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ALEXANDER GRAY MEMORIAL
LIBRARY
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
THE GIFT OF
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Cornell University Library
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of mathematics for engineers an
Handbook
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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924003951195
CONTENTS
PART lU
GEOMETRY
vii
PAGE
Definitions
251
Plane Geometry
Straight Lines
253
253 258
'
Polygons
Circle
Similar Polygons and the Measurement of Angles
265 271
278
Mensuration of Polygons Regular Polygons and the Mensuration of the Circle
284
298 298
Solid Geometry
Planes
Julyhedral Angles, Polyhedrons, and Symmetry
305
812 319
The Cylinder, the Cone, and the Sphere Similar Polyhedrons and the Measurement
of
Angles
Mensuration of Polyhedrons 821 Regular Polyhedrons and the Mensuration of Cylinders, Cones, and Spheres 825
Problems
in
Geometry
333
Angles, Triangles, Perpendiculars, and Parallels
833 347 353
362
Proportional Lines and Similar Polygons
The Division
of Circles into Equal Parts, Regular Polygons
Areas of Polygons and Circles
PART IV
TRIGOHOMETRY
Plane Trigonometry
Determination of a Point Determination of a Straight Line Trigonometric Expressions and Their Use Projection of Straight Lines Formulas Expressing the Relations between the Trigonometric Functions
372 372
375 877
387 391
Calculation of Trigonometric Tables Principles used in Solving Triangles
Solution of right Triangles Solution of Plane Triangles
402 405
408
410
422
Table of Trigonometric Functions Application of the Equation of the Third Degree and the Trigonometric Solution of the Irreducible Case
445
viii
CONTENTS
PAGBJ
^^°
^°^
Spherical Trigonometry General rormulas
Eight Spherical Triangles Solution of the Oblique Spherical Triangles
45f
Problems in Spherical Trigonometry Angles Formed by the Faces of Regular Polyhedrons
464 466
PART V
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
Analytic Geometry
Determination of a Line
471 471
Homogeneity
473
The Geometrical Construction
General Construction of The Straight Line
Formulas Curves Represented by Equations
of Algebraic
^
476
"482
484
487
The Circle The Ellipse The Hyperbola The Parabola
Curves of the Second Degree, or Conic Sections
Lemniscate, Cissoid, Strophoid, and LimaQon
489
611
522 536
539
542 546 547
The
Spiral
Archimedes
Involute, Evolute, Radius of Curvature
Cycloid
Epicycloid
550
553
555
561
Helix
Miscellaneous Curves
A
Note on the Polar Coordinate System
PART VI
ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS
Diffekential Calculus ALCULU
Introduction
Differentials
ggg 565
572 gng
"' gg,^
and Derivatives of Fundamental Functions
Theorems
Tangents
of Differentiation
Successive Derivatives
Concavity and Convexity and Direction of Bending Point of Inflection
Taylor's
„
.
an, d04
606 „„„
„.
Theorem
Maxima and Minima
Radii of Curvature
630
._.
CONTENTS
Integral CALcnLus
Introduction
ix
PAGE
634 634
639
664
Eules for Integration
Integration by Series
Apphcahons or Integkal Calculus
Quadrature of Curves
Tlie
656
656
668 669 673 677 679
Cubature of Solids
Eectification of Curves
Eectiflcation of Curves Expressed in Polar Coordinates
Area
of Surfaces of Revolution
Cubature of Solids of Revolution
Center of Gravity
680
Radius
of Gyration
and Moment of Inertia
694 700
Moment
of Inertia of Plane Surfaces
PAET
I
AEITHMETIC
RULES AND DEFINITIONS*
1.
The name
quantity
is
given to everything which
it
expressed in numbers by comparing
may be with a quantity of the
feet
same
sort taken as unity.
Lengths which are expressed in
feet
or meters; surfaces in square
or square meters; volumes in
cubic feet or cubic meters; weights
and
forces in
pounds or
kilo
grams;
etc.,
prices in dollars
and
cents; time in days; angles in degrees,
are quantities.
of
Number, space, and time are quantities has an idea and need not be defined.
2. 3.
which everyone
Mathematics
Arithmetic
is
is
the science of quantities.
the science of numbers.
is
4.
Numeration
that part of arithmetic which deals with the
It
is
formation, the reading, and the writing of numbers.
di
vided into spoken numeration, or numeration which deals with the formation and reading of the numbers, and written numeration, or notation
which has
for a purpose the expression of
num
bers
5. unit of numbers, to which the name simple unit or unit of the first order has been given; the number ten, which consists of ten simple units, is a number of the second
by figures and letters. The number one is the
order;
one hundred
is
of the third; one
.
thousand of the fourth;
ten thousand of the
It
fifth,
and so
on.
may
be noted that units of successive orders are each ten
times that of the order immediately preceding.
6. The simple unit, the thousand, which is equal to one thousand simple units; the million, which is equal to one thousand thousands; the billion, which is equal to one thousand millions;
*
tliat
A
number placed
in parenthesis
( )
indicates cross reference to the article bearing
number.
1
2
the
trillion,
ARITHMETIC
which
is
equal to one thousand billions; the quadthe units, starting rillion; the quintillion, etc.; in a word, all are one thousand tinjes greater than from simple units, which
the one immediately preceding, are called principal units. respectively 7. The first nine numbers are represented
by the
nine figures
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
with the tenth figure, 0, numbers may be written.
together 6, 7, 8, 9; with the aid of these, which has no value in itself, all possible
figures,
To
write a dictated
number in
commencing at the
left,
which represent the numwrite one ber of hundreds, of tens and of units of each principal unit dicFor tated, replacing the units which are lacking by ciphers. example, the number thirty million fifty thousand seven hundred
after the other the figures
eight is written 30,050,708.
It
is
seen that in a whole number any figure placed, at the
left
of another expresses units ten times as great as that one. this convention which permits the writing of all possible
It
is
num
bers with the aid of only ten figures.
8.
All figures of a
its
number have two
values: one absolute,
expressed by
form, the other relative, due to the position
which it occupies; thus, in the number 508, the figure 5 has five for an absolute value, and five hundred for a relative value. The in a number has neither an absolute nor a relative value;
it
serves simply to place the other figures in the desired order,
is,
that
to give
them a determined
is
relative value.
It
is
for this
not called a significative figure, a designation given to the other nine figures. 9. To pronounce a number written in figures, commencing at
reason that
the right, separate them, in thought, or by commas, into periods of three figures each, except the last period which may have one or two figures; then commencing at the left, pronounce successively the
giving the
Thus, the
number of hundreds, tens and units of each period, name of the principal units which they represent. number 3,405,834,067 is pronounced three billion four
.
hundred
five million eight hundred thirtyfour thousand sixtyseven. Instead of saying one ten, two tens nine tens, usage ., has made it: ten, twenty The same instead of say., ninety. ing ten one, ten two ten nine, we say eleven, twelve ., .,
. .
.
.
.
.
.
nineteen.
10.
The base
of
a system of numeration
is
a constant
number
RULES AND DEFINITIONS
of
3
of which the unit of the immediately superior order composed. Thus, ten is the base of the system of numeration adopted; and for this reason it is called the decimal system.
(5) is
any order,
The number
11.
of figures
employed
in a
system
is
equal to the base
of the system.
Roman
Notation.
resent the numbers.
mental inscriptions.
I,
The Romans employed letters to repThey are still used, especially on monuThe letters employed are:
L,
C,
V,
X,
D,
M.
They represent
1,
respectively:
10,
5,
50,
100,
500,
1,000.
The number
I placed one, two, or three times at the right of
the numbers I and V, increases these numbers by one, 'two, or three units; and if it is written at the left of V or it decreases
X
them by one
1,
tinit; 3,
thus the
4, 5,
first
ten whole numbers:
6, 7,
2,
8,
9,
10,
are respectively represented by:
I,
II,
III,
IV,
V,
VI,
VII,
VIII,
IX,
X.
The number X written one, two, or three times at the right number X or L, increases these numbers by one, two, or three tens; and written at the left of L or C diminishes them by ten. Thus the numbers:
of the
10,
20,
30,
40,
50,
60,
70,
80,
90,
100,
are written:
X,
XX, XXX, XL,
L,
LX,
LXX, LXXX, XC,
C.
write the whole numbers comprised between two consecuwhole numbers of tens, it suffices to write the first nine numThus the numbers bers at the right of each number of tens. The 13, 34, 56, 97 are written XIII, XXXIV, LVI, XCVII. number C, placed after itself or the number D, or before D and M, permits the writing of the whole numbers of hundreds in the same manner as the whole numbers of tens were written. Thus
To
tive
the numbers:
100,
200,
300,
400,
500,
600,
700,
800,
900,
1000,
are written respectively:
C,
CC,
CCC,
CD,
D,
DC,
DCC,
DCCC,
CM,
M.
4
ARITHMETIC
The
first
hundred numbers written after each number of hundreds give all the whole numbers comprised between one and
ten hundreds.
The number
M
written one, two, or three times
numbers 2000, 3000, 4000. To write the whole numbers comprised between two consecutive whole numbers of thousands, the first 999 numbers are written at the right of each number of thousands. The above conventions permit the writing of all the numbers under 5000. Thus the numbers 1856 and 4584 are written
at the right of itself gives the
MDCCCLVI
12.
and
MMMMDLXXXIV.
it
A
number
is
concrete or abstract, according as it does or
does not indicate the nature of the thing which
represents.
Thus when we say seven
concrete numbers; but
are abstract numbers.
13.
o'clock, twelve dollars, 7
and 12 are
when we say simply
seven, twelve, they
An
operation
is
a manner of transforming numbers.
There
all
are only four fundamental operations in arithmetic, because
the others are simply combinations of these four.
addition, subtraction, multiplication,
14.
They
are:
and
division.
A A
calculation
is
the
sum and
total of all the operations
performed upon the numbers.
15.
theorem
is
a truth rendered evident
by a course
is
of rea
soning called a demonstration.
16.
An axiom
is
a selfevident truth which
a question to be solved.
accepted with
out demonstration.
17. 18.
A
problem
is
The theorem, the axiom, and the problem come under
the
19.
fit
proposition established to the demonstration of a theorem or problem.
common name of proposition. An hypothesis is a preliminary
20.
A
corollary
is
the consequence of one or several proposi
tions.
is a second operation performed accuracy of the result obtained by the first; a proof establishes the probable but not the absolute correctness of a result.
21.
The
proof of an operation
to
verify the
22.
1st.
Axioms
of Arithmetic (16).
Two
quantities equal to a third quantity are equal to each
other.
The value whole is not altered by changing the order of its parts. 5 When the same operation of a is performed upon two equal quantities the results are equal. Sign abbreviations sign The = means . 3d.RULES AND DEFINITIONS 2d. 23.
and afterwards add the It is also convenient. to add given numbers.518 58. write the the num ^ 446 9 bers one below the other figures in in such a manner that the which express units of the same order come same vertical column. Addition is an operation by which several quantities are united in a single one. 7 in the result. 9: In general. 27. Thus the sum of the figures in the first column being 27 units. called the 25. 5287 mencing at the right add successively the figures of each column. well to accustom oneself to saying 9. 446. espe 39 358 4 22635 ^i^lly when one has long operations to make.BOOK I FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS ON WHOLE NUMBERS ADDITION 24. To add whole numbers. we place 7 units in the result and carry 2 tens to the next column.763 dfi'It^ ^^^^' especially if not accustomed to to divide the operation into several one partial additions.433 KAaKR °^ *"°') T^^"^" there are it) many f figures ' ' ^ ^^^^^ is ^^' ^*^ ^^^^ it is to be added. 4805. partial results. of the figures of a column. and 2 it is to carry. 2 and 4 are 6 and 2 are : 8. The operation is commenced at the right because of the tens which have to be carried. and underline the last Then comnumber. sum or total. to recommence the addition This permits one. 15. etc. place the units of that order in the result and carry the tens to the next column. 97864 39. 9. 22. the In order to calculate rapidly. instead of saying. without .. to write the partial sums at one side in the order in which they are obtained. 22 and 5 are 27. to separate it from the result. 15 and 7 are 22. 8 in the result. as ordinarily: 9 and 6 are 15. 27 (write the 7 without pronouncing and pass to the Remainders 45. in case of a distraction.
to find the difference between two whole numbers. mainder. the subtrahend. a quantity from a sum.SUBTRACTION 7 being obliged to repeat the whole operation. the it . Subtraction is is taken. additions the opposite direction. number below the larger in such a manner write the smaller that the figures which express units of the same order come in same column. subtract the quantity from one of the parts of the sum. underline the smaller number 372 to separate Then commencing at the right. is When the When is term is increased or decreased. subtract the first part sum from To subtract the quantity. decreased or increased. 26. making the partial Thus add from top to first bottom. The larger one or the first term is called the minuend. etc. 2d.. From The these definitions it follows that: first term first is equal to the second term plus the reincreased or decreased. the remainder increased or decreased. the re mainder. 6th. SUBTRACTION two quantities an operation by which the difference of These two quantities are the two terms of the difference. take from the remainder. the second part from this re the last part has been subtracted. creased or decreased 5th. 2935 372 2563 In general. 2935 and 372. and the 27. It permits also of the verification of the addition of any column without reference to the others. 3d. recommence. difference the remainder. until 29. the second term is mainder 4th. of the The remainder is unchanged when both terms are inby the same quantity. To subtract a sum from a quantity. 28. The scheme shown here is very convenient. 1st. To subtract two whole numbers. according as the operation was made from bottom to top. To prove an in addition. or from bottom to top. the smaller or second term. each figure of the second term from the corresponding figure in the first and place the remainder below. or top to bottom (97).
will give the first term 2935. Adding the remainder 2563 to the second term 372. numbers are added numbers are succesThus one says (operation 2) 3 and 4 7 and at the right the positive sum the negative .564 32 932 The result . quantity it.7 = 3. the subtraction is made possible by adding 10 units of that order to the first term. Another proof is to subtract the remainder from the first term which should give the second quantities are 3 terra. 4th). 1st).8 ARITHMETIC When a figure such as 7 in the second term is larger than the corresponding figure 3 of the first term. the rule of subtraction may be applied in a general way and the two partial sums be dispensed with. (See the operation at the left. not necessary to write plus — must precede it. Commencing and from each partial sively subtracted.624 2. 7 from 13 leaves 6. In performing the operation one says. 6. the sign . In place of this method. if the work is correct (28. 2 in the remainder. 5. the smaller is before If 7 is to be taken from taken from the larger and the negative 1st. 2 from 5 leaves 3. positive it is but if it is negative the sign 4.243 87. Proof of subtraction. This adding of one imit to the following figure of the second term is the reason for beginning at the right.808 ^™™ sums subtract the sum of several quantities ^^^ s^"^ of several other quantities. 31. and the difference of ~ 184.848 3. so as to avoid confusion in making the two sums. writ ing successively the partial remainders 3. Then the made in the usual manner. When the first is + 45). When separated by the signs + + or — (example: 3 positive and 4 preceded by + are said to be and 5 preceded by — to be negative. from 2 leaves 2. thus: 4 59. this being compensated by adding one unit to the following figure of the second term (28.907 ^^'^64 145.is placed before all those to be subtracted. the are made separately the results taken. 30. the subtraction is number 2808 is underlined apd the two sums sum to be subtracted coming last. sign placed before the result. 3 indicates that the quantity could not be subtracted.) The last placed below. 4 from 9 leaves 5. and one does not wish to rewrite them in order to separate them. '^^ 8252  29.543 When all the quantities are written in a column.
3. the negative figures ' column are added and the partial sum taken from the corresponding positive figure. 12 and 2. units be and adding 1.564 8. The same operation It is repeated for is 59. . 6. .243 each column. since several figures are subtracted in succession. from 10 leaves 4. from 29 leaves 5. the product is 0. and the application of the preceding rule to the solution of any right triangles when logarithms are used.624 2. less 4. rule naturally applies in the case where but one number to be taken from a sum of several others (see operation 3). from 8 leaves 4.808 which it is is but a little extended in this case. and when . equal to the multiplicand as there are units in From the definition of multiplication it follows: 1st.MULTIPLICATION 2. it is better to operate in the following man ~ ' Commencing of each at the right. seen that nothing done (29) — — — ^9 Q^2 except to follow the rule of subtraction 8352 29 848 3. 17. in this last case j^3j. 3 Thus one to the next column for compensation. 1 and 2. from 14 leaves 5. 145. .808 says: 8 and 4. 2 and 2. 2.543 1 and 0. 3. 17 less 2. 11. 7 and 2. 4 1 and 8.848 number (see operation 4). 15. 4. 1 and 3. the _ — — oo'qqo 3'624 latter being increased by 1. MULTIPLICATION 32. 15 and 9. The multiplicand and the multiplier are the factors of the prodMultiplication is an abbreviated method of adding as uct. Part IV). 24. and also where the ^^^ of several numbers is to be taken from a 59 243 single 87. . Midtiplication is an operation by which a number called is repeated as many another called the multiplier.252 29.. and 3 is is written in the result. ^s the case may from 1 leaves 1. When one of the factors is 0. 3 and 3. 14. times 10 . less 8. The preceding there is 3d. The result is called the product. 2. 9.543 and have several units to add to or to subtract from the next column (96 and 403. from 17 leaves 3. and 3. . 9 and 6. the multiplicand times as there are imits in many numbers the multiplier. possible to 145. 9 9 and 8. 2d. 2.
and the multiplier an abstract follows: same sort as the number (12). From the definition of multiplication and from axiom 2 (22). 33. contains the products of two numbers of a single figure each: 1 .10 ARITHMETIC is one of the factors factor. 35. by When the two terms 25 and 8 of a difference are multi4. In general the product is plicand. 19 or 95 = 5x (3 + 7 + 9) = 5X3 + 5X7 is + 5X9. it 1st. The product equal to the ber is each part of the given of the sum of several quantities and a numsum of the products obtained by multiplying sum by the number: 19 = 3 + 7 + 9. we have 19 2d. plied that by the same number number 4: 25 X 4 the difference 17 multiplied  8 X 4 = (25  8) X 4 = 17 + 4 = 68. X5 or 95 = The product (3 + 71. with the sum of several numbers is equal to the sum of the products obtained by multiplying the quantity by each part of the sum of a quantity 5x 34. unity 1. constructed by Pythagoras. all The following table. the product of the is equal to the other multi 2d.9) 5 = 3X5 + 7X549X5.
among which are the factors of the other number. and the block at this intersection will contain the 36. for instance. To multiply any number 9 by a product 3 X 4 X 7 = 84. 5X(3X7)X4 = 5X3X4X7 = 60X7 = . and the numbers the factors. all the factors of 5 X 7 = 35. the an under multiple of the first. 7. it is pos by the first by the second factor 4. of = 35 = 7 (9 4) The difference. and so on through factor 3. Conversely. 41. 84 = 9X (3X4X7) 7. X 3 X 4 = 60. 11 two numbers of a single figure in the 8x3. containing 3. 7x4 + 7x3 + 7x5 = 7(4 + 3 + 5) = 7x12 = 84 same quantity. when one quantity is a multiple of another.MULTIPLICATION To above find the product of table. The product of any number of factors is not changed by any . A number is said to contain all the factors of another number when it is equal to the product of several factors. follow the vertical column which contains 8 down until intersects the horizontal row. The sum. and so on. 7 is of several multiples of the a multiple of that quantity (33 and 38). contains by a whole number. also of 3. A quantity is a multiple of another when Thus it is equal to the latter multiplied 7x3 = 21 is a multiple of latter is 39. is mul tiplied by a number number the product multiplied by the same 420. the new product by the fourth. find the multiplicand 8 in the first top horizontal row. 38. is called the product. and the multiplier 3 in the it vertical column. product 24. two multiples of the same quantity 7 is a multiple of that quantity (34 and 38). instead of multiplying the number by the product 84. The result obtained by multiplying a . 7x97x4 =7x5 change in the order of the factors: 3x4x7x5 sible to multiply it = 4x5x3x7 = 420 (36). 5 is When a factor of a product. =9x3x4x7 = 756. 40. the product thus obtained until the last factor has been used as multiplier (36) 9X 43. the first together in order of their positions series of numbers by the second. the product by the third. 37. 42. Thus 2x5x3x7 = 210.
12 ARITHMETIC In multiplying several factors of a product by several numbers. it suffices to obtain the product of the numbers neglecting the ciphers and write at the right of the product as many ciphers as have been neglected in the operation. of To multiply a number. write the units of each partial product under the corresponding figure of the multiplicand. 5736. = 42. and so on carry 4). To multiply a whole number by a unit followed by one or ciphers. 44. 8.000. of several figures. 6. multiply successively each figure of the multiplicand by the multiplier. one 400 X 6000 multiplies 4 by 6. Thus. of several figures. of several figures. To multiply a number. all or part of which end with ciphers. 6 times 5 for all the figures of the multiplicand. 743. To obtain the product of several numbers. right. a single figure. and imderline Then commencing at the to separate it from the result. and add the tens to the next product (the carrying of the tens is what obliges one to commence at the right).500. and 4 are 34 (write 4 and carry 3). it is only necessary to write as more the many ciphers after number as there are at the right of the imit: 425 X 100 45. the product is multiplied by the product of those numbers: (5 X 6) X (3 X 7) X 4= (5 X 3 X 4) X (6x7) = 60 X 42 = 2520. 47. in multiplying 400 five by 6000. by another number.400. Thus. and writes ciphers to the right of the product 24 = 2. 5736 743 17208 22944 40152 4261848 . 458. by a number 458 6 2748 it Write the multiplier under the multiplicand. 46. one says: 6 times 8 are 48 (write are 30.
the multiplier 13 so that units of the same order correspond. 48. To prove a is. of number of figures in the multiplicand and multiplier. the quotient will give the other factor if the work is correct. or equal sum. It will division. When the multiplier is 11 or 12.MULTIPLICATION Write as in the preceding tiplicand. which sum If is the product desired. the operation 99). is It may be noted that the number of partial products always equal to the number of significative figures in the midtiplier. that 49. case.and reciprocally. cessively by each Then multiply the multiplicand sucfigure of the multiplier. figures and the multiplier the product contains 8 or 50. after the operation of by dividing the product by one of the factors. 7. the The number of figures in the product is equal to the sum. less one. Short methods of multiplication (44 and 45). starting at the right (46). that take the multiplier for the multiplicand. The operation is sensibly shortened by taking the factor which contains the least number of significative figures (8) for multiplier. multiplication. Remark. when there are figures which appear several times in the multiplier. to this Thus the multiplicand containing 5 3. The number of partial products cal and the partial products which are equal have to be if it culated only once. 1st. invert the order of the factors. tipher which has been used then add the partial products. under the muland underline the multiplier. is and (41 if correct. operate as were com . is less. 2d. they are neglected. and above all. the same result will be obtained and be shown farther on. for a partial product. the multiplier contains ciphers between significative figures. and the general rule is applied as before: as ciphers give 34256 3002 68512 102768 102836512 Remark. write each partial product the first figure below in such a manner that at the right comes under the figure of the mul.
1 and 7. 4th. 11. multiply the multiplicand by unity. 88 (write 8 (write 2 and carry 5).000 . Having. we have 65.65.. the product is equal to the sum of the multiplicand and itself. 8 and 99.14 ARITHMETIC Thus in multiplying 97. tract the product of by as many ciphers and from the result subthe multiplicand and the difference between 10 and the number at the right of the multiplier.. 8 and 4 are 12 (write 2 and carry 1). which may 9s. which gives one partial product less. 1 and 6. 3 .546.648 posed of but one figure (46). When a multiplier. In doing the operation.598. followed by as many .873 X 10.264 If instead of figures.(10 . 3d. 7. by 11.131. Thus in the preceding example. contains parts 54 of = 6X9 and 48 = 6 X 8. .598. and 9. .254. 1 and 4. 5.730. 10.000 .873. one says. 71 (write 1). figures at the right of the multiplier. ciphers as there are figures in the multiplier. 14. one figure at the right of the 9s there are 2. 1 and 9. 5 and carry 8). multiply the multiplicand by 11 or 12 as by a single figure. subtract the product of the multiplicand and difference between 100.000 .8) = 10. .131. 8..2. 84.000 . to multiply with 65. When the multiplier contains only ure at the right. With the multipUer 11. followed as there are figures in the multiplier. from the multiplicand. 3 . 17. 107. 97648 11 97648 117 1074128 683536 1074128 11424816 11 times 8.000 . moved one place to the left. for example.873 X 2 ^ 658. 44. and 7.746 658. 8 and 11 times and 66. 7 and 4. 52 77.746 = 658. and 6. . write simply 658.873 X 9998 = 65. which are multiples one of its fig . such as 48. except the last figbe anything. to get the product.730. 9998 = 10. 1000 . When two adjacent figures of the nmltiplier form the number 11 or 12. as in the second example shown above. one says: 8 (write 8 in the result). . and the 2.
975. is a short method of performing a series of subtracIn subtracting successively the divisor from the dividend . Having 5 5.and 125 = —— > to multiply a number by or 125 multiply by 10. 4729 X 125 ^hl^ = 591.DIVISION ures 15 6. = ^) 25 = —r. after having multiplied by 6. 4. which gives the product of the multiplicand and 54. which would be very long indicated. Since the product of several factors is not changed by changing the order of the factors (41). Division is is an operation by which a quantity called the separated into as many equal parts as there are units in a whole number called the divisor. 25.000. the multiplicand adjacent figures of the multiplier form the numbers 25 may be multiplied by these numbers as 1479 257 7 25 10353 36975 380103 6th. the same partial product by 8 gives the product of the multiplicand and 48.125. Division tions. When above or 125. an operation may be materially shortened. or 8. 100. and since several of the factors can be replaced by their product (42) many times by suitable grouping of the factors. or 1000 and divide the product by 2. if carried out in the way Example: (25x4) 1000 25X9X5X7X2X4 = 9X7 63 X (5X2) = 63X100X10 = 63. X = DIVISION 51. one of these parts is the dividend quotient of the division. multiply the partial product by 9. 1479 X 25 = 117^= 36. 6 54 48 = = 6 6 X X 9 8 58453 48546 350718 3156462 2805744 2837659338 5th.
To divide a sum by a number. the number of subtractions performed the quotient. of the 62. The other numbers. is odd or even according as its first figure at the odd or even (90). ber the 59. A number is right 58. A number is said to be divisible by another. first is quotient obtained by the division of by the second is a whole number.16 ARITHMETIC until a and from the remainder is remainder is obtained which is smaller than the divisor. 6. 60. and 56). several numbers 36. when the 52. the first. 28 (40 61. 9. 57. common and 56). 8. 4. (37. divides their difference. 4. (39 and 56). of a 35 X = 105. The numbers 2. are odd. will divide any multiple. 64 (39 and 56). 35. 42 and 14. 5. 53. of that number number. 4. divide each part by the number (33). first is by the second to divisor. 63. The first case and to the dividend in the second. 12. thus: sum 32 + 12 4 + 16 32 12 16 „ „ =^ + 4+4=8 + 3 + 4 = 15. 5. The product of several whole numbers is divisible by any one of its factors (38 and 56). When Any a number divisible contains all the factors of another num16. 12 by a number. is a multiple of another. divisor. is From the definition of division it follows that the dividend equal to the product of the quotient and the divisor (32). 7. Any divisor. 4. divides their sum. 32 — 12. ible A number is even or odd according as it is or is not divisby 2. 38. 55. common to two numbers. and is also considered even. Any 3 7. When a number. All numbers are quotient is equal to one in the by themselves and unity. thus: 4 12 " 32 ^"T^^"^^^* . divide each of the terms by the number 4 32 (34). To divide a difference. 12. divisible by 2. 3. the first is divisible by the second and conversely (52). are called even numbers. The second number divisible said to be a divisor of 54. 1. 56.
which gives 765 as a remainder. subtract from the first partial dividend 4145 the product 3380 of the divisor and the figure obtained in the quotient. separate line the divisor. at the right of which of the divisor write the following figure 2 of the dividend. the next figure 8 of the dividend. and continue thus until last The all the figures of the dividend have been used. write this figure under the divisor. giving a remainder of 53. them by a left of vertical line. 4. look in the table of the first nine multiples of the divisor to find how many times the divisor is contained in the part of the dividend which has been pointed off and this gives the first figure 4 at left of the quotient. At the right of 532. point off just enough figures so that the number 4145 which contain the divisor.DIVISION 64. find is how many times the divisor contained in the fourth partial dividend 5324. by another whole number. that is. from the the dividend. 17 To divide a whole number. remainder obtained 254 is the remainder of the division. consider 8 at the left of simply the first figure the divisor. the third figure of the quotient is 0. the divisor Then to find the number of times that contained in the partial dividend 4145. neglect as many figures at the right of the partial dividend as have been supis pressed in the divisor. at the right of this partial remainder bring down. thus determining the second figure 9 of the quotient.145. write. find in the how many times the divisor is contained number 7668 which results. 845. Generally one does not take the trouble to write the first nine is multiples of the divisor. is Since the divisor not contained in the third partial dividend 532.824. 845 1690 2535 3380 4145824 3380 7658 7605 845 4906 50?0 5915 6760 7605 ^ 254 another. and underresults will Then. write the fol lowing figure 4 of the dividend. write the divisor at the 00^ To divide one number by right of the dividend. and find how many times 8 contained . subtract dend 7658 the product 7605 of from the second partial diviand the second figure the quotient.
