.286 409. 2010 Census. 157% 100% 85% 68% 59% 58% 51% 44% 42% 41% 40% 39% 39% 34% Japanese 14% A Community of Contrasts 9 . Population Growth by Ethnic Group.S.200 95.794.433 1.183.063 1.667 260.673 3.382 147. Note: Population growth percentages for Burmese.etHnic GrouPS „ The country’s fastest growing Asian American ethnic groups were South Asian. Bangladeshi and Pakistani American populations doubled in size between 2000 and 2010.8 million nationwide. and Bhutanese excluded because these groups did not meet 2000 Census population thresholds to be counted as an ethnic category.706. and Korean Americans.270 59.840 3.381 26. Vietnamese.304.737. Chinese Americans continue to be the largest Asian American ethnic group.416. Census Bureau.179 19. Vietnamese Americans now outnumber both Korean and Japanese Americans nationwide.S. numbering nearly 3.439 „ Filipino Indian Vietnamese Korean Japanese Pakistani Cambodian Hmong Thai „ Source: U.

23% of Thai. Hmong.S. Japanese Americans are most likely be of mixed race. 10 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . and Bhutanese Americans are of mixed race. United States 2010 Japanese Indonesian Thai Filipino Malaysian Korean Chinese (except Taiwanese) Laotian Sri Lankan Taiwanese Cambodian Indian Vietnamese Pakistani Burmese Nepalese Bangladeshi Total Population Hmong Bhutanese 0 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 6% 6% 5% 10% 9% 8% 8% 8% 12% 14% 16% 23% 22% 26% 35% Source: U.mixed-rAce PoPulAtion „ More than 15% of Asian Americans are of mixed race. Census Bureau. More than one-third of Japanese Americans are multiracial. and 16% of Malaysian Americans. followed by 26% of Indonesian. Bangladeshi. 22% of Filipinos. 2010 Census. Among larger ethnic groups. Among Asian American ethnic groups. only 6% of Vietnamese and 8% of Indians are multiracial. Nepalese. „ „ Percent of Population that is mixed-race by Ethnic Group. Fewer than 5% of Burmese. Only 3% of all Americans are multiracial.

Asian Americans are an emerging consumer power whose market share is growing dramatically. Jeffrey M. Selig Center for Economic ” Growth 69(3). 2009. . that can be used on any expenditure. United States 2000 to 2009 Hispanic Asian American & NHPI AIAN African American Total Population White 0 20 100% 89% 65% 54% 49% 46% 40 60 80 100 Source: Humphreys. after taxes. Asian Americans also own a disproportionate number of businesses. „ Asian American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) buying power was $509 billion in 2009.economic contributionS As Asian American communities grow. employing a large number of workers and generating significant revenue. so too have their contributions to the American economy. This figure does not include savings from previous years or income that is borrowed.* *AA and NHPI data are not available separately. buyinG Power refers to the personal income. Percent change in buying Power by Race and Hispanic Origin. “The Multicultural Economy 2009.

generating over $506 billion in revenues.081 117. “The Multicultural Economy 2009.921. 2007 Survey of Business Owners.240. **Source: Humphreys.661. Note: Race and ethnic categories do not sum to the total population figures because “Hispanic” is treated as an ethnic category that overlaps with the racial categories.842 $6.678 27.990. and Native Americans over the same period.000) $10.816. growing 89% over a nine-year period.822.310.691 37.037 37.834 $34. Approximately 26% of Asian American businesses had paid employees.S.118 Annual Payroll ($1.559 2.459 $54.092.771 1.295.519. paying out nearly $80 billion in payroll.260.824.508 $23.230.161 909.799 $4. Jeffrey M.109. ” race and Hispanic origin of business owners United States 2007 race and Hispanic origin White Asian American Hispanic African American AIAN NHPI Total Population All firms (number) 22.636 Source: U.217.908 revenues ($1.353.910 employees (number) 52.047.319. 12 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . These businesses generated more in revenue than businesses owned by any other racial group except non-Hispanic Whites.552 185. „ „ Asian American–owned businesses employed nearly 3 million Americans in 2007.379 $79. highest among all racial groups.„ Asian American and NHPI* buying power nearly doubled between 2000 and 2009. except for non-Hispanic Whites.357 $30. 2009.864 236.549. „ Asian Americans owned over 1. African Americans. Selig Center for Economic Growth 69(3).146 1.908.807.** „ Asian American and NHPI* growth in buying power surpassed that of non-Hispanic Whites.930.714 $506.518.5 million businesses in 2007.269 1.739.751 $350.243 $135.000) $1.595. These businesses employed more persons and dispensed more in payroll than businesses owned by any other racial group.792 $5.334.247 $1.201 2. Census Bureau.031.** *AA and NHPI data are not available separately.

Note: The foreign-born population includes both those eligible and ineligible to naturalize. A Community of Contrasts 13 . and voicing their concerns at the ballot box. United States 2007 to 2009 Naturalized Not Naturalized White Asian American African American TotaI Population NHPI AIAN Hispanic 0 58% 57% 46% 43% 40% 32% 29% 20 40 60 80 42% 43% 54% 57% 60% 68% 71% 100 Source: U. language barriers and voter identification requirements also affect voter registration and access to the polls. 3-Year Estimates. registering to vote. language and cost barriers to citizenship remain significant hurdles to full civic engagement. Census Bureau. despite this. Percent of Foreign-born Population who Have naturalized by Race and Hispanic Origin.civic enGAGement Asian Americans are becoming a powerful political voice. they are becoming citizens.S. 2007–2009 American Community Survey.

* *Source: Jeanne Batalova. and Thai American immigrants are citizens.000 Asian American immigrants became U. Cambodian. Laotian. Indian. Japanese. In 2010. citizens. Approximately 60% or more Taiwanese. „ „ Percent of Foreign-born Population who Have naturalized by Ethnic Group.S.S. citizens.S. ” Migration Policy Institute. Sri Lankan. United States 2007 to 2009 Naturalized Not Naturalized Vietnamese Taiwanese Filipino Cambodian Laotian Chinese (except Taiwanese) Pakistani Hmong Korean Bangladeshi Thai Indian Sri Lankan Total Population Indonesian Japanese Malaysian 0 73% 67% 64% 63% 62% 60% 57% 57% 54% 50% 49% 47% 43% 43% 35% 33% 27% 20 40 60 80 27% 33% 36% 37% 38% 40% 43% 43% 46% 50% 51% 53% 57% 57% 65% 67% 73% 100 Source: U.S. and Chinese American immigrants are citizens.„ Approximately 57% of Asian American immigrants are U. Nearly three out of four Vietnamese American immigrants are U. „ Fewer than half of Malaysian. May 2011. more than 250. 14 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . 3-Year Estimates. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. Indonesian. Census Bureau. Filipino. citizens. “Asian Immigrants in the United States. an increase from 50% in 2000.

S. legal Permanent residents 550. only 36% of Chinese American legal permanent residents are eligible to become citizens. and those who adjusted to LPR status through cancelation of removal (2 years). “Estimates of the Legal Permanent Resident Population in 2009.000 500.000 240. However.000 110. Lautenberg parolees. Approximately 85% of Japanese American legal permanent residents are eligible to naturalize.000 130. must also be met. Asian American legal Permanent residents eligible to naturalize by Country of Birth. India. In contrast.000 200.000 Percent eligible to naturalize 51% 36% 40% 63% 58% 85% 42% Source: U. additional criteria. asylees (4 years). „ A leGAl PermAnent reSident is generally eligible to naturalize once she or he has held that status for five years.000 200. and refugees. ” Note: Estimates assume that immigrants are required to reside in the U.000 50.000 190.„ The greatest number of legal permanent residents eligible to become citizens are from the Philippines.000 530. A Community of Contrasts 15 .S. citizens (3 years).000 number eligible to naturalize 280.000 120.000 140. and Vietnam.000 320. United States 2008 country of birth Philippines China India Vietnam Korea* Japan Pakistan *Korea includes North and South Korea.S. Department of Homeland Security. 5 years after obtaining Legal Permanent Resident (LPR) status except for the following immigrant categories: Spouses of U. such as “good moral character” and basic English literacy.

” „ Only 68% of Asian Americans old enough to vote are citizens. a rate lower than that of non-Hispanic Whites. „ „ 16 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . November 2008 Current Population Survey. and Hispanic Origin. Approximately 86% of Asian American registered voters cast ballots in the 2008 General Election. for States: November 2008.citizenship. by Sex.* *Source: Project Vote. “Reported Voting and Registration of the Voting-Age Population. April 2011. Race. roughly 30% of Asian American voters were voting for the first time. United States—November 2008 Percent of Voting-Age Population Who Were Citizens Percent of Citizens Voting Age Population Who Registered to Vote Percent of Registered Voters Who Voted 100 98% 90% 80 84% 74% 60 63% 94% 93% 86% 91% 90% 70% 68% 71% 59% 55% 40 20 0 Hispanic White African American Asian American Total Population Source: U. Census Bureau. In both 2004 and 2008 General Elections. and voting by Race and Hispanic Origin.S. „ Only 55% of Asian Americans eligible to register to vote have registered. voter registration.

increasing numbers of Asian Americans are native-born. refugees. 8% of African Americans. „ Approximately 60% of Asian Americans are foreign-born. only 38% of Latinos. „ Nearly one in three of the 10. Percent of Population who Are Foreign-born by Race and Hispanic Origin. The percent of Asian Americans nationwide born outside the United States decreased from 63% in 2000 to 60% in 2007–2009. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. In contrast. How an individual enters the united States greatly affects her or his economic and social well-being in this country. Some come as legal immigrants.6 million Asian American foreign-born entered the United States between 2000 and 2009. immigrants from Asia continue to enter the united States in large numbers. 3-Year Estimates.S. and 4% of non-Hispanic Whites were born outside the United States. while others enter without documentation or fall out of status due to the difficulty of obtaining a visa. the highest proportion of any racial group nationwide. Census Bureau.immiGrAtion immigration is an integral part of the Asian American experience. United States 2007 to 2009 Asian American Hispanic NHPI Total Population African American AIAN White 0 5% 4% 10 20 30 40 50 60 8% 14% 13% 38% 60% Source: U. „ Despite being overwhelmingly immigrant. or asylees. A Community of Contrasts 17 .