34 from 41. 76. 36. how many down times is 8 contained in 5? 4. which will give 42. and the quotient is to have a number of figures. down how many is 8 contained in 53? 6 times. 72. and the multiplication of the divisor by the figures is avoided. Because in this the successive figures of the qiiotient are obtained imme^diately. it is advantageous to construct a first multiples of the divisor. and 4. from 76. 9 times 4. 4 times 4. and 2. Bring etc. showing 5 to be too large) 4 times (write 4 in the quotient). No times times (write is in the quotient). it natural to suppose that 5 the number of times the divisor 845 contained in the partial dividend 4145. we find to be the first The product of this figure and the divisor need not be written but may be subtracted as fast as the figures are obtained. 3. division The preceding would be performed in the following manner: 4145824 7658 5324 254 845 4906 and to perform the operation one says: 5. ^ .18 in the ARITHMETIC number 41 which is is results. 5. 8 being contained 5 times in is 41. 45. How many times is 8 and saying 5 times 8 are 40. 9 times 8. 4 times 5. (not necessary to write 0). 4 times 8. and 2. 9 times 5. showing that 5. 45 from 48. how many times is 8 contained in 76? 9 times (write 9 in the quotient). Bring contained in 41? (trying 8. 34. 6 and 2 to carry. or when there are many numbers to be divided by the same divisor. but in multiplying 5 by the figure 4 of the divisor there will be 2 to carry to the product of 8 5 it is by 5. When large the divisor very large. which results from 5 times 4. and remember that to divide a number by 7 is simply to take oneseventh of it (162). and 4 are 40. write simply the dividend. 16. Trying 4 as we have just done with figure at the left of the quotient. 7 for instance. 18 from 24. 7. and 4 to carry. from 45. 18. 5 remainder and 2 to carry. are 42. and 2. 20 from 25. 32. 20. When the divisor has only one figure. Bring down 2. too large. The work can be shortened still more by not writing the multiples of the divisor under the partial dividends table of the nine way when subtracting.
The part at the left. 19 one says: a seventh of 17 is 2 (write 2 in the quotient under the dividend and carry 17 — 7 X 2 = 3).389 quotient 24. the same as dividing the number by one followed by as ciphers as have been suppressed (44) many 8500 ioo" = ^^ . the subtraction possible and the remainder is is larger than the divisor. thus in the preceding example 4906 X 845 + 254 should equal 4. then the number of figures left in dividend increased by one will equal the number 1. is 3 + 1 = 4 Remaek 2. 2. To divide a number by one followed by any number as of ciphers. of 19. to contain the divisor. the re mainder of the division.DIVISION dividend 174. is In decimal numbers (89 the quotient 847. which is always smaller than the divisor. 65. separate with a comma many is figures at the right of the divi dend as there are ciphers in the divisor. the right is the quotient. Thus: 5^^847 35 ~ ^^^'^^ 100 847 is the quotient. 1. and the remainder and 182). in the figures in the quotient. and the part at the remainder. is 5. and the divisor. that dividend. 4.824.912 remainder 5. When it is ciphers at the right of a whole number are suppressed. then the figure in the quotient too small.145. example above. 845. To prove a division. being given.824 (100). a seventh of 34. thus.145. the number of figures which the quotient is to contain may be found by pointing off at the left of the dividend just enough figures. The dividend. 4145. larger than the corresponding partial when it can not be subtracted from the partial is however. Remaek of figures in the quotient. figure in the quotient is too large when its pro duct with the divisor dividend. of 8. multiply the divisor by the quotient and add the remainder. A is. expressing the simple Units. and 35 the remainder.35. which will give the dividend if the work is correct (52). 9. the seventh of 63. 4 (write 4 and carry 6). 66. If.
1 that . which will give the quo tient. suppress this factor in the product. 42. 25. 8. by a number.^ it follows . desired (42) 37.<. When ber 3.957 36. To divide a number. .71 _ . has been used as divisor. ^^^^ ^^^^^ 120.473 591.= lool^ 68. To divide a product by one of its factors. 4. 100. by a product. the quotient of the divided by the second by suppressing second (67 and 69): tained in the first product all the factors of the 2X3X5X7 = 2X5. of a product. thus: the product by that number 3xx5 69. or may 8 and dividing the product by 10. 7.473 X 8 _ *'''*^''»*1000 The decimal numbers obtained are the exact quotients (91). 3X7 71. 12. 3. 1000 . 252. of several factors the product. Having 5 25 100 = ^ and 125 . and so on until the the quotient.. last factor. 4. .957X4 100 = ^^^^'^^' ^25" ~ 591. 3. of obtained by the second.471 WQ. 2. "T. ^ and 54 3 —x— : = 9 . . the quotient 9 is mul tiphed or divided by that number: 54X3 = —g — 9 X 3 = 27.20 ARITHMETIC 10 = y.^ = _ 3.471 _ 37. . 67. or 125 the operation be shortened (164) by multiplying the number by 2. 504. is 3X8X5 = = divided (43). Thus (68) ?2<21^ = 70.^ = ^. the dividend 54 is multiplied or divided b}^ a numwithout changing the divisor 6. when a number is to be divided by 5. is When a factor. may be ob When a product contains the factors of another pro duct. divide the number by the first factor. or 1000: 25~ = 36. 3xx5 first = all 3XlX5 = 3X5.divided 374. = ^A^ : f= 30. 2. 7.
common divisors and the divisor. 12. when only one of the numbers 54 is divisible by 9. 700 75. _ g^=9. all and divisor. and for a remainder. divide the dividend. .54 = 102 of two numbers is not divisible by a third number 9.DIVISION 72. without altering the quotient (66 and 73). the may divisor end with be suppressed at the right of each. 18. or divided the dividend 48 and the divisor 18 are multiplied by the same number 6. 3. 18. 7 All common divisors. but the remainder unaltered. 48. of the dividend. 54^3 From (73) it follows that when the dividend and divisor have common factors. ^ 3 3. the quotient 9 is divided by that number. 6. 77. The sum 102 divided by 9 gives for a quotient the sum 5 + 6 = 11 of the quotients of 48 and 54 by 9. of the division. „ 9. divided by the same number the quotient 9 remains imehanged 54X3 ___ = 74. divide the remainder. 12. 48. 76. and . the remainder 3 of 48 by 9. and of the remainder.000 350 50. the operation may be shortened by elim inating those factors: 7 7 X 324 X 23 _ X 12 X 23 ~ same number 324 12 _ " 32454 1254 _ ~ 81 3 ^ „ It follows also that when the dividend and of ciphers ciphers. Thus the sum 48 1. 35. "' or multiplied ^* 6X3 73. When the dividend 48 is increased or diminished by a certain number of times the divisor 9. the quotient 5 is increased or diminished a certain is number of times unity. but the remainder is multiplied or divided by that When number. and " M^ = 613 9X3 = 27. the quotient remains unchanged. When the dividend 54 and the divisor 6 are multiplied or 3. 21 When the divisor 6 is multiplied or divided by a number without changing the dividend 54.
having 27 = 3. Thus. also 12 being all divisible : prime to each other 83. The second power. The degree of the factors of that power. 4. numbers. Remark. 5. 3 X 4. is one. 7 X 7 = 49. 3 X 3 X 3. . 13. The greatest common divisor of several numbers is the largest number which will divide each of the numbers. . 11. Thus the third power of 10 is 1000. 4. of Thus 3 and 4 are the degrees of the powers 27 and 81 of the number 3. is the cube of the number. 10. 17 not divisible exare prime . 7. 8. 85. and 81 86. is the square of the number. 7. = 3 X 3 X 3 X 3. is to find several ber. product of several 80. by 2. 82. 81. 87. which are not prime numbers are the prime factors larger than unity: 21 = 3 X 7. and 15. The least common multiple of several numbers is the smallest number which is a multiple of each of the numbers (38). 7. 84. and 6. are not prime to each other. of a number. the number 24 separated into three factors 2. The separation of a number into its factors. 4 X 4 X 4 = 64. The greatest common divisor of several numbers the numbers 4 and 9. 10 X 10 X 10 = 1000 (44). the third power. 3. numbers. and The product of several factors each equal to a given num ber is a power of that number. 2. 21. having 24 = 2 X 4. factoring. Remark. Several numbers are said to be prime to each other when they have no other common divisor than unity (53): such are 79. 3. II WHOLE when DIVISORS it is A number is a prime number cept by itself and one (53): 1. All prime numbers which do not divide a whole number are prime with that number such are 7 and 15. 27 and 81 are powers of power of a number is the number. the product of which will equal the is num Thus. All numbers. The numbers 6. All powers of 10 are equal to one followed by as many ciphers as there are units in the degree of the power. of a number.BOOK PROPERTIES OF 78. 22 .
845. separate on the right of the number as many figures as there are units in the degree of the power. which gives respectively 1 and 112 (50 and 66). it suffices to find the remainder in the division of the first Thus the number 45. 125. 500 . obtained by pointing off at the right of the number the power. the quotient then 97 and the Corollary. a number is divisible by 125 if the three figures at the right form the numbers 000. is will give 97. for exmust be or divisible by the power. because the first figure 7 divided by 2 or 5 gives respectively 1 or 2 for is considered as divisible by 2 and by a remainder. which remainder 845. it must end in at least as many ciphers as there are units in the degree of the power (66). .737 by 2' = 8. in question as many figures as there are units in the degree of Thus. 89. or by 5^ = 125. is number 5 5 raised to the 5. the number. Thus. to obtain the remainder in the division of 45. to obtain the remainder in the division of a num any power of 2 or 5. 250. that the stead of 5 of a number raised to a certain power is power written to the right and a little Thus. If a number be divisible by a power of 10. may are respectively the desired quotient 10^ and remainder. in an abbreviated manner. write the 5^ in X 5 X X Remark. To obtain a quotient and a remainder by dividing a number by a power of 10. 91. be considered as having the exponent one. ample. to divide 97. the part to the left and the part to the right considered as expressing simple units. In general. 375. which The first power of a number is number itself. 5(55). . In order that a number be divisible by any power of 2 or 5. separate three Thus having figures. fourth power.PROPERTIES OF WHOLE DIVISORS 88. obtained by pointing off as many figures ber by on the right of the number as there are units in the degree of by the power. the power.. To obtain the remainder in the division of a number by 2 or 5. although properly speaking it is no power and has no exponent. to express. the figure figure at the right by 2 or 5.737 divided by 2 gives 1 for a remainder. find the remainder in the division of 737 by 8 or by 125. 23 The exponent the degree of this above the number.845 by = 1000. it suffices to find the remainder in the division of the number. and divided by 5 gives 2. 90.
and those which are Thus according as a sum is 27. 13. preceding example neglecting 4 and 5: 7 and 8. and so on until a result is obtained which does not exceed 9. 5. the remainder Thus to obtain the remainder in the division of 75.568. 4. Given the following number to fimd the remainder when dividing by 9: addition imtil cessive 8. If. 2. that is. for instance. one says: If for 7. it may be reduced by adding its figures and proceeding as before. for instance. reducing the sucsums which are multiples of 9 to 0. 27. its division by 9 (92). 29. Thus the number 45. the sum of the figures which must be divisible by 9.562. then add 3 + = 4. 3. 6 and 7.24 92. by 9. to numbers in the tens. 29. not. Finally. operate on 9. 13. 6. one says: sive sum which is greater than or equal to 9.683. it is the required remainder. 1 is the required remainder in the division of the number in question by 3. a step still more expeditive consists in neglecting the figures 9 and those of which the sum is 9 and continuing the figures 9 all the figures have been used. 94. 14. 6 and 7. 15 (less 9). 2. 22. 2 and 1. . 6. 2. one says: 5 and 7. 9. It is immaterial how the sum made. The operation is shortened by taking 9 from each succesThus. commencing at the right or left. 15. one reason or another the above short methods are not used and the successive sum becomes too large. add the figures considering them as this sum as upon the first number.847 giving 4 for a remainder in its division by 9. 8. 15. 1 and 5. and 4 divided by 3 giving 1 for a remainder.487 by 1 9. 21. find its remainder in remainder in the division of a number by 3. 12. and continues the addition with the number 3. add 7 + 5 + 4 + 8 + 7 = 31. 93. or 20 it may be reduced to 0. 7.647. 4. 7 and 8. 13 is (less 9). or 2. then the re mainder in the division of this first remainder by 3. ARITHMETIC To obtain the remainder in the division of a number by simple units. 20. 16. one has 75. and When this result is less than is 0. 10 (less 9). If a number is divisible express the simple units multiple of 9 (38 and 53). 12. 6 and 4. if it is 9. be a To obtain the firstly. The operation may be shortened still more by neglecting the Thus in the and any group of which the sum is 9.697. and 4 is the required remainder.
it being given to find the remainder in the division of 7. and divide the difference by 11. If a 25 number is divisible is by 3. . . 57. the 2 being carried from the first sum according to their orders. 1 = . if one is accustomed to calculating. one would say without writing a single figure: 8. which express the simple imits tiple of 3 (38 96. for the number 7. Another rule for finding ber 7. the sum of the figures is. 4 . 155 and 34. operate on this sum as before and so on until a result is obtained which does not exceed 99 the remainder in the division of this last sum by 11 is the required remainder. we get the same result 196. which gives 34. 10 being the re Operating as in Ex. that must be a mul and 53).748 by 11: required remainder Operating on this remainder 19 as on the original number. that is. the remainder 9 in the division of 97 by the required re mainder.5 . number into periods of two figures each. in saying 98 and 57. 196. the If a number 7391 gives a is 9 — 1 = 8. 24. It is evident that this sum of periods of two figures each may be obtained by adding them directly. commencing at the right point off the figures in periods of two figures each.3 = 12. divisible by 11. 98. To obtain the remainder in the division of a number by 11. the remainder in the division of a numcommencing at the right with the first figure. we get 98 + 57 h 34 I 7 = 196. 2d (31). divisible by 3. 4 t + 7 = 26. upon which the operation may be continued. which is less than 7 F 9 = 16. 31 — 12 = 19.748. 19 before the 6. adding. 31. 15. and add these numbers. 817 and then the others taken as tens. less mainder. is sum 311=4. add every other figure. 21915 writing these 3 19. that is. which gives 8. commencing with the second figure. the subtraction made possible by increasing the first by a number which is a multiple of 11. If a number is divisible by 11.798 by 11. then 96 11 + is 1 = 97. the required remainder.395. 189 and 7. 8171917 = 31. Thus [4 + 22]  16 = 10.PkOPEETiES OP WHOLE DIVISORS 95. subtract the second result from the first. or one can add the righthand figures considered as units. the sum of the periods of two figures each must be a multiple of 11.395. separate the 7. then do the same thing.345. considering them as expressing simple units. Thus.
rule of . in the division of 9. less 5. 4. 3. 8. added to make the subtraction 11 or 15) less 9. 4. and 8 is the required remainder. The proof of the addition of several whole numbers by the Find the remainders 8. and if the remainder 7 in the division of this sum 16 by 9 is equal to the remainder 7 in the division of the sum 2437 of the whole numbers by 9. 10. when applied 17 less number 7391. 27. the numbers to be added by 9 add these remainders. 6. 9 less 1. 1. 19. + 97. one says. possible. 22. NUMBEKS . where 1. the result 2437 is correct (26). less 3. 7.26 ARITHMETIC Having obtained the to the difference 19. one says: 4. With this manner 11 (4 is of operating.
5063 .
.
of their division by this greatest common divisor. 9. divide the number. 192. 25. 24 and 16. Any number. and. 4. The least common multiple of two numbers. 4. When two numbers. 4. prime to each factor of a product. 113. prime to each other in pairs. 24 and 16. 8. 112. are prime to each other. is equal to the product. 4 and 9. 48. conversely. divisible by several numbers. prime to each other (80). 110. 7 X 15 prime to the product. 25. is a multiple 108. of two numbers. X 25. prime with another. all powers of one are prime to any power of the other. Any prime number. 4 X 9 X 25 = 900 (83). 16. of the two numbers. of a number. is 8X3X2. 9. 7200. and all prime numbers which divide a power. 4 and 15. 48. of two numbers. divisor. 115. Ill: Any number. of two numbers. of these numbers and the quotients. 16. 15 X 23. 3 and 2. 24 and their greatest equal to the product of either one of the numbers and the quotient of the division of the other number by common 117. which divides a product. Any common multiple. prime to each other in pairs. 24 and 16. any multiple of this product is a common multiple of the two numbers. The least common multiple of several whole numbers. 24 and 16. Any number. 5. 15. 8 X 3 X 2 = 48. 12 X 13 one of the factors of the product. of their least 116. common multiple. divisible by two numbers. 114. 7. divides at least 4. 3 and 2. are multiplied or . X 16. 720. 15. of their division by this greatest common divisor. Any number. 8. of these numbers and the quotients. whose factors are the is a multiple of the product. The product of the greatest common divisor. 15^. whose factors are the greatest common divisor. is divisible by their product. 24 and 16. 29 divides the and which is prime to one of the factors. divided When two numbers. greatest common divisor. Any common multiple of two. is equal to the product. is prime to any power of that number. 8. and their least common multiple. 36. other factor. 24 118. 8 (114). is The least common multiple. 48. In the same manner the least common multiple may be determined (112 and 126). is equal to their product. 109. 24 and 16. 107. is divisible by their product.PROPERTIES OF WHOLE DIVISORS factors.
is common such that in dividing 9.. 48. of that and the third number. 6. except one. 5. In general. 12. number 121. is the one required (126). 6 and 8 (114). this 6. and so on. Numbers . the quotients. 7. is multiplied or divided by that number. 5 and neither divisible by the smaller of these prime numbers. then the least least common multiple. 6. 7. of the first 72. 119. of several numbers 8. less than 10. 4. 9. 4. 12. To find the least common multiple of several whole numbers. 3. 120. are obtained which are prime to each other. conversely. 24. In the follow ing tables on the next pages are given: Prime numbers from 1 to 10. 72. 7. nor by any number which precedes it. and their prime factors. 18. to determine a prime number. are prime to each other. etc. 10. 122. 24. 9. it by several others. 360. common multiple. being between the squares. The series of prime numbers is unlimited. is divided by each one of the numbers. the last least common multiple. of two consecutive prime numbers. 1st. quotients. Any whole number. 2d. their least common multiple. divide by 2. 5. find the least two. 18. is the least common multiple of all the others. 8. 72. 43.000 which do not contain the prime factors 2. and 11. is prime when. 9. 8. it is 123. and.000. 3. When the least common multiple. when a nummultiple. until a quotient is obtained which is equal to or less than the last prime number used as divisor (121). 25 and 49.30 ARITHMETIC by the same number. ber.
000 1 .PROPERTIES OF WHOLE DIVISORS Table of 31 Prime Numbers between 1 and 10.
.000 which do not Contain the Prime Factors S. and 11 and Their Prime Factors. S.32 ARITHMETIC Table of Numbers between 1 and 10. 7. No. 3.
000 which do not Contain Factors — Continued. Prime No. .PROPERTIES OF WHOLE DIVISORS Table of 33 the Numbers between 1 and 10.
.34 Table of ARITHMETIC Numbers between 1 and 10. No.000 which do not Contain Factors the Prime — Continued.
PROPERTIES OF WHOLE DIVISORS Table of 35 Prime Numbers between 1 and 10. No. .000 which do not Contain the Factors — Continued.
writing them in a vertical column. and so on until the last factor has been used as multiplier. This gives another method for determining the greatest divisor of several common is numbers (102 and 104). are the required divisors. the exponents of its prime factors are divisible by the degree of the power. ARlTtiMETlC may be 81 shortened by finding the prime factors of 81 and = 2. 360.56 factors of 100. Remark 125. To find all the divisors of a number. is equal to the product of the prime factors these factors being raised to the power these numbers. separate the into its prime factors (124). 72 is = 2' X d\ the greatest common divisor of these 2^ numbers X 3 = 12. common to 180. 8100 = 90^ is an exact power. each of corresponding to the smallest exponent which it bears as a factor of the numbers. and the products that have been obtained. Thus. multiply the first factor 2 by the second 2. 2* X 3^ X 5. each of the factors being raised to the it bears as a factor of the numbers. 126. The operation is carried on as follows. The greatest common divisor of several numbers. 127. multiply number in the tained same manner the first three factors and the products obby the fourth factor. all the unequal prime factors of the number. the first two factors and their product 4 by the third. and 72. having given: 3 240 = 2^ X X 5. 180 = 2^ X 3^ X 5. the . 240. multiple of is power corresponding to the largest exponent which Thus the least common the numbers in the above example. 240. omitting the multiplications which would give the products already obtained. 72. This being another method of finding the least common multiple of several numbers (114 and 119). 3S 100 = 2^ X 5\ 8100 = 2^ X 3^ X 5^ This last example shows that when a number. The least common multiple of several numbers equal to the product of their prime factors. 180.
PROPERTIES OF WHOLE DIVISORS number table: 1 37 1 being always a divisor. is written at the top of the 360 180 90 45 15 5 .
Thus the fraction in (130) is pronounced five ninths. 133. • A fraction represents the quotient of the division of its 38 . When when imity. one quarter. one third. then the denominator. in the preceding example. In writing a fraction. 9 is the denominator and 5 the numerator. thus we say one half. 132. of a fraction is The denominator the number which indi cates into how many is parts the unit has been divided. Conceive that a fraction may contain all the parts of one or and even all the parts of one or several units plus the parts of another unit these units. these equal parts are contained in the fraction. is a fraction. the number formed with 130. the numerator greater than the denominator. According as a fraction is smaller or larger than unity. or fourth. pronounce the numerator. several units. terms are equal. and 4. that it is less numerator is less all than its denominator. The numerator the number which indicates how many of Thus. being all divided into the same number all of equal parts. denominator and separate them by a is Thus five ninths written 134. a unit having been divided into 9 equal parts. Finally. is and it equal to unity. of a unit A 5 of these parts 131. its if than If it is contains the parts of one. its a fraction does not contain the parts of one. being the same and is.BOOK III FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS FRACTIONS fraction or a fractional number is one or several parts which has been divided into equal parts. the fraction is larger than unity. adding the termination th. The numerator and denominator are the two terms of the fraction. To pronounce a fraction. 3. There are exceptions for the denominators 2. called a proper or it is an improper fraction (130). Thus. write the numerator above the line.
the resulting fraction equal to any one of those fractions: 3 3 3 3 12 . divide the numerator by 135. Thus: 7 X 9 9 63 9 137. Thus : 63 9='' ^^^ 136. Any whole number. and add to the quotient a fraction. Thus  is equal to 5 divided by 9. ^ ^ T = ^+5 37 ^ 2 To reduce a whole number to an equivalent fraction having denominator 9. To reduce an improper fraction to a whole number and a proper fraction. for the numerator of the fraction take the a given product 63 of its denominator 9 with the whole number 7. with number 7 for a numerator and unity 1 for a denominator. or to a mixed number. In adding is the terms of several equal fractions. the denominator.FRACTIONS numerator by its 39 5 denominator (51). 7. the may be considered as a fraction. having the remainder for a numerator and the denominator of the improper fraction for a denominator.  7 .
3 3 To divide a fraction by a whole number. "^'^ T>4 + 2is 11 11 + 2 On the contrary. Thus: ^^^ 141.4o is Arithmetic proper or improper (131). multiply if it is possible without a remainder. if it is possible denominator. To multiply a numerator. but which can which never be attained because the terms can never become equal: 6 + 3 9<9T3' 5 .8f42 = = r^ T r It does not alter the value of a fraction : to multiply or divide terms by the same number (73) 3 6 . In each case the and farther from unity: ^ 8 83 is 13 132 its 12>12^:3' When the fraction ^^"^ 6<r^value is equal to unity not altered the by adding to. fraction by a whole number. numerator by the number. 8^* = 8T4 = 2 3 . both its = ^ = r^ = 3x2 3 3 28' ^""^ . In each case unity is the limit it approaches as the terms become larger. divide the Thus: 3. 7 142.8. or subtracting the same quantity from each term. multiply the without a remainder. or. 140. or. divide the denominator by the number. if the same quantity terms of a fraction. the fraction is subtracted from both diminished or increased ac cording as the fraction fraction departs farther is proper or improper.
are prime to each the other (80). and 14 those of the fraction ^r by 7. divide two terms by a common divisor (142): 30 46 _ 30 H 3 3 ""46^ _ 10 ~ 15' terms To reduce a 30 fraction. jp. 145. ^ to To reduce a a simpler form. 15 (102): 30 45 or cancel all _ ~ 30 45 ^ ^ 15 15 _2 ~3 ' the prime factors common to the two terms (125): 30_ 2 X 3 X 5 _2 46~3x3x5~3' Applying what was said divisor. but also the quotient. j^. 12.IRREDUCIBLE FRACTIONS when it 41 1 fractions cannot be made simpler. r (146). ^ t. of the two terms divided by 12. krS' to a simpler form. —^> by 2 42 tttt. fraction. are divisible fraction its by 3 (95). it is now seen that the terms of the resulting fraction. to its simplest form. . 30 and 73. not only the greatest common terms of the fraction. Thus a may often be refactors. Such are the 3 . duced to its simpler form by dividing out common . its 168 252 of _ ~ 84 126 _ ~ 42 63 _ ~ 14 21 _ ~ 2 3 terms being even. 146. for the same reason divide the terms 84 the resulting fraction. —> is obtained. to reduce a fraction. and it may be written 360_30 876~73' 1 68 In practice. divide by 2. The terms of an irreducible 3^ fraction. _. of the in (102). divide its by their greatest common divisor.
fractions to the same denominator. The greatest common divisor of several irreducible fractions. of the denominators of least common de nominator to which the fractions may be reduced (151). . REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS TO THE SAME DENOMINATOR 150. zttt.42 147. and as numerator by the product of the denomicommon denominator use the prod uct of all the denominators: 2 .. in general.. To reduce fractions to the same denominator is to find fractions equal to the given fractions. multiple of several irreducible fractions.) whose numerator 3 is the greatest common is divisor of the numerators (104). 5 several irreducible fractions. The is common a' s' Tn> the irreducible fraction ^. is the fraction. 4 g> 7. and whose denominator the least 149. common least multiple 140 of their denominators (119). multiply each nators of the others. with denominators equal to each other (131). — . whose numerator is the least common is multiple 140 of the numerators.^. the ^> is 36. 148. . And. g. multerms of each fraction by the denominator of the other. to reduce several fractions to the same denomi151. To reduce two tiply the nator. and whose denom inator the greatest common divisor 3 of the denominators. ARITHMETIC The least common multiple.
it is may be taken as common de 2 3 2x2 6 . seen immediately that 6 and 30 nominators. in the preceding examples. and then we have: 43 Thus.ADDITION OF FRACTIONS nator of the fraction.
= I2^^'" + 17 30'" To add a whole number and a fraction. This amounts to adding to the numerator of the given fraction the product of the denominator and the whole number: 153. having for a denominator the denominator of the fraction (136). reduce the whole number to an equivalent fraction. 4 .44 ARITHMETIC 5 2_20 ~30 7 _ 42 +5 ~ 30 3 12 7 + + 6 12 17 12 29 + ^_25 6 ~ 30 87 + 7 1^. and proceed as in the preceding case.
However. As a special case. Examples: ^4 ^+3 ^5 ^+15 .MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 157. which gives 3 + is 4 j^ • When is the fraction from which the subtracting it is to be done by a unit. the fraction may be the lesser. and to compensate this the whole number to be subtracted is reduced by one unit. it is simpler to subtract. 45 To subtract a whole fraction. first the fractions 5~3~15~i5~15' then the whole numbers. then take the difference of the fractions obtained (155 and 156). which means that the numerator is to be increased by a number equal to the denominator. number plus a fraction from a whole number plus a 4 + 1 ^ from 7 + 3 ^ for example. 7 — 4 = 3. increased zero. reduce each of the quantities to an equivalent fraction (153).
its lowest terms providing all common factors are In the preceding example. a certain fraction of a fraction of any quantity. The result is 11 3 X 7 162. then a 7 in the denominator. finally 6 in the numerator. multiply the numeradenominators for the tors together for the numerator. by canceling 2 and replacing 9 by 3 in the denominator.x^^x^~2l' in the and replace 8 by 2 denominator (confusion is avoided by drawing a line through the canceled factors). replacing the 42 by 6 in the numerator. and gives a product reduced to canceled. 11 "21' To find multiply the quantity Thus: 2 1 30f5are5x3 = ^. ARITHMETIC To multiply one fraction by another. and whose de nominator is equal to the product of their denominators: 2 3 5XjX^X^. by the product of the fractions (161). canceling 2 X 2 in the numerator and 4 result.5x3x2x2 ^^ 60 28 In practice. write out the multiplication and cancel the common factors of the two terms (146). jof „ . in the denominator. cancel 5 in the numerator and replace 35 by 7 in the denominator. and the denominator: 21 7 3 X 7 3 20* 4^5^4x5^ any number 161. we have 5X3 —=— = 11 = 15 for a In the example 4 9^7^ 35^ cancel 4 in the numerator 6 42 11 8 ^ X ^ X ^^ X 11 3 7 ^ ~px.2. „ 2 10 ^ 2 3  0f6are5xJX3 = _ „ „ 1 2 10 J2• 3„1.46 160. .„ 2 13 30 ^of of 0f5are5x3XjX^ = gj. is The jrroduct of of whole numbers and fractions a fraction whose numerator is the product of the whole numbers and the numerators of the given fractions. before going through the calculations. This shortens the operation.
59. reduce the dividend to one fraction (154 and 157). The articles (56. 34. or less than imity. 70. numbers and DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 164. 71. being founded upon principles applicable to fractions as well as whole numbers. a fraction whose denominator is a 278 3 Such are the fractions zr^ and it^is is A decimal number a number composed of a whole number. The quotient is equal to. proceeding as in the 165. less. 72.DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 47 Remark. Articles (33. which may be zero. multiply by the divisor 4_28 4_2_4 5_20 7^^_ ^3 3'7'5 "4 72 14' Remark. apply to both sorts of numbers. 67. 73). 63. 68. 166. Such are: f37 or several decimal fractions. fraction. or greater than the dividend according as the divisor fraction is equal to. + 8 ^ + 1000 10 loooj' \ / 3 5 ^""^ (lo + Too + 7 \ 1000/ . = 1*1 I (64). 43) are equally true with whole fractions. 42. and some which are immediate consequences of them. 62. and whose denominators are powers of that base. greater. To divide whole numbers plv^ fractions by whole numbers flus fractions. 69. Thus : 1 6 of 15 163. fraction inverted (159 To divide a quantity by a and 160). 60. To multiply a fraction which has unity 1 for a numerator by a quantity is to divide the quantity by the denominator of the fraction. Thus: (^(1) 167. and one whose numerators are less than the base. 10. preceding case (164). 61. of 10 (85 and 86). and divide. 17^9 _ 5 4'59"45' 17 4^68 DECIMAL NUMBERS A decimal fraction power 168. 41. and the divisor to another.
three hundred fiftyseven thousandths. and 3.508.125. or decimals of the second order. the several figures composing the number are written on a horizontal line and separated into two parts by a period the part at the left expresses whole units. adding a cipher in the last period. Each is figure placed at the right of the decimal point.4500. then. and so on. = 32. a decimal.357 is pronounced no units.357. the second. or decimal figure of the given number. 170. thus in a decimal.12500 = 3. absolute value.32504645769 is billionths. or Its period. or decimals of the first order. According to this method. as in a whole number. its form indicates value 171. Thus the number 37. and 0. 46 millionths. mal number. omitting the decimal . Numeration of decimals. numerator. giving each the name of the units expressed by the figure at the right. Thus.45 172. any figure placed at the left of another figure expresses units ten times as great as those at its right (7). pronounce and right of the period. and ( ^g + Joq + Jqqq) written 0. the first figure at . successively the part at the left pronounce successively each "period of figures. adding to each the units expressed by the first figure to the right of each part. hundredths.48 ARITHMETIC To simplify the writing of a deci169. in pronouncing. To pronounce a decimal number written in figures. commencing at the left. (8). 325 thousandths. 457 69 hundred billionths. commencing at the decimal point. To reduce a decimal to the take the given number for form of a decimal fraction (167). the number 37. When the decimal part contains more than 5 or 6 figures. or 690 trillionths. pronounced: 37 units. and its position its relative It does not alter the value of a decimal to suppress or add ciphers at the right: 32. the number (37 + is ^ + j^) is written 37. the right of the period expresses tenths. it is convenient to divide it into periods of 3 figures each.508 is pronounced thirtyseven units five hundred eight thousandths.
several To multiply or divide a decimal by one. and not followed by other suppress and add either one or nothing to the last In any case the error can not be greater than a half a unit of the order of the last figure.84. The nearest value of a decimal.127 X 100 = 312. to reduce a decimal fraction to the form of a decimal number.83 ^ 1000 = 0. 176.37 is less than a hundredth.376. and j^oo is = 0. figure. if it is 5 it. move the decimal point to the right or left as many places as there are ciphers after the one: 3. with those which follow and increase the by 1 . suppress the 5 with the figures which follow. or it if it is 5 followed by other significa tive figures. Thus 24. because 24.01.837. The value of 4. of the first is less when the difference than the third quantity.02583. The value two of a given quantity near the value of an other quantity by less than a third quantity. is the result which is obtained by suppressing in the given figure number all the decimals written at the right of the of the given order. = 2348.836 or 4. 25. 4. . secgetting the nearest possible value of a decimal.37 = 0. if the first figure which follows the last which is to be retained is less than 5.01. write the numerator and separate on the right as many decimal figures as there are ciphers in the denominator. 177.465. at least of a decimal of a certain order. there are three cases: First. In a certain number of decimal figures.24. write ciphers at the left of the figures 1000 174. followed by ciphers.006 is less than 0.7. . to the second decimal place. which expresses the units Thus the is value of the number 7. to the third place. smaller than 24. In the case where there are less figures in the numerator than ciphers in the denominator. finally. Conversely. if it is larger than 5.8.DECIMAL NUMBERS point. third.46537 to the thousandths place 7. 4. 175.037. retaining ond.8365 to the first decimal place is 4.376 . 49 ciphers as there and for are decimals in the given denominator 1 followed by as number: many 173. suppress last figure figures.
where the dividend is a whole number.53. write the figures . 0.425 8. or of a whole number and a decimal.034 550. To divide a decimal by a whole number. operate as with whole numbers (29). To multiply several decimal numbers or decimals and whole numbers together. (This rule applies equally well where some of the numbers are whole 37. 453 ^ 100 = THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS ON DECIMAL NUMBERS 178.06 Remaeic. pointing off at the right of the result as many decimal figures as there are decimals in 0.3 1635 130800 13. To add decimals.837 14.534 763.50 ARITHMETIC Remark.3 = 220. the value of a product of several decimals is not changed by changing the order of its factors. The same rule applies 4. all rules and principles which apply to fractions apply also to decimals (163). Thus.09635 0. disregard the decimal points and operate as with whole numbers (47). for example. proceed in the same manner as in the addition of whole numbers (25).005 8.740 53.) 436 0.500 = 220.75 X 4 X 6.5.54 68. Since all decimals may be reduced to the form of decimal fractions (172). placing the decimal point in the result on the same vertical line with the points in the numbers.719 179.466 180.) 68.72 numbers. 181. placing the point in the result on the same vertical line with the points in the numbers. To find the difference of two decimals. (When there are more decimals in one of the numbers than in the other.27 4.903 837 73.2 all the factors 3. write or imagine to be written at the right of the of decimal figures the number ciphers sufficient to make the number same in each number.
and if it is equal to half the divisor. if it is greater. the last figure be increased by one or left as it is (176). which gives the whole part of the quotient. Then divide the whole number part of the dividend by the divisor. This rule still holds where the dividend is a whole number and it is desired to have decimals in the quotient: 35. reduce this remainder to hundredths and proceed as before until a remainder zero is obtained or a figure expressing units of an If the remainder is less than onehalf the indicated order.427 12 may . reduce the remainder to tenths.FOUR FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS ON DECIMALS 51 the same as in the operation on whole numbers (64). number by the which gives the first decimal (tenths) of the quotient. adding the tenths in the dividend by placing the tenths figure at the right of the remainder. divisor. divide this divisor. the last figure of the quo tient is increased by 1. it is neglected.
139).. number 3. A decimal number is mal figures leappear in the . reappears in the same order indefinitely. . When contains only the factor 2 and the denominator of an irreducible fraction (144) 5. is A constant quantity is the limit of a variable quantity. its fraction to decimals. and is the 184. is To reduce a To reduce a to put the fraction in the form of a decimal. operating as in the division of a decimal by a whole number (182): ¥ = 3. The unit 1 is the limit of the deciof 9's the infinitely mal 0. fraction to decimals. . 127 127 190. according as the commences is or not with the tenths figure.. product equal to unity Thus the reciprocal of the when their number 7is ^• THE REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS TO DECIMALS periodic. mixed periodic. 186. periodic. small. A decimal number it is simple periodic or mixed periodic.9999 Because by taking an infinite number difference between the resulting number and 1 will be .375. . difference of the when the two quantities may become infinitely small without reaching zero. 187. A variable quantity can have but one limit. the reduction of the fraction to decimals will give an exact quotient. Remark. 185.. cannot be . simple Thus and 2. Any irreducible fraction of tains one or several which the denominator conprime factors other than 2 and 5. when one or several decisame order indefinitely: such is the The number 74. in which the number of decimal figures factors 2 is equal to or greater than the exponents of the and 5 in the denominator. . period of the decimal. ARITHMETIC Two numbers is are reciprocals of each other 1.37474 7 and 4.37474 . divide its numerator by denominator. o 189..52 183.4545 . formed by the figures number 2. 188. but never can equal zero (38.
obtained in reducing the fraction to decimals o (187).2727 . results . . mal 4. whose period is not 9.. ofr . When the denominator of an irreducible fraction con and 5.342727 To obtain the generant fraction of a simple periodic decimal and whose period . and the division of its numerator by its denominator gives a periodic quotient (184): 127 127 30 191.2727 less 27 than unity and whose period is not 9. When the denominator of an irreducible fraction. does o 5. .2333. 192. 27 = 0. . tains one or several of the factors 2 tion —= gives two nonperiodic decimals. . the reduction of the fraction to decimals gives a mixed periodic quotient in which the number of nonperiodic decimal figures is equal to or greater than the exponents of the Thus the irreducible fracfactors 2 and 5 in the denominator. Remark). . The generant of any simple periodic decimal 0. many 9's as there are figures Thus: . not 9. less 1. together with other prime factors. the limit (186) of the periodic quo tient 4. ^ 196. . = 2. Thus in the preceding example it cannot exceed 3 X 7 — 1 = 20.23333 Any fraction. not contain the factors. .666 .REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS TO DECIMALS 53 reduced exactly to decimals. is that fraction which — has the period for a numerator and as in the period for a denominator. . . The number of figures contained in the period can not exceed the product of the prime factors of the denominator other than 2 and 5. 194. . . (197. Any simple periodic decimal 4.2727 is greater than unity from the reduction of a fraction The same holds true for any mixed periodic decito decimals. is . 2x3x5 127 ' 4. . 195. 2 nor the reductions of the fraction to decimals gives a simple periodic quotient (185): I o 193. .
To obtain the generant fraction of a mixed decimal 15. reduce each decimal to the form of a fraction (172). figures. SHORT METHODS OF OPERATING 198.207 9900 Remark. ^ ^^^^00^' = 4. . NUMERICAL APPROXIMATIONS. When a quantity is replaced by an approximate value.34999 . take the difference between the whole part followed by the period and the whole part for the numerator. COMPLEX DECIMALS 197.2727 greater than unity. the limit is obtained by suppressing the periods and increasing the last figure to the right by one. Thus. .999 . Remark. 4.. 1.273434 for the numerator take the whole number followed by the nonperiodic figures and the first period less the whole number followed by the nonperiodic part. and proceed as in the addition of frac tions (152). . and the quotient obtained by dividing the absolute error by the exact value is called the rela . . . = q I = . and division of complex decimals.54 ARITHMETIC 4. To add complex decimals. the difference between the exact value and the approximate value is called the absolute error.35. When given decimals have a limited number of and the fractions are exactly reducible to decimals (188). When the period is the figure 9. 152. 4. and as many 9's as there are figures in the period for the denomi nator. = 4Q \ _ 4 = 5. Thus: 0.734  1527 9900 ^ ~ 151. multiplica operate as in the addition of decimals. Thus: 427  4 99 _ ~ 423 99 . . . the decimal has no generant.999 . and for a denominator as many 9's as there are figures in the period followed by as many ciphers as there are figures in the nonperiodic part of the decimal. OPERATIONS OK COMBINED FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS. tion The same methods hold true for the subtraction.
01. than a unit of the order of the last figure retained. 4. the distance between two points being 40 meters. simply in position of the decimal point.40°= 2».14159. when are replaced by ciphers if the number is whole is number 314. 0.100.000001 ^^^^ = 3^^^^ = ^. and the relative error The relative error is 2 jq = 199.NUMERICAL APPROXIMATIONS tive 55 error. and 0.0314159 the absolute error is respectively 59. and the .159 0.14159 or a decimal. • . 1 27)' the error in each unit of the exact number.159 3. retain at the left 2. .03141.0000059 0. numbers formed relative error is by the suppressed figures. When is less the first significative 1.001. Remark the 1. and 0. .410. than 0. we suppose it to be 42 or 38 the absolute error is two 42". figure at the left of number less is greater than the relative error as found by the preceding rule is one than half a decimal unit of an order. 0. with a relative error 31. if Thus. which than the number of figures retained. relatzve error ^s less . and has a relative error less than 0.000001. The absolute error is respectively less than 100. 0. by figures at the right replaced by 314. that is. . which is one less than the of figures retained. or by 0. 0.38° = 2'».03141.0000059. In replacing .001. 0.14159 0. but the absolute error depends both From the foregoing examples which differ upon the figures suppressed and the position of the point. . 3.9. meters. 0.001. 40°^. 314.. Thus the approximate value of the numbers 314. number than a decimal unit of an order. and the 59 314.159. .q^^^^. 5 figures commencing with the first significative figure.1. an approximate value of a whole or decimal number.0314159 0. that is.00059 3.001 is respectively. 0. the relative error depends only upon the suppressed figures and not upon the position of the point. 3.00001 . less than 0. . When a whole a decimal 3.141. 3. not counting the ciphers at the left It follows that in order to obtain of the first significative figure.00059.100. ^^^ = ^^ and less than j^ = 0. .1. which is less than the number. or 0.141.0314159 it is seen that for numbers.001 100 evidently less than that is. 31415.
the absolute error.7537 + + 0.0425 0. The absolute error Addition. of the is sum of several numof the equal to the sum absolute errors of the numbers.14137 by than onehalf of a thousandth.56 the ARITHMETIC number 0.04 = 14.13. which one less than the number of units retained. When is 1. Thus.141. that is. take simply 6. add the plus and minus errors separately.34 + 8. bearing the sign of the greater sura.0314159 by 0. therefore. In retaining a certain number of figures. When the numbers have approximate values. at the right of which one or several figures have been suppressed. is evidently less than ^qqq or than a half a thousandth. is equal to the To find the sum of less than 11 numbers.75 = 14. 2. of an order. and as the given exceeds 1000 thousandths the relative error is less than number a half a thousandth divided by 1000 thousandths or by 1. 200. approximate values should be taken which give the smallest absolute error (177). the relative error being less than ^^ . and the difference of the two sums will be the absolute error of the sum. than a half a thousandth. which is one less than the number of figures retained commencing with in the majority of cases. the relative error of a the first significative figure at the left. it follows that whole or decimal number.00037. is less than half of a decimal unit of an order. it is evident that the relative error will be as much smaller as the absolute error is less.347 + 8. whose values are approximate. some greater and some smaller than the number. with an absolute error of less than a unit of a certain order. Remark 4. at the left of Remark suppressed figures.1432. the first significative figure first figiue the part retained is and the is at the left of the part less than 5 or is is 5 not followed by significative the relative error less than onehalf a decimal unit 1. . add the numbers all in cluding the figures of the next lower order.1. The relative error of the absolute error divided sum of several numbers by the sum. is less number 1. In replacing the 0. to find the sum of the following numbers with an absolute error less than 0. neglecting others at the right.03141. bers. From the two preceding remarks. 5. Remark 3.
3 + 8.6. Since the relative error of the 0. and there than 11 numbers. The greater number being the sum of the smaller and the difference.786 and evidently than a hunsatisfies dredth of the sum.07 . and the first figure at the left of the quotient 0.67 3. take one making the addition. the figure.786.786. according as the absolute errors of the two numbers have or have not the same sign.24 5.347.03 3^ 5.01).6435 = 84. numbers is less than than the hundredth part of the given numbers is greater than and. If the first figure to the left had expressed hundreds. 75. 8.6435.7432. the hundredth part is of the sum error is less greater than 78. divide this sum by the number 3 of numbers to be added.1. the conditions given. the absolute error of the sum will be than 0.6 = 78. to find their sum with a relative error less than 0.4 Om 8.5 OM 0.347 First add: + 8. and by taking a decimal Therefore. the absolute certainly less than 0.Numerical approximations The absolute being less less m error of each number is less than 0. at the left of each number. therefore.43 8.6. Thus in the given example: 100. the absolute error is equal to the difference or the sum of the absolute errors of the two numbers: 8.262 expressing tenths it shows that it is sufficient to take each of the given numbers with one decimal only. which gives 0.01.7537.7 + 0. as the sum 8 70 + + 0.6.7537 + + 0.03 32 5.01 still X 10 = 0. and so on. 70 the first figures + 8 0. the given number would have to be taken with two decimals.6 X 0. 0. If there are more in more than 10 numbers and less than 101. the numbers 75.07 0.01. 75. Given.6 = 84.6 0.262.01 of when the absolute the sum. divide this sum by formed by one followed by as many ciphers as indicated by the order desired (0. sum thus obtained Subtraction. 201.1 error is error less than ^— = less 0.6 = 78.01 = 0.7 0. in taking each of the given numbers with an absolute certainly less than 0.
O. relative error less than 0.  26.8.8115. the product. number 2 This amounts to taking the approximated number with a + 3 = 5 of decimal figures equal to the.01. that to find the difference of two numbers with a relative error less than 0.. When the two factors of a product are replaced by approximate values. for example.3 202. which gives 3. Calculate. X 271. result. gree.5 = 48.58 It follows ARITHMETIC from what was said concerning addition (200).5.8.1415926 .Ol. 48. . is 1st. one decimal that need be retained in the operation. 70 of the  20 = bers. factors..3478 take the difference.  26. 3. 75. by the product of the absolute errors of the factors. the absolute error of the produx:t is less than the sum of the products of each of the factors and the absolute error of the other factor. which gives for a 75.8. less it take the multiplicand with an absolute error if than gives ^ifjs and even better less than '^„ = 0.5363 = 50. correct to 0.25 of the product. The absolute error of the product of two one of whose values has been approximated to a certain deequal to the absolute error of the approximated factor multiplied is by the other factor.01.14159. which gives take half 0. and since the first figure 2 at is all the left of this half expresses tens.00001 . take the approximated factor with a relative error less than with 3 decimal figures (199). To find the same product with a that is. MuLtiflication. 2d. numbers formed by the first figures at the left of the numby the given error 0. number of decimal figures 2 desired in the product plus the number 3 of whole number figures of the other factor. multiply this difference 0.8.01. The relative error of the product equal to the relative error of the approximated factor (200).141 X 271. The absolute suffices to error of the product being equal to the absolute error of the multiplicand multiplied by the multiplier 271.01. one of which is less than the exact value. which 3.
taking the first factor with four decimal figures error less than and the second with five. Calculate.1 X 27.34.342.01.NUMERICAL APPROXIMATIONS The relative error of 69 rela a product is less than the sum of the tive errors of the Calculate.005. the product. which would be the case in taking four figures at the left of each of the factors. To find the preceding product with a relative error less than may is less than than 0.001.001.any manner as long as the sum of the two parts is equal to 0.01.15 X 27.01 into two parts. if the sum of the relative errors of the factors is less than 0. The problem is less is satisfied when 0.18 X 2. with an absolute error 314.005 "28~'^'315"' Therefore. whose approximate value is less than the exact. the relative error of a power of an approximated number.01 consequently. we have an absolute Instead of dividing the absolute error 0. . less than 0. it suffices if the relative error of each factor if 0. . 314. is less than the sum of the relative errors of all the factors. The relative error of the product of several approximated factors. X 2. and we have 0. .. X 27. taking each of the factors with a relative error less than ^ or less than 0. X 27... whose approximate values are less than the exact values. .1 X 27. the product..34246735 .01. It suffices . two factors. it be divided in.. one is sure of satisfying the conditions of the problem (199). is less than the relative error of the number multipUed by the degree of the power..01. and still more less 314.15926 . with a relative error less than 0.18.18 X 2. For a product of approximate values. 314. .15926 .18281828 . 314.005 the absolute error of the product than 0.18281828 .
.18281828 .. Oughtred's short method of multiplication. with an absolute error (198) less than a whole or decimal unit.1415926 32. the relative error of a power of an approximated number. X 27. .1 for example. this leads to the fact that no figures in the multiplier at .1. 0.60 ARITHMETIC the relative errors of the factors being respectively less than 0.800 greater than the product.1 .18642 (see below). a product of two whole numbers or decimals. is X 27. . 3.34246735 . the relative error of the product 0.18281 X 2. the first Write the partial products under the multiplier. and 0. is less it suffices if the relative error = 3 than 0. placing righthand figures in the same vertical column. is greater than the relative error of the number multiplied by the degree of the power. the left of the last figure 3 in the multiplicand are used as multipliers. . neglect 926 .0111. write in an inverse order.342467. . desired with an absolute error less than 0..01. for example.000001.1 this gives a relative error for 28.0001. the figures of the multiplier under the multiplicand in such a X manner that the units (0. 0.1. Remark. is greater than the sum of the relative errors of all the factors. . the sum of which is 0. neglecting the figures of the multiplicand which are at the right of the figure which serves as multiplier (for the figure 3. less divided by a number 320 X 30 X each factor of factor less is than g^^^^QQ = ^ ' and when each is taken with seven figures to the left.001.01.15926 .001) one desired.). mated factors. 203. figure 2 of the simple units in the multipHer 1 in the multiplicand which expresses himdred times smaller than those of the order corresponds to the figure the multiplicand then commencing at the right multiply successively by each figure of the multiplier. X 2. and probably even less than product 314. 0. in adding.1592 0. If the is less than 0. To calculate . the relative error than ^^ = 314. which approximation is greater than the exact value. .. The relative error of the product of several approxi which approximations are greater than the exact values.
are suppressed at the right of the result.1 Thus the product 4 159 26 . in this example two figures.1. is 101.2. . 07.NUMERICAL APPROXIMATIONS consider 61 them to express units of an order one hundred times smaller than that desired. . 3. . and the last figure on the left is increased by one unit. 0.
202). . 38 3. .62 error is ARITHMETIC equal to the absolute error of the divisor divided by its approximate value.14' the absolute and relative error are respectively. at least. than a given whole or decimal 0. figures in the required quotient. dend and divisor (2d. the total If number n = 0. respec tively the 2. that .14159 X ^ 0. to obtain a quotient with an error less 0. commence by determinl number of figures 1 in the whole part of the quotient and then. must be taken the divisor.1415926 . to find the quotient of 3.00159 3. the absolute error of the quotient is less than  • Thus.18. . 0. the is relative error of the quotient divisor.14159 . . 4 first figures at the left of the dividend and .001 less .. A ^^^ 0. than .. divided by 32.1.001. if the divisor is replaced by its whole part. in replacing r^ by will ^. it follows that according is less or greater than the exact value. less than Therefore. divide 3. as 6 > ^X 5. the relative error of the quotient may he considered as being equal to the difference between the relative errors of the divi one of them. with xmit. the relative errors of the two numbers is. 205. if the whole part were the figure in tenths place were n would equal 3. To find the quotient of a whole or decimal number divided by less a whole or decimal number. 0. the absolute error be less than =' 5 to the product of the divisor The dividend being equal and the quotient. an absolute error (198) ing the (64).001 for instance (see example below).00159  .14 n. + 3 = 4of 0.1864 by 32.. Thus replacing 38 3. ^ _38_ 3.14 From as the approximation the form of the relative error. 3. greater or less than that of the and from the form of the absolute error. than these same quantities. with a relative error less than 0. .01. Thus. it follows that when the whole part of the divisor is greater than the quotient multiplied by a number a. . n would equal 2 and if the . .141 Short method of division. . 3. and consequently.
141. To form .186 thus formed is the second partial divisor.141. by 3.816 obtained for a second partial dividend. and the part 3. . and suppressing the first righthand second partial divisor.514. Then. . just enough figures so that the number 32 which of 32 write is at least equal to n = 4.864. that is. is The quotient obtained less is: . at the right the. dividing the second partial dividend by the second is partial divisor.18 . obtained by the third partial dividend. n would equal (the highest order of units in the quotient and thxis the value of n). the first lefthand figure in the required quotient. at the left of the divisor.1415926 correct to the third place (0. when the decimal point is so placed that the first figure in the figure on the right expresses units of the given order. .389292 .. continuing the process ciphers are obtained for all the following figxires. for the third partial divisor. formed by placing in the given divisor a point at the right of the first partial divisor. first partial and the resulting number 321. always larger than the exact value by given order. separate at the left of the dividend just figures so that the decimal enough results is at least equal to the number 3. write in the quotient and increase the figure immediately in this case preceding by one unit.001). An example of this case than a unit of the divided 26. . the first partial dividend. and neglecting the first figure 4 at the right of the first partial divisor. removing the decimal points. 3.864 the divisor. for number 3218. easily take.141 592 65 0.321 864 18 . the required quotient is correct to the given place (0.592.592 separated at the left of the dividend is the first partial dividend. .65 which decimal number 321. the second figure 7 of the required quotient the the obtained. then take 10 for a partial quotient. .NUMERICAL APPROXIMATIONS figure in 63 1 hundredths place were is 0. Taking new remainder.760 happen that a partial dividend contains a corresponding partial divisor 10 times. . the number 32. 19. Take the remainder 244.001). and continuing thus until the n = 4 figures of the quotient have been obtained.n = 4 following is figures of the divisor. results determined by inspection. 3 141 592 321i8i6'4 244 816 19 514 206 It can 9. . The quotient 9 in the division of the is first partial dividend by the first partial divisor.
. the ratio of the the ratio of the second to the first is Thus. The relative error of the power of an approximate number. which approximation is greater than the exact value. the first is obtained.400 125 657 31412 2 206. Extract ^65. when a length contains first to the second is 5. The ratio of one number to another is equal to the quotient obtained by dividing the first by the second. '•''''• Thus. . The ratio of two quantities of the same kind is a number such that in multiplying the second of the two by this number. Remark). four exact figures are obtained in the root. All quantities with as to 209. another just 5 times.36874 65. Example. ^6000' and for the root. ^<^<6J^<Ioio°' that is. . the figure in the whole part and three decimals.64 ARITHMETIC 2 638 929 31441519 83 10 8. and 5 • Remark. it follows that the relative error of the root of an approximate number. find the ratio of the first to the second. is less than the relative error e' of the number divided by the index n of the root. increasing the last by one we have which gives a relative error. which approximation is greater than the exact value. in this example. . in taking. the given number with two ' exact decimal figures. compared so of measure. e'<^. If four figures at the left are taken. or a fraction with the first number for numerator and the second for denominator (134). DEFINITIONS RELATIVE TO MEASURES 207. being greater than the product e X n of the relative error e of the number and the degree n of the power (202. unit. which others of the same kind are form an idea of their extent. are called units is The number one the numerical unit (1 and 5).37. To compare one quantity with another. 208. for example.
or a cube whose The unit volume is a meter. or a square which has a meter for a side. the unit of weight. The unit of length is the meter (215).THE METRIC SYSTEM 210. of the quantity. The ratio of a quantity to the unit of its kind is the measure 212. their numbers 7 and 5is^±l + ^ = 215. Two quantities are commensurable or incommensurable. 214. the cubic meter. 65 it witli To measure a quantity is to compare the unit of its Icind. The imit of surface is the square meter. . the unit of volume. The metric system contains . sum mean of the quantities of the by 3. The unit of weight the gramme. 216. the unit of surface. THE METRIC SYSTEM The base of the metric system is the meter. is which is a cubic decimeter. the capacity a cube whose side 4th. The also called commensurable or incom mensurable. or the tenth part of a meter. The monetary unit in the United States is the dollar. The arithmetical mean of several like quantities is the quotient obtained in dividing the number. 5th. Thus the arithmetical 5. is a thousandth part of a cubic meter. which are: the unit of length. side is 10 meters. it is equivalent to of. which corresponds to 4° C. five principal units. In measuring wood the cubic meter is called a stere. above 0°. In measuring grains and liquids the liter is used. and the unit of m. of it is is equivalent to 100 square meters. or the weight in a vacuum of a cubic centimeter of distilled water at its density. 211. an are is a square 1st. A it is quantity is the common measure of several quantities when contained one or several times in each one of them without a remainder. which is a hollow cylinder. is a hundredth part of thousandth part of a cubic deciequivalent to the a cube whose side meter or the millionth part of a cubic meter. 2d. The cubic centimeter it is is maximum a meter. which is a ten millionth part of a quadrant of a meridian circle (209). according as they have or have not a ratio of these quantities is common measure. Land is measured in ares.oney. whose side 3d. 213.
meter. meters. and the sea mile 60 to a degree. each ten times greater than the other. one says kilogramme.66 217. which is 1851. which is 5555. 0. milli. whose value is 4444. as in the decimal numbers. .44 m. 0. one says myriameter. in surveydecameter. the name preceded by the words deca. is called a cent. Thus the number 325. and to express meters. 10. the marine league 20 to the degree. there are 10 dollar.000 These prefixes do not apply to a unit (38). to express of the unit 1000 grammes. 10.85 m. 87 centimeters. The himdredth part of a dollar cents in a dime. the is most ordinarily used. which signify spectively —T. 10.87 considered as expressing meters is pronounced 325 concrete decimal A stract decimal (169). 0. and the undermultiple being each ten times smaller than the other. 1st. the multiple units of the principal unit being. and 10 dimes in a 218. To express imit is the under^multiples of name of the reis preceded by the words jTz! deci. and sometimes in leagues. written 325 m. 1 m. decameter. 1st. 1000. Myriameter. 10 m. .. 1000 m. it follows that: number (12) is pronounced as an abbut replacing the name of the abstract unit by that of the concrete imit which it represents. In the metric system. centimeter. kilometer.01 m. A concrete decimal initial letter of but the unit is number is written as an abstract decimal. onehundredth of a is gramme a centigramme. 2d. centi. In the industries the meter ing. hecto. 100. decimeter. Thus.56 m. which signify respectively. rrrr^ Thus. is . to express multiples of is a unit. whose values are respectively in meters 10. 87 cm.001 m. The units of measure which are principally used are: For lengths millimeter.1 m. the word which expresses the concrete Thiis the placed at the right of the units figure. the the monetary units. There is also the league 25 to the degree.000 m. The league equal to 4 kilometers or 4000 meters. is number given above 219. the thousandth of a meter a millimeter.000. geographical distances are generally given in myriameter or kilometer. ARITHMETIC In the metric system. myria. kilo.