United States 2007 to 2009 Sri Lankan Malaysian Bangladeshi Indian Taiwanese Pakistani Korean Indonesian Vietnamese Chinese (except Taiwanese) Thai Cambodian Laotian Filipino Hmong Japanese Total Population 0 76% 73% 73% 70% 68% 65% 65% 65% 64% 61% 60% 56% 55% 53% 44% 28% 13% 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Source: U. „ Percent of Population who Are Foreign-born by Ethnic Group. 18 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .„ More than three out of four Sri Lankan Americans are foreign-born. Roughly 7 in 10 Malaysian. 3-Year Estimates. the highest rate among Asian American ethnic groups. Census Bureau.S. Indian. and Taiwanese Americans were born abroad. Among Asian Americans. Japanese and Hmong Americans are the only ethnic groups with majority native-born populations. Bangladeshi. 2007–2009 American Community Survey.

Department of State. “Visa Bulletin: Immigrant Numbers for July 2011. Immigrants born in the Philippines must wait between 3 and 23 years. emPloyment-bASed viSAS: Immigrants born in mainland China and India wait for up to 9 years.000 200.demAnd For viSAS immigrant visas issued by the united States 2001 to 2010 Total All Asian Immigrant Admissions Total All Immigrant Admissions 2010 2009 2008 Year Immigrant Visa Was Issued 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 0 169. “The Report of the Visa Office 2010. Any changes would not be statistically significant.769 449.774 100.S.248 150.813 144. wAitinG PeriodS For viSAS* The waiting period for visas under both family-sponsored and employment-based preferences can vary widely depending on country.000 400.871 159.775 434. the longest wait time for any nation besides Mexico.000 500.380 482.000 Source: U.590 408. FAmily-SPonSored viSAS: Immigrants born in mainland China and India must wait between 3 and 11 years.412 180.000 300.025 470.100 171.080 364. Chart includes all visas issued to both permanent and nonpermanent immigrants.529 144. ” .385 468.179 379.053 157.770 156.103 159.465 389.426 138. ” * FY2010 data are preliminary and are subject to change.871 402. *Source: U. Asian Americans sponsor more than one-third of all family-based immigrants and have some of the longest wait times.S. Immigrants born in the Philippines must wait up to 7 years. and also includes replaced visas. Department of State.

2010. Refugees are immigrants who applied for admission while living abroad. . and the Diversity Visa program. employer sponsorship.367 34.403 193.837 4.870 1.599 21.000 Source: U.843 388 50000 100. government workers. Visa Was Issued Bangladesh Pakistan South Korea Taiwan Hong Kong Japan Thailand Nepal Cambodia Burma Sri Lanka Indonesia Malaysia Singapore Laos Mongolia 0 84. 52% of refugee arrivals from Asian countries were from Burma.000 250000 300. immigrant visas issued by the united States in Asian countries 2001 to 2010 Philippines China India Vietnam Country Where U.000 150000 200.694 286. Immigrant visas include any visas issued under the auspices of immediate relative and family sponsorship. and religious workers). the Philippines.008 267. China.S. those from Asian countries made up 26% of all refugee arrivals and 33% of all persons granted asylum.„ Among Asian countries. „ Bangladesh sent more immigrants to the United States than South Korea or Japan over the same period. Department of Homeland Security’s Yearbooks of Immigration Statistics. Any changes would not be statistically significant. From 2001 to 2010.S.147 18.057 45.049 reFuGeeS And ASyleeS are persons who came to the United States to escape persecution in their country of origin.* From 2001 to 2010.880 8. “The Report of the Visa Office 2010.* *Source: The U. the Special Immigrants program (Iraqi and Afghan translators.643 69. while asylees are immigrants who applied for admission at either a port of entry or within the United States.045 5. „ Between 2001 and 2010. 1.000 350000 400. and 68% of asylees born in Asia were from China. 350. ” *FY2010 data are preliminary and are subject to change.6 million immigrants entered the United States from Asian countries.129 7. Department of State. and India sent the most immigrants to the United States over the past decade.809 42.896 8.183 3. This chart does not contain data on temporary visitors.S.202 59.

276 1.and Singapore-born persons obtaining LPR status in 2010 entered under employmentbased preferences.610 1. Over half of Macau.128 645 2. citizens % 33% 5% 76% 34% 30% 32% 48% 63% 71% 24% 41% 54% 18% 47% 58% 37% 37% 32% 40% 44% 36% 6 0.425 44.091 diversity refugees and Asylees % 1% 99% 329 115 23 30 58 138 218 4 7 40 80 1. 6.691 4. 2010 country of birth FamilySponsored Preferences % Bangladesh Bhutan Burma Cambodia China Hong Kong India Indonesia Japan Laos Macau Malaysia Mongolia Nepal Pakistan Philippines Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Vietnam total 41% D 4% 14% 19% 49% 21% 10% 2% 9% 59% 9% 1% 4% 34% 31% 8% 11% 10% 26% 4% 59% 24% 459 418 13. Mongolian. „ A majority of Cambodian.896 6.943 7 1.5% 38% 132.and Vietnamese.935 28 604 2. Laotian. Source: U.010 171 0.351 195 1.266 24.S.324 573 12 172 0 301 121 3. 80 0 2 15 140 4 195 39 25 5 0 12 2 9 72 86 11 93 14 20 64 122 1. 2.949 464 31.849 65 2.093 507 55 18 7 258 6 4.S. 827 86 59 17.032 % 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 1% 4% 1% 0% 1% 0% other % 19% D 3% 4% 0% 1% 0% 5% 4% 0% 5% 2% 14% 23% 0% 0% 2% 0% 19% 3% 1% 0% 2% no. Asian Country of Birth.800 no.642 530 2.522 33.312 8.3% D = Data withheld to limit disclosure.445 113 14.423 377 11.916 847 34 704 320 1. „ „ Persons obtaining legal Permanent resident Status by Class of Admissions.196 14. 6071 11.167 89% 4% 21% 0% 2% 19% 0% 14% 0% 18% 20% 44% 3% 0% 2% 0% 13% 0% 46% 3% 13% no.S.636 306 120 113 84 149 5 269 6.831 1.644 14 14 14 6 394 196 43 0 6. citizens. Department of Homeland Security’s Yearbook of Immigration Statistics.746 289 8.973 59 18 508 66 788 2.729 345 18. 4.S. and Philippine and nearly half of Indonesian and Pakistani-born persons obtaining LPR status in 2010 entered as the immediate relatives of U.and nearly half of Hong Kong–born persons obtaining LPR status in 2010 entered under family-based preferences. 2010. Japanese. A majority of South Korean and nearly half of Indian.179 no.5% no.027 84.198 731 21.090 530 360 79.284 immediate relatives of u.247 17. citizens. those born in Asia were more likely than other immigrants to enter under family-sponsored or employment-based immigration preferences.006 employmentbased Preferences % 6% 0% 1% 2% 25% 19% 45% 17% 32% 5% 13% 30% 11% 11% 16% 11% 49% 52% 26% 31% 6% 1% 23% no.leGAl PermAnent reSidentS „ While the largest number of Asian-born persons obtaining legal permanent resident (LPR) status in 2010 entered as the immediate relatives of U.461 3. .118 515 1.525 0.126 11.

000 100.1 million undocumented youth who would qualify for legalization through the DREAM Act.undocumented PoPulAtion „ Approximately 1 million undocumented immigrants in the United States are from Asia. “Estimates of Unauthorized Immigrant Population residing in the United States: January 2010. 1 in 10 is of Asian origin. More undocumented immigrants were born in the Philippines than any other Asian country.000 number of undocumented immigrants 250. Department of Homeland Security. 2005 to 2010 300. July 2010. and Margie McHugh.S.000 Philippines 280.000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: U.** **Source: Batalova.000 200.000 China 130. .000 150.000 India 200. dreAm Act StudentS Among the 2.000 Korea 170. Jeanne. „ undocumented Asian American immigrant Population in the united States by Country of Birth. ” Note: Estimates of the unauthorized resident population are the remainder after estimates of the legally resident foreign-born population are subtracted from estimates of the total foreign-born population.

2007–2009 American Community Survey.S. Census Bureau. 3-Year Estimates. Japanese Americans have the oldest median age (38). median Age and Age Group by race United States 2007 to 2009 race and Hispanic origin African American AIAN Asian American Hispanic NHPI White total Population median Age 30 31 33 27 26 41 37 0–17 30% 30% 26% 35% 35% 21% 24% 18–64 62% 62% 65% 60% 60% 63% 62% 65+ 8% 8% 9% 6% 6% 16% 13% „ „ median Age and Age Group by ethnic Group United States 2007 to 2009 ethnic Group Bangladeshi Cambodian Chinese (except Taiwanese) Filipino Hmong Indian Indonesian Japanese Korean Laotian Malaysian Pakistani Sri Lankan Taiwanese Thai Vietnamese total Population median Age 31 27 35 34 20 32 33 38 33 28 33 29 36 35 32 34 37 0–17 33% 32% 25% 28% 45% 26% 24% 24% 26% 32% 22% 34% 24% 19% 26% 28% 24% 18–64 64% 63% 65% 63% 52% 68% 70% 61% 66% 63% 74% 63% 68% 59% 70% 64% 63% 65+ 3% 5% 13% 10% 3% 6% 6% 15% 8% 5% 5% 4% 8% 9% 4% 8% 13% „ Source: U. Among Asian American ethnic groups. Over one-quarter of Asian Americans are children under the age of 18. Asian Americans are younger on average and have a higher proportion of working-age adults compared to other major racial groups. population (37) and nonHispanic Whites (41). „ Approximately 65% of Asian Americans are working-age adults between the ages of 18 and 64. a greater proportion than any other racial group.AGe Age affects both an individual’s opportunities and social service needs.S. The median age of Asian Americans is 33. A Community of Contrasts 23 . while Hmong Americans have the youngest (20). making them younger than both the overall U.

and roughly one-third is limited-english proficient (leP). social services. Census Bureau.lAnGuAGe Asian Americans speak dozens of languages and dialects. language is a formidable barrier impacting access to a range of vital services. such as healthcare. nearly three out of four Asian Americans speak a language other than english at home. coupled with a lack of available english classes. reflecting the community’s rich immigrant character and diversity. housing. United States 2007 to 2009 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 77% 71% 29% 20% 20% 8% Hispanic or Latino Asian American NHPI AIAN Total Population African American 6% White Source: U. Percent of Population who Speak a language other than english at Home for those 5 years of Age and older by Race and Hispanic Origin. courts. 24 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . 2007–2009 American Community Survey. and education. 3-Year Estimates.S.

more than one in three Japanese Americans continue to speak a language other than English at home. Taiwanese. „ „ Percent of Population who Speak a language other than english at Home for those 5 years and older by Ethnic Group. Pakistani.S. Despite being disproportionately native-born relative to other Asian American ethnic groups. Hmong. Vietnamese. United States 2007 to 2009 Bangladeshi Hmong Pakistani Vietnamese Taiwanese Laotian Cambodian Indian Chinese (including Taiwanese) Sri Lankan Korean Indonesian Thai Malaysian Filipino Japanese Total Population 0 92% 91% 86% 84% 82% 81% 81% 77% 75% 72% 71% 67% 66% 65% 57% 36% 20% 20 40 60 80 100 Source: U. Laotian. and Cambodian Americans speak a language other than English at home. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. A Community of Contrasts 25 . 3-Year Estimates. More than 80% of Bangladeshi.„ Approximately 71% of Asian Americans speak a language other than English at home. Census Bureau.