01 [or rrj is of the square meter. square decimeter. m. deciliter. 0. 0. 0. decig. etc. . in ares are: are. in liters are: 100 1.000000001 cb. 1 It is seen that the cubic decimeter is simply the 0.1 1. millig. 100 3d.001 cb.THE METRIC SYSTEM The speed minute. hectare. square*^ centimeter. m. whose values are respectively in square meters: 1 sq. of vessels is 67 given in knots of 15 meters.001 of the cubic decimeter.. as 0.001 g. 1. which in grammes are: 10. m. kilog. which in cubic meters are: 1 cb.01 sq. that the square centimeter of the square decimeter. centiliter. The hectoliter. square millimeter. 0.01 a. m. decag. 1000 g. 0. For weights we have: myriag. g E 0. 1 square decimeter simply the 0.. cubic centimeter. 2d. In the same manner the value of the units for land measure. a.1 St. St. hectog. 10 1. 0. 0. For volumes: milli Cubic meter. 1 St.. 0. cubic meter. It is seen. 0.0001 sq.. m. centare. that the shown is ^ JFig. 0. Ig. cubic decimeter.^.) and so on. gramme. 1.001 or 1000 of the cubic meter. m. and the decastere.. 1 stere. sq. liter. 10 4th. per half ^ For surfaces: Square meter.1 g.000001 cb.000001 in Fig. decaliter. centig. 10 g. m.01 1.000 g. in cubic meters or steres are: decistere. m. 0. 0. 1 a..01 (orTp.. 100 g.01 g. the cubic centimeter the 0.
01 $0. The effective measures of length. threedollar and onedollar piece. are and dimensions which are best to facilitate their use. quarterdollar. which is 100 kilogrammes. lished with certain forms marked with the official stamp. Real or effective measwes are those which exist in the estabsuited form of instruments or objects authorized by law. is 1000 kilogrammes. . but.00. Nickel: fivecent piece. 220. Bronze: onecent piece. Silver: dollar. One carat is equal to 205.1 $0. is The weight divided into of precious stones given in carats. the large diamonds This process entails are most often cut up into smaller sizes. Formerly the value of cut diamonds was also calculated from the price of a onecarat stone. Effective measures. 5th.68 Arithmetic In the industries. one carat being worth $40. In commerce and engineering the metric ton. or 4 grains. The carat is ^' j' q> it t^' oo' nA' ^'Hd varies so little in the different countries. frequently used. are: 1st.00. cent. mill.001 The coins of the United States are: Gold: double eagle. quartereagle.5000 mg. which in dollars is: $1 $0. halfdollar. I. eagle. The approximate value of rough diamonds in dollars is obtained by multiplying the price of one carat by the square of their weight Thus a rough diamond of three carats is worth 40 X 3 in carats. which is ordinarily one decameter (10 m.) and sometimes a double decameter (20 m. which are most commonly used. dollar. X 3 = $360. that may be considered as universal. owing to an abnormal demand for small stones and a supply of very large ones.) long. the metric quintal is sometimes used. For money: Eagle. and tencent piece. The chain. halfeagle. so that a onecarat diamond more often costs more by weight than either a one and onehalf or a twocarat diamond. loss. dime.
sometimes jointed so as to be carried in the pocket. into decimeters 4th. and tin plate. III.i'HE 2d.. Table of the Five Large Liquid Measures Name. 5. long.. It is made of wood. their measure obtained by the use of geometry (Part III). There are no effective measures of surfaces. The The halfmeter. tape. or ivory. they are made of copper.5 m. bone. Dressmakers and others use tapes 1 m. long. 3d.. a straight rule. 6th. parts. is The scale is made of steel and generally J or 1 decimeter and divided into millimeters and halfmillimeters. and generally divided and centimeters. use tapes 5 m. whalebone. The effective measures of volumes. of which five are vessels. 10 m. 7th. 1. sometimes jointed in 2. long. . of one piece or jointed in the middle. For the liquids there are 13 effective measures. They are divided into millimeters boxwood. Civil engineers. double decimeter and the decimeter. The which rolled made of leather or paper.. ivory. but for the liquids and the grains there are effective measures. II. and metal. and 20 m. and the first decimeter is even divided into millimeters. made of bone. The double meter is a rule of wood or metal. 2 m. METRIC SYSTEM is 69 housing on an axle and protected by a is divided into meters which are subdivided into decimeters and centimeters. or 10 divided into centimeters and ordinarily into millimeters on the first decimeter.. and some times into half millimeters. It is The meter. cylindrical The which 5 large measures are is equal to the interior diameter. In measuring the solids it is necessary to have recourse to geometry (Part III). 5th. a straight rule. the depth of According to their use called large measures and eight small measures. galvanized iron. etc.
. and their For milk and oil these 8 measures are made depth is equal to their interior diameter. would be too breakable.70 ARITHMETIC are The 8 small measures for liquids other than milk and oil made of an alloy containing 95 parts tin and 5 parts lead. and lead alone would be poiThey are hollow cylinders whose depth is twice their interior diameter. of tin plate. tin alone the sonous. Table of Eight Small Liquid Measures Name.
4th. Upon a rectangular base two upright ends are fastened and braced. The distance between the uprights is respectively. in the following manner. .THE METRIC SYSTEM 71 Each of these measures is constructed of wood. the height varies with the length of the pieces of wood. double stere. The 24 official weights which are used in commerce and industry are divided according to the following table into 5 large weights. Effective measures of weight. 1. 2. 9 medium weights. or 3 meters for the stere. and 10 small weights. and halfdecastere. Labge Weights.
The number of days in each month is easily remembered by memorizing the following: "Thirty days has September. or 3 da. The solar year contains approximately 365. make one complete revolution around the sun. August. 45 seconds are sometimes denoted by ' or ". 35' 45" represents 3 days 8 hours 35 min utes 45 seconds. the second into fifths. The sidereal day is the interval of time between two consecu tive transits of a certain meridian by a star. The solar day is the time included between two consecutive crossings of a certain meridian by the sun. or hundredths. tenths. the The civil year names of which are January. write the abbreviations The minutes and different units after each number." .24225 year is mean days. or the mean value The mean day is divided into 24 equal at the equinoxes than at the solstices. Thus 3 da. which makes the apparent diurnal movement of the sun in right its orbit. 35 min. The principal unit of time of the 365 solar days. Its duration is constant. One hundred consecutive years form a is divided into twelve parts called months. parts called hours. July. and is equal to a number The solar year is of solar days which lies between 365 and 366. slower is the mean day. April. Except February. and equal to 23 hrs. The civil the legal year. and November. century. December. the obliquity of the ecliptic. the minute into 60 seconds. that is. October. two following rea by which the apparent diurnal movement of the sun is more rapid in winter than in summer. June. which has but twentyeight in April. and do not belong to the metric system. June.72 ARITHMETIC The different units of time are not of the 221. sec. 8 hrs. February. All the rest fine. March. Units of time. Remark. November. The solar year is the time required by the earth to constant.rst. in the plane of the terrestrial equator. decimal order. second. May. 8 hr. the solar year it is increased or decreased enough so that contains exactly 365 or 366 days. the nonimiform velocity of the earth in ascension. for the sons: f. have thirtyone. but the solar days are not. Until leap year gives it twentynine. the hour into 60 equal parts called minutes. 56' 4" mean time. for the In writing units which express time. September.
Gregory. Today the Julian dates are 12 days behind the Gregorian dates. which gives the dates according to both calen dars. at the end of 4 years it would be 0. Degrees. at which time the pope. such a year being called leap year.969 = end of each century the civil day is 1 — 0.969 day ahead of the solar year.1 .. and arcs (see Geometry). which in reality is only an approximation. 222. for this reason the last year of each century is not leap year.031 days behind the solar year. 9 ^ Feb. the signs °. The circumference of a circle is divided into 360 equal parts called degrees. and seconds are units used measure '. it is customary to write 1 Y5 Jan.:rKH + 100 ' 400 4000 The Julian calendar was established by Julius Csesar fortysix years before Christ.THE METRIC SYSTEM The year.24225 as the exact value. 73 solar year is 0. which is 1 day at the end of 4000 years thus by suppressing a leap year every 0.775 day behind. and at the end of a century is 0. and ". angles minutes. Roman world until 1582. and when writing to countries which still employ the Julian calendar (Russia and Greece).1 ahead. the minute into 60 equal parts is called seconds. it is to compensate for this that one day is added every fourth year. From this it again follows that at the every four years the civil placed — .9 = 1 — 0. . The quadto rant of a circumference 90 degrees. These four successive corrections may 1 ting the ratio of the solar year to the mean day 1 be represented by putin the form o^r 366 + i r 4 1 . the degree into 60 equal parts called minutes. is After this third correction the civil year day behind the solar year every 400 years. and every fourth century is 0.775 = 0. minutes..225 X 4 = 0. and seconds. and was in use in the calendar. thus it is that we have a leap year every fourth century. the civil year terminates at the same instant as the solar year if we accept 365. In writing degrees.225 day ahead of the solar year. From year this is correction 1 it follows that 0.031 X 25 = 0. instituted the Gregorian which is in use today in nearly every country.24225 mean day longer than the civil and if the civil always had 365 days. 4000 years.
concrete decimals may be operated upon in the same 225.50. for example. take as many days as there are hours and divide by ten. Therefore in 26 days and 7 hours the $123.50 workman will earn + 3. and 42° 21' 15". in a month payment of workmen.75 per day. which in this case (referring to the table) gives $3. A workman of 26 working days he will earn 26 $4. 223. reads 74 grades 37 hundredths of a grade 5 hundredths of a hundredth of a grade. Thus 74. quantities 7 da.74 respectively. which thus 3° 17' 28" by 100. A complex quantity is a quantity composed of several Such are the parts. manner as abstract decimals (178 to 182).3705 g. and each grade into 100 equal parts. 16 hr. In general. . These measures conform with the law of decimals. working 10 hours a day for a certain number of days at a certain wage.75 per day. parts are again divided PROBLEMS RELATING TO MEASURES 224. The quadrant equals 100 grades.33.33 = $126.75 X = $123. 34 m. are placed ARITHMETIC above and a little to the right of the number. at $4. 7. compared with different units of its kind. Often the circumference of a circle is divided into 400 equal parts called grades. is read 3 degrees 17 minutes 28 seconds.83. to Application the earns $4. The following table gives the sum earned by a workman. To find what is due a man for a certain number of hours.
THE METRIC SYSTEM Wage Days. 75 Table .
76 ARITHMETIC Wage Table — {Continued) Days. .
quantity 365. to years. (181). + 7 mo. . 7 months.7 cm. 5 yrs. 227..THE METRIC SYSTEM 226.. being expressed in decimals. remove the decimal point to the right Thus.867 m. „ 96 „ 7mo. + ^^g^mo. = = 229. a number one hundred times greater and which expresses units a hundred times smaller than the given number. . and as a month has 30 days.3g^ + 7 mc^r^mo. + 8da. the number of years 5. 5 yrs. The year has 12 months. . . etc. = + 7mo. yrs. to express the of the figure which represents the imits. + ^^^^da. giving 36586. To reduce a complex quantity 5 years. = 67.. + 8 da. 660. days. . The inverse of the preceding problem. 5 yrs. = 5yrs. ^^yrs. = 12 X 30 = 360 da. Since the month 7 mo.2666 mo.. mo. in centimeters. contains 30 days. The division of 2018 by 360 gives 5 for the quotient and 218 for the remainder.+3g5yrs. that is. 5 yrs. 360 5 yrs. advance the decimal point two places towards the right. + 7 mo. 5yrs. 218 X 12. = ^^yrs. + 7 mo. 2616 3g^mo. = 5yrs.60555 . = —^^ mo. therefore. + 8 da. = 2018 6.60555 yrs. quantity = 5 X 12 + 7 = 67 mo. 77 To compare a quantity expressed by a concrete decimal with one of the units of its kind. + + 8 da. The same problem. months.555 Putting the decimal in the form of a decimal fraction j^qq^qOO' ^^^ ^„„ . = 5yrs. 5 yrs. But 1 yr.. 7 mo. 67 mo. or) to 6 yrs. 8 da. 228. Reduce 2018 days to years. Divide 2018 by 360: 2018 218 12 436 218 2616 96 30 2880 00 da. = 67 X 30 + 8 = 2018 da.+ . ^^^ . and 8 Let it be required to reduce the given days to one of its units. thus: 218 2018 ^ . .
+ 7. .60555 yrs. 7 mo. remembering that the different units are no longer equal to 10 of the units of next lower order. + 0. more simple.60555 X 12 mo. = 5 yrs. 230.2666 mo. = = X 5 yrs.2666 30 da. as by 1 followed by we have but one Thus: 5. + 7 mo. and when a number has to be inIt may be noted may have more than creased in order to also that the make a subtraction possible. + 0. + 0. ARITHMETIC In this case the division ciphers renders the operation series of multiplications (177). = 5 yrs. and multiplication). 5 yrs. = 5 yrs. when reducing the partial results to units of the next higher order (addition or next lower order (division). numbers Additiok of each order of units one figure.78 proceed as before.60555 yrs. The four operations on the complex numbers are performed by following the same methods as with whole or decimal numbers. 8 da.
= 198".) = 36 in. . 12 min.) = 198 in.. A movement it takes 5 hrs. = 2 hrs. the values of the individual units. tion or division of one them to a common complex number by another.) = 320 rds.63 sec. and lines is used for comparing and distances. = 1 mile (mi. = 1 chain (ch.360 in. its velocity being constant? From the question to degrees. . Although the British system of measures is in general use in this country. a fraction. 10 m. '). 7. 653 14 min. fraction. differ from those used in Great Britain. factors 3 seen that 2° 18' 15" should be reduced ' which gives 5. the fraction inverted. 3 it s. = 1 mUe (mi. 8000 = 1. Table of Surveyor's Linear Measure. how long will it is take for to turn 1°. = 63. = 1 yard (yd. ") 3 5J yards 320 rods 233. BRITISH SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 231. = 1 rod (rd.„ 10 mm.) then 240 1240 x ^fo 653 hrs. 25 links 4 80 rods chains = 1 link Q. (5 hrs. 33. to turn 2° 18' 15". . assigned to the units apply to those used in the United States unless otherwise stated. Therefore. 1. in the tables that follow the values. sec. Table of Common Linear Measure 12 inches feet (in. multiply the complex dividend by When a problem involves the multiplicaunit (227).360 in. in some cases.) = 16J ft.BRITISH SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS // the multiplier is AND MEASURES 79 by the numerator and If the divisor is a fraction. multiply the complex quantity divide the product by the denominator. Linear measure has but one dimension.). 63.92 inches (in. reduce one of and proceed as when dividing a complex number by a An example in division. = 1 rod (rd.) = 1760 yds. MEASURES OF LENGTH 232.) = 1 foot (ft. = is tha ii dividing by the common and The time 3 „ .) = 100 = 792 in. = 5280 ft.
Tahle of Surveyor's Square Measure (sq.000 sq.).600 sq. yds.15 statute mile 1 nautical mile 3 knots 60 nautical miles \ statute mile 360 degrees = 1 line. in. 368. Common Cubic Measure ft.000. rd. Table of Common Square Measure 144 square inches (sq. ARITHMETIC Miscellaneous Units }^ inch \ incli 3 inches 4 inches 9 inches 18 inches 28 inches 3 feet 6 feet 120 fathoms 1. yd. in. = = 64.400 sq.400 sq.097. and thickness. breadth. = 1 square rod (sq. D") 9 square feet SOJ square yards 160 640 square rods acres = 1 square foot (sq. 236. = 1 knot (for measuring speed of vessels). length and breadth.660 sq.640 sq. ft. = 1 hand (for measuring the height of horses). = 100.000 sq. = 1 barleycora or size (boot and shoe measure). mi.) = 1296 sq. = 3. = 1 palm. = 1 acre (A.ft. = 1 pace (ordinary). ft.656 cu.). cubic yard (cu.).204 sq. . = 27. = 1 span. = 1 league (for measuring distances at sea). cord (cd. in. MEASURES OF SURFACE 235. = 1 square mile (sq. = 1 fathom (for measuring depths at sea). MEASURES OF VOLUME 237. 1. yds. = 1 square yard (sq.) = 272J sq. yd. length. = 1 circumference of the earth.) (sq.. rds. 1728 cubic inches 27 cubic feet 238. Table of Wood Measure ft.040 A. rd.000 sq. = 1 cubit. 1.) = 23.878.) = = 1 1 cubic foot (eu. Surface has two linear dimensions. township (Tp. = 1 degree = 69. Volume has three Table of linear dimensions. = 1 cable length. = 2. = 1 furlong.) = 102.400 sq.16 statute miles.304. = 39. 16 cubic feet 8 cord feet = = 1 1 cord foot (cd. 1. = 1 nautical or geographical mUe. in.) 625 square links 160 square rods 640 acres 36 sections = = = = 1 1 1 1 square rod acre (A. ft. (eu. rds.) = 102.) = 128 cu.000.) = 46.). in. = 1 pace (military pace). 1. = 43.80 234. section (sec. ft. rds.) = 4840 sq.
Remark. means 31^ g^l ^nd a hogshead 63 gal. = 504 pts. seeds. = 32 qts. = 1 barrel (bbl.. kinds of liquid measure.) = 8 pts. = 1 hogshead (hhd.) = 126 qts. namely. A 1 perch of stone in masonry is 16^ feet long. high. and small fruits. long. irregular A cord is a pile 8 ft.). and those heads. . In measuring grains. = 1 gallon (gal. Wood cut in lengths of 4 feet is called cord wood.) 8 quarts 4 pecks = = = 1 1 1 peck (pk. and other large articles. and apothecaries' liquid measure.) =16 pts. 2 4 pints quarts 31i gallons 2 barrels = 1 quart (qt.BRITISH SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 81 stones. and 4 ft. Dry Measure quart (qt. gal. Remark.) = 1 pint (pt. = = = = 1 fluid 1 fluid 1 dram ounce (/ (/ 5). = 252 pts. it must be heaping full. Table of Common Liquid Measure 4 gills (gi. = 252 qts. to 63 gal. etc. 2 pints (pt. are called hogsbarrels. These measures are also used in measuring small. wide. §). the measure must be even full. but whenever barrels or hogsheads are used as measures. Liquid measures are used for measuring liquids. pint (0). MEASURES OF CAPACITY 240. potatoes. 1^ feet wide. Table of fruit. seeds. etc. to 43 gal. are called holding from 54 gal. There are two common liquid measure. = 64 pts. vegetables. 4 ft.) = 231 cu.) bushel (bu.). 1 gallon (cong. used for measuring water. = 231 cu. in. 239 Stone Measure 24f cubic feet = 1 perch. milk. 241.) = 63 gal. Casks holding from 28 a barrel 242.) 8 fluid drams 16 fluid ounces 8 pints 243. and foot high.). but in measuring apples. Dry measure is used for measuring grains. used for measuring liquid medicines. Measures of capacity are divided into liquid and dry measures. in. Table of Apothecaries' Liquid Measure 60 minims (M.
1 gal. such as gold. Troy weight is used in weighing precious stones and metals. in. and troy. 1 qt. U. gr. Great Britain dry measure. Table 20 grains 8 drams 12 ounces (gr.3185 cu.3185 cu.) 3 scruples = = = = 1 1 1 scruple dram or 9).). 1 gal. gr. (dr. avoirdupois. Great Britain liquid measure. articles. all Avoirdupois weight is used Table in weighing ordinary 16 ounces (oz. measure. = 231 cu.) 100 pounds 20 hundredweight 247. silver. ton (T. in.). or §). 6760 480 gr. in. 248. namely. Great Britain dry measure. in.5 gr. 5760 480 gr. = 231 cu. apothecaries' 246. oimce (oz.82 244. ARITHMETIC Comparative Table U. in.) 20 pennyweights 12 ounces 249. S. = 67^ cu. or lb). U. Avoirdupois 1 = = = 1 1 1 pennyweight (pwt. liquid S. in. 1 qt. MEASURES OF WEIGHT 245. weights. . or 5). 1 gal. 1 bu. = 2218.). in. Great Britain liquid measure. = 69. Comparative Table Apothecaries' gr. 8. pound (lb. dry measure. = 268J cu. Apothecaries' weight is used in weighing dry medicines and drugs.192 cu. in. apothecaries' liquid measure. J pk. 1 qt. measure. ounce (oz.).274 cu.). Troy pound ounce 1 = = 7000 437. 8. = = = 1 1 1 pound (lb. 1 qt.) = 2000 lbs. = 69. In. = 277. 1 pound (lb. (sc. dry measure. Tabk 24 grains (gr. U. etc. There are three systems of units used for measuring . U. = 57i cu. hundredweight (cwt. liquid S.
.CONVERSION TABLES CONVERSION TABLES MetricEnglish and EnglishMetric 83 Linear Measure 250.
1 . 2. = poimd = 31.64 gal. 1 pennyweight ounce = 1 1 1 gramme gramme hectogramme kilogramme 15.25 dr. 258. 1.65 pwt.27 fl.10 g.37 cm. 1 1 milligramme' 0.45 kg.30 g. 1 1 {Apothecaries') 1 dram ounce 1 pint 1 gallon = = = = 3.35 g.66 cm. 3.79 mg.68 lbs.89 g. 1 1 gramme gramme gramme kilogramme 15.37 kg.79 mg. 2.' cm.432 gr. sc.48 fl. 3.80 kg.37 kg.91 t.55 g. dram ounce 1 1 3.12 0. 1 grain 1 1 1 = Troy weights 64. J 29..77 gr.' 0.62 lbs.79 1.43 gr. ton 1 ton 2204.015 0. 0. 0.21 lbs.10 tons. pound 0.22 07. 1. 1 grain 1 scruple 1 Apothecaries' weights 64. 1.' 34. 2. 0. 0. ounce 1 1 1 poxmd hundredweight ton (short) : 0. g 2. 1 1 50.84 ARITHMETIC Liquid measure. 1 deciliter Weights 257.53 oz.' 0. 1. 259. 1 1 Avoirdupois weights 28.47 3. 2. hectogramme kilogramme 3. 1 liter 1 liter = 1 dm.68 lbs.10 g.
3d. X + 35 y/J. 262. of a certain defor 1st. instead of writing \^9. appTies to any number. and ^ • Remark. 3 giving a power. the radical sign and index are discarded. express respectively the square. 27. ^4Ti6. 81 . of the first.25. ^9. and cube root. the cube of the fourth power 261. are respectively the square of 3. y^n^. To indicate the root of a number. 3. write simply V9. 4th 263. 27 3. these respective numbers have 3 for roots. the second Thus. of two numbers. concerning powers of whole numbers. 4th 1st. at the is which the index of the root number under upper lefthand corner of Thus. 9. decimal. has a given number for a power first is is the root of that number. 85 . . the sign "y/ called a radical. of 4 X and the power of 4 += is 5 Any number which If. The first root of a number being equal to the num For the square root it is customary to write simply _the radical sign without the index. fourth. ber. Thus. 5 s' © fifth (^ X ?)* M)' 3 —. or complex. cube. Thus. 2d. . written. powers. gree. The roots of the second and third degree are designated as square root 264. . and fifth roots of the quantities 9.BOOK IV POWERS AND ROOTS DEFINITIONS 260. the the root. write the . That which was said in articles 85 to 88. of the same degree. 2d. 4 16. fraction. of the second. 3d.
. and separate on the right two or three times as many decimal figures as there are decimals in the given number. we have the length of the side equal to 796 cm.. 2. Directions for using a table of squares and cubes.358. Assume that the table gives directly the square and cube of numbers not greater than 1000. on removing the decimal point. and may be taken as an approximation to the square of 7.. of the consecutive whole numbers from 1 to 1000. take the centimeter for unity. for squaring or cubing whole.963 m. point.86 ARITHMETIC SQUARES AND SQUARE ROOTS To square a number. or fractional numbers. In an abstract or concrete decimal. in general. Determine the area of a square the side of is 7.96 m.796 m. Taking the millimeter as unity. to raise a number any power. which gives 796. is volume it as 504. If the side were 7. Thus.963 m. by the use cube of this whole number.3616 m^.. which in ordinary cases is quite sufficiently accurate.3616 m^ is is Find the volume of a cube whose side 0. 265. . the whole if. proceed as in the above example. or the square of 7.. and the 0..504358336 m'. and.96 m.97 m. instead of taking 7.96 m.336 mm^ = the given number. cm. which is 633. of the table find the square or Example.616 sq. to units such that the larger than 1000. in the first example the side of the square being 7. take 7. multiply the number by itself and the successive products until as many multiplications have been performed as Thus. Taking the centimeter as unity.616 cm^ = 63. decimal. neglecting the decimal number which results is not greater than 1000. the side of the cube table gives the If 796 mm. Neglecting the 3 millimeters. to multiply I by itself (160): 266. = 63. reduce whole part will be as large as possible without exceeding 1000. which covers all cases in general practice. which gives 633.3 cm. and from the table the area 1. and the square or cube of this whole part as given by the table may be taken as an approximation.968 m. to square are indicated by the index of the power.
74. contained in the period at the is left. 269. 7. The square (3 of the first. the square of a number composed and is made up . 4.SQUARES AND SQUARE ROOTS so as to 87 have the nearest approximation. To extract the square root of a whole number. For a fraction find • the square or cube of each of the terms (265). of a single figure. etc. Squares. 268. Roots. Subtract the square of the left. Of the square of the tens. Twice the product of the Thus: 52 + 5)== = 3^ + 2 X 3 X 5 + = 9 + 30 + 25 =64. + 2 X 270 X 3 + 3' = 72. 2. 2 (26 + 1)'  26' = 26 X + 1 = 53. 012345 1 6 7 8 9 81 10 4 8 9 16 25 125 36 49 343 Cubes. and the second. as follows 2. 3. 2732 = = 50' 270' + 2 X 50 X 4 + 42 = 2500 + 400 + 16 = 2916. this root. From this it follows that in order to figiures. plus one. special case. to separate it from the root. has two that of one having two figures has three or four. The square obtain the number of figures in the square root of a given number. Of the square 54== Of twice the product of the of the units. 2.900 + 1620 + 9 = 74. Table of cubes and squares of whole numbers between 1 and 10. of the first greatest square. 1 27 64 216 64 512 100 729 1000 of a whole number. 2. The square of a quantity composed of two parts made first up of the following: 1. that of three has five or six. commencing at the right separate the number into periods of two figures each (the number of periods is the number of figures in the root) (268). 267.529 for example. found from the period at the at the right of the remainder. of tens As a units 1. The num bers is equal to twice the smaller of the numbers. at the simple units.529. Take the square root. which can have but one first figure (268). The square of the second. . and draw a vertical line at the right. tens and miits 3. the first figure first figure at the left of the root. 271. The number of periods gives commencing the number is of figures in the square root. difference of the squares of two consecutive whole 270. separate the number into periods of two figures each.
7. the product 329. and so on until all the periods of the number have been operated upon. obtained of double the part of the root already less by multiplying the number made up found and 7 by 7. 27 X 2 This is = tained.ARITHMETIC 3. divide the part at the left. which gives 8 for a quotient. number. shows Operating on the figure 7 as on the figure 8. 7 is the next figure in the root. the part of the root already ob by double. 162. or it is too large. multiply the number 48 which results by 8. write it at the right of double that part of the root already obtained. being greater than the number 345. obtained in the root. 5. which gives as quotient the next figure in the root or one too large. considered as expressing simple 54. proved as was the preceding figure. that 8 is too large.29 . by twice the number 34. this quotient at the right of the resulting is next figure of the root. Subtract the product 329 from 345. being than 345. considered as expressing simple units. separate the figure 9 from the others. 45. at the right of the remainder. separate the first figure. 16. and divide the part at the units. left. and the product 384.46. write the next period. either the To prove it. write the next following period. 29.
1st. being an even number. of the largest perfect square contained in the given number. the cube of the . but is number on the contrary. the triple product of third. a quantity composed of two parts is made up first of the following: First. 2d. Since the cube of a number of a single figure does not contain more than three figures. 8. When it is terminated by one of the four figures 2. fractional. terminating with 5. it is not divisible by 2^ = 4. it has not the figure 2 in tens' CUBES AND CUBE ROOTS 275. 89 by one and is then correct to a half greater than the exact value (175. place. as in the last example. the giving the number mth of periods number to of figures in the root (268). the number divided into periods of three figures each. the last remainder is not zero. and the remainder is the difference between this largest perfect square. the obtain the number of figures in the root of a whole number. etc. 3. and number of periods will of 276. 4th. 196. The root obtained is the root of the number. be A ivhole it number is not a perfect square: of all the prime factors of a power an even degree (124. 5th. 273). of one of two figures contains four. When. and consequently cannot It can number and the the given number be expressed by a periodic decimal (195. In general. but less than the exact root by less than one unit (272). it follows that in order to obtain the of number is figures in the cube root of a whole number. 273. five. the square of the first of the first and the second. When. 7. When does not contain bers. or decimal. or six.CUBES AND CUBE ROOTS case. second. a remainder of zero is obtained. fourth. divide the number into periods of m figures. the cube of the part. whole.. 274. It is the exact root If. the root is increased unit. The cube be the number of figures in the root. 206). When the zeros which terminate it are not in even num3d. of the whole part (175). it is incommensurable (213). the given number is a perfect square. The exact root of cannot be expressed exactly by any number. the given is not a perfect square. and square Thus: of the second. 206). that is. expressed only by approximation. the triple product second. If.
3. of the greatest cube 1. third. 1. the cube of a and made up of four parts: First. 3. second. commencing at the right. the cube of the tens. Thus: 145' = = X 1402 X 5 + 3 x 140 X 5^ + 52 2. number composed of tens As a units is special case. separate the number into periods of three figures each (the number of periods indicates number of figures in the root) (275). which can have but one figure the (275). the cube of the units.744. 140' + 3 277.500 + 125 = 3.000 + 204.048.625. To extract the cube root of a whole number.048.90 (4 + 5)3 = 43 + 3x42x5 ARITHMETIC + 3X4X52 + 5^ = 64 + 240 + 300+125 = 729. the triple product of the square of the tens and the units. 3. Take the cube root.6 26 . + 1)'  26' = 262 X 3 + 26 X 3 + 1.000 + 10. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive whole numbers is equal to the triple square of the smaller. plus one (26 278.048. at the left. plus the triple of the smaller. fourth. is the first figure at the left of the root. the root. the triple product of the tens and the square of the units. contained in the first period.625 for example.
number of ciphers be a multiple of 3 (274). A number termin ating with ciphers cannot be a . Subtract 1744 from the same process sum of 2048. being less than 2048. followed by all the periods which have not been operated upon. the remainder. write the figures 625 of the next period. since this sum is have been used. if the cube root falls between two consecutive whole numbers. the last figure in the root is too small. Trythe three parts. the next figure of the root.625. to or greater If the remainder is equal sum. or decimal it is incommensurable. 281. considered as expressing simple units. By 4 is ing 4 the it is found that 5 is also too large. Proof by the rule of 9. 280. The truth may be established the three parts: [5' in the same manner as above. fractional. 3046. it cannot be expressed by any number. 25. not greater Continue thus until all the periods of the root Limit of the remainder of a cube root. the is sum 3096 being greater than 2048 shows that 6 too large. This root can only be expressed by approximation. The largest remainder which can be obtained in the process of extracting the cube root of a number. 3 X 14^ = 588. this being either too large or the next figure in the root. is equal to the number of which the root is desired less the cube of that part of the root already obtained. An even number cannot be a perfect cube unless it is divisible by 2' = 8. perfect cube unless the 282. 1744. and constructing [3 10. adding. considering 140 as one part and 5 as the other. which gives 5 for a quotient. whole. plus three times that part of the root. Analogous to the square root (273).500] + = 125] is X 140^ X 5 = 294. the proof by 9 of the raising of a number to a certain . at the right of the remainder. divide the part at the left. taken as the next figure in the root. plus one. 140 X 5' = than 304. 5 279. cannot be as great as three times the square of that part of the root already obtained. than this and should be increased. 304. At any point in the operation of extracting the cube root of a number.625.000] + [3 X = 304. on the right of the resulting number. A power of a number being the result of the multiplication of this number taken several times as factor. separate two figures.CUBES AND CUBE ROOTS the units 6' 91 = 216. by three times the square of that part of the root already obtained.
CUBE ROOTS OF FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS 283. The square and itself. 1 by 9. To prove by 9 the extraction of a root. to prove root 145 by 9 the example in (278). Thus ^^ V 125 ^^ . multiply the two terms of the given fraction by the . and the reby 9 mainder 1 of this cube by 9. it follows that in order to extract the square or cube root of a fraction.625.f V 49 AQ 286. From the manner in which the squares and cubes suffices to extract of fractions are formed. added to the remainder of the remainder obtained in the extraction of the root. SQUARES. CUBES. the given number being equal to a certain power of the root.^^^ ^125 * 5 V49 7 The extraction of the square or cube root of a fraction may be reduced to the extraction of the root of but one number. The proofs by 11 of powers and roots are calculated in the same manner as the proofs by 9 (101). find the remainder 1 of the by 9. gives the sum 1. is ARITHMETIC made in the same manner as the proof by 9 in mul tipUcation (99). a fraction being the product obtained by it is obtained by cubing each of the terms (266) 285. 266): 4? /4Y_ 284. of which the remainder. it the square or cube root of its terms (262). d '^/ . Thus. SQUARE ROOTS. proceed in the same manner as in the proof by 9 of a division (100). To do this. plus the remainder.92 power. take the cube 1 of this remainder. it is of a fraction being the product of the fraction obtained by squaring each of the terms (160.048. _ 16 The cube of using the fraction three times as a factor. should be equal to the remainder by 9 of the given number 3.
reduce it terms by any convenient factors: ^W / 19 504~V23x32x7^V2^x32x72"" 2x3x7 T9 2' / 19 X 2 X 7 _ Vl9 X 2 X 7 /266 yi9 X X 7 19 of 3 X 72 33 ^2793 _ s/2793 x 32 V 2" X X 7^! 2x3x7 42 Thus the square ^^ expressed in 84ths and the cube root in 42ds are obtained (269).7 = 13. the rules concerning the formation of the squares and cubes of decimal numbers (287). In the same manner it may be shown that the cube of a decimal contains three times as many places cause they are obtained as the given 289.546 = 12. /I V7~V7v7~ V72 7 X 7 and '4 _ /4 X 7 _ V28 \/72 V28 7 X 52 52 ^4 X 6 X 5 v'lOO V n^]5 X 5 It is a/53 5 seen that in this is method of operating. This method holds for all fractions.546^ 23. is Since in multiplying a decimal the point dropped and as many places pointed off in the product as the it sum of the decimals in the two numbers.ROOTS OF FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS 93 denominator. the squares and cubes of numbers are found according 287.546 X 3.73 288. the denominator of the root the same as that of the given fraction (275). = 3. be by multiplying the number of places in the given number by two. number.574116. but if the denominator of it may be better to square or cube. or by the square of the denominator for the cube root. Thus.053.7 X 23. for the square root. by multiplying the two to a perfect is the given fraction not a prime number. = 23. the following conclusions From may be derived . to the rules given for multiplication of decimals (180) 3. the follows in squaring a number number of decimals in the square must always be even. tiplied The square of a decimal number being the number mulby itself.312.7 X 23. and the cube the number taken three times as a factor.
94 1st.45. Then dropping the decimal point the root is extracted in the usual manner (271). and the nearest root to the onethousandth place is 0.464546 .000 290. 291. To extract the cube rodt of a decimal number. and if it has not that number.71 . or one thousandth. also the rule in (316) may be ap plied. ciphers must be added the given decimals. drop the decimal point and proceed as though the number were whole. separating at the right of the root half as many places as there are in the given number: V54:76 2d. separating at the right of the root onethird as many decimal places as there are in the given number: 145 =^^ = 1.625 . at the right. etc. that the square root of the is same number to the hun dredths place place is V247. drop the decimal point and proceed as though the number were whole.454545 correct to the thousandths place is the same as extracting the square root of 454545 correct to a unit (290) and pointing off three decimal figures at the right of the result. one hundredth. thus..674. . etc. = 0.5 to the hundredths = V2:6000 is = 1. number must contain zero. Thus unit is it is found that the square root of 247 correct to one 15.l!izr_ v/1. 100 correct to n/3. = ^^^2 = VlOO — = r. calculate Vo. two. .4 (172 and 10 ^ 259).0000 slil = 15. pointing off at the right of the result the required number of decimals.000.224 for the remainder. if the square is desired correct to one unit.58 that of — to the thousandths place 5 ^ = VO. one tenth. four. that of 2.. or six. the number must contain twice as many decimals as are desired in the root. ARITHMETIC To extract the square root of a decimal number.674 for the root and 0.. To obtain the square root of any number a given decimal (175). which gives 0.048. .454500. thus. Extracting the square root of 0.675. which is slightly greater than the exact value.048625 = 73.
and by increasing their last figure one unit. 294.227272 = 1. ^ <l\ ^ ^ V^3.47. The cube root of 12. If the nearest value to a certain place is desired. reduce the given number 286). ^0. of (291). to a fraction having the square or cube of the denomi nator desired for a denominator.000012755 71 that of = 0. that of 8 between y and s.ROOTS OF FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS 292. The rule of (316) applies to the cube root as to the square Thus the cube root. Thus. correct to the thousandths place. 95 a given To obtain the cube root of any number as correct to decimal. one more decimal is used in the calculation and then dropped in the reslightly less sult according to the rule in (176). The square and cube roots obtained in (290) than the exact values. except that instead of taking twice as many decimals in the given are number as are required in the root.000012000.5 to the hundredths place is ^12.32 that of 0. Remark.000012755427 to the thousandths place. 0.500000 = 2. 0. the square root of 8 expressed in sevenths: Since the square root of 392 falls between 19 and 20. To find the square or cube root of a given whole number expressed as a fraction with a given denominator.023 ^ to the hundredths. and each one of these fractions expresses the square root of 8 correct to = of unity /19\2 . : /20\2 . three times as many talcen. operate in the same manner when finding the square root.000012755427 is obtained by extracting the cube root of 293. and then extract the root (136. and (292) are 295. we still have the root correct to the required decimal place.
of a degree equal to the powers of the same number is a power sum of the degrees of the powers of the factors: 32 X 32 = 3* = 81 . as many the factors 3 and 2 enter in the index ^ = = V VH = V9 = =/ 3 4. Power of a quotient. raise 32 or any power. cube and square roots as Thus: any convenient order. that of 5 between = W and \2 =• (")<=<(¥) POWERS AND ROOTS OF THE Nth DEGREE 296. 32 X 33 X 3< = 3« is = a 19. V4096 = v/ViOge 'V262. 297. /2Y_ 1. Thus. Thus V4 X 9= V4xV9 = 2x3 = y/^X 64=^^x^64 2. To extract a root of a product.96 ARITHMETIC In the same manner the cube root of 5 expressed in sevenths IS V6 = y^ and V1715 lies 5 X 73 73— _  ^1715 7 ' between 11 and 12. extract the root of each factor of the product. = _ 262. From the preceding article (297). = v^ = VV262. 300. 298. third.3/ _ ~ 32 243 301. it to extract a root whose index contains only the factors 2 and suffices to extract successively. [(22)3]3 it Thus: = _ 81^ (32)3 = 36 _ 729.683.i44 299.8 6: . ^8 = 2. Any power of a power of a number power 218 of that number. (22 X 6)s = 29 X 53 = 8000. in of the root. (32)2 of a degree equal to the 34 product of the degrees.144" = ^^512 = To raise the product of several factors to the second.144. The same 25 35 rule holds for any power as for square or cube. follows that in order 3. (3 each factor to the desired power: 42 X 4)2 X = 144. of that The product of several number.
The quotient obtained by dividing a power of a number by another power of that same number. bers. power of that number. Thus.9. which shows that a number raised to the Another special case is power is equal to 1.649 = 4.17 + 49. ^= 34 3^. + To 1. 3"' (183). V25 9  4. 3.4 + 3)3 (4. which shows.9)3 = 117.649. I Q4 or 3 = 3'* = 3i. is equal to that number raised to a power of a degree equxd to the difference between the degrees of the dividend and divisor 305. 1 d ^. is the — 1 . a number. ^^ or 1 = 3** = 3".POWERS AND ROOTS OF THE Nth DEGREE 302. \/25. ^81 To raise the power. 97 Root of a quotient (286). 3« 32 3» As ~ 32 X 3^ _ ~ 1^ 3^ we have Special case. Likewise we have is equal to the _org_3 which shows that the reciprocal.5 + 1.715 + 42.that the first power of a number number itself.4 + 3Y= (0.764 = Vl6 = = ^117. of . complete the sum or difference of several numbers to a given sum or difference and raise the result to the 122 given power: (3 + 4 + 5)2 = = 144 . */l6 We \/l6 have 2 3 V 81 81 303. I 32 = S''^ = 3S and £ = 32« = S". (9 + = 2  5)^ = 6^ = 36 (^ 304. extract the root of a sum or difference of several num extract the root of the result of the given operations V87 + 67 = Vlii = 12 .
545. correct to imits' place Use to of a table of squares of consecutive whole numbers from first 1 1000. also the correct root to one but is The difference. and is the largest whole square contained in the given root. 308. ARITHMETIC A root of a power of a number is equal to the number raised a power the degree of which is a fraction whose numerator is to the degree of the original power and whose denominator is the index of the root. 278. correct to the first whole imit.000. correct to the first whole unit. or fractional. it of squares. decimal. which is than the given square.000. is the * Eeferenoe almost any handbook for a table of powers and roots. and there are two it is. 2d. the slightly less unit. 1549. of a whole number. 292). The operation consisting of extracting the square root. cases. whole. 886.* the square 784. and' one where the whole First Case. Thus: ^W> = 3'. Correct 1st. between the it given number and the may be had to largest square which contains. n (271. To extract the square root of any number.98 306. to whole unit. is number. This root than the exact. 887 slightly larger. Remark. in shortening the process of extracting the squa/re or fractional : 1st. is not greater than the greatest number 1. the whole part of a decimal number or the whole part of a fraction reduced to decimals (290). it is not necessary to consider more than the whole numbers . correct to one 786. 290. found in the is first the is root of the given number correct to one unit. Extract the square root. decimal. a decimal of a given order. unit.996 is less is the nearest to the given square. \/3'2orA/3 = 3t = 3^ ''/oi^3="i = 3l. = 3i The rules given in the preceding chapters 307. of number Looking in the column that is. . one where the number in the table. show that the extraction of the square or cube root of any number. leads to the extraction of the square or cube root of a whole number. Correct to the root of any number. column. whole.
would have 886 for its square root. this part coming under the first case. 887.996 = 1549. Any of be the largest possible number less than the square of 1000. to a whole unit.127. This number. correct to one whole unit.437. with 1549. 887 is given for its square root. for a decimal number. and to obtain the remaining figures. figures so that the part at the left will 4.37 . correct to one imit: 786.875. forms the first three lefthand figures of the required root (271). with 743 for a remainder.545  784.545.74.273 for a remainder. Extract the square root. of the whole number 7.POWERS AND ROOTS OF THE Nth DEGREE 99 remainder which would be obtained in extracting the square root of that number. operate according to the rule of (271): 78 75 12. Second Case. 786.545 whole part.273 for example. Separate at the right of the number an even number. to the first whole unit. having 786.
702. Correct to any number. 2d. of the Extract the cube root. the whole part of a decimal number or the whole part of a fraction reduced to deci mals (292). is the is. neglect the decimal point. a whole unit. 97. correct to one thou number 7875. of a whole whole number. number 78.875.526. Use of the table of cubes of the consecutive whole numbers 1 to from 1000.741 309.400. is number larger. found in the first column.86 is the required root and 0. which gives the find the square root of this unit. dropping the decimal point and extracting the root to one unit as in the first case of 1st. it is not necessary to consider more than the whole numbers.1549273 is the remainder.6545273. and 0. Correct to a given decimal. unit. Extract the cube root of any number. as in the number 7. the required root. Second Case. the root. This root is slightly less than the is exact value. whole. correct to one whole 97. second case of the This gives 88. we have 78. and there are two cases. correct to one hiindredth. 88. it between the given number and the largest square which * Eeferenoe con may be had to almost any handbook for a table of powers and roots.947.062. First Case. to Add ciphers complete the number to 6 decimal places. whole number. correct to one whole 1st. correct to one whole The operation to the first consisting of extracting the cube root. and is the root of the given correct to one unit. therefore 8.1274. decimal. pointing off the decimals. to shorten the process of extracting the cube root of or fractional: 1st.127. .6545.100 First Case.579 = 359. the table gives 886 for the root and 1549 for the remainder.741 for root and 162. correct unit. sandth.579 it.062.526  96.162319 the remainder. number Looking it is in the column of cubes. of the Extract the square root.* the cube 96. and one where it is. nearest value to the given cube that does not exceed 459. Retaining four decimal places.319 is for a remainder. 1st.702. but is slightly The difference. one where the number is not greater than the greatest cube in the table. 460 also correct to one whole unit. of the ARITHMETIC Extract the square root. that the largest whole cube contained in the number. unit.
as was done in the second case of 1st for the square root: Separate at the right of the number of figures. 6.526 for a whole part.POWERS AND ROOTS OF THE Nth DEGREE tains.38 for the remainder.947 as the remainder (278). tiple is 3. and 359. would have 459 for its cube root.062.893. Second Case. To obtain the following figures of the root.8 93. having 97. this part comes under the first case. of the number 97. whose mulsuch that the part at the left will be the largest possible number which is less than the cube of 1000. and 359.38 for example. correct to one whole unit. to one whole unit. is 101 the remainder which woiild be obtained in extracting the cube root of that number.127.947. Any decimal number.062. Extract the cube root.1 27 45 956 96 702 579 .526. 97.062. correct to one whole unit. and from the table we have 459 as the first three figures of the root.526. continue the operation according to the rule in (278). 97 062 526.
. 8 10 64 third 81 100 121 of is 144 169. Write the three following series. an arithmetical progression commencing at unity. commencing at unity.59 for the root and 0.956 as root and 5. second.184 as remainder. which easily proved. and we have 97.  I) = 2n  1. one immediately beneath the other: first.956 for the root and 5. ARITHMETIC the table gives the root 459 and the remainder 359. Second Case.. third. 13. 2d. the successive odd numbers. (359) Thus the whole square. Some of the properties of squares of whole numbers.359947 pointing for the remainder.000. we have 4. ciphers to complete the Add neglecting the decimal point number to 9 decimal places. the squares successive whole numbers: 13 5 7 9 11 15 17 9 19 21 11 23 12 25. any number which c is directly of the first above in the second series. series.. (c) of these the successive whole numbers (n).. n. The sum c of the first n terms in the first series. being equal to onehalf the product of the first term plus the nth term t and the number of terms n.571807184 for the remainder. equal to the sum Thus.947. the cube root of which is found precisely as in second case of 1st.571.890. = 25 of n = 5. off the decimals. is the sum of seven terms of the < first series.062. This gives 45. of this series is = 2 X 7  1 = 3d.526. we have c=(i^^ (361) . consid ered as an arithmetical progression. is is equal to the sum of the first five terms in the first series. and the seventh term 13. of the Extract the cube root.807. the square. and pointing off we have 45.062.102 1st. the nth term t.. n terms of the first series (3d). EXTRACTION OF SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS BY MEANS OF SUCCESSIVE ADDITIONS 310. correct to one thousandth.. first series is t The = 1 + 2 {n 49. of which the constant difference is 2. the first having 7 for its root.52689. number 97.
is equal to of the largest square. when n' and n" are substituted for c and . the first square c. that is. s = = ^^ ^ = 91.EXTRACTION OF SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS In substituting for as t 103 v?. the second series considered as an arithmetical progression the first term of which is n' and the last n. giving _ which is (n' + n) (nn' + 1) ^ the same as the preceding equation c'.forn=5. second series = 2:+2^.S first or second expression for = (2 X 13 M) X g = 819 or ^ = ^ x 13 X 14 x 27 = 819. 2n. 4th. in the c becomes equal to is was stated in 1st. divided by the roots sum s of Substituting for s the value given above. the number of terms is n — n' + 1. is commence with and the n'^ is = c'. The sum S squares of the onethird the twice the root.) the first n = 13 consecutive whole ~ num According as the sum. we have (Algebra. n terms of the third series. s of (2n + 1). S = ^n(n+r) Find the sum bers. has or has not been calculated. the the value of s should be used: . plus the sum n + n' oi the two square roots and the whole exThus we have pression divided by 2. to the difference c c — — c' +n+ n' In fact. for example. = the c' sum s' of the corresponding roots equal between the largest and smallest square. Book III. plus one. When last n^ a series of whole consecutive squares does not unity. The sum s of the first n terms . of the first first «=(iJ^^)S = 15. the value in 2d. the n consecutive whole numbers.
fourth. the successive whole numbers. of any whole number.nd subtract S' from S. the cube C = 125 of n = 5 is equal to onethird 25. which will Some of the properties of cubes of whole numbers (310). = 64. is equal to onehalf the product . the cubes c of these successive whole numbers. the nth = 3 +  1) = 6ra  3. having 7 for a cube root. then the square of the series c' = 9. multiplied terms (3d). as The sum s'. multiplied by 7.. which the term t is first term i is 3 and the 6 (n common difference 6. a third of the first seven terms in the first series. one immediately beneath the other: first. 55. and n' =3 + = 649 2 8 + 3 = is ^^• 5th. 311. of the sum s' = 75 of the first five terms in the first series. as in 3d. in the third series. the successive numbers forming an arithmetical progression. the sums of the successive whole Write the four following series ... whose common difference is 6 and whose first term is 3. numbers 3 (n) 1 9 15 3 21 4 27 5 33 6 39 7 45 8 51 9 57.. in the second series. of 2d. is (359) Thus the whole cube. a. then the give the desired sum. 28 45 The cube C. 2 8 (C) 1 27 6 64 10 125 15 216 21 343 512 36 729 1000. 343. The first series being an arithmetical progression.104 If ARITHMETIC the first and n = 8. first n terms of the first series. the sum S of the squares of the first n n' con secutive whole numbers.. the last c sum of the series of roots is s. n. and the seventh term of this series j is = 6 X 7  3 = 39. sum S' of the first — I consecutive whole numbers. calculate. n third. 13 1st.. To obtain the sum of of the squares of the consecutive n' whole numbers which the smallest and the largest n. which can be easily proved. considered an arithmetical progression.. multiplied by 5. is equal to onethird of the sum of the by the number n of Thus. second. 3d. of first n terms of the first series.. 10.
n. 6th. Thus. and then subtract the two sums. and the number n of terms. cor . plus the sum ^3 of the first of terms. of the third series. calculate. in 5th. the cubes of the n consecutive whole 1 numbers. whence n^ = —. n. n. C. commencing at is or the first n terms of n^. commencing with n' and ending with n.EXTRACTION OF SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS of the 105 sum of the first term 3 and the nth term t. of a whole number. of successive squares.74 to extract the square root. To obtain the sum of the cubes of the consecutive whole numbers. Extraction of the square root by successive additions. is n + 1 (270). n — \ terms in the fourth the number n Thus. The first three figures of and by 1. The sum. This method of operating rests upon the fact that the square of a whole number. s' = Sn'. and therefore. Book III. o n. «^= . the root may be taken from the table. in multiplying the two terms by 4th. (3 + 0^ 2 (361) Substituting for t the value found above. S. n. increased by twice the number. equal to the square of the next larger whole number.) = 8 we have S = (^^) = = 1296. which will be sufficient to demon strate the method so that the entire root could be obtained by Given the number 787. the 312. of 5th. as in (308).512. which will give the required sum. as sum s of the cubes of the first n consecutive numbers and the sum S' of the first n' — 1 consecutive numbers. = 8^ = 6 (1 + 3 + 6 + 10 + 15 + 21 +28) +8 = 6X84 + 8 = 512. Any cube. and the remaining figures calculated according to the method its use. S= Putting n (^~^36== (Algebra. is equal to 6 times series. equal to the square of half the sum and Thus.
ARITHMETIC The operation is the same as (282.41 as the required last square being greater root.874.749 or the square of 8874 1 . Twice the root 87. Writing 786.712.740.. of which the greatest whole square contained in the number 787. from the is obtained by subtracting the largest square number formed by all the periods of the given number. off at the The remainder in the above example is 16. or the square of 8875 78.564 than the number formed by the first five periods at the left of the given number.875. with twice as many decimal places pointed right as there are decimals in the root.765.694. 7.769 below.400. case.. plus Twice the root 8872.743 The sum The sum The sum The sum The sum or the square of 8871 1 .641 17.740 .625 The last square being greater than the number formed by the first four periods at the left of the given number. The remainder found. operate in the same manner.2319. and 4 is the fourth figure of the root. which are successively added.106 rect to one hundredth. and point two places in the result. plus Twice the root 8873. plus or the square of 88. and 1 is the fifth figure of the root.742 87.741 is the greatest whole square contained in the number.129 17. 88.75.745 or the square of 8873 1 . The table gives 887 for the first three figures.741 1 .730. 78. plus Twice the root 8874.081 177. . .690 17.747 78.787.600 177.512.481 7. To calculate the 5th.741 78. and proceeding according to the rule given in (270).127. 8874 is the greatest whole square contained in the number. 2d find the square root of 7.874. plus Twice the root 88. Twice the root 8871. 1 .747. plus 1 .867.965. that is. The sum The or the square of 88.. is 786. increase by a common difference .483 The square The sum of 87. we have 887.384 17. 7.876 17. correct off to 1 unit. 78. we have: The square of 8870 Twice the root 8870.142.741. pointing off.769. plus or the square of 8872 1 . the square. Noting that twice the roots plus one. 2d).
required to find + 1). substituting {n + 2y = = (n (n + ly + + ly + (3n^ 3n 1) + = 6 (ra + d +6(n + 1). 8000 20 ^t. Let d be the difference between the cubes (n d Writing (313) (n + ly and n^ (313). (276. etc. would take at least a half a day (271).. the number of these additions averages 5 and is never greater than 9. to find that of the next consecutive number. then of 23.. that of The cube (n of a whole number n being given. + 1).. n + 2. having 20' = 8000 and 21« 9261 given. n and n+l. 21 1261 126 10. = 3n^ + 3n + 1. 1387 6 times the root 22 The sum or cube of 23 . expanding (n + 2y = + ly + 3n^ + + + + 3 3n 3 + 1) 1. . 3d)... it is 107 series of seen that the extraction of the root is reduced to a very simple additions and as for each figure of the root. containing 60 figures could be extracted. 313.648 The sum or the cube of 22 22== Difference... . which.167 . being given. know ing that of 20. .) (n Since 3n^ first series is + ly = n^ + Sn" s^ + 3n the + 1.. 132 12. operate thus: Cube of 20 .EXTRACTION OF SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS of 2.. + 2y = (n (n + 1)' + 3 (n + 6n 1)^ + + 3 (n + + 1) + 1. . of 21 9261 The cubes of two consecutive whole numbers..Bn^ or 1200 60 1 3 times the root n = 20 Unity The cube 314. Sum of the terms s . it follows that in less than an hour the root of a number . . or 6 times the root. according to the ordinary way. for example. operate as follows: Cube 6 (n of 21 (313) Difference. to obtain the cube of 21. to find 9261 the cube of 22. d = 2P .. For example..2P 20^ . ^^ = 3 X 20^ n or . .. . equal to the sum of first n terms in the (311.
the fourth figure in the get the fifth figure.000 63..617 27.857 63. but it may be noted that in finding three times the square of 45.702. 96.204. to one whole unit. number of the 97. 2d case) into the extraction of the cube root.702. the cal To .018.071 63. .245. of the 2d.579. the is The table gives 459 as first three figures of the root. 6 times the root 4591 Sum or cube of 4592 (314) Difference between this cube and the preceding. The remaining figures are obtained as follows Cube of 4590 Three times the square of the root 4590 Three times the root 4590 Unity The sum or cube of 4591 (313) Difference between this cube and the preceding.584 63. 6 times the root 4592 Sum or cube of 4593 Difference between this cube and the preceding.042.000. 97.328.688 63. 6 times the root 4594 Sum or cube of 4595 .169 27.736 The first last cube being greater than the number formed by the four periods of the given number. operate' as before.315. as was the square root (312). Let it be given to find the cube root.829.546 96.890.. 27.082.558 96.944. ARITHMETIC Extraction of the cube root by successive additions.552 96.892. number 97.797.. and separating three decimal figures at the right of the result. correct to one thousandth. 6 times the root 4595 .564 . 6 times the root 4593 Sum or cube of 4594 Difference between this and preceding cube 96. from the two preceding articles that the cube root It follows may be extracted by means of successive additions.765.579 of which the largest whole cube contained in the three periods at the left.300 13.727 27.062.218.300.770 1 .273.955.875 63.950. 4595 is the greatest whole is cube contained in the nimiber. The operation resolves itself (309.071 27. .52689.526.291 Difference between this and preceding cube .570 Cube of 4596 97.108 315. and 5 root.062.300. the cube 96.616.
500 Triple square of the root 45.730 97.944.402.211 Cube of 45.500 3 times the square .2 Square of 50 Sum or square of 45. Difference .044.900 X 50 X.351 Difference. .950 Multiplying 2.082.954 .950 137.. or three times the number formed by writing figures at the right of a which the square is known. thus: The square 459.875 6.500 This method of calculating the square. .000 4.220.810.334. Cube of 45.. Continuing the example: The cube of 45.955.. we have .358.948. 275. 45.769 The cube of 45.025.018.283. .000 6.950 Three times the root 45.031.718 .712 97.334.619.950 6.951  45.037.816 it is is Cube of 45. . formed by the Continuing thus.279.487 Difference 6 times the root .207. 275..621.000. . greater five first .500 2.706 97.955 .896. 6 times the root 275.050.590.334. . of 45.910.351 6 times the root 45.613.111.345.841.664 6.172.334. Difference .724 97..875.951 275. . 97.334.. .448.957 than the number 97. 309).EXTRACTION OF SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS dilations 109 may be greatly simplified by resolving the number into 45.952.738.900 and 50 (269).000 four ciphers at the right of the square of which is taken from the table 45. 6 times the root 275.057 The cube of 45.900 is obtained by writing 2. Difference 6 times the root .956 found that the cube of 45.177 6.526.062. .950 .335. .850 1 Unity The cube of 45.408 6.335.207. 97. by 3.951 97. 6.056.890. especially in extracting the cube root where the triple square of that part of the root already found is so often square of a of number used (278. shortens long and tedious operations.106.953 .