380.481 457. Census.799 1.102 209.840 13.E.822 74. or the Philippines. Source: U. 2007–2009 American Community Survey.486 76. Census Bureau. 2005 to 2009 language Chinese Tagalog Vietnamese Korean Hindi Japanese Urdu Gujarati Punjabi Bengali Mon-Khmer. India.835 188.S. Cambodian Hmong Telugu Laotian Thai Tamil Malayalam Formosan Ilocano Indonesian Marathi Kannada Nepali Burmese Visayan (not including Cebuano) Sinhalese Pakistan N.200.041.310 304.336 13.* Malay Cebuano number 2.453 1.311 181.240 34. 26 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .501 „ „ „ Approximately 10 million Americans speak one of the 33 Asian languages categorized by the U. Over two-thirds of Asian Americans speak a language originating from China.441.504 53. The largest group of languages spoken by Asian Americans is composed of languages from China.319 11.030 527.452 185. *Includes Pakistani along with other languages spoken in Pakistan.lAnGuAGeS SPoken number of Asian language Speakers in the united States by Language.377 37.119 22.547 57.709 1.045 132.573 116.540 326. 5-Year Estimates.S.015 148.C.186 142.436 37.758 23.770 171.

Despite continued immigration.S. Rates of limited-English proficiency among Latinos have seen a similar decline. when 36% of Asian Americans were LEP. 2007 to 2009 Hispanic 38% Asian American 32% Total Population 9% NHPI 8% AIAN 6% African American 3% White 2% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Source: U. A Community of Contrasts 27 . from 41% in 2000 to 38% in 2007–2009. 2007–2009 American Community Survey.limited enGliSH ProFiciency „ Approximately 32% of Asian Americans are limited-English proficient (LEP) and experience some difficulty communicating in English. 3-Year Estimates. Census Bureau. rates of limited-English proficiency among Asian Americans have fallen since 2000. „ Percent of Population who Are limited english Proficient for those 5 years of Age and older by Race and Hispanic Origin.

Korean.S. 2007 to 2009 Vietnamese Bangladeshi Cambodian Hmong Taiwanese Chinese (except Taiwanese) Korean Laotian Thai Indonesian Pakistani Malaysian Indian Sri Lankan Filipino Japanese Total Population 0 51% 46% 43% 43% 43% 42% 41% 40% 36% 30% 28% 23% 22% 22% 19% 18% 9% 10 20 30 40 50 60 Source: U. Chinese. over half of Vietnamese and nearly half of Bangladeshi Americans are LEP . nearly one in five are LEP . and Laotian Americans are LEP . including Japanese and Filipino Americans. Over 40% of Cambodian.„ Among Asian American ethnic groups. Census Bureau. 28 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . 2007–2009 American Community Survey. „ „ Among Asian American ethnic groups. Even among the most English proficient Asian American ethnic groups. only Sri Lankan Americans have seen an increase in limited English proficiency since 2000. „ Percent of Population who Are limited english Proficient for those 5 years of Age and older by Ethnic Group. 3-Year Estimates. Taiwanese. Hmong. Limited English proficiency among Sri Lankan Americans increased from 18% in 2000 to 22% in 2007–2009.

and British Commonwealth territories. Note: The ethnic group percentages included in this graph do not include mixed-ethnicity and mixedrace people. 8% of Filipino.S. „ „ Despite their origins in former U. Among Asian American ethnic groups. 31% of Korean. linGuiSticAlly iSolAted HouSeHoldS Households in which all members 14 years old and older speak English less than “very well. Census Bureau. a decrease from 25% in 2000. 11% of Indian. 5-Year Estimates. and 12% of Sri Lankan American households experience linguistic isolation. 12% of Pakistani. 2005 to 2009 Vietnamese Korean Chinese (except Taiwanese) Bangladeshi Laotian Thai Hmong Indonesian Cambodian Malaysian Japanese Sri Lankan Pakistani Indian Filipino Total Population 0 35% 31% 29% 25% 22% 21% 21% 20% 20% 19% 16% 12% 12% 11% 8% 5% 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Source: U.linGuiStic iSolAtion „ Approximately 21% of Asian American households are linguistically isolated. A Community of Contrasts 29 .S. 2005–2009 American Community Survey. 35% of Vietnamese. and 29% of Chinese American households are linguistically isolated. ” Percent of linguistically isolated Households by Ethnic Group.

United States 2009 High School Degree or Higher Bachelor’s Degree or Higher White Asian American NHPI Total Population African American AIAN Hispanic 18% 16% 13% 17% 31% 49% 90% 86% 85% 85% 81% 80% 61% 28% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Source: U. 3-Year Estimates.educAtion Asian Americans are often thought of as having high levels of formal education.S. educational Attainment by Race and Hispanic Origin. and opportunities to build assets. a closer look at data from the u. while this is generally true. 30 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . census bureau reveals large disparities between Asian American ethnic groups. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. with the educational profiles of some communities similar to latinos and African Americans.S. Census Bureau. employerprovided healthcare. „ Asian Americans are less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to hold a high school degree. this suggests that many Asian Americans lack the credentials necessary to access secure and living wage jobs.

Filipino. Indonesian. including Taiwanese. Only 61% of Hmong Americans hold a high school diploma. and Vietnamese Americans is lowest among Asian American ethnic groups and similar to those of Latinos and African Americans.educAtionAl AttAinment „ The educational attainment of Hmong. Laotian. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. Korean. „ In contrast. A Community of Contrasts 31 . educational Attainment by Ethnic Group. while only 12% of Laotian Americans have graduated from college. Japanese.S. eight Asian American ethnic groups. United States 2007 to 2009 High School Degree or Higher Bachelor’s Degree or Higher Taiwanese Indonesian Japanese Malaysian Sri Lankan Korean Filipino Indian Pakistani Total Population Thai Chinese (except Taiwanese) Bangladeshi Vietnamese Laotian Cambodian Hmong 0 12% 14% 14% 20 40 27% 66% 62% 61% 60 28% 42% 50% 47% 55% 46% 47% 46% 57% 56% 52% 73% 96% 94% 94% 93% 93% 92% 92% 68% 91% 87% 85% 84% 82% 81% 72% 80 100 Source: U. and Indian Americans. 3-Year Estimates. Cambodian. are more likely than nonHispanic Whites to hold a high school degree. Sri Lankan. Census Bureau. Malaysian.

Institute of Education Sciences. National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP).enGliSH lAnGuAGe leArnerS „ Approximately 16% of Asian American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) students are English language learners (ELL).S. Department of Education. *National English Language Learner Status data do not provide separate figures for Asian Americans and NHPIs. National Center of Education Statistics. 2009 Reading Assessment. second highest among racial groups. 32 . Percentage of Fourth Graders (for reading Assessment) with english language learner Status by Race and Hispanic Origin. 2009 Hispanic 34% 16% 8% 1% 1% 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Asian American & NHPI American Indian White African American Source: U.

Because Asian Americans also have larger households.906 $68.515 $34.100 $55. HouSeHold income For ASiAn AmericAnS miSleAdinG Asian Americans are more likely than other racial groups.506 $57.342 $27.549 $15.549 $51.735 $28.020 $17.920 AIAN African American Latino 0 $20K $40K $60K $80K Source: U. yet data by ethnic group show that per capita income and poverty rates for some Asian American ethnic groups are similar to those of latinos and African Americans. 3-Year Estimates.S. United States 2007 to 2009 Per Capita Household Income White $31. Asian Americans earn more per capita income than latinos or African Americans but less than non-Hispanic whites despite comparable rates of educational attainment. which adjusts for household size. Per capita income vs.585 $40. Census Bureau. .369 Asian American Total Population NHPI $19.664 $38. their income is better measured by per capita income.income income is a key barometer of socioeconomic status. resulting in an inflated household income.933 $17. Household income by Race and Hispanic Origin. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. including non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans. to have three or more workers per household.

Hmong Americans have a per capita income lower than any racial group nationwide. United States 2007 to 2009 Taiwanese Indian Malaysian Sri Lankan Japanese Chinese (including Taiwanese) Total Population Korean Filipino Indonesian Pakistani Thai Vietnamese Bangladeshi Laotian Cambodian Hmong 0 $10.799 $25.949 10K 20K 30K 40K $16. Malaysian. woman. and child in a particular group. 3-Year Estimates. Indian. Per cAPitA income is the mean income computed for every man. Cambodian. Laotian.533 Source: U.940 $27. half falling below and half above the median household income. and Bangladeshi Americans fall below that of African Americans.312 $36. Census Bureau. „ „ Per capita income by Ethnic Group. 2007–2009 American Community Survey.663 $21. mediAn HouSeHold income divides the income distribution of households (all persons living in the same residence) into two equal parts. Per capita incomes vary considerably by Asian American ethnic group.480 $31.061 $38.542 $33. . It is derived by dividing the total income of a particular group by the total population of that group.Per cAPitA income „ Asian American per capita income falls below that of non-Hispanic Whites but exceeds that of every other racial group.708 $21.784 $16. and Japanese Americans exceed that of non-Hispanic Whites.585 $15. Per capita incomes of Taiwanese. falling below even that of Latinos. Sri Lankan.100 $26.729 $24.831 $30. „ The per capita incomes of Hmong.264 $32.S.118 $25.