400. we have 45. of the number 97.000. SHORT METHODS OF CALCULATING THE SQUARE AND CUBE ROOT 316.000.600. is the square root of 7. by . is ARITHMETIC the fifth figure of the root. of the number 97.120. is the cube root of the number 97.000. figures take 71+1 figures at the left and complete the n by adding ciphers to this part. by than one whole unit. To extract the mth root of a whole number. The cube root. Thus the remainder in the given example is 5. 2d.875. the first 3 of which are 746.742. correct to one unit. of the number 74. than the exact root. therefore 6 off. by less than one whole unit. of the number 1st.062. the required The remainder is found by root. by less than one whole unit. and more than onethird for the cube root. thus the difference of two consecutive cubes is equal to the sum of the two numbers written between these cubes. A. and separating at the right of the difference three times as many decimal figures as there are in the root. order to extract the root of a follows that in number correct to one whole unit. than the exact root. greater. Thus: The square root.000. with an error less than one whole unit.526.571807184. and 6 times the root is obtained simply by adding 6 to the latter of No all these numbers.127. is in general the square root of any number containing 5 figures. 88. 460. it suffices to retain is mth part of the figures in A. 45.957.875.956.000. 274.no periods. Since the error tends to decrease the root. greater. Likewise the cube root. they may be calculated in the same manner as 5 and 6 in the above example. than the exact root.000. less 7. It may be noted that the above operations are simply additions. Likewise the square root. greater. and pointing subtracting from the number formed by all the periods the largest cube which is contained in that number. which will be correct to one whole unit and slightly larger than the exact value. which more than more than half for it the the square root. greater.062. then extract the mth root. matter how many figures there are in the root. correct to one whole unit (308).
is the cube root of the number 97. applies equally to the extraction of the square. having obtained the three figures of the root. in the to. 41^ = 1681 < 164.062. in the example (308. the remainder 164. the rest may be obtained by dividing the given number. first Thus. seen. the last remainder. 2. only those figures which are desired at the left need be obtained.127. of the root already obtained. 97. greater or less than.062.437 as the dividend. of a greater. than the exact root. 7437.000000000. of the number 7. the last two figures are found as shown here below: 743.037. the root 88. that is. less the square of that part of the root already obtained. greater. is the cube root of the number 97. by less to one himdredth. 1st.74. unit. correct Thus: to any given decimal (290. as is the case with fractions (290. followed by the periods which have not been operated upon. is the square root of the number. the root of which is to be found. according as the Thus. correct The cube root. Remark That which has been said. 308. correct to a unit.52689.741 is above example. square of the quotient 41 is equal the exact. the quotient 41 may be obtained by writing only half the figures of the imused periods after 743 and dividless As may be . correct to one thousandth.062. than one thousandth. has to be calculated. When in extracting the square root of a number. 317. or mth root of a number. the number formed by the last remainder followed by the periods which have not been operated upon. and the quotient 41 is obtained by dividing this dividend by twice that part of the root already obtained. number 7. greater or less than.437. cube.037.SHORT METHODS FOR SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS less 111 than one whole 1.957.893.526. 309). correct to one unit (309). having The square root thus obtained than the exact root. 292.467342. From the above it follows that when the number. 45.700: 7 43 74 37 17 74 00 34 14 16 40 37 41 is equal to. than the exact root.4600. than the exact root. less than one hundredth. Remark 2. more than half of the figures of the root have been obtained. 292). by twice that part 2d. 2d case). 88. by The 1st. gives the number 7. square root.
018.018. and dividing the resulting number 435.207. that is.374. 6.582. the last figure.037 is obtained. ing the resulting number. more than half of the figures plus one number. 5.127.127.773. considered as simple units. Thus: 43 582 018 127 5 576 773 127 6 334 207 500 6 is The cube root thus obtained equal to. plus the quotient 6 and the square of the quotient. of the root is obtained. 45. by less than one When in extracting the cube root of a to a whole unit.112 ARITHMETIC 74. by twice the root already Writing at the right obtained. the rest ber. .576.816 < 5.127. correct have been obtained.334. the remainder 164.742 for the square root. according as the product of 3 times that part of the root already obtained. 2d case).576. of the remainder 1640 the figures which were not employed. Applying simultaneously this rule and the one preceding: 7 43 00 00 17 74 00 33 40 15 66 00 41 which unit. Analogous with the square root (317).181 by 63. having obtained the four figures of the root. the number formed by writing the remaining unused periods after the remainder. greater. the quotient 6 may be obtained by writing at the right of the last remainder. greater or less than.773. the re mainder 5. than the exact 318. gives 88. the root is less than the exact root.127 by the triple square 6. the remaining figures are found as shown below: first Dividing the number 43. Thus.962. root. less the may be obtained by dividing the given num cube of that part of the root already obtained. onethird of the figures not employed. 1st. 43. 1774.820.500 of that part of the root already obtained.950.773.950 + 6) = 4. by the triple square of the root already obtained. (3 Thus X 6^ in the given example. is respectively equal to.342.576. the exact. in the example (311. X 45.075.582. greater or less than. we have the required remainder. Writing the rest of the figures in the given number at the right of the remainder.
569. after having determined the first four figures. .256. is 459. greater by unit.062. correct to a given decimal. 6 and 8. The rules in the also to the extraction of the two preceding articles apply square and cube roots of any number. greater than the exact root by less than one 319.SHORT METHODS FOR SQUARE AND CUBE ROOTS Applying simultaneously this rule 113 and the one preceding: 43 055 125 000 5 049 880 000 6 334 207 500 6 less which gives 45. Remark.127. are obtained the following divisions 4 358 201 812 557 677 312 50 940 712 63 342 075 4 355 512 500 554 988 000 48 251 400 63 342 075 68 68 The root unit.957 for the cube root. Remarks). provided the number contains 2 or 3 times as many decimals as are required in the root (316. as for the number by 97. If than one the root should have six figures.463 for example.893. the two others. 4595.
ratio is When the word ratio is used alone. 322.BOOK V RATIOS. 72. and 77 also apply here. the first term 18 is the antecedent. and 63 hold here. and the second 6 the consequent. the properties given in articles 71. the geometrical ratio of 18 Written 6 or : ^ by 6. preceded by the negative sign — which indicates that the quantity could not be subtracted (31). tities. The arithmetical the difference of two quantities. Ratio is the result of the comparison of two numbers the same kind. and pronounced 18 to 6. or 18 divided or the ratio of 18 Remark. arithmetical ratio being the difference of two quanis not altered 323. In the case where the second number the difference 6  18 =  12. for example. PROPORTIONS AND PROGRESSIONS of DEFIHITIOHS 321. Likewise a geometrical ratio being a quotient. is and 6 the quotient 3 (207). 34. This comparison ratio is is made by taking the differ ence of the two quantities or dividing one by the other. In the preceding arithmetical and geometrical ratios (321). a geometrical always understood. 18 Thus. Thus: is . 18 and 6 are the two terms of the ratio. An the properties given in articles 28. by increasits Thus. 73. 74. . 114 Thus. an arithmetical ratio ing or decreasing both terms by the same number. is Thus the arithmetical ratio of 6 and 18 written 186. A first geometrical ratio is the quotient obtained by dividing the quantity by the second. is to 6. is larger than the first. and pronounced 18 to 6 or 18 less 6.
8 : 4 = 12 Thus. as many times as the antecedent of the second ratio contains the same fraction of its consequent (162. and is pronounced 8 is to 4 as 12 to 6. is : 4 = 12 : 6. that of the second ratio. 326. 12 to is 6. 9. as small as desired. of its consequent. Thus. Two equal arithmetical ratios form an arithmetical proportion. in Thus. In this case the first two or : the last two are in direct proportion to the two others. tion 2. 213). 6. the first conse . 4. the second antecedent. which 8 written  4 = 13  9. in the proportion. the geometrical ratio 8 to 4 being equal to numbers form a geometrical proportion. inversely proportional to the quantity 6. the two quantities are said to be inversely proportional to each other. are called respectively the first antecedent. In any arithmetical or geometrical proportion. The word proportion used alone means geometrical Four quantities are said to be proportional or in propor when the ratio of the first to the second is equal to the ratio of the third to the fourth. If four quantities of a proportion are so related that an increase one of the four causes a corresponding decrease in another. these is numbers form a proportion. quantities 8. 6. which written 8 : 4 : : 12 : 6 or 8 : 4 = 12 : 6 or f 4 = ^ 6 by 4 equals 6. and pronounced 8 325. 12. Remark proportion. or 8 divided 12 divided by 1. The ratio 8 to 4 being equal to 13 to 9. is to 4 as 13 to 9. while is directly proportional to the quantity 12.DEFINITIONS for example. 324. the conse quent of the first ratio and that of the second. 115 a geometrical ratio is unaltered when both its terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. or the ratio of 8 to 4 equals the ratio of 12 to Remark Two incommensurable ratios are equal when the antecedent of the first ratio contains a fraction. 8 the quantity 8 the quantity 8 327. two equal geometrical ratios form a geometrical these four proportion. given the four proportional 6. the antecedent of the first ratio. or 8 less 4 equals 13 less Likewise.
common the ratios which are not equal. The fourth term of a proportion is called the fourth proportional of the other three terms (326). when the antecedents or the consequents of an arithmetical or geometrical proportion are equal to one another. of two others. 9 333. 4 : 12 = 12 : 36. of two numbers is + 13. Remark. is is tional of the tional of 4 where the means are equal. Likewise. 5 330. 328. is Such a proportion written 4 331. arithmetical or geometrical proportions have a when two ratio. sum. the term 7 is an arithmetical mean between the two others. 5 and 7. common form a proportion. the four numbers form equal to the an arithmet proportion in which the two numbers forming one of the are the extremes or the means. metical or a fourth geometrical. 5 and 9. where the means are equal. In an arithmetical proportion. and 36 the mean proporthe third propor and 12. and the second consequent. 329. It is a fourth arithis according as the proportion arithmetical or geoinetrical. the mean. 12. is. having 8. in a geometrical proportion. such as 57:79.  4 = 13  we have 9 + = 4 + 13. 2d. The first and fourth terms of the proportion are called the extremes. the consequents or antecedents are equal. that are ARITHMETICAL PROPORTIONS 332. 9 + 8. In all arithmetical proportions the sum 8 of the extreme is equal to that of the means.116 ARITHMETIC qumt. two others. 4 and 36. and the term 9 is the third Such a proportion is written arithmetical of the two. 4 ical When the sum. Thus. 1st. • 7 • 9. sums forming the second sum are the and the other two numbers means or extremes. . : 12 : 36. and the second and third terms the means.
in (345) apply to arithmetical as well as to geometri GEOMETRICAL PROPORTIONS 339. : Thus. 813 = 49. 139 = 84. in the proportion 6 8 340. the four numbers form a proportion. and each mean the sum of the extremes diminished by the other mean.4 = (13 + 2) . 5 and the sum. is half. 4 When X 12. of two numbers is equal to two other numbers.GEOMETRICAL PROPORTIONS 334.8. An numbers are not in arithmetical proportion. 8 the product.(8 X 2). 4 = 12 : 6. the fourth easily found. the 8 following proportions may be constructed: 338. means does not equal the sum of the extremes. the product. The remarks cal proportions. having 9 + 8 = 4 + 13. The arithmetical mean of two numbers. the preceding proportion gives: (9 + 2)  (4 (9 and 336. dividing or multiplying all the terms by the same number. 913 = 48. 7. the proportion 8 8 equal to = 4 + 13 — 4 = 13 — 9 gives . increas and a mean by the same quantity. etc. is etc. + 2) = 13 . may be transformed as much between the sum of the means and that of the extremes is not destroyed (333). Thus. (9 + 2) .8. of these numbers: 57 = 79. X 2) . we have 8 X = 4 X 12. X 6. An arithmetical proportion as desired so long as the equality 94=138. In any arithmetical proportion each extreme is equal to the sum of the means less the other extreme. 48 = 913.(4 X 2) = (13 X 2) . of this it follows that three terms of an arithmetical prois portion are known. and the two factors of the other product the means or extremes. 117 When the four the sum of 335. is In all geometrical proportions the product of the extremes equal to the product of the means. of . 49 = 813. 138 = 94. 2d. 9. Thus.9 and 13 = 8 + if 9  4.. ing or diminishing an extreme Thus. is arithmetical proportion not altered by: 1st. of which the two factors of one of the products are the extremes or the means. 14. 84=139. From 337.
: 36 gives a. and each mean is equal From to the product of the extremes divided by the other mean.= ^ In any proportion. 2 8 12 : = = 12 3 : 8. x = V4 X 36 = 12. : : : : it follows that in any proportion the first antecedent is to the second antecedent as the first consequent is to the second. 12 : = = : 8. of the proportion. 3. 2. „ 344. 8 2 = 12 3. Remarks: 1. A proportion is not destroyed by multiplying or dividing the four terms or only an extreme and a mean by the same num ber (323). the preceding proportion gives 8X2 4Y2 = 343.118 341. 12 6' 12 X2 8X2 6'^*^4.^ = : 4 X 36. 4 and 36. The first four of the above proportions show when four numbers are in proportion they will be in proportion when their means or extremes are transposed (340). each extreme is equal to the product of the means divided by the other extreme. The first proportion. is x = —X — = 2 g 24 8. long as the equality between the product of the of the extremes is means and not destroyed. x. this it follows that the fourth term. 342. 346. : = 2 3.. giving 8 12 = 2 3. = 8:12.four of the numbers are not in proportion. 6 : ^ 2 = ^. having 8 be constructed: 3 : X 3 3 = 12 3 2 X 2 2 = 12 3 : 3. Thus. or 36. ARITHMETIC When . 8 2 : 12 3 2:8= that : 12. A geometrical proportion is not altered by multiplying or dividing one of the extremes and one of the means by the same means is number. is the square root of the product of the two numbers (330). proportion The 4 : a. Thus. 24 : a. The last four of these proportions show that a proportion is not destroyed when the means and extremes are interchanged. : : 2. The geometrical mean. 8:2. = a. the 8 following proportions 8 : may : Thus. having . 12 = 12 : A proportion may be transformed as much as desired so that 12. of two numbers. the product not equal to that of the extremes. x. 4 345.
1 4 : = 3 : 18 gives  . .
" 8 (3 ) 14 _  10' we have 354. the is sum of antecedents is to the sum 6 of their consequents as any number of any antecedent to its consequent. we have 7 : 5 = 14 : 10. The sum or difference of the antecedents to the sum or difference of the consequents as any antecedent 8 8 4 to its con sequent: (8 (8 +  6) 6) : (4 (4 : +  3) 3) = = : : 4 = = 6 : 3. The quotients obtained by dividing. having 3 "" : = 6 4 : 8 = 7 7 : 14 = 5 5 : 10. 4X7X3:2X5X9 351. : : 352. and in general in a series of equal . tion also Similar powers and roots of the four terms form a proportion. 353. the terms by those of another. Thus. When the terms of several proportions are multiplied together in order. in order. is is 5th. are in proportion 4 7 2 _ 5" ^ 'lO' ^ 14 of a propor14. 143^ and V3 V7 = V6 : : \/i4. 3 : 9 = 6 : 18. 3_4_ . of one proportion = 6X14X6:3X10X18. : 4th. 4 + 7) : (6 + 8  14) = 3 : 6 = 5 : 10. 73 _ 63 . the four products form a proportion.120 ARITHMETIC first second or sequents (8 is to the second or : antecedent as the sum or difference of the confirst consequent: (4 (4 (8 + _ 6) 6 6 6) : = = +  3) : 3 3 3) : and and (8 (8 is +  6) 6) : 8 8 : = = (4 (4 +  3) 3) : 4. having 3 7 = 6 we have 33 . The sunti of the antecedents is to that of the consequents as the difference of the antecedents (8 to that of the consequents: + 6) : (4 + 3) = (8  6) : (4  3). 4. (137) ratios. Thus. In a proportion. In a series of equal ratios. having 4:2 = 6:3. 3. 6 : 350. Thus.
as 4 is • 7 • 10 • 13 is 16. in Remark. 4th). These numbers are the terms of the progression. An arithmetical progression is not altered when all its terms are increased or decreased by the same quantity (28. ^Qs + 83 + 143 = 3 : 6. 10. A progression is not altered when all its terms are multiplied or . the product of the antecedents is to the product of the consequents as the square of one antecedent is to the square of its consequent: 3 356. the product of a certain numis ber of antecedents to the product of their consequents as any antecedent raised to a power of a degree equal to the antecedent factors 3 is to its consequent raised to : number of the same power: : 6 = 4 8 = 7 : 3X4X7:6X8X14 357. ing arithmetical progression of Thus the numbers 4. In a series of equal ratios. 3=:63 = 5': 10^ : ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSIONS A series of numbers increasing or decreasing. It is 4 and pronounced. forms an arithmetical progression. such that the arithmetical ratio of each term to the term which immediately it is constant (321). is That which is true for the square root of the sum of the squares true for any root. The same numbers written 16 13 the inverse order would form a descending arithmetical progression: • 10 • 7 • 4. : 7 = 6 : 14 gives 3 X 6 : 7 X 14 = 3^ : 72. of the sum of the mth powers: ^33 355. In any proportion. 7. 13. etc. = 14 = 5 10. + 43 + 73 .ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSIONS the square root of the 121 sum of the squares of a certain number of antecedents is to the square root of the sum its of the squares of their consequents as any antecedent is to consequent. mth. and the constant ratio of each term to the one immediately preceding is the com precedes mon difference. 16 form an ascendwhich the common difference is written 74 = 3. the above series gives V32 + 42 + 72 + 52 : V62 + 82 + 142 + 102 = 3 : 6. Thus. (6) 358. (a) to 7 is to 10 to 13.
To insert a certain number of arithmetical means between two given numbers. in the progression (a) the 5th term is is 4 16 + — (3 (3 and in the progression (310. required to insert three means between them: rrx. (b) the third term X 4) = 16. (310. When the number of arithmetical means to be inserted equal to a power of 2 less these arithmetical means may be found directly by taking an arithmetical mean between the two given numbers (337). but the common by that number (34. which sums are the means. we have 4 • 10 16 • 22 28. ' and adding 6 to 4 and successively to the sums. then an arithmetical mean between each of the given numbers and the term which has been found. progression above gives s = i±l^x5 = 50. Aff The common difference is . Thus. taken as many times as there are terms before the one under consideration. Given the numbers 4 and 28. times the number of terms by 2. Thus. is result is obtained by commencing with the larger num ber and subtracting the common 1. The same 363. . 311). of the terms of arithmetical progression equal to the divided sum The of the extremes.122 divided ARITHMETIC by the same number. According as an arithmetical progression is ascending or descending. each term is equal to the first plus or minus the common difference. determine the progression thus : common difference in the desired take the difference between the two given num bers and divide this difference by the number add it of means plus one. 360. + = 7 + 13 = an 10 + 10. and so on. and then to the successive sums obtained. 3 + 1 r 24 4 = 6 „ . is The sum. difference. 63). s.284 = 5r.311) 362. 4 • 7 • 13 • 16 gives 16 4 361. Having the common difference. X 2) = 10 The sum of two terms equally distant equal to the sum 10 • of the from the extremes is extremes in the arithmetical progression. difference is mul tiplied or divided 359. to the first number.
we obtain the new 2 365.5 • 0. the terms of the progression. all its terms are multiplied or divided by the same number 368.75 • 1. 0. The sums is of the corresponding terms of several arithmetical progressions form an the arithmetical progression of which the comIn sub mon difference sum an of the common differences of the sev eral progressions the terms of which have been added. forms a geometrical progression. of which the multiplier is 3. • • . of which the multiplier 367. the remainders form an arithmetical progression of which the common difference is the difference of the common differences of the given progressions. we have 5 1 then inserting an arithmetical mean the progression between each of the successive terms of this progression. GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSIONS 366. Thus the numbers 2. 6. ^• A geometrical progression is not altered when (323). In an ascending or descending geometrical progression.5 between and 1. 54. 5 • 8 • 11 14 • 17 20 • 23 • 26.GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSIONS Let 123 it be required to insert 2^ .1 = 3 means between and Taking the arithmetical mean 0. the 1. 162 form an ascending geometrical progression. 18. In inserting the same number of means between the consecutive terms of an arithmetical progression. tracting the terms of arithmetical progression from the corre sponding terms of another arithmetical progression.25 • 0. to 54. and the constant ratio of each term to the one which precedes is called the multiplier (321). It is written 2 : 6 : 18 is : 54 : 162. An ascending or descending series of numbers. any term is equal to the first multiplied by the multiplier raised to a power of a degree equal to the number of terms which precede the . a new arithmetical progression. the whole forms 364. • Inserting three means between 14 • the consecutive terms of the arithmetical progression 2 26. required progression is obtained: 0. as 2 is to 6 to 18 is Remark. The same numbers written an inverse order give a is descending geometrical progression. such that it is the geometrical ratio of each one to the one which precedes These numbers are constant. etc. progression. in and pronounced.
568. 369. by one less the multiplier. of the terms of first multiplier less one. ARITHMETIC Thus. and the product will be the first mean. and so on.. Let it be required to insert three geometrical means between the numbers 2 and 162. the above example gives p 371. Thus. is X 162 = 6 X 54 = X 18. the 2 fifth term is equal to X 3^ = 2 X 81 = 162. . and extract the root. 372. s The progression 3 of (366) gives (162x3) 2 ^ _ 1 sum of the terms would term diminished by the product be obtained by of the last term and the multiplier. Thus.. is The product of two terms equally distant from the extremes equal to the product of the extremes. p. in the preceding progression. the progression 162 54 18 6 2 gives // the progression were descending. = V( 2X162)= = 1. determine the multiplier of the progression which is desired thus: Divide the second of the numbers by the first. of an index equal to the number of means plus one. of the quotient. Now multiply the first number by the multiplier thus obtained. s. The example 18 of (366) gives 2 370. of the terms of a geometrical progression equal to the square root of the product of the extremes raised to a power of a degree equal to the number of terms in the progression. To insert a certain number of geometrical means between two given numbers. (298) . The multiplier is */l? f = ^81 = VVl = V9 = 3. or the second term of the progression. obtained by subtracting the last a geometrical progression is term from the product of the term and the multiplier and dividing this difference by the The sum. the dividing the first : : : : s = ——^=^= 162x32 = ^^^^X33 '''3 3 2 242.889.124 term in question. The product. which in turn multiplied by the multiplier will give the third term.
: 6 IS : 54 : 162. When. anis equal to the same root of the multiplier of the given progression. between 2 and 162. by is the following progression obtained: : 2 373. corresponding terms of several geoof which the mul equal to the product of the multipliers of the progresthe corre sions. then the successive products. of which the multiplier is equal to the multiplier of the first progression divided by the multiplier of the second. the number of geomeans to be inserted is equal to a power of 2 less 1.GEOMETRICAL PROGRESSIONS Multiplying the first 126 3. in inserting three means between each of the consecutive terms of the pro gression 1 : 81 1 : : 6561. term. the required progression is obtained: 2 : 6 : 18 : 54 : 162. 374. Inserting a geometrical mean metrical : : between each of the consecutive terms of this progression 2 and 18. the progression 2 18 162 is obtained. of to the same power. Taking the geometrical mean V2 X 162 = 18. as in the preceding example. 375. the whole forms a new geometrical progression. of all the which the multiplier terms of a progression. 18 and 162. . the following progression : is obtained: 3 9 : 27 of : 81 the : 243 : 729 : 2187 : 6561. Thus. and so on. the quotients form a geometrical progression. In extracting the same root of other progression is obtained. The products metrical progressions tiplier is form a new progression. a new which the multiplier is equal to the multiplier of the given progression raised to the given power. Let it be required to insert 2^—1 means between 2 and 162. In inserting the same number of geometrical means between the consecutive terms of a geometrical progression. In raising all the terms of a progression geometrical progression is obtained. the means may be foimd by first finding a mean between the given numbers (319). In dividing the terms of a geometrical progression iy sponding terms of another progression. then the mean between each of the given numbers and the mean already found.
.126 ARITHMETIC o 0) US Q V ^jBnn'Bf ^ .laqraaoao. % jaqo^oo S jeqraa^dgg o annp C5 udy qoj'Bin jCiBtuqa^g.
A rule of three is The that is. If 5 Simple direct rule of three. rule of three. but have to be determined by applying the rule of three several times. a rule by which a problem an unknown value determined by means rule of three may be solved. on the contrary. one man will do^ 5 = 5 meters in the same time. if 5 workmen do 25 meters of road. workmen would 7 workmen tional to the construct 25 meters of road. using proportions. which may contains two known quantities of the direct or inverse of that of the other is two (326). therefore.BOOK VI DIVERSE RULES RULE OF THREE 376. This problem. or any problem involving the simple or composite may be solved by the method of reduction to unity. ? how many meters construct in the same time number of meters is directly propornumber of workmen which do the work. Thus. and two other quantities of the same kind only one of which is known. designating the number of meters constructed by 7 men. or 127 .. 377. by x. is the 378. is called the compound rule of be solved by the rule of three. the rule of three said to be direct or inverse. and according as the ratio of the like quantities. one of which is unknown. and 7 men will do seven times as much. the three terms are not given directly. is simple when it consists in the deter mination of the fourth term of a proportion. from which x = 7 X 25 z —— = 5 35 meters. If. A ratio can exist only between like quantities. 379. of several pro portions (325). the rule three. Any problem. we have (326): It is evident that the 5 : 7 = 25 : a. same kind. of which three terms are known (343).
one yard wide. 1st The simple inverse rule of three (378). number of hours it takes 10 men we have : 4 10 = a. Problem. how long would it take 10 men to do the same work ? The number of hours being inversely proportional to the num ber of men. 3 2d Problem. 'men to do a certain piece of work. 4 Examples of the compound rule of three (377). from which x = 20 . If it takes 20 hours for A. and 10 men — — zr^ 20 X 4 = _ . 8 hours. How many yards of cloth j of a yard wide ? will it take to line a piece 45 yards long and ^ 7 of a yard wide The lengths being inversely proportional 3 to the widths. and letting x be the to do it. we have: 7 6 ^^ = ^' from which 7 45 X 3 6 —3x6— =5x7x2 — — ^ 45x7x4^„ = 70 4 yards. : 20. 1st Example.4 X — —=8 hours it Method of reduction to unity. 2 men working 3 hours per day for 5 days. how many yards would 3 men working 7 hours per day for 2 days construct ? 381. construct 90 yards of road. would take one man 4 X 20 hours.128 7 ARITHMETIC —X — = = 25 35 meters. Since it takes 4 men 20 hours. and j of a 7 yard wide would be — x^ = — 45 X 70 yards long. Method wide ide IS is of reduction to unity. . equivalent t 45 to X 45 yards of cloth ^ of a yard ^ ? g yards. „_ 5 380.
Since 2 men. 2 3 men men 3 hr. 90 yds. how 2 men. day. 90 yds. 90 yds. the above simple inverse proportion: reduced to the . have to = 126 yards. 5 da. o men working for 2 days would make 90 X 3 X 7 X 2 2x3x5 2d Example. working 3 hours a day for 5 days. how many yards will 3X7X2 men do in the same time? This may be solved by a simple direct proportion. 90 yards of road . working 3 hours a day. 7 hr. as follows 129 Writing the knowns and the unknowns men men 3 2 the problem 3 hr. thus (379): 2 men. working 3 hours yards. working yards. 18 X 7 = 126 yards. may proportions. do as much as 2 X 3 X 5 men working one hour. have a day for 3 1 made 90 make day ^ man. The problem is now: If 2 X 3 X 5 men do 90 yards of construction. working 7 hours a to work in order do the same amount f Solution by proportions. all their factors so as to facili Method of reduction to unity. 7 hr. 2 da. 1 a day for 5 days.RULE OF THREE Solution by proportions. x yds. 2x3x6 The terms should be written with tate cancellation. and 2X3 2x3x5:3x7x2 = 90: from which 90 X 3 X 7 X 2 a:. 5 da. is x da. Likewise. would 7 hours a 90 X o X  and therefore. 3 men working 7 hours per day for 2 days do as much work as 3 X 7 X 2 men working one hour. do as ing one hour. make nmny days would 3 men. but it is be solved by a series of simple rules of three or more convenient to reduce the problem to a simple rule of three as follows: much as 2 X 3 men workmen working 1 hour a day for 5 days. Proceeding as in the 1st example. 1 hour day.
in the 3d problem (381) the ratios of the number . Method 1 of reduction to unity. 90 yds. ing the number of days it would take them to do 90 yards as done above. A general rule for solving a simple or a compound rule of three (379. days. 1 From the problem follows that man working hour a day would take 5X2X3 days to do 90 yards of construction. therefore 3 in men working day would make 126 yards . : ^= Method 5 X 2 X 3 X 126 3x7x90 =r^^T=^^^^'1 of reduction to unity. and then we have: A certain number of men was working — it = days construct 90 yards of road. first find the operation would have been divided into two parts. 126 yds. 381). from which x = Sx2x3 — ^ g ^ it . 5 X 2 X 3 X 126 3 X 7 X 90 = ^ ^^y' 382. to men working 3 hr. The kind is quantities which enter into the problem are like in pairs. 5 da. 380. for instance. how many days will take them to make 126 yards ? 126 This is again a simple proportion (379). therefore 3 men working 7 hours a day would take 6x2x3. If the 3d Example. thus. how many days will it take 3X7 men to do the same work? 2X3 We (2 have (380): X 3) • (3 X 7) = a. . man working 1 1 hour a day would take 5X2x3 ^ 7 hours a days to do yard of work. ratio of the and the unknown to the known quantity of the same of equal to the product of the direct or inverse ratios of the others.130 ARITHMETIC men having taken 5 days to do a certain piece of work. 2 3 men men 7 hr. 90 5x2x3 3x7 126 14 . 7 hours a day were obliged make 126 yards of road instead of 90 yards. x da. : 5.