Note: Chart contains data for all individuals living beneath the federal poverty line. A Community of Contrasts 35 . with some among the most impoverished in the country.Poverty by rAce „ Approximately 11% of Asian Americans live below the federal poverty line. „ „ The Poverty tHreSHold used by the Census Bureau in 2009 was an annual income of $21. United States 2007 to 2009 African American AIAN Hispanic Total Population NHPI Asian American White 0 5 25% 23% 22% 14% 14% 11% 10% 10 15 20 25 Source: U. Census Bureau. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. not family poverty. Poverty varies considerably among Asian American ethnic groups.954 for a family of four. when 13% of Asian Americans were poor. 3-Year Estimates. the percentage of Asian Americans living beneath the federal poverty line decreased slightly from 2000. a rate that exceeds that of non-Hispanic Whites but falls below the national average. Poverty rates by Race and Hispanic Origin.S. While poverty among all Americans has increased.

Japanese. Malaysian. a rate that exceeds that of Latinos and African Americans. and Sri Lankan Americans live below the poverty line. Census Bureau. In contrast. „ „ Poverty rates by Ethnic Group. Roughly one in five Cambodian and Bangladeshi Americans lives in poverty. Note: Chart contains data for all individuals living beneath the federal poverty line. 3-Year Estimates. United States 2007 to 2009 Hmong Bangladeshi Cambodian Pakistani Vietnamese Total Population Thai Laotian Korean Taiwanese Indonesian Chinese (except Taiwanese) Malaysian Sri Lankan Japanese Indian Filipino 0 26% 20% 18% 15% 14% 14% 14% 13% 13% 12% 12% 12% 10% 9% 8% 8% 6% 5 10 15 20 25 30 Source: U. less than 10% of Filipino. Indian. 2007–2009 American Community Survey.S. not family poverty. 36 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .Poverty by etHnic GrouP „ Over one in four Hmong Americans lives below the federal poverty line. a rate that exceeds the national average.

Census Bureau.S. and Bangladeshi American communities have the highest proportion of children and seniors who live in poverty. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. Cambodian. and Laotian American seniors live in poverty. Approximately one-fifth of Korean. United States 2007 to 2009 Korean Hmong Laotian Cambodian Chinese (except Taiwanese) Vietnamese Bangladeshi Thai Total Population Taiwanese Pakistani Indian Sri Lankan Indonesian Filipino Japanese Malaysian 0 21% 20% 19% 19% 17% 16% 16% 11% 10% 10% 9% 9% 8% 8% 7% 6% 2% 5 10 15 20 25 Source: U. 3-Year Estimates.Poverty AmonG cHildren And SeniorS „ „ Nearly one-third of Hmong American children live in poverty. A Community of Contrasts 37 . Hmong. „ Poverty rates of Seniors (Ages 64+) by Ethnic Group. Cambodian. Hmong.

38 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .S. Roughly 1% of Indian. and Laotian Americans are more likely than any racial group to access cash public assistance. Cambodian.cASH Public ASSiStAnce „ Hmong. and Thai Americans access cash public assistance. Taiwanese. Only 2% of all Asian Americans access cash public assistance. compared to 5% of African Americans and 4% of Latinos. United States 2007 to 2009 Hmong Cambodian Laotian Vietnamese Bangladeshi Total Population Korean Indonesian Filipino Chinese (except Taiwanese) Thai Taiwanese Sri Lankan Pakistani Japanese Indian 0 13% 8% 6% 4% 3% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 3 6 9 12 15 Source: U. Pakistani. and 6% of Laotian Americans accessed cash public assistance. 3-Year Estimates. Census Bureau. Note: Data on Malaysian Americans not reported. approximately 13% of Hmong. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. In 2007–2009. 8% of Cambodian. the lowest rate among racial groups. „ Percent of Population who receive cash Public Assistance by Ethnic Group. Sri Lankan. Japanese. „ Other Asian American ethnic groups are far less likely to access cash public assistance.

Both rates exceeded those of any other racial group. while Asian Americans as a group have low unemployment rates and are disproportionately employed in managerial or professional occupations. United States 2007 to 2009 African American AIAN NHPI Hispanic Total Population Asian American White 0 3 6% 6% 6 9 12 15 8% 9% 10% 13% 13% Source: U. employment is particularly important. unemployment rate by Race and Hispanic Origin. „ During the second quarter of 2010. Asian Americans are likely to be unemployed for longer periods than any other racial group.S. Census Bureau. once unemployed. because the majority of Asian Americans are workingage adults. Source: Economic Policy Institute. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. some Asian American ethnic groups have unemployment rates similar to Latinos and African Americans. including income and whether one has health insurance. 3-Year Estimates. some Asian American ethnic groups suffer unemployment rates similar to latinos and African Americans. „ While Asian Americans have lower unemployment rates relative to other racial groups.emPloyment An individual’s employment affects her or his standing on a number of key economic indicators. while 39% had been unemployed for more than a year. 52% of unemployed Asian Americans had been unemployed for more than six months. A Community of Contrasts 39 . February 2011.

Asian American workers who were unionized earned 14% more than nonunionized Asian American workers. Asian Americans and NHPIs unionized at a slightly higher rate than workers overall (11%). and Cambodian Americans have unemployment rates higher than Latinos and similar to African Americans. and Cambodian Americans in the civilian labor force are without work. .* *AA and NHPI data are not available separately. “Unions and Upward Mobility for Asian Pacific American Workers.S. Roughly 1 in 10 Hmong. Hye Jin Rho. Laotian. Census Bureau. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. 3-Year Estimates. United States 2007 to 2009 Hmong Laotian Cambodian Total Population Pakistani Vietnamese Bangladeshi Thai Sri Lankan Korean Indonesian Indian Filipino Chinese (except Taiwanese) Taiwanese Japanese Malaysian 0 2 11% 10% 10% 8% 8% 7% 7% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% 5% 5% 4% 4 6 8 10 12 Source: U. Note: Chart contains data for civilian labor force only. Source: Schmitt. unemployment rate for those 16 years of Age and older by Ethnic Group. January 2011. Laotian.unemPloyment „ Hmong. John. union memberSHiP • From 2003 to 2007. The Center for ” Economic and Policy Research.* • At 12%. and Nicole Woo.

Indian. etc. police. Production. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. and material moving occupations. While Asian American ethnic groups with the lowest poverty rates (Filipino. those with the highest poverty rates (Bangladeshi. and Japanese Americans) are concentrated in management and other professional occupations. education. etc. fishing. caregiving. Production.occuPAtion „ Nearly half of employed Asian Americans are working in management and professional fields. piloting. „ occuPAtionS key conStruction. transportation. extrAction. media. bus driving. etc. medicine. food service. And mAteriAl movinG: carpentry. Census Bureau. Note: Chart contains data for civilian labor force only. firefighting. arts. tailoring. construction.S. farming. trAnSPortAtion. A Community of Contrasts 41 . electronic assembly. Transportation. administration. mAnAGement And ProFeSSionAl: science. Asian American occupations for those 16 years of Age and older United States 2007 to 2009 50 Asian American Total Population 47% 40 30 34% 26% 17% 20 21% 14% 23% 16% 10 0 Construction. Service: healthcare support. Extraction. SAleS And oFFice: sales. & Material Moving Occupations Management & Professional Occupations Sales & Of ce Occupations Service Occupations Source: U. architecture. Cambodian. engineering. and Hmong Americans) tend to work in production. law. 3-Year Estimates. etc.

and Material Moving Management & Professional Sales & Of ce Service occupation for ethnic Groups with low Poverty rates United States 2007 to 2009 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 14% 9% Filipino Indian 7% 26% 20% 20% 11% Japanese 14% 27% 22% 41% 35% 25% 17% 64% 49% Total Population occupation for ethnic Groups with High Poverty rates United States 2007 to 2009 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Bangladeshi Cambodian Hmong Total Population 17% 17% 24% 21% 19% 20% 24% 19% 22% 17% 32% 33% 36% 36% 35% 25% Source: U. Production. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. 3-Year Estimates. and forestry industries. Census Bureau. Note: Charts exclude percentages of workers active in the farming.S. Transportation. Extraction.occuPAtion And Poverty TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS Construction. fishing. 42 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .

Asian Americans are less likely to utilize government-subsidized housing programs. despite these challenges. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. while 41% rent their homes. Rates of homeownership vary by Asian American ethnic group. Census Bureau. they fall well below those of non-Hispanic Whites.S. renters by Race and Hispanic Origin. „ Approximately 59% of Asian Americans are homeowners. Asian Americans are much less likely than nonHispanic whites to own their own home and often live in overcrowded conditions. While rates of homeownership among Asian Americans exceed those of Latinos and African Americans. United States 2007 to 2009 Renter Owner African American Hispanic NHPI AIAN Asian American Total Population White 0 55% 51% 52% 44% 41% 34% 27% 20 40 60 80 45% 49% 48% 56% 59% 66% 73% 100 Source: U. Percent of Population who Are Homeowners vs. 3-Year Estimates.HouSinG Housing is a fundamental human need. A Community of Contrasts 43 .

3-Year Estimates. and Korean Americans own their homes. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. 44 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .S. Laotian. Filipino. and Sri Lankan Americans are homeowners. Japanese. United States 2007 to 2009 Renter Owner Bangladeshi Hmong Korean Cambodian Malaysian Thai Pakistani Indonesian Indian Sri Lankan Chinese (except Taiwanese) Laotian Japanese Filipino Vietnamese Taiwanese Total Population 0 56% 52% 51% 49% 47% 45% 45% 45% 44% 39% 38% 37% 37% 37% 36% 34% 34% 20 40 60 80 44% 48% 49% 51% 53% 55% 55% 55% 56% 61% 62% 63% 63% 63% 64% 66% 66% 100 Source: U. renters by Ethnic Group. Hmong. „ Percent of Population who Are Homeowners vs.HomeownerSHiP „ Over 60% of Taiwanese. Census Bureau. Chinese. less than half of Bangladeshi. However. Vietnamese.

Census Bureau. In contrast. only 3% of the total population and 1% of non-Hispanic Whites live in such conditions. United States 2007 to 2009 Hmong Bangladeshi Pakistani Cambodian Laotian Vietnamese Filipino Sri Lankan Indian Chinese (except Taiwanese) Thai Malaysian Korean Indonesian Total Population Japanese Taiwanese 0 32% 24% 14% 14% 11% 8% 8% 6% 6% 6% 5% 5% 5% 5% 3% 3% 2% 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Source: U.overcrowded HouSinG „ Approximately 7% of Asian Americans live in overcrowded households in which there is more than one person per room. Asian Americans are underrepresented in government-subsidized housing with only 3% of Asian Americans benefitting. A Community of Contrasts 45 . Despite large numbers living in overcrowded conditions and facing a high housing burden. Nearly one-third of Hmong and one-quarter of Bangladeshi Americans live in overcrowded housing.S. 3-Year Estimates. „ „ Percent who live in overcrowded Housing by Ethnic Group. 2007–2009 American Community Survey.

„ Approximately 4% of Asian Americans and NHPIs* have not seen a health professional in more than five years. and Korean. United States 2004 to 2006 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 6% „ 4% 3% 2% 2% Hispanic Asian American & NHPI AIAN African American White Source: National Interview Survey’s “Health Characteristics of the Asian Adult Population: United States. last Sought a Health Professional more than 5 years Ago by Race and Hispanic Origin. 394. Asian Americans are more likely than other racial groups to develop hepatitis and stomach and liver cancers. and Filipino descent. Vietnamese. Vietnamese. Filipino. and Asian American women 65 years or older are more likely to commit suicide. Japanese. Indian. Roughly 3 out of 10 Asian Americans and NHPIs* have been tested for HIV. January 2008. 46 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . ” Note: The racial categories represented in this chart are non-Hispanic. Asian American youth are more likely to consider suicide. yet Asian Americans are less likely to have seen a health professional in the past five years and are more likely to be uninsured. a rate lower than all racial groups. January 22. a rate twice that of non-Hispanic Whites. 2008. Indian. single-race only.HeAltH Health concerns include both disease and the ability to treat disease.** *Asian American and NHPI data are not made available separately. Advance Data No. ** Source: National Health Interview Survey. 2004–2006. Korean. The Asian American sample included in this study includes Americans of Chinese. Focus of this report is the following selected Asian subgroups: Chinese.

except for American Indians and Alaskan Natives.gov/statfacts/html/breast. 2008. Vietnamese. Chinese and Korean Americans are twice as likely as non-Hispanic Whites to contract hepatitis.cancer. „ „ Percent of those 18 years of Age and over with Hepatitis by Race. 2004–2006. a rate higher than those of all other racial groups. and Ethnic Group.11. Asian American and NHPI data are not made available separately. Indian. Approximately 14% of Indian Americans have diabetes. 394. January 22. 1975–2008.* Asian Americans and NHPIs have the highest incidence of stomach and liver cancers.15 http://seer.html. single-race only. United States 2004 to 2006 Asian American & NHPI Hispanic White AIAN African American Chinese Korean Filipino Indian Japanese Vietnamese 0 1 4% 3% 3% 3% 2% 6% 6% 5% 5% 3% 2% 2 3 4 5 6 Source: National Interview Survey’s “Health Characteristics of the Asian Adult Population: United States. 24. and all Asian American ethnic groups. Hispanic Origin. Filipino. and Korean. Advance Data No. SEER Cancer Statistics Review. A Community of Contrasts 47 . Focus of this report is the following selected Asian subgroups: Chinese. Tables 5.15.14. Japanese. January 2008.** *Source: National Health Interview Survey.HeAltH diSPAritieS „ Asian Americans are more likely than any other racial group to contract hepatitis. Roughly 4% of all Asian Americans have the disease. **Source: NCI 2011. ” Note: The racial categories represented in this chart are non-Hispanic.

. and 51% reported major depression. report symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). a rate higher than both African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites.* *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. with 6. United States. **Source: Mollica et al.000.4 suicides per 100. ” „ Percentage of High School Students who Attempted or Seriously considered Suicide by Race and Hispanic Origin. “National Suicide Statistics at a Glance: Suicide Rates Among Persons Ages 65 Years and Older. ” . United States 2009 20 Seriously Considered Attempting Suicide 19% 15 19% 15% 12% 15% Attempted Suicide 13% 10% 8% 8% 4% 13% 10 5 5% 0 NHPI AIAN Hispanic Asian American African American White Source: The Asian and Pacific Islander American Health Forum’s tabulation of the 2009. “The Dose-Effect Relationships between Torture and Psychiatric Symptoms in Vietnamese Ex-Political Detainees and a Comparison Group. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System data reported in CDC. 2005.* • A 1998 study of 51 Vietnamese ex-political detainees found higher rates of PTSD and depression than in a comparison group. reFuGee And ASylee mentAl HeAltH • Approximately 62% of Cambodian Americans in Long Beach.Suicide „ Approximately 15% of Asian American high school students have seriously considered attempting suicide.** *Source: Marshall et al. by Race/Ethnicity and Sex. Vol. 2009. Journal of the American ” Medical Association. 1998. 9 (2). The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. “Mental Health of Cambodian Refugees 2 Decades After Resettlement in the United States. 2009. From 2002 to 2006.. the highest suicide rates for women ages 65 and older were among Asian Americans and NHPIs. California. 2002–2006.

Korean. In comparison.* *Source: The Asian and Pacific Islander American Health Forum Tabulation of the 2008 NHIS reported data in CDC.inSurAnce „ More than one in five Pakistani. Bangladeshi. and only 10% have Medicaid coverage. 2010. 29% of non-Hispanic Whites rely solely on Medicare. Census Bureau. • Approximately 74% of Asian Americans under the age of 65 have private health insurance. Among Asian American ethnic groups. .S. 1-Year Estimates. 2007–2009 American Community Survey. 2007 to 2009 Pakistani Bangladeshi Korean Cambodian Vietnamese Thai Laotian Hmong Total Population Indonesian Taiwanese Indian Chinese (except Taiwanese) Filipino Japanese 0 5 23% 23% 22% 21% 19% 19% 19% 16% 15% 15% 14% 12% 12% 11% 8% 10 15 20 25 Source: U. medicAre And medicAid • Approximately 34% of Asian Americans over the age of 65 only have Medicare coverage. Japanese Americans are most likely to have health insurance. „ Percent uninsured by Ethnic Group. and Cambodian Americans is uninsured.

Policy recommendAtionS civic enGAGement Asian Americans are increasingly becoming citizens. Under the current system. and local agencies and elected officials should guarantee equal access to voting by combating discriminatory voting practices that deny or abridge the right of Asian Americans and others to vote. and other stakeholders should increase their investment in voter registration and mobilization efforts targeting Asian American communities. and the government should promote citizenship through greater investment in civics courses. But significant hurdles hindering full political participation and civic engagement remain. Approximately one million Asian Americans are undocumented. state. Asian American voter turnout still lags behind that of non-Hispanic Whites. In the absence of immigration reform at the federal level. including voters who are not fully fluent in English. Voter protection laws should be vigorously enforced and policies and practices that impose additional barriers to voting should be opposed. ƒ Foundations.S. Only 55% of Asian Americans eligible to register to vote have registered. Communities with significant populations of Asian American voters should consider providing voluntary language assistance. candidates. and casting ballots. immiGrAtion Every aspect of immigration policy affects Asian Americans. and prevented from contributing fully to American society. The fate of aspiring new Americans hinges on a broken immigration system. ƒ Federal. exploited by unscrupulous employers. ƒ The federal government should make naturalization and immigration fees affordable and ensure sufficient funding to USCIS to expeditiously process citizenship applications. many of which are harmful to communities and undermine America’s most fundamental values. political parties. 50 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . Many of the over 1 million Asian American noncitizens who have met the residency requirements to naturalize will need assistance to become U. ƒ The Department of Justice and state and local voting officials must ensure compliance with and enforcement of Section 203 of the Voting Rights Act. immigrants are separated from their families. Nearly 60% of Asian Americans are foreign-born. citizens. many states have attempted their own “fixes” to immigration law. and naturalization assistance. registering to vote. ƒ Corporations. resulting in a patchwork of laws. Waiting times for family visas can be as long as 23 years. which provides for language assistance to communities that meet certain requirements. foundations. yet there is insufficient public and private investment in programs supporting immigrant integration. denied meaningful educational and employment opportunities. adult English language learning.

including ensuring adequate funding. and actively enforcing Title VI requirements and Executive Order 13166. lAnGuAGe Many Asian Americans are recent immigrants: 1.ƒ Congress and the President need to address every aspect of the broken immigration system. ƒ Women are more reliant on family-based immigration than men. ƒ Congress should expand legal channels for workers to come to the United States by raising the number of employment-based visas for high-skilled and less-skilled workers. including reclassifying spouses and minor children of permanent residents as “immediate relatives” to allow families to reunite without having to endure years of separation. citizens and permanent residents to sponsor their same-sex. while also guaranteeing full labor and immigration protections. and due process in immigration hearings and overhaul the immigration detention system. A Community of Contrasts 51 . foreign-born partners.S. ƒ Congress should provide a path to legalization and citizenship for undocumented immigrants. ƒ Congress should amend immigration laws to allow U.S. supporting the hiring of bilingual staff and translation of materials. Congress should support changes to the visa system. ƒ Congress and the courts should preserve the long-established constitutional rule that children born in the United States are U.6 million Asian immigrants arrived in the United States within the last decade. and in some communities. ƒ Congress should restore judicial discretion. preferably through comprehensive reform. but many who seek to learn find the demand for English courses greater than the supply. tions must dismantle the barriers that prevent limited-English proficient individuals from accessing safety net services and the justice system. The guarantee of “birthright citizenship” is found in the Fourteenth Amendment. citizens. fairness. a cornerstone of U. including immigrant youth who have lived in the United States most of their lives. ƒ Our system of family immigration provides new immigrants with an integration network and safety net. About one-third of Asian Americans have limited proficiency in English. nearly half are LEP Both public and private institu. Asian Americans recognize that English is a gateway to citizenship and upward mobility. Repairs to our employment immigration system should not come at the expense of family unity. which contains many important civil rights protections.S. which means that women are overrepresented in visa backlogs. immigration law and policy. ƒ Public and private institutions need to ensure meaningful access to programs and services for limited-English proficient individuals.