. and from 2d we Let C have the proportion I :iXT = C : 100. which draws the interest is called the capital or principal. ^ ^x^=—^. Problems in simple interest. T the duration of the loan in years. . when $100 brings $5 per year.. Interest is compound when the interest is added to the principal at the end of each year or other fixed period and Savings banks furnish an example of this bears interest with it. no rate is specified. . from which . be the capital loaned. / the simple interest on the principal C for the time T. 3d.. are directly proportional to their interests (326). * _. and i the rate of interest. . ^'' ^ . Thus. INTEREST RULES The sum 383. = C xixT 100 7 ' 2d. 2 X 3 X 126 3x7x90 = ^ ^ '^^^^ . the kind of interest. . the rate of interest is 5 per cent. The interest on $100 for one year is the rate of interest. C=l^ X T I . which is written 5%. then from 1st. time for which the loan is made (326). it follows that i X T is equal to the simple interest on $100 for the time T. Two principals loaned at the same rate. legal rate is understood. 387. Interest is the sum paid for the use of money. for the same time. Interest is said to be simple when the principal remains same throughout the duration of the loan. . .. and that we have: X 5 131 of hours being inverse to that of the of the number „ of yards being direct. . = 3^7^90'^^°°^ ^^^"^^^>^ 2 3 126 . The solution of the various problems in interest depends upon the two following principles: The simple interest on a principal is proportional to the 1st. 2d. = / X 100 andr = / X 100 ^3^.INTEREST RULES workmen and the number number of days. ^3^ . 384. 388. Legal interest is interest according to a rate fixed If by law. X 100 or4th. 385. This differs in different states. 386.
Thus. $1. and at the end of this time the amount would be (1 + 0. multiply the principal by the number of months. and divide the product by 100.132 ARITHMETIC in years (229).00. and $1.00 would bear $0.05 X 4 = $9000. After 4 years. in one year $100 would bear $5.50. = 100 = 45. 1. 51 substituting in formula 1 (388): 45.00 would bear $0.000 (.50. and divide the product by 1200.00.05 X 4) = $54. thus.00 interest. Time must always be expressed c Thus. ? on $45. At the end of 4 years 3 months the amount is on a principal loaned for a certain rate and by the C+ I = 45.000. I. „„„ X 5 X 51 100 X 12 „ „ = «Q^„„KA $9562. multiply the principal by the rate and by the number of years. loaned 5% and 3 months 4 years and 3 months are 12X4 + 3 = 51 months or j^ years. or the 4 equations.000 + 9000 = 154.000 + 9562.000^ X 5 X 4 ^ ^g^Q^^^^ which shows that in order to find the interest on a principal loaned a certain number of years.000 (1 + 0. all problems in simple may be solved (391. to obtain the interest number of months.50 = $54.00 7 = 45. Thus.05 X 4) dollars.000 X 5 ^ T X qs 12 61 . 45. The value of / and of / + C may be found directly by the method of reducing to unity. the amount is for C+ / = 45. 395).562. 5 months 105 ' = r = interest K and 125 days = ^ = 360' ^^*^ *^^ ^^^ °^ *^^ P™" portion. 7= C + Problem for 4 years 2.000. at What is the interest. I. loaned for 4 5%? 1. given above.000 X 0. Problem years at What is the interest. in 4 years. .000.05.05 X 4. Substituting in formula I = 45.000. on $45.
What is the interest.05 X K777. 45.000 + 300 = $45.000 X 0.INTEREST RULES Proceeding as in Problem gives 1. At the end of 48 days the amount is of 45.00.05 X^) = $46. the quotient. . ^.000^1 + 0. and therefore 48 days ^^ ot)U years.000 x 48 _ 7200 ~ .05 + = $54. 45. C+ 7 45. The method of reduction to unity (Problems 1 and 2) gives: I = = 48 45. and substituting 48 ygQ in formula 1 (388): 4o.50. The .562. 133 of reducing to unity the method I = = 46. —g— 36.00.60.000 +7= 45. on $45.000.000 .00.05 X T^ 12 51 = j^) $9562. — „„„ — ..000. shows that when the rate is 5% the interest number may be obtained by multiplying the principal by the days and dividing the product by 7200.uw X o X ^ Too ~ ^g^Q^Q X 6 X SpOO X 5 X WTM) 48 ' 48 ~ . ^ In commercial calculations of mterest. ' and divide the product The expression. = $300.300. *"^"" „. by 36. . 3. ^'^°^^ *"^* ^^ order .300. culate the interest days. multiply the principal by the rate on a loaned principal for a certain number of and by the number of days. to cal .000 expression. .000^1 + 0. C+ Problem for 1 45. loaned at 5% is 48 days ? is One day 48 equal to equal to ^^ of a year.000 X 0. . I.
6000. „„ ^ ^ = 45. divisor. If called the constant the rate were 6%.„ „.000 X 48 . obtained by substituting the Table of Constant Divisors for the Rates in Most Common Use Eate.134 ARITHMETIC is obtained in dividing 36. 45.000 X 6 X 48 gpOO = —6000 is = ^'^^"•""' which shows that the interest constant divisor. for 7200.000 by the rate. .
00 8. as above. 80.00 $70. 4.00 24. 60. number of aliquot parts. the base which corresponds to the rate given in the problem may be Thus. find the interest on $2400 at 4.5. number the method of aHquot parts.5%: Interest at " " " " 6% 6% 6% 6% 6% for 60 days 60 " " " " " " 30 20 " " " _5 175 = = = = = $24. 4. 3. 120. to obtain the interest on $2400 for 175 days at 4.00 12. . Interest for 80 $24. 136 By given 3d. For the following rates: principal 6.50 One fourth of 70 The required interest The quotient obtained called the base.INTEREST RULES 2d.50 .00 24. $52. Instead of commencing with the base.00 1.50 360 by the rate ^ = 60 is and expresses the number of days which the must be loaned in order that the interest equal one hundredth of the principal. 4. . find the interest for the of days.5.00 17. Thus.00 2. 90. this interest From 1111 6' found for 6% subtract 4' is 3' 2' according as the given rate 5. which has the advantage of having a large used. 3. in dividing . 4.5% for 175 days. 72.00 3. knowing it for 60 days. it is 5. 60.50 " "80 "10 "5 Required interest $52.
. ^'^12 Problem to 7. is If the interest on $45.50 interest f Substituting in formula (3) (388): will bring „ C = 9562.50.000 X 100 X 12 X 51 ^ ^°' Using the method of reduction to unity. the interest on $1. Problem months.000 ^ 5l = .1.„„„„„ = $45. tor 1 year 9562.„ Problem be loaned at 5.50 X 100 12 45.(^^^^• Problem What principal loaned for 4 years 3 months at 5% $9562. on $100.50 Substituting in formula (2) (388): „ = 9562. ^^00' ^^'""^ .™.50 45.50 X 100 = 9562. For how long will the principal.00 for 4 years 3 ' months being dollars. and the required principal is is 5i^ = .562. .2125. > and .000.50 45 000 6. have to ? 5% in order that the interest be $9562.00 would bring (formula 51 Therefore the amount of $1. What principal must be placed at ? 5% 1): to amount $54.00 placed for 4 years 3 months $1. 9562.50 X 100 X 12 s^ ^^^^ ^. that . .000. ^^ . $45.UUU . what is the rate f Substituting in formula (2) (388): _ *~ .50 in 4 years 3 months In 4 years 3 months $1..00 for 9562. 51 ~ _ 9562. 5 = ^_ ^^^ .50 X 100 .000 X ^ ^ .45. flaced for 4 years 3 19562. ij u _ „„„ the same time would be 4o.000. '' ^^ . ^^' °^ ^ An y'"^' /ooos ^ ^°^.00.„ .JS6 ARITHMETIC 4.50 X 100 45.000. X X 100.
215506 = $54.000. at the end of 4 years the principal $45. interest (361.000 of years.77.00 at the end of 4 years at 5%.00 from 1 to 60 years at compound To solve the foregoing problem.697.05 = 45.05. taken as a X 1.05 = 45. thus: at different rates In column b of the tables.000 X LO?.05.5.00 would be $1.697. the successive powers of these numbers up to the 60th for the different rates of interest. then it would take as many dollars in the principal as 1. for different amounts and covering a period of 60 years. 365).05* or $1.000 X 1. that is. at the to 1 From this it follows that the amount of a principal.00 at the end of year raised to a power the degree of which is equal to the number Thus. would be 45. are given. What principal must be placed at compound interest of 5% for 4 years in order that the amount be $54.INTEREST RULES 3'89. the number 1. In like manner.215506 at the end of 4 years.000 by that number. new principal. If the ratehad been 4. end of a whole number of years at compound interest. is equal the principal multiplied by the amount of $1.045.000 X 1. and that of $45. for example.05 = 45.05 would have been replaced by 1.000 This.215506 is contained in the given amount. then multiply 45. .05 X 1.05 and so on.05 X 1.000 X 1. in column a. the principals. The table given on the following pages contains. Problem 45. 137 Problems in compound 1. the successive amounts of interest.00 amounts to $1. at the end of the second year would give 45. What would be the amount of $45. find the value of $1. $1. at the end of the third year the amount would be 45.000 X 1. Problem 2.000 loaned for 4 years at 5% compound interest f At the end of one year the amount of 11.77? If $1.000 X 1.
000.381.381. compound is the amount of $45.05 X ^) = $1.00 as the amount $1. 3.822703 r:ol25 = 145.0125. X — 1. 54.05 X ^W $55.138 ARITHMETIC Thus. Therefore the principal the 3 months: is the quotient obtained in dividing of $1. Therefore the required principal is 54. 388): Then 54..822703 = $45. Problem interest for 4.000 loaned at 5% 4 years 3 months ? First find the amount at the end of 4 years as in Problem 1.00 as amount is found.05' and at the end of i1 + 0. and then the principal for 4 years 3 will give months is 0.381.697. Problem What interest for find the simple interest at 5% for that amount.49 by the value 55.49 X 0.822703 X rrrrTrF' 1. the principal corresponding to 4 years and 5% is 0. X 1.77.00 = X ^1 + 0.822703.00 becomes L.77 (l + 0.000. .49 end of 4 years ^^230^ = $45.05 X 1 ^) = a. At the end of 4 years $1.0125 and the principal which $55.77 X 0.00 becomes 4 3'ears 3 months $1.49 as the amount (1. and corresponding to 5% and 4 years.697.0125 From the column h of the table.00 at the amount 55. the principal which will give $1.49.2307. Let x be the principal placed for 3 months which will give $1. taken as principal for 3 months (Problem 2. What principal must be placed at to give 5% compound ? 4 years 3 months $55.05)*.„„„ This problem may also be solved by using the table.381.000.381. ^. in the above.49 is: 55.381.697.
which is done as in Problem 5 (363).00 at the end of each year the loan. 4 years 3 months.. 2.00 at the end power with an exponent equal to the duraThus.2307 . Column d. first. the value of $1. second. of Column a.710681. equal to $1.015194. equal to the sum 5. 2. at 5%. at be noted that the amount 5%. the amount of $1. $r05*= $1.00 would have to be placed in order to obtain the amount 55. it is The time is ^= „ 0. Interest Tables.00 at the end of Problem 1. is etc. interest tables The following compound contain 1st. the value will produce an amount For example. which is will produce an amount equal to $1.381. . 3d.49 The problem consists in finding how long $1.00 becomes $1. produce a yearly .015194 1.INTEREST RULES Problem pound 5. the principal which income of $1. 389).00.215506 = $0. the principal which 1. 60 years.05' is 0. at the end of 5 years. third.381. and now it must be found how long it will take $1. the of the loan found that the duration between 4 and 5 years.49 45. column a. years. the principal of 1 year raised to a tion of the loan. at the end of 4 years.215506 to bear 1.00 per year payable during will 1.000 Calculating. This may also be taken directly from the tables. equal to its =. etc. at 5%. At the end of 4 years $1. equal to the number of years (Problem 2.215506 (Problem 1. Column b. = 1.. Each value is equal to the value of $1. Column is c. 3.00 in years.215506 X 100 ___ X 5 = ^2^ ^"^^ is o .801913 of the first 5 values in colunm a. 4th. is 2d. that 1 is.. 139 How in order long must 145. the value of $1.u °' 2 '"°^'^' Therefore the total duration 390. the amount at the end of each year It is to is where there a yearly deposit of $1.00 in 7 years.000 be placed at to 5% com? interest..1.215506. obtain an amount equal to $55.00 divided by value at the end of year raised to the power the ex ponent of which 389). as in 5512307.
14.620172 2.930923 18.244031 91.561102 13.290494 20.511069 1.898278 2.051687 6.455618 23.202670 0.607687 12.13749 135.701359 23.944734 .140 3%.954004 16.02320 84.460414 36.915142 0.359899 3.709837 14.54065 111.279682 29.362466 5.905031 3.622677 63.091244 23.283328 2.623167 0.870374 27.579707 5.037284 5.196767 0.40126 77.183627 4.229874 1.220860 3.04841 91.785991 0.38838 150.531567 2.515052 0.198520 0.48403 .07784 56. 21.443608 16.989789 2.377026 0.450266 3.5660 173.188455 49.408838 0.617790 9.172998 0.910799 60.156035 0.114772 23.321343 0.813092 0.641862 1.899894 2.888487 0.167027 3.414435 24.215013 0.899438 23. 1.717098 4.808215 23.599104 21.206114 2.03 2.343916 1.794676 1.700684 20.315754 0.661783 0.366045 0.141992 8.69620 125.733731 0.111942 3.553401 5.895044 4.951227 26.166119 13.937935 0.221289 2.759412 0.891603 5.280032 0.790412 4.729764 25.45787 76.368496 6.577661 26.001651 15.159274 1.60185 129.570286 0.652848 1.368748 0.722421 0.388337 0.185320 0.325226 0.241999 0.934125 5.212669 109.834883 22.697974 16.575416 19.356566 2.841973 1. ARITHMETIC 3i%.506692 0.686423 24.84863 0.213589 5.17422 68.673079 4.733986 1.468534 1.218850 18.720003 5.537549 0.971030 11.492462 22.285365 17.269471 31.557967 1.892336 9.396065 5.966184 1.180070 0.676486 12.409713 24.383906 0.288959 0.159106 10.557204 0.55028 87.701380 0.060900 1.860295 1.78167 0.982713 6.302739 18.761588 22.297628 0.970874 0.920520 19.662462 7.450189 0.316605 13.825372 3.666528 37.331006 27.675349 1.126934 114.58284 22.388766 20.27594 20.661118 0.299977 0.194052 1.94504 26.355383 29.600441 51.813501 0.131512 2.412400 23.550448 24.53806 169.264053 52 53 64 55 56 57 58 59 60 4.33343 162.499691 26.411987 0.460696 3.801637 3.156881 11.709634 17.786109 8.463695 0.33450 59.316809 1.633141 6.345032 0.58003 180.736276 19.73018 59.150936 27.877475 15.05344 167.731905 2.214943 4.024708 25.702359 4.639404 0.125509 1.116868 25.309136 5.234950 0.696011 3.779408 5.700918 22.775449 25.220102 104.426470 35.576706 0.445959 2.391651 5.092727 1.587395 0.676986 10.459264 37.264439 65.530203 1.270562 0.227806 100.276566 23.34595 153.502566 0.487220 21.512590 1.282791 22.463879 11.543342 4.744094 0.280543 0.520156 0.605016 0.865301 7.766417 0.062689 22.876842 41 .536780 31.60737 0.913470 2.837484 0.140734 0.272372 0.680951 0.425761 1.878091 141.167235 22.208750 0.365072 3.35097 119.684946 0.229255 1.39497 145.806794 2.032794 2.437957 0.135975 0.517411 13.871442 1.174825 0.973587 2.334983 0.813862 2.415024 15.356278 0.23833 0.161496 0.652335 2.708919 6.306557 0.059431 2.663334 16.169733 99.23423 74.817800 24.78003 156.384234 1.035767 18.44533 24.491934 0.252624 14.764108 46.774428 0.477606 0.571025 3.916103 1.67401 69.521893 0.006708 3.634955 17.410599 1.584927 0.862609 0.272279 1.957260 24.628616 23:795765 23.731393 7.147523 0.671452 3.093778 2.99791 136.575083 2.191036 0.769060 46.296073 19.469151 0.485571 0.38826 124.39650 103.780399 5.48389 88.832253 22.46315 65.113030 9.942596 0.228107 0.094117 12.667019 18.459970 1.596891 0.090900 3.390208 19.50146 3.966184 1.72491 83.132252 4.18077 120.156591 2.097834 4.765792 21.357180 27.34121 62.362897 1.427262 0.313102 42.289833 0.518713 2.344230 0.082149 5.256219 4.481615 16.374990 26.753513 14.00760 72.901943 1.570526 20.000429 20.501657 25.564517 3.392045 18.185472 0.266770 1.79687 116.922501 1.965464 27.354282 7.399987 0.191807 0.131837 21.857489 1.933511 1.620411 16.167125 15.249259 0.959260 20.515423 4.106225 3.328902 33.675564 0.068866 19.113295 24.806111 1.189682 13.230283 7.327032 44.437077 0.468410 6.495450 47 4S 49 50 51 3.323799 14.50276 54.781596 4.981902 24.035 1.711878 2.873956 10.423147 0.936917 16.828611 3.40840 107.02890 79.46208 62.618695 1.07162 140.287928 2.187686 0.234613 5.256737 0.71986 95.304773 1.598914 11.452884 33.241258 4.167148 0.381654 0.890352 17.413148 21.333590 0.650886 4.617782 0.66330 81.66092 187.970874 1.254274 24.000661 0.631682 7.363245 2.160758 0.807796 0.192030 9.131377 0.328553 8.453286 0.002678 19.702433 1.538361 0.262038 0.553676 20.395012 0.753506 1.332590 0.94689 166.563956 1.166240 26.011895 4.310476 0.058368 16.601962 9.114544 9.086324 10.50964 12.212403 14.604706 1.935542 17.03 1.985227 3.261413 0.651321 13.841087 21.424346 0.192108 6.429471 66.34708 130.019692 7.105587 7.205468 0.90520 195.706016 23.36324 147.51688 203.295681 10.553042 39.179053 0.389702 4.102500 21.15945 71.949857 40.221463 0.252573 2.290627 47.505831 27.071225 0.266707 25.550152 0.500080 2.235779 95.417191 6.15377 24.866941 5.108718 0.035 0.789409 0.408832 6.074783 3.
INTEREST RULES ai 141 B .
840366 10.565146 18.149148 0.591899 0.83632 100.156383 62.071743 0.084043 14.921333 11.801692 7.294368 17.938698 23.132385 11.95840 17.815577 53.040567 0.650322 26. 1.897468 10.135282 0.212364 0.633472 18.09861 15.046297 16.712249 10.764941 5.821153 13.578564 9.338226 1.465106 4.156605 0.703507 10.657492 10.417265 2.635631 0.192904 16.285718 10.71566 317.491316 12.329477 1.161428 .558395 1.163003 13.704751 7.255094 0.116861 0.637093 5.340096 1.889996 0.669126 57.393646 0.436297 27.74351 225.786373 6.434258 9.061974 0.704961 0.322712 65.146186 103.207368 0.710881 0.083051 0.549109 10.325571 0.880067 17.358942 0.760790 12.383844 8.639798 78.281241 0.653298 2.869941 17.442301 0.051215 0.488574 13.172657 0.138016 16.705766 67.642808 13.995828 49.905653 32.154957 96.321942 0.255926 8.943396 1.789701 18.477260 10..696885 21.79402 352.220360 0.377504 0.952381 0.310125 4.723248 3.207135 3.210634 13.467400 12.x83600 3.949075 15.056212 0.255020 24.107822 7.477455 1.106895 10.039989 7.111297 0.065073 0.396558 0.917127 8.992727 42.368141 14.95055 186.054288 307.06377 84.225100 3.643034 14.545951 4.712983 8.481017 5.540352 2.453387 6.157625 1.075692 5.003166 13.627412 0.341850 0.662773 17.493403 18.516015 5.798642 14.209794 6.689587 0.097222 126.840590 7.650358 12.103056 0.158117 11.679186 0.50813 16.942572 17.898127 15.096142 0.294984 9.861393 15.727099 50.147252 8.420154 0.971643 15.624370 15.987691 0.06 2.025600 3.401270 10.190355 0.015066 22.251025 7.154252 9.028814 16.048316 0.852683 9.438848 69.985008 9.854339 3.582381 6.458112 24.036105 0.929086 14.613913 0.122704 0.837770 0.276282 1.224543 16.242946 0.374194 4.698545 18.898641 22.77392 271.97831 369.790848 0.785591 38.975319 7.072650 177.418519 1.898299 2.792094 0.528112 72.253348 5.864512 68.406164 13.064919 16.707572 15.822703 0.801677 37.048935 4.593848 1.764831 13.673012 3.867893 17.277505 0.09502 119.393573 20.33591 18.120463 32.538039 4.164255 89.360087 7.455832 0.195630 0.418073 18.393838 8.501999 46.250455 44 12.091719 0.802677 16.546852 16.23175 141.75606 15.030314 327.231377 2.906974 15.350344 0.545912 17.49897 257.212880 29.827604 11.060998 271.686087 0.920129 4.526950 2.131113 16.736780 14.96169 471.274949 13.081630 0.28142 347.791816 6.071524 3.711287 16.859410 2.925261 3.822346 5.209866 0.551328 1.11942 187.795856 1.549383 4.367412 16.764611 14.32031 94.503630 1.863252 18.291871 4.149567 8.42666 208.077009 0.496969 0.391988 7.122741 0.26812 134.105997 0.430475 43.246979 0.589028 15.068538 240.29883 79.002549 16.375185 14.761588 8.311805 0.043002 0.100949 0.64879 501.116136 4.041582 12.141074 15.468839 0.310068 0.115793 0.174110 27.383182 16.057546 289.128840 0.142 5%.603537 3.376890 34.399564 3.882138 20.386355 3.469921 11.949976 15.12087 0.907030 0.26290 443.590721 13.093945 14.199873 0.S26788 0.038271 0. ARITHMETIC 6%.385477 6.801913 7.402583 61.267848 0.05 1.392290 45.142046 0.839619 0.079096 0.636087 9.152500 3.697101 29.592811 15.783526 1.465917 0.05 2.917324 5.065954 12.12818 566.598632 9.530321 0.981016 18.423208 17.260904 2.206787 0.71262 286.395734 32.261797 0.017041 17.555673 3.34317 0.885649 1.82235 15.759992 35.393872 0.132928 2.733456 3.76197 164.068326 74.692773 2.14301 158.710339 1.371364 0.111687 5.306173 16.219810 0.034061 0.168722 18.262477 1.303379 12.294155 0.557150 8.06696 89.886875 8.676839 0.88978 0.556837 0.330513 0.053536 301.70955 113.045582 0.34825 18.077158 18.064658 256.075330 0.372451 15.34800 219.91701 393.584679 0.358927 31.232999 0.498246 14.087204 0.85144 334.833393 2.719252 12.05846 153.50758 198.040770 12.463213 7.746215 0.012196 2.85617 244.182875 2.0/8928 0.929290 19.088101 6.230230 14.059023 0.81540 14.99334 150.819750 4.11587 16.407100 1.06 1.79977 126.628895 1.902861 11.577893 13.091564 0.90421 144.985482 45 13.813076 15.137912 110.525631 5.672528 0.180795 13.135783 16.863838 0.418388 5.952381 1.943396 0.650027 15.819542 18.760519 18.905971 10.275970 24.75803 211.557033 12.184557 0.689479 1.743491 6.191016 1.04768 174.990543 231.56463 16.379658 1.875754 18.17203 417.085321 0.130105 118.102500 1.462210 0.164436 0.142008 8.109239 0.003189 5.43478 0.62814 106.306414 16.58372 371.3V 4616 4.938696 14.292018 2.026564 11.00772 532.620987 14.721735 4.295303 0.086527 0.764077 12.70016 167.539004 11.215506 1.406619 2.761861 15.081407 6.058186 83.18376 0.979932 2.644609 0.032133 0.505068 0.159086 17.590487 0.505214 40.123600 1.098980 16.181290 0.415521 29.785963 2.02539 197.783366 13.747258 0.665067 0.83976 134.846019 14.338977 18.113454 53.129341 27.68516 0.774070 17.525364 20.274066 0.
by : — : ^— : J — 10 : 1 : 10 : 100 1000 10. the logarithm of 27. of (391) are replaced I system is 10. 392.000 . Thus. 10' 101 1 2 3 4. Common first logarithms. 1000 100 4. they Instead of considering logarithms as the terms of a may be considered as degrees of a power of a constant number... 3" = 1.. Definition. is the base system progression.BOOK 391. and containing the term 1 and the other arithmetiand containing the term 0. ll I 1=1=3:9:27:81. (305). system. 0.••10^ 10^ 10° 10' we have 10* 10'.10. of the The multiplier of the geometrical progression of logarithms. 10. are written one beneath the other so that the terms and 1 come in the same column (332 and 341). 3. is equal to 6 or log 27 = 6. geometrical cal . according to the definition (391). 5. 2. 8642024one. .. and — 2 for logarithms in the 394. and any power of this base has the degree of the power for its logarithm. ••• VII LOGARITHMS When two T7progressions. 6S.. Considering the logarithms as exponents as in (393). which is written log 27..000 100.000 : : : ' ' . system was published The base by Henry In this called the Briggs system. This constant number is the base of the 393. 32. 10' 10= which means. then each term of the arithmetical progression is the logarithm Thus of the corresponding term of the geometrical progression. . 3' = 27. 143 . 3== = 9. 3^ = ^ = ^ have respectively system whose base is 3. The and is sometimes system the two progressions of this Briggs. • .
Considering the two progressions or the powers of the base (394). log 1000 = 3. neither as numbers nor as logarithms. and that its logarithm is the corresponding term of the arithmetical progression. by an inamount. log 100 = 2 . positive or negative. may be taken as exponents in the preceding series. 395. The properties of a system of logarithms. which differ from one another when the base of the given system is substituted for the base 10. and is the logarithm of the corresponding term of the geometrical progression or of the power. positive. the terms of the new arithmetical progression are the logarithms of for logarithms .144 log 1 ARITHMETIC = . by inserting an equal number of arithmetical means between the terms of the arithmetical progression. or negative numbers but as many geometrical means may be inserted between the terms of the geometrical progression as desired. and any number. is the logarithm of a positive number. . 396. logiJo = 2. but there are tables which contain enough so that the differences between the successive numbers are so small that the values obtained may be considered exact. we have: 1st. give only the numbers which have whole. l°gOT = 3^«t<'the loga Hoiv the two fundamental progressions can give rithms of or the all the numbers. The logarithm The logarithm of the base 10 is is unity. and in this manner. of unity zero. two progressions continued same manner. Thus any positive number has a logarithm. the corresponding terms of the geometrical progression. The properties given below for the common system hold true for any system Likewise. Likewise any given number may be a term of the arithmetical series or an exponent of a power. and the successive powers will differ from one another also by an infinitely small amount. Thus the logarithms of any finitely small number may be foxmd (263 and 273). Thus it is seen that any given number may be a term of the geometrical progression or one of the powers in the series given above. or the exponent of the power. log 10 = 1 . 2d. It is evident that a table cannot be constructed which contains all the numbers. etc. numbers. log^ = i. in the This series of powers infinitely prolonged in both directions.
(306) The logarithm 3 corresponds to 1000. is is accomplished by aid of addition. is equal to the sum. and 10* = 10. etc. = 10. 100 and 1000. The logarithm of a number less than imity is negative. 10^ = 10' Jqq. 4th. 5th. 10^ = 100. (10^'. Therefore a multiplication. log VlO° = log 10'^ = log 10' = is.000. The logarithm of a power. that 100' = 1. may be extracted by means of a simple division.000. is equal to the logarithm 6 of the number divided by the index 2 of the root: that a division 9th. (305) 3 being the logarithm of 1000. 6th. that is. equal to the logarithm 2 of the degree 3 of the power: log (10^)' number multiplied by the = log 102 to >< 3 = 2 X 3 = 6.LOGARITHMS 3d. 1000 . . its logarithm lies respectively between 10th. The logarithm 6 corresponds 10° = 1. Thus.. 10 and 10. of a number. The logarithm of a root of a number. 145 The logarithm of a number greater than unity is positive. According as a number lies between 1 and 10. of the logarithms of the factors (10^X101X100 = log 10^+i + ^ = log 10'= 2 + 1+4 = 3 (296). The logarithm 3 corresponds to 10' = 1000. 2+1 + log 4 = 3. multiplication 7th. 10 and 100. that V1. A negative number has no logarithm.000. 1000 is the product of the factors — . (297) is. 10°.000. the logarithm 5 of the dividend less the logarithm 2 of the divisor: 10' log JqJ = log 10^2 =52 = = ' 3. number mxiy be raised to any power by a simple The logarithm 10= of the quotient obtained by is dividing one number. by another.000.000.000 Therefore roots = 1000. 5 = 3. The logarithm of the product of several factors. 8th. and it is seen may be performed by means of a siMraction.000.000. 10^ = 100. = 100.