ƒ Government, corporations, foundations, and other stakeholders need to invest in high-quality bilingual K–12 education that promotes English language acquisition as well as academic achievement. ƒ Both the public and private sectors need to provide sufficient funding to meet the demand for English language programs for adults. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) and adult educational systems need to be reformed and better funded to provide for this need. educAtion It is in the education context that the term “model minority” is most often used to describe Asian Americans. While many in the Asian American community are well educated, others do not complete high school. Many Asian Americans who came as refugees have levels of educational attainment similar to Latinos and African Americans. ƒ Government, corporations, foundations, and other stakeholders should improve K–12 programs to better address the cultural and linguistic barriers that contribute to educational disparities, including improving programs for English language learners. ƒ Government agencies and educational institutions should protect and promote affirmative action programs in education. Asian Americans should be included in affirmative action programs, particularly underrepresented groups such as Southeast Asians. income And emPloyment Asian Americans occupy both ends of the socioeconomic spectrum. The per capita income of Asian Americans approaches that of non-Hispanic Whites, but more than 1 in 10 Asian Americans live in poverty. While almost half of Asian Americans work in management and professional fields, Asian Americans work in all occupations, including sales, services, construction, and production. ƒ Federal, state, and local governments need to strengthen and expand access to safety net programs, including public assistance and unemployment benefits, particularly during times of recession when needs are especially acute. Public benefits must be culturally and linguistically accessible. ƒ While many Asian Americans have high educational attainment and work in professional fields, some face a “glass ceiling” that blocks their professional advancement. Corporations, law firms, government agencies, academic institutions, and other employers should implement equal opportunity programs that remove barriers to advancement in the workplace. ƒ Federal, state, and local agencies should include Asian Americans in equal opportunity programs, including minority contracting programs. Asian Americans face ongoing discrimination in public contracting and

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should be included in minority set-aside programs and allowed to complete for government contracts on an equal footing. ƒ Government agencies at all levels need to ensure vigorous enforcement of employment and labor laws, including antidiscrimination provisions and protection against retaliation for workers who assert their rights. This enforcement must extend to workers regardless of immigration status and ensure that all workers are protected. ƒ Government agencies, unions, and employers should protect collective bargaining rights and support workers’ rights to unionize and organize to challenge unfair employment practices. HouSinG Access to quality affordable housing, whether rented or owned, is key to economic stability. Asian American homeownership rates are lower than those of non-Hispanic Whites. A significant percentage of Asian Americans live in overcrowded housing, but only 3% of Asian Americans live in government-subsidized housing. ƒ Federal, state, and local agencies and private companies need to expand affordable housing and homeownership opportunities for Asian American families. ƒ All levels of government should vigorously enforce laws prohibiting predatory lending practices that target immigrant communities, individuals with limited-English proficiency, and other vulnerable communities. ƒ With many people losing their homes in the foreclosure crisis, federal, state, and local governments need to fund and expand housing counseling services and consumer protection agencies, such as the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. HeAltH Having access to affordable quality healthcare is a basic human need. Asian Americans need access to quality, affordable health care that is linguistically and culturally appropriate. Asian Americans face specific health disparities, including high rates of hepatitis, liver cancer, and stomach cancer. ƒ Federal, state, and local governments and private entities such as insurance companies and employers should expand access to affordable healthcare coverage for all U.S. residents, including immigrants. ƒ All levels of government, community-based organizations, and those in the health industry should outreach to and educate Asian Americans about the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act so they can benefit from the expanded availability of healthcare insurance. 

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ƒ The federal government and courts should broadly interpret and fully enforce the antidiscrimination provisions of the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act. ƒ Those in the healthcare industry and federal, state, and local governments need to ensure meaningful access to quality healthcare for persons who are not fluent in English. They can accomplish this by supporting efforts to provide health services in a linguistically and culturally appropriate manner and by removing barriers to enrollment. ƒ The federal government should fully fund or expand programs such as Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance Program to ensure Asian Americans with low incomes are able to access basic healthcare services, providing a vital lifeline for the most vulnerable members of our communities. dAtA collection And reSeArcH Socially and economically diverse and growing dramatically, Asian American communities are complicated to understand and serve. Data collection and research play a critical role in providing policy makers and service providers the information they need to identify community needs and target programs in the most cost-effective manner possible. While the Census Bureau has provided a wealth of disaggregated data on Asian American communities, few other federal, state, or local agencies collect or disseminate disaggregated data, address language barriers in the Asian American community’s ability to participate in research efforts, or reach sufficient sample size in surveys of smaller ethnic groups to provide meaningful findings. ƒ Data and research produced by both governmental and nongovernmental entities must include data on Asian Americans, disaggregated by ethnic group where possible. Researchers should work to improve the quantity and quality of survey data on Asian Americans by conducting outreach, translating and administering survey instruments, and providing assistance to respondents in Asian languages and oversampling Asian American ethnic groups. ƒ Federal, state, and local governments and private foundations should re-examine whether adequate resources are being directed to studying and serving the needs of Asian American communities, particularly Southeast Asians. Government can draw upon the knowledge and experience of community members through the formation of Asian American advisory groups. In many areas, government programs and social service agencies are faced with having to serve greater numbers even as funding is cut. In some areas, Asian American populations may be without linguistically and culturally appropriate programs altogether. It is critical that sufficient funding is directed to meet the needs of diverse Asian American communities.

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toP Five lArGeSt GrouPS cHineSe AmericAnS Chinese Americans are the largest Asian American ethnic group nationwide. FiliPino AmericAnS Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American ethnic group nationwide. having grown by 68% between 2000 and 2010. Vietnam remains the fourth largest sender of immigrants among Asian countries.S. The remaining 11% entered the United States under employment-based preferences. The majority of Chinese American legal permanent residents (53%) obtained immigrant visas as the immediate relatives of a U. with 29% entering between 2000 and 2010. citizens or under family-sponsored A Community of Contrasts 55 . and 29% are linguistically isolated.S. vietnAmeSe AmericAnS Vietnamese Americans are the fourth largest Asian American ethnic group. The vast majority of Vietnamese American legal permanent residents (95%) entered the United States as the immediate relatives of U. Approximately 45% of Indian American legal permanent residents immigrated to the United States under employment-based preferences. Approximately 64% are foreign-born. Approximately 61% are foreign-born. Nearly one in five are limited-English proficient. Approximately 53% of the population is foreign-born. median. Indian Americans have generally achieved professional and economic success. Forty-two percent of Chinese Americans are limited-English proficient. The majority (64%) works in a management or professional occupation and their household. While the largest number entered before 1990. The vast majority of Filipino American legal permanent residents (89%) immigrated as the immediate relatives of U. and 19% entered the United States between 2000 and 2010. Filipino Americans are nearly three times as likely to live in overcrowded housing than the total U. Chinese immigrants continue to arrive on American shores at a steady pace. population. and per capita income exceeds those of the total population. citizens or under family-sponsored preferences. indiAn AmericAnS Indian Americans are the third largest and fourth fastest growing Asian American ethnic group. over one in five Indian Americans is limited-English proficient. citizen or under family-sponsored preferences. Approximately 70% of Indian Americans are foreign-born. citizens or under family-sponsored preferences.S.S. and 40% of the foreign-born population entered the United States between 2000 and 2010. and 53% came as the immediate relatives of U. while 25% obtained employment-based visas.S. Despite their material success. One of the oldest Asian American ethnic groups. Twenty-seven percent of the foreign-born Filipino American population entered the United States between 2000 and 2010. Chinese Americans are nearly twice as likely as the total population to live in overcrowded housing.

Bangladeshi Americans are least likely to own their own home.S. Pakistani Americans are the second fastest growing and seventh largest Asian American ethnic 56 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .S. Nearly three out of four Vietnamese American immigrants have become U. and 41% of the foreign-born population entered the United States between 2000 and 2010. highest among Asian American ethnic groups. both highest among Asian American ethnic groups. Nearly three out of four Bangladeshi American legal permanent residents entered as the immediate relatives of U. 41% are limited-English proficient. Language barriers pose a significant problem to many Bangladeshi Americans. Among Asian American ethnic groups. Only 6% entered under employment-based preferences.preferences. Approximately 8% live in overcrowded housing. Over one in five Korean Americans are without health insurance. Approximately 65% are foreign-born. citizens or under family-sponsored preferences. and 31% live in linguistically isolated households. toP Five FASteSt GrowinG GrouPS bAnGlAdeSHi AmericAnS Bangladeshi Americans are the fastest growing Asian American ethnic group over the past decade. while 48% entered as the immediate relatives of U. koreAn AmericAnS Korean Americans are the fifth largest Asian American ethnic group. and 29% of the foreign-born population entered between 2000 and 2010. A large minority (19%) entered through the Diversity Visa program.S. PAkiStAni AmericAnS Having doubled in size from 2000 to 2010. having grown 157% from 2000 to 2010. Approximately 71% of Korean Americans speak a language other than English at home. Approximately 73% are foreign-born. citizens or under family-sponsored preferences. Nearly half (46%) are limited-English proficient. The majority (52%) entered under employment-based preferences. and one-quarter live in linguistically isolated households. Over half of Vietnamese Americans are limited-English proficient and over one in three are linguistically isolated. citizens. making them twice as likely as the total population to do so. Nearly one in four are without health insurance.

Despite their origins in a former British commonwealth. Approximately 14% of Pakistani Americans live in overcrowded housing. Language access remains a pressing issue. and 16% entered under employment-based preferences. and 34% of the foreignborn population entered between 2000 and 2010. 72% of Sri Lankan Americans report speaking a language other than English at home. however. citizens or under family-sponsor preferences. Sri Lankan Americans are three times as likely as the average American to hold an advanced degree and almost twice as likely to work in a management or professional occupation. Sri Lankan Americans are one of the few Asian American ethnic groups whose household. 26% entered under employment-based preferences.S. Thirty-one percent arrived under employment-based preferences. citizens or under family-sponsored preferences. tAiwAneSe AmericAnS Taiwanese Americans were the fifth fastest growing Asian American ethnic group between 2000 and 2010. Sri lAnkAn AmericAnS Sri Lankan Americans were the third fastest growing Asian American ethnic group between 2000 and 2010.S. refugee. Roughly 81% of Pakistani American legal permanent residents entered the country as the immediate relatives of U. indiAn AmericAnS See page 55. and 25% of the foreign-born population entered between 2000 and 2010. They have the highest rates of homeownership and are the least likely to live in overcrowded housing. Approximately 42% of Sri Lankan American legal permanent residents immigrated as the immediate relatives of U. median. A Community of Contrasts 57 . and the remaining 33% entered under diversity. Sixty-six percent arrived as the immediate relatives arrived as the immediate relatives of U. and per capita incomes exceed those of the average American. as 43% are limited-English proficient. citizens or under family-sponsored preferences. and asylee preferences. A substantial minority (19%) entered under the Diversity Visa program. having grown 85% over the decade. Taiwanese Americans have the highest educational attainment. with 96% holding a high school degree and 72% holding a bachelor’s degree. and more than one in five is limited-English proficient.S. and 42% of the foreignborn population entered the United States between 2000 and 2010. Approximately 65% are foreign-born. Approximately 68% are foreignborn.group. Approximately 76% are foreign-born. making them over four times as likely as the general population to do so. Roughly one-third is limited-English proficient. Among Asian American ethnic groups.

voluntary departures and withdrawals under docket control. 58 naturalization Refers to the process through which a foreignborn individual becomes a citizen of a new country. Macau.S. citizens.GloSSAry Asian countries: Defined by the U. The terms “public assistance income” and “cash public assistance” are used interchangeably in the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS) data products. Adjusted for family size. It is derived by dividing the total income of a particular group by the total population of that group. foreign-born People not born in the United States. citizens. Burma. Diversity visas do not require a U. Cambodia. China.S. Immediate relative is defined as being a spouse. but it does not include dollars that are borrowed or that were saved in previous years. refugees and asylees Persons who moved to the United States to escape persecution in their country of origin. and the siblings of U. Separate payments received for hospital or other medical care (vendor payments) are excluded. ” median household income A measurement of income that divides the income distribution of households (all persons living in the same residence) into two equal parts.S. in this report we refer only to foreign-born individuals who have obtained citizenship in the United States.S. India. Department of Homeland Security as including Bangladesh. Nepal. the spouses and children of legal permanent residents (LPRs). (Humphreys. Singapore. 2009) ” diversity visa (dv) Type of visa drawn from countries with low rates of immigration to the United States. Indonesia. and child in a particular group. North Korea.S. South Korea. Thailand. an unmarried child under 21 years of age. citizens Type of visa based on a close family relationship with a U.954 annually for a family of four. woman. or the Northern Mariana Islands). removal The expulsion of an unauthorized immigrant from the United States either because of inadmissibility or deportability. Sri Lanka. Island Areas (such as Guam.S. Pakistan. or the U. ” linguistically isolated households Households in which all members 14 years of age and older speak English less than “very well.S. family-sponsored preferences Type of visa based on family relationships. Virgin Islands. Unlike other immigrant types. after taxes. Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . Maldives. immediate relatives of u. sponsor. overcrowded housing Having more than one person per room. Bhutan. citizen. Philippines. Taiwan. buying power The “total personal income of residents that is available. the U. Japan. per capita income The mean income computed for every man. Laos. or parent of a U. Family preference categories include sons and daughters (over the age of 21) of U.S. public assistance income Income that includes general assistance and Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). citizen. Mongolia. Puerto Rico. the 2009 Census Bureau poverty threshold was $21. an adopted orphan. and Vietnam. This does not include Supplemental Security Income (SSI) or noncash benefits such as food stamps. limited-english proficient Persons who speak English less than “very well.S. Hong Kong. poverty A measure of income relative to the federal poverty threshold (the poverty line). and therefore a petition is not needed. asylees are those who applied at either a port of entry or while residing in the United States. for spending on virtually everything that they buy. Refugees are those who applied for admission while living outside the United States. East Timor. returns Voluntary returns. half falling below and half above the median household income. Malaysia.

310 150.305.26% 0.427 1.163 276.737.020.2% 0.148.414 281.320.706.439 17.538 2010 % of total 64% 16% 14% 6% 2% 0.566 NR 11.899.856 .587 18.223.052 186.856 5.552 50.817.734.270 59.579 1.477.906 % of total 69% 13% 13% 4% 1% 0% 100% number 196.301 874.203 144.364.416.932 204.309 206.195 308.745.434 11.841 2.828 % of AA total 23% 20% 16% 10% 10% 10% 2% 2% 2% 1% 2% 1% 0% NR 1% NR 0.594 42.840 3.552.599 1.200 95.286 409.073 NR 24.822 1.794.583 232.119.4% 100% % Growth 2000 to 2010 1% 43% 15% 46% 27% 40% 10% Asian American ethnic Groups Chinese (except Taiwanese) Filipino Indian Vietnamese Korean Japanese Pakistani Cambodian Hmong Thai Laotian Taiwanese Bangladeshi Burmese Indonesian Nepalese Sri Lankan Malaysian Bhutanese Asian American total 2000 number 2.34% 0.795 57.11% 100% % Growth 2000 to 2010 39% 44% 68% 42% 39% 14% 100% 34% 40% 58% 17% 59% 157% NR 51% NR 85% 41% NR 46% 3.490 45.433 1.183.225.412 NR 63.818 36.228.220.130 230.063 1.743 17.304.774 35.898.300 100.APPendix A: rAce And etHnicity race and Hispanic origin White.667 260.421.673 3.073 237.382 147.419. Non-Hispanic Hispanic African American Asian American American Indian Alaskan Native Native Hawaiian Pacific Islander total 2000 number 194.283 198.736 1.381 26.179 19.898.15% 0.320.828 4.815 1.2% NR 100% number 2010 % of AA total 22% 20% 18% 10% 10% 8% 2% 2% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0.

873 7.029 50.649 395.587 394.8% 0.809 26.251 573.408 199.856 % of Total 1.9% 1.1% 0.494 1.907 186.044 365.463 10.9% 2.556.685 1.601 264.8% 1.292 230.3% 3.692 44.119 37.101 6.211 370.9% 4.232 473.931 39.200 644.7% 0.110.9% 2.1% 2.013 304.0% 1.4% 7.9% 5.049 48.9% 1.916 238.857 18.918 % of Total 12% 6% 3% 6% 58% 4% 7% 2% 4% 2% 4% 5% 2% 2% 2% 3% 6% 1% 2% 4% 3% 3% 2% 1% 1% 1% 2010 AA Population 5.350 58.5% 0.80% 0.6% 1.5% 2.750 123.686 25.8% 1.7% 2.898.1% 0.290 19.212 162.522 33.199 402.2% 1.335 84.741 333.559 248.088 151.1% 1.585 247.5% 2.607 252.9% 0.729 17.560 29.622 6.4% 0.763 34.4% 0.281 17.219 18.814 238.062 32.666 795.7% 1.083 522.163 780.458 43.812 208.698 26.561 40.368 102.571 113.2% 2.155.APPendix b: AA PoPulAtion by StAte 2000 States AA Population 4.216 9.169.5% 1.6% 3.943 40.7% 1.930 77.1% 1.944 23.193 6.513 126.80% 100% 2010 AA Population 84.701 32.2% 100% % Growth 2000 to 2010 31% 43% 50% 60% 68% 70% 50% 67% 54% 77% 51% 52% 30% 80% 78% 40% 71% 50% 55% 39% 48% 58% 70% 85% 64% 30% California New York Texas New Jersey Hawaii Illinois Washington Florida Virginia Pennsylvania Massachusetts Maryland Georgia Michigan North Carolina Minnesota Nevada Ohio Arizona Oregon Colorado Connecticut Wisconsin Indiana Missouri Tennessee Louisiana Oklahoma Kansas Utah South Carolina Alabama Iowa Kentucky Alaska Arkansas Nebraska New Mexico Rhode Island New Hampshire Delaware Mississippi Idaho District of Columbia Maine West Virginia Montana Vermont South Dakota North Dakota Wyoming Total 60 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .170 83.592 1.210 68.674 67.329 136.456 36.482 10.320.107 11.356 703.827 11.956 11.281 185.723 56.1% 1.4% 1.401 26.776 118.768 72.402 44.398 % of Total 15% 8% 4% 9% 57% 5% 9% 3% 7% 3% 6% 6% 4% 3% 3% 5% 9% 2% 4% 5% 4% 4% 3% 2% 2% 2% % Growth 2000 to 2010 34% 33% 72% 52% 11% 41% 53% 72% 71% 62% 49% 55% 83% 39% 85% 52% 116% 49% 95% 46% 54% 65% 47% 74% 62% 65% 2000 States AA Population 64.497 289.339 120.1% 0.672 127.2% 1.579.414 112.967 4.193 524.456 159.5% 2.6% 1.3% 1.968 668.589 157.465 10.2% 2.036 64.8% 1.132 242.390 17.779 95.009 4.748 75.4% 2.0% 3.8% 1.1% 1.694 604.333 16.512 62.839 76.6% 2.828 % of Total 1% 1.619 28.

489 280.949 295.209 74. California Middlesex County.826 69.941 73.456 97.019 462.749 37.551 217.773 167.601 41.180 % of Total 15% 35% 20% 62% 25% 29% 13% 7% 17% 36% 11% 7% 17% 20% 11% 13% 28% 23% 17% 4% 7% 10% 8% 16% % Growth 2000 to 2010 20% 34% 41% 10% 28% 35% 38% 26% 52% 14% 38% 45% 51% 52% 130% 27% 27% 67% 48% 100% 126% 54% 59% 40% 2000 Counties AA Population 100. Florida Suffolk County.261 423.203 77.341 241.076 74.148 45.958 67.307 48.435 42.563 76.993 62.360 % of Total 11% 4% 14% 5% 5% 12% 9% 9% 4% 8% 8% 10% 48% 5% 7% 5% 15% 48% 3% 5% 7% 7% 4% 8% 2010 AA Population 140. Illinois King County.647 207.242 597.APPendix c: AA PoPulAtion by county 2000 Counties AA Population 1.831 106. Washington San Francisco County.553 326.780 60.403 59.542 155. California Honolulu County.355 100. Florida Travis County.969 83. New Jersey Hawaii County.413 132.778 121.346 287.556 76.541 42.502 54.867 440. California Nassau County.160 212.263 101. Texas Sacramento County.775 199. California Cook County.818 113.810 82. Nevada New York County.984 362. Texas DuPage County.691 161.810 70.357 65.720 106.710 156.245. Washington Oakland County.472 97. California San Diego County. Arizona Riverside County.724 61.124 92.710 151. California Santa Clara County.340 107.750 72. New Jersey Contra Costa County.393 116. Texas Collin County. California Maricopa County.215 45. Virginia Clark County.141 154.929 330.302 140.977 52. California Tarrant County.351 253.584 91. Michigan Solano County. Hawaii Broward County. California Middlesex County.294 182.038 288.852 180.252 68. New Jersey Dallas County. Texas Ventura County.454 % of Total 16% 6% 17% 9% 7% 18% 11% 11% 5% 12% 12% 15% 45% 7% 11% 6% 18% 47% 4% 7% 8% 9% 6% 4% % Growth 2000 to 2010 40% 34% 52% 62% 43% 150% 32% 38% 63% 161% 101% 47% 17% 36% 83% 41% 23% 19% 55% 68% 42% 41% 87% 25% Los Angeles County.803 35.856 48. New York Philadelphia County. Massachusetts A Community of Contrasts 61 .497. California Pierce County.675 71.748 590.134 97.477 206.656 70.944 82. California Montgomery County. Georgia Hudson County. California Fairfax County.921 60.009 98.549 70. California Maui County.384 433. Pennsylvania Fort Bend County. New York San Mateo County. Hawaii Hennepin County.960 618. Washington Orange County.605 109.926 552.529 284. Illinois Fresno County.720 77. New York Harris County. Maryland Bergen County.224 90.911 539. Texas San Joaquin County. Massachusetts San Bernardino County.785 % of Total 13% 28% 15% 62% 19% 23% 11% 5% 13% 33% 8% 6% 13% 15% 7% 10% 22% 7% 13% 3% 5% 7% 6% 12% 2010 AA Population 1. California Orange County. Minnesota Snohomish County. Texas Gwinnett County.542 101. California Kings County.268 156.722 199.359 69.272 193.059 159.869 407. Hawaii Queens County. New York Alameda County.