2 and 3. the result is the logarithm of the product or the quotient of the given number and a power of 10 of a degree equal to the number of units by which the given ished logarithm has been increased or diminished. tissa.01.3.1 and 0. etc. and 2 for the Likewise.1. The logarithm of a number multiplied or divided by a power of 10.01 0.7525862. from which it follows that since whole part of the logarithm of a whole number or a decimal number greater than unity. for a 0. which increased or decreased by as many . and — 1. of the products or quotients of a certain number and the different powers of 10. etc.. In fact (396.8325089. and 1 and 2. The whole part called the characteristic. Thus it is seen that when the logarithm is increased or diminby one or several units. contains as many units as there are ciphers between the decimal point and the first Thus the whole part number 827. significative figure in the given number. contains as many units less one as there are figures in the whole the logarithms are expressed in decimals.657 = 0.001. . having log 68 = 1. ber 4725. the part of the given number.8325089.00326.236 and — 2 for the of a positive or negative logarithm is and the decimal part is called the man 398.146 ARITHMETIC 1. etc.. we have log 5. 6t'hand8th): log (68 X 100) = log 68 + log 100 = log 68 log g^ = log 5657  log 1000 = log 5657 + 2. we have log 6800 = 3. 0.34. the whole part of a negative logarithm of a decimal number less than unity. 397. differ only is in the characteristic. From (396) it follows that knowing the logarithm of a number.7525862. number lying between 1 and is 3 for the num and and 0. Thus the whole part is number 0. and having log 5657 = 3. for the number 0. it suffices to increase or decrease the given logarithm by as many units as there are ciphers at the right of the 1.. whose logarithm hes between — 1 — 2. in order to find the logarithm of a product or quotient of the given number and unity followed by several ciphers. It is also seen that the logarithms. Thus. — 2 and — 3.
subtract each of The complement . added to the given number. and in general of was shown any number than one. subtract 2.91698005) = 0.3 = 2.826.2617385  2 = 1. if The complement of a positive number is that number which. is negative. equal to the order of the first significative figure after negative units in the characteristic is the decimal 401. 399.826 = 1.00826 = 3. Thus. having 0. Likewise.2617385. having 18.826 It is Thus: (3 =  2. and subtract as many units from characteristic as there are decimal figures in the given number. log 0. Thus the number point.27 = log 1827  2 = 3. it is seen. we have: log 18.826 400.826. of and log 0. and take 1 for the characteristic and write the negative sign above it to indicate that it alone is negative.0826 = 2. Thus log 0. 1000 Thus we have c* 375. From what was said in (398) it follows that in order to determine the logarithm of a decimal number.91698005 from 3 and place the negative sign — before the result.91698005.826 log 0. = tt^' we have = log 826 . The logarithm less 826 being than 3. subtract only the characteristics 2 and 3.91698005 which the less 826 3. Logarithm of of characteristic alone is negative.LOGARITHMS the mantissa remains the same. as in (396). this. To express the value of the logarithm of 0. In order to obtain convenient not to have the mantissa negative (405). 147 units as there are units in the exponents of the powers of 10.8762 = 624.1238.91698005.08301995. would give a whole number equal to unity followed by as many ciphers as there are figures in the whole part of the given number. of a positive number is easily obtained: the significative figures except the last from 9.8762 =  375. that the logarithm of 0.27 = 1827 ^ (396.91698005. 8th). Likewise. neglect the decimal point and take the logarithm of the number. log 0.
Logarithmic tables.000.log 826 1.000.148 ARITHMETIC last and the the ^^^' from 10. corresponding to the logarithm 0. The logarithms of the numbers between 1 and 10.. instead of writing g^ = log 127 + log = 2. and to 7 decimal places for the numbers between 1200 and 100.10380372 + = 0.77788828 log 127 log c* 39 . Marie has carried this numbers up to 990 and from there to 10. Thus: to its com Having log 127 8^D 1 97 V ^Q X 39 —— . 10th). Thus. in operations it where there is a logarithm to be subtracted.000. 402. The smaller ones give the logarithms up to 10.08301995.000 (176).000 to 7 places.08301995 0. c* log 826 = 10  2. add plement and subtract 10 from the result.300 = 412. 10 and 100. the logarithms in the second. Since it is so easy to obtain the complement. values in the tables.59106461 7.77788828 (see Rule 31). There are many logarithmic tables. Lalande give the logarithms of table to 8 decimals for the all the whole numbers up to 10.77788828 The required result is the number 5. The tables have the numbers in the first column.000 and 108. being incommensurable. The tables by Jerome etc. the larger ones up to of all the whole numbers Often the characteristics are omitted.700.91698005 it is written thus: 39 log 826 = = = 2.59106461  2.000. and place as many ciphers at the right of number obtained as there are at the right of the given c* num 587. Supposing that we have a large table of logarithms at our . As the whole part of a logarithm generally does not contain more than one figure. correct to 5 decimal places.10380372 1. as they are easily supplied (397. the complement of a positive logarithm is the result obtained in subtracting the logarithm from 10. 108.91698005 = 7. M. it is impossible to put their exact In Callet's tables the values are given to 8 decimal places for the whole numbers less than 1200 and those between 100. and the difference of the consecutive logarithms in the third.9964.
6878855.000. the nearest ^ product of 891 ten millionths and 0. to obtain the 1 Callet's table gives. 403. having 487.0000410.0000356 + 0. for such small values. the upper limit of the table.6878374.46.0000891 be tween the logarithms of 4873 and 4874.46.0000410.46 — 4873 = 0. To obtain the quantity x which must be added to the log 4873 in order to get that of 4873.6877964 and 3.6 or 54 ten millionths as the product of 891 and 0. which reduces to finding the logarithm of 4873. which greatly shortens the calculation of x.4 + 891 X 0. and therefore its logarithm hes between the tabular values 3.1. as found in the third column. which may be found in the table.46 + log 100 = log 4873. taking 356 ten millionths in the column under 891 and at the right of 4 as the product of 891 and 0. the number 847 is foimd.LOGARITHMS disposal^ that of 149 will solve the follow Lalande for example.677964 + 0. Thus.346.0000054 = 0. retaining 7 decimals.0000891 X 0. Therefore log 4873. Looking in the first column. The calculations for the preceding example are written as follows: .06.46. table. and log 487346 = 5. we have (398 and 399): 2d. 487.788.341. this difference represents a difference of unity in the numbers.4.346 = 4873. In this manner the logarithm of any number may be obtained.46 + 2. assuming that the differences of the logarithms are proportional to the differences of the numbers.000. we ing problems: Problem 1. x = 0. since 891 X 0.46 = 891 X 0. approximate values of the products of this difference and the first 9 multiples of 0. we have X = 0.46 = 0. that is less than 10. which is not found in the Separate on the right of the number just enough decimal figures so that the part on the left will be the largest possible number less than 10.346 = log 4873.46 = 3. besides the differences. therefore for the difference 4873.46 lies between 4873 and 4874. log 487. then in the same horizontal line in the second column will be found the logarithm 292.6878374.46. of 891 and 0. Thus. 847. take the difference 0.0000410 = 3. The number 4873.46 X 100. Of a whole number. 1st. Find the logarithm of a given number Of a whole number. and then 535 ten millionths opposite 6 as the product.06 (33).
24 log= =log 24log 47 = 1.91907809.150 ARITHMETIC Number log 4873 for 0.log 4 = 0. and even these two are not 3d.60205999 = If the fraction was less than unity.6878374 . therefore the sign would be negative. we find rithm is 3.6878374.46 log 487 346 Assuming proportionality between the increments num bers and the logarithms does not permit of the use of more than two decimals. = log 487. can be found in the table.7 = 5.29188662. 8th). and multiplying 8300 in the table whose logaby 10 we have 83. decimal point. Of a fraction  7 According to (396. or 4th. and whose denominator many ciphers as there are decimal figures in the given number. Thus the number which has 1.4 for 487.24303805.06 3. logarithm is exceeded by that in the Thus. according to (400). 2d. exact. log ^ = log 7 . Thus. to find the number whose 4. Problem To find the number corresponding to a given logarithm.6878374 5. omitting the unity followed by as 3d.84509804 .873 deduced from Problem 3 1. we have: 0.346 = = = 0.67209786= 0.6877964.380211241.000 whose .0. the logarithm of its denominator would be larger than that of its numerator.  1 + 1 Of a decimal.6878374 of the log 4873.70811338. log 0.91907809. .7 = 2.6877964  3 = 0.346 . multiply or divide the corresponding number by 1 followed by as many ciphers as the is number of units in the given logarithm exceeds or logarithm found in the table.0487346 404. When the given logarithm is corresponding number • logarithm given in the table.6877964 356 54 3. log 4. 2. in (399) is The rule given we have. Thus = log 4873  = 3. A decimal number may be is is considered as a fraction whose numerator the given number. Likewise.29188662 = T.0. When a logarithm differs only in the characteristic from a 1st. the found in the column at the left.91907809 for a logarithm is 83.
2d). which are respectively 2. . Evidently the whole part of this number is 1876.2733127. then find the difference between 3. take the difference 0. the largest difference which is not greater than 799. The calculations may log for .6 being the is largest difference contained in 105. be tabulated thus 3. the figure 3 at the left is the tenths figure of the rethe above operation.57 is the largest difference contained in 12. the given logarithm and the next lower found in the table. = Taking the difference 799 — 694 105.345. given in Callet's table (403.0000799.1. the product 926 X 0. When the given logarithm cannot he is found in as..2733127 3. 3. given in the third column. and gives 5 as the thousandths figure. The numbers being 1 for 0. . characteristic the largest in the table. the figure 4 the hundredths figure in the required number.1 = 92. The products of the difference 2315 and the first 9 multiples of 0. the product 1157 X 0. ^ ^ "^ 0..91907809.0002315.92. the tables. x = 0.2733127 is therefore 1876.2734643. and the number corresponding to the given logarithm lies between 1876 and 1877. in taking 694. between the logarithms of 1876 and 1877. and lies. 2315 1 may be used to shorten Thus.. for a difference of 0.2732328 = 0.0000799 it will be. to obtain the decimal part x. for example.91907809. its if 151 result is 4.6 = 12.2733127 difference of the  3. . find between what logarithms the given logarithm in this case.LOGARITHMS logarithm obtained 3d. The same would have been the log of 830 or 83 had been found..0000799 0.91907809 and 1. Therefore. quired number. Now taking the difference 105 . between 3.0002315 _ ~ 799^ ~ 2315 The number whose logarithm is 3.2732328 and 3.0002315.2732328 1876 .01 = 11.345.
Thus. When add enough imits tive and equal to the largest characteristic 3 the number corresponding to the resulting logarithm. corresponding to the given logarithm. number found is moved to the right or left as many places as the proper there were units subtracted from or added to the given logarithm. number corresponding to the given logarithm is only the characteristic of the given logarithm is to the characteristic to make it posiin the table. and the number thus obtained correspond to the given logarithm. found in the table. reduce the characteristic to 3 by adding 2.345. and move the decimal point as many places to the left as there were units added to the given will characteristic. reduce the char acteristic to 3. dividing this by 100. Thus.3121626.2733127.6878374. Find the number corresponding to the and move the decimal point to the left as many places as there were units added to the characteristic of the given logarithm. or the number corresponding to the given logarithm. moving the we have the number 0.6878374. add 5 units to the characteristic 3. units to When make the given logarithm is entirely negative. which gives is — 2. it add enough entirely positive. 3.152 ARITHMETIC Assuming proportionality between the increments of the log^ arithms and the numbers. therefore the The number corresponding to the latter is 4873. to find the number corresponding to the logarithm 2. and proceed as in the preceding 3d example. the largest in the table.6878374.46.76345. by adding or subtracting number of units. The characteristic is reduced to 3 so as to have the The decimal point in the largest number of figures possible. and to give it the largest char resulting logarithm. number is 4873. find 0. 6th.00487346. and proceeding as in 3d we have the corresponding number 1876. to find the number whose logarithm add 6 units to this logarithm. 5th. only two decimals can be taken as If the table gives 5 exact and the third as an approximation. Thus. which gives decimal point 5 places to the left. acteristic 3 in the table. decimals.0487346. then not more than one should be counted on in the above calculation. . When the given logarithm cannot be and its characteristic is not the largest in the table. 4th. negative. to find the number whose logarithm is 1. we have 18. and the corresponding — 2.46.
6295979.6993808. log (5736 X 743) = log 573. fifth root of 243 (396.23044892 = 3.261. to this logarithm The number 4.6232493 1.1002064 X 3 = 3.00050047. To divide 4.529) X 3 3 (2. which gives 2 + 6 = 4 for the characteristic product 3X2 logarithm (31). reduce the logarithm to an entirely negative logarithm and multiply by 3. is The number 4913 which corresponds cube of 17. 153 The use of logarithms.848 which corresponds the required product. 1st. Calculate the cube of ^" to this logarithm the „.8997936 X 3 = 1. thus (400) of the required 2.69134676. . 2d. 8th) log (^^^f^) = log 4.529/ In this example the logarithm 2. 3d.47712125.7586091. Instead of operating as above.6993808.8997936 X = 4. is Extract the not as convenient as the first method.LOGARITHMS 405.529  log f^^)' = = (log 0.201. 0.8709888 = 3. 6. 7th).8997936 is multiplied by 3. 6th).6 + log 743 = 3.8709888 = 6.042Y_ 0. . which 4th.261.848  log 743 = required quotient.848 by 743 (396. is The number 5736 which corresponds Raise a number 17 log (17«) to the to this logarithm the third power (396. log V243 = "^ = ^'''t'''' = 0. then 0. = 3 (log 17) = 3 X 1.7586091 + is 2.042  log 0.6295979  2. 9th). To multiply 5736 by 743 (396.0. Multiply the decimal part separately and add the 2 units to the = 6.7234557) X 3 = 2.3006192 = 4.
529 3 3 ^•^T''= then 1.529 _ 2.69897000. is the reciprocal of the index of ^64 = log ^64*) = 512. is . I X 1.general. As in the multiplionethird of 3 is 1.042 _ log n r\A9 . to extract a fractional root. corresponding to this logarithm. 2 the „ "^ ^ power 3 .042 ~ ~ Yo. o . to raise a number to a fractional power.ozy log In ciAo 0.80617997 = 2.70926996. log the degree of which Thus. it is seen that any power or root of any number may be found with the aid of logarithms. of 9 is 3. From 3d and 4th in the preceding article.154 ARITHMETIC to this logarithm is The number 3 which corresponds required root. the logarithm may be reduced to an entirely negative logarithm. is The number root or the corresponding to this logarithm. 406. conversely. Let it be required to raise 125 to the ^ power. In . of 18 is 6.log 0. extract the root whose index is the reciprocal of the degree of the power.6332645. which gives 3. Calculate the cube root of ^ inor  the . etc. raise the number to the power the root. and this is compensated for by adding 1 to the decimal This is all done without writing anything.8997936 is divided by 3. lo^(l25^)= I 5. and continuing part. ^: The number of 125. and.1. the ^ power Thus same it is seen that raising a number to the ^ power is the as taking the cube root of it (306). Reduce the characteristic to a multiple of 3 by adding 1.7234557 V 0.6232493 . cation (3d). of 64." _ • (J. H = "«• In this example the logarithm 2. (log 125) = ^^^^f^ = 0.
in two systems which have respectively h and h' for their base. . The base 6'= 2. of the same number A. A= log. the logarithms 6 and b' log log. For example. therefore. but the hyperbolic or natural logarithms are used in higher mathematics (see Part V). are inversely proportional to the logarithms of these bases taken in in the any system.718281828459 The common logarithms are better adapted to ordinary numer. A X j^/ noting that log & log (396. log 743 = 6. A= 6. the hyperboHc log log. 408. = log. 407. A= log A^. system log A..A 5^ = 1 and log.6106960 of the number A = 743 being given. find the common logarithm of the same number A. The logarithms log A and loge A. that 3 is. b'. Thus. the ^ for instance. A = log • The above makes it possible to change the logarithm of any number A in a system to a logarithm of this same number in another system. . which is number to the same as raising the given the .6106960 X 0.power. raise the number to the power 3 equal to the numerator. This system was in vented by the Scottish baron John Napier and published by him in 1614. AX log and log. .4342945 = 2.4342945. extract o the root of the this root to number indicated by the numerator. and raise the power 3 indicated by the denominator. the ^ power for instance. taking. A __ A~ log b' ' log 6 whence log^ or. 1st).8709888. cubing number and then extracting the square root of the cube. The base of the system is the number 2. It is also seen that 2 in order to extract a fractional root.LOGARITHMS 3 155 This example shows that in order to raise a given number to a fractional power. for example. ical calculations. NaTperian or hyperbolic logarithms. and extract the root indicated by the denominator of the power obtained.7182818 of the natural system has for common logarithm log b'= 0.
log.3026. The natural logarithm tained by dividing the or the product of the a number is equal to the quotient ob common logarithm of the number by 0.6106960 . We 1 have also.8709888 X 2.166 ARITHMETIC the Thus 'product of the natural logarithm of a number and 0. or 2. log„4 or ««in«o«n 6. 1 KiLlX decimals . ^°g^ log V of 2.4342945 == 2.4342945.302585. common logarithm and 2. 10 = 2.302585.4342945 is the common = logarithm of the number.302585.8709888 0.
818 (1 or C= log + 0.818 = C 40 log (1.818 : + The logarithmic calculations 40 log (1.818. may be What solved.5% compound interest in order that the years must $50.2353484 10.5% comamount be $290.0000000 4. Example 40 years? Solution.000. from which.LOGARITHMS the nth year 157 compoiind interest at the rate r for n years would at the end of amount to F = C (1 + rf. 40 years.6989700 $50.045)* C" 40 log (1.log C n = log (1 + r) 5.463 6216 . How many years will at it principal to double itself when placed 5% compound interest? . By poimd pound the aid of the formula (1) the diverse problems of cominterest 1. taking the logarithms log (1). How many 4.00? Solution.045) = log  0. Substituting in formula (1) log n = 7 = log C + n log (1 + log 7 . V = log C + n log (1 + r).000.045) = C 40 log (1.4989700 9.045).7646516 9. principal interest in order that the must be placed at 4.6989700 = • r).4.00 after The formula (1) gives: C= (1 ^ + rf 290.0191163 Example 3. 2. take for a certain 0.045) = log 290.2353484 5. whence C= log 290.00 be placed at amount equal $290. C = C= Example 818.
General formula for annuity.00 or to give the interest  1. $1.158 Solution. 75 days. called end of n years. find the value of $1.0201. 2 = (1 + r)».05 0. that should be used.3010300 log 1. paying a constant an annuity.05. = 0.05 • n 360 Therefore. log 2 0. dividing by C. taking the logarithms of the two numbers.9799. $1. 207 . then find 2 how many days this amount must be placed at 5% simple interest to become equal to $2. veloped below: The capital C is The general formula is deloaned at compound interest and must be fully repaid at the sum each year.9799 = $0. and to calculate of days.05 and in in 1 day 360 n days n days will 0.00 after 14 years. = 0. which of years is all not the case. V= 2 C. ARITHMETIC According to the statement of the problem. compound 410. little. thus: (1.0211893 14 years.05)" = $1.0201 ''' Q^^ >lif 360 n = 73 = days. calculation presupposes that the is compounding Therefore holds for fractions of a year. log 2 for r = wlog(l + r). . then substituting in the formula (1): 2C = C(l +rT. It it is is seen that the two results differ but and therefore generally sufficiently accurate to use the general rule for interest even for fractions of a year.05 n or reducing to days.9799 after amount to 0.00 brings in 360 days $0. w = 14 The preceding number the number the years.
Vs + + r)"r). .LOGARITHMS Let r be the interest on $1. the third. this Vi payment can be placed at compound interest for payment represents a final value of: = = = = = a{l + + r)"'. of the final values of the different A is equal to the final value V. the final value F of C is a + ail first + r) + + ail + + ry + . r)"'^ = C (1 + r)\ The member: a[l il r) + il + ry + . r)"2.00 for 1 year. commence with (1 the term + + ry. the next to the last. . Writing it in this manner. il + r)'].ail + .. In using logarithms. likewise the second payment V2 represents a final value a{l a(l a(l a. This formula cannot be by logarithms. the final value of 169 C is payments F = C The sum The n first (1 + r)». and whose last term is (1 + r)"~S and according to article (371) the sum is (1 + r)'^ (1 (1 + r) + r) 1 1 ~ (1 +r)''l r a\^:^±Jp^]=Cil+ry ^= (l+r)«lThis is r qi + ry ^^) calculated the value of the annuity. According to article (407). therefore. we see that the annuity is multiplied by the sum of the terms of a geometrical progression whose first term is 1.. whose multiplier is (1 + r).  1 years. v„ Summing obtained these different final values. r)" writing (1 log = 7 F = nlog(l + r). v^i and finally the last.
then take either 15 or 16 years and calculate the corresponding annuity. the rate given. giving cV which If may be calculated the annuity a. a. when the capital r. because a negative number has no logarithm. 15f years for example. a C. and the number of years n. transposing. which is a practical solution of the problem. Thus the annuity a should always be greater than Cr the simple interest on the capital.160 then ARITHMETIC y— 1 is the denominator in r • (1). from the formula (2). number Determine the rate when the capital C. It is possible to find a fractional number of years. be calculated by a method of successive approxima SINKING FUNDS 411. C (1 + r)» + r)° 1 . and taking the logarithms. ^ _ ajl+rya r(l+r)» ^^^ the rate The determination of the number of years n. g (1 Cr g=r C (1 + r)" = g (1 + a a r = + C C (1 (1 + r)» r)"  a ^^^ + r)" r can only tions. Solution. are found by substituting in the formula (1). the annuity of years n are given. ' transposing. = a = (1 + + r)»(a  Cr). r. and the annxiity are given. it is necessary that the — Cr) be positive. A sinking fund is a sum set aside annually at compound . the capital C is by logarithms. and the Write the formula '^ (1) (1 _ ~ r)" r .a. log a =« _ log ~ log (1 r) + log (a — Cr) g — log (g — r) Cr) log (1 + difference (g In order that the problem be possible. Cr(l + r)" = a(l + r)" .
000 equipment.000. . ^_ Example 1.000.000) . The number of years = n.000 0. S = $10. how long will it take to accumulate the required sum.0000 0. The rate of interest = r. = S + s {1 +r). s (1 .1903  4.05 + 10. money being worth 5%? 500. s (1 —— s + r)» .000 log 1.000.000 is set aside each year as a sinking fund with which to renew a $110. _ log ( Cr + s) — log s ~ log (1 + r) log (110. r = ^ 0.1903 = 0. money being worth Putting 5%? C = $110. we have.000 ~~ log (Cr • log 1.s.000 0.500  log 10.000 (1.0212 9 years.0212 _ "" 0. = (1 + r)". what sum must be set aside annually as a sinking fund to liquidate the debt at If the end of 10 years.05 4. _. ^ Cr s[(l+rrl] r = . or replace 161 an equipment which has a limited life.05)i» •^ Cr _ _ " (1+ r)"! ~ 0. Then we have the following relations Sum Sum Sum Sum at the end of the first year at the end of the second year at the end of the third year at the end of the nth year = S. s(l + ry.05. log Cr + s s = + s) —log s = n log (1 + r). If $10. ^^^y'^"" Example 2. we have s[(l+r)"l] r a government owes $500.628 _ ~ __. Let The debt = C.log 10. The sum set aside = S.05  1 _ " 25.SINKING FUNDS interest to liquidate a debt. + r)"~'^ Summing this series (371). . = s + s (1 + r) + = s + s(l + r) + . and n = the number of years.05 log 15.
ous. A stock certificate is a written evidence of the holder's to a described share or interest in stock. Persons who buy and sell stocks and bonds are called stock brokers. stock is company must levy an assessment. The face value of the stock is when the company is prosperous and its called the par value. 4^'s of '91 means 4^% bonds payable in 1891. A corporation is an association of individuals transacting business as a single person under rights and limitations granted by statide or charter. Government bonds are bonds issued by the government. invested. 422. 418. 419. . when the it is not considered prosperstock. and on the other hand. They usually take their name from the rate and date they bear. 414. They receive a commission called brokerage. quoted above par. The capital stock of a corporation is the amount of moneyand is represented by a certain number of equal shares. and deducting the expenses from these the tained. and its stock falls helow par.162 ARITHMETIC STOCKS AND BONDS 412. 417. 415. Bonds are written agreements under seal to pay a specified amount on or before a specified date. An assessment a sum levied upon the stock to meet expenses. The gross earnings are the total receipts from the business. 425. 420. 421. entitled to its share of the profits before the Watered stock is the inflation of the capital stock is by the made. but regular stock. title each share generally represents $100. 423. and declares large dividends. 416. 424. Market value is the selling price of the Preferred stock is is stock that does not share in the general dividends. which is reckoned on the par value of the stock. and is generally declared at a certain per cent. net earnings are ob A dividend is an apportionment of a certain part of the is earnings. 413. Coupon bonds are bonds which have coupons or certifiissue of stock for which no payment cates of interest attached. thus.
. . .STOCKS AND BONDS 426. 163 In operations with stocks. let The par value .
$1331 = w^j . be bought in order that the may 5% on his investment semiannually. Rate of interest = r.625 = 72 shares. Years yet to run = n.164 total brokerage is. 0. the put immediately received compound amount of money (371). at and the interest received on the bond interest at r'%. C'r (1 + r')"' + C'r (1 + r'f^ + = C' + C'r[(l+rrl] C'r + C Therefore. c(i+. In operations with bonds.00i)] • • • = n[l43i(l24f + ?)J n 428.^"^^ . which is the current rate of interest 9 Putting r' C = 0. of interest on investment = x.+ l ^^^(^+.025.035. and since the interest is paid semiannually n = 24. Face of bond = C".OOJ = n[i2(^ + 2C0. $1341. + =[^+ C'r [jl +rTcr' C'r' l]\n 1 + C'r (1 + r)"  C'r 'y ~c? / bonds.2 n C O.025. purchaser At what receive price must 7% with interest payable semiannually. and the net proceeds. r = = 100. Rate Current rate of interest = r'. . running 12 years Example. ARITHMETIC n C 0. let Market price = C.)=c. Then is (409) C(l the value of the purchase if + x)" money at the end of is n years is (409).nAi . and x = 0. = 1341 18.00^ 2 = brokerage.
If the draft acknowledged by the drawee.5 0. when solved by logarithms. whom the promise made. is the drawer. the one to the payee.BANK DISCOUNT Substituting these values in the above formulas. A bank circulation of is an money. Bank discount simple interest computed upon the in the note sum less due at a futui'e date and paid in advance. the face plus the interest is due at maturity 437. a written evidence of debt coupled with a prom 431. and the payee the one to 432. gives C = 118.5 + 3. 433.025)" which. C'r' + C'r{l r' (1 +r'fC'r + xf ^_ 2. is The maker is the one who promises is to pay. is In noninterestbearing notes.025(1. The sum named is is the face. 434. A draft is The party who it is given is an order on one person to pay another. dif ferent The operations with notes and relations between the factors are expressed by the following formulas: . discount. 165 r' ^^ we obtain. Writing on the back of commercial paper constitutes an is indorsement. or 430. of discount to the date of The time from the date is ma turity called the term of discount. is it is said to be accepted. institution for the deposit. the face counted. the sum to be discounted. BANK DISCOUNT 429.5 (1.025)^^ 3. ise to A note is pay. and the face the discount 436. 435. and the one on whom it is drawn writes the draft whom is the drawee. the sum to be dis In interestbearing notes. the proceeds.
Smith & Co.06 • ^^i 365 = $912.07^^^ = 912. which 153 days. Rate of discount = r. The insurance business is carried on by corporations regulated by state laws. discounted on the date of issue at 7%. Bkown. 1 "ifi • C = (C + r) = C + Cr'T= 890 + 890 ' 0. and Co. stock companies. /. we promise to pay Harper Bros.82 912. certain for the insurance is called the 'premium. Find the proceeds.36= 365 $885. is Life insurance sum of money life in event of the an agreement of a company to pay a death of a person or at the continues during the life expiration of a term of years. A straight 'policy of the insured. 441. insurer is called the The sum paid 440. Face plus interest due at maturity Rate of interest = r'.. . Five months after date. INSURANCE 439. Insurance is an indemnity in case of loss.82 1 "ifi 0. 6% per annum. A. They may be mutual companies. Now ^ substituting in the formulas. or both.166 ARITHMETIC Face of note = C. Discount Proceeds Let = C. ^=C" = C"rr = 912. = = T. Y. Mat 18. is Referring to table (p. Term = Interest = /'. Example: $890. A.IotC . N. The contract between the insured and the 'policy.00 New York.8227. and adding the three days' grace we have 156 days. we find the term of discount.82.I =438. 126). C . Then C = C + F CrT or C'rT = I. 1896.52. Value received with interest at Eight Hundred Ninety dollars.
and illustrates the principle upon which life insurance is grounded. etc. Expectation Table Constructed from the American Experience Table of Mortality. or to his estate life is payable to the insured at the exif he dies sooner. years. charges have to be added to cover exbut the above formula forms a basis of comparison. . referring to the table we see that a man of a certain age has an expectation of life of n r. Thus. 444. Age. penses. then. letting the the rate of interest be and the face 1 of the policy premium be c.INSURANCE 442. (371) + A^ c [(1 + r)". we have. 167 An endowment term policy is piration of a 443. be A. The rate of life insurance is expressed as a given sum on each $1000. of years.1] _ c [(1 (1 r) + r)"  1] and c=^^^^^„_^ Ar Of course. the probability of life The expectation of as deduced from the mortality tables compiled from statistics.. and is determined by the expectation of life which the insured has at the time of taking out the policy. in practice.
is In algebraic oper ations the result of a certain problem not desired. and a^. Generally the product of several letters is is indicated also the by writing simply ab(? instead of 168 a X & X This . 3. Algebra is a generalized arithmetic. are the same in algebra as in arithmetic. quantities.PAET II ALGEBEA DEFINITIONS AND PRINCIPLES 445. are pronounced a prime. Characters and signs used in algebra are: The letters of the alphabet. thus. etc