APPendix d: Socioeconomic indicAtorS. median Age NHPI Hispanic African American AIAN Asian American White total Population 26 27 30 31 33 41 37 Homeownership (%) African American NHPI Hispanic AIAN Asian American White total Population 45 48 49 56 59 73 66 crowded Housing (%) NHPI Hispanic Asian American AIAN African American White total Population 13 13 7 6 4 1 3 below Federal Poverty line (%) African American AIAN Hispanic NHPI Asian American White total Population 25 23 22 14 11 10 14 cash Public Assistance (%) AIAN NHPI African American Hispanic Asian American White total Population 6 6 5 4 2 2 2 High School degree (%) Hispanic AIAN African American Asian American NHPI White total Population 61 80 81 86 85 90 85 median Age Homeownership (%) 20 27 28 29 31 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 38 Bangladeshi Hmong Korean Cambodian Malaysian Pakistani Indonesian Thai Indian Sri Lankan Chinese Laotian Filipino Japanese Vietnamese Taiwanese (except Taiwanese) crowded Housing (%) 44 48 49 51 53 55 55 55 56 61 62 63 63 63 64 66 Hmong Bangladeshi Pakistani Cambodian Laotian Vietnamese Filipino (except Taiwanese) below Federal Poverty line (%) 32 24 14 14 11 8 8 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 3 2 Hmong Bangladeshi Cambodian Pakistani Vietnamese Thai Korean Laotian Chinese (except Taiwanese) cash Public Assistance (%) 26 20 18 15 14 14 13 13 12 12 12 10 9 8 8 6 Hmong Cambodian Laotian Vietnamese Bangladeshi Filipino Chinese Korean Indonesian Pakistani Thai Indian Japanese Sri Lankan Taiwanese Malaysian (except Taiwanese) High School degree (%) Hmong Cambodian Laotian Vietnamese Bangladeshi Chinese Thai Pakistani Indian Korean Filipino Malaysian Sri Lankan Indonesian Japanese Taiwanese (except Taiwanese) Hmong Cambodian Laotian Pakistani Bangladeshi Indian Thai Korean Malaysian Indonesian Filipino Vietnamese Chinese (except Taiwanese) 13 8 6 4 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 NR 61 62 66 72 81 82 84 87 91 92 92 93 93 94 94 96 Chinese Sri Lankan Indian Indonesian Korean Malaysian Thai Japanese Taiwanese Taiwanese Indonesian Malaysian Sri Lankan Indian Japanese Filipino Taiwanese Sri Lankan Japanese 62 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice .

020 $28.940 $16.united StAteS 2007 to 2009 Per capita income Hispanic African American AIAN NHPI Asian American White total Population $15.100 median Household income African American AIAN Hispanic White NHPI Asian American total Population $34.369 Foreign-born (%) Asian American Hispanic NHPI African American AIAN White total Population 60 38 14 8 5 4 13 naturalization rate of Foreign-born (%) Hispanic AIAN NHPI African American Asian American White total Population 29 32 40 46 57 58 43 limited english Proficiency (%) Hispanic Asian American NHPI AIAN African American White total Population 38 32 8 6 3 2 9 Per capita income Hmong Cambodian Laotian Bangladeshi Vietnamese Thai Pakistani Indonesian Filipino Korean (except Taiwanese) median Household income $10.515 $40.118 $30.585 $16.784 $21.933 $19.767 $68.533 $38.455 $77.506 $17.585 $38.664 $68.269 51 46 43 43 43 42 41 40 36 30 28 23 22 22 19 18 Chinese Korean Laotian Thai Indonesian Pakistani Malaysian Indian Sri Lankan Filipino Japanese Chinese Japanese Sri Lankan Malaysian Indian Taiwanese Sri Lankan Filipino Taiwanese Indian Malaysian A Community of Contrasts 63 .061 $31.953 $47.729 $25.949 $15.744 $65.549 $17.669 $53.799 $55.264 $36.735 $27.596 $86.799 $26.708 $24.342 $31.119 $55.927 $76.480 $33.906 $62.420 $73.210 $60.312 Bangladeshi Hmong Cambodian Korean Vietnamese Laotian Thai Indonesian Pakistani Japanese Chinese (except Taiwanese) Foreign-born (%) Sri Lankan Bangladeshi Malaysian Indian Taiwanese Indonesian Korean Pakistani Vietnamese Chinese Thai Cambodian Laotian Filipino Hmong Japanese (except Taiwanese) naturalization rate of Foreign-born (%) 76 73 73 70 68 65 65 65 64 61 60 56 55 53 44 28 Malaysian Japanese Indonesian Sri Lankan Indian Thai Bangladeshi Korean Hmong Pakistan Chinese Laotian Cambodian Filipino Taiwanese Vietnamese (except Taiwanese) limited english Proficiency (%) 27 33 35 43 47 49 50 54 57 57 60 62 63 64 67 73 Vietnamese Bangladeshi Cambodian Taiwanese Hmong (except Taiwanese) $45.906 $57.934 $54.038 $50.831 $32.549 $51.542 $21.663 $25.920 $55.660 $63.

migrationinformation. “First-Time Voters in the 2008 Election. July 2010.org/images/publications/Reports%20on%20the%20Electorate ” /FINAL%20First-Time-Voters-in-2008-Election.projectvote. and Eve Powell-Griner. Data on race are generally available from the Census Bureau in two forms. May 2011. November 2009.S. data on ethnic groups are generally available as “alone” or “alone or in any combination.S. The National Health Interview Survey’s Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics No. and for those of either single or multiple racial backgrounds (referred to as “alone or in combination with one or more other races”). http://www. and 2008 American Housing Survey. Georgia Business and Economic Conditions 69 (3).tecHnicAl noteS measuring the characteristics of racial and ethnic groups Since 2000. “Health Characteristics of the Asian Adult Population: United States. Third Quarter 2009. Advance Data No. American Community Survey (ACS) 2007–2009 3-Year Estimates.epi. which is defined here as non-Hispanic White “alone. United States. May 2010. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. U. “Dream vs. Nancy Rytina. including the 2010 Census. While this better reflects America’s diversity and improves data available on multiracial populations. “National Suicide Statistics at a Glance: Suicide Rates Among Persons Ages 65 Years and Older. “The Multicultural Economy.. Jeffrey M. asylees. and the undocumented population. ” The U. Various reports are also cited. Baker. 64 Asian American Center for Advancing Justice . population. for those of a single racial background (referred to as “alone”). ” Project Vote. http://www.pdf Schmitt. ” Sources of data used in this report Most of the data included in this report are drawn from the United States Census Bureau. “Unions and Upward Mobility for Asian Pacific American Workers. with multiracial people captured in an independent category.pdf Migration Policy Institute.org/publication /hidden_disadvantage/ Hoefer. February 2011. Hye Jin Rho. population growth. http://www. U. “Asian Immigrants in the United States.org/USfocus/display. Other data included in the report include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2008 National Health Interview Survey. “Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States. http://www.cfm?ID=841 ” National Health Interview Survey. John. Humphreys. ” Economic Policy Institute. it complicates the use of data on racial and ethnic groups.cfm Economic Policy Institute. Department of Education’s 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). American Community Survey (ACS) 2005–2009 5-Year Estimates. 2002–2006. and U.eeoc.D.S. Patricia F Adams. 2004–2006. Department of Homeland Security data on legal permanent residents. April 2011. Exceptions include the measurement of the White population. workS cited Barnes.gov/eeoc/meetings/2-16-11/austin. 2009. 2007 Survey of Business Owners. Center for Economic and Policy Research: 1–11. 394: 1-22. ” In this report. Department of Homeland Security’s Population Estimates February 2011: 1-7. the United States Census Bureau has allowed those responding to its questionnaires to report one or more racial or ethnic backgrounds. Reality: An Analysis of Potential DREAM Act Beneficiaries. Patricia M. and Nicole Woo. January 2010. 2008. “Health Characteristics of the Asian Adult Population: United States. Department of State data on visas issued..S. refugees.migrationpolicy. and population characteristics by racial and ethnic group are measured for the “alone or in combination” population unless otherwise noted.S. Where data on population characteristics are available from multiple sources. by Race/Ethnicity and Sex. American Community Survey (ACS) 2009 1-Year Estimates. 394. Ph. Written Testimony of Algernon Austin. “Hidden Disadvantage: Asian American Unemployment and the Great Recession” http://www. 2008 Current Population Survey (CPS).org/pubs ” /DREAM-Insight-July2010. 2004–2006. Michael. given its inclusion of disaggregated data by Asian American ethnic group. ” Migration Policy Institute. . Similarly. January 22. and Bryan C. January 2008. ” Center for Disease Control and Prevention. to the U. data from the American Community Survey (ACS) were preferred.

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Cyrus Chung Ying Tang Foundation This report was made possible by the following sponsors: the Wallace H. and Bank of America. . The statements made and views expressed are solely the responsibility of the authors. Coulter Foundation. Cyrus Chung Ying Tang Foundation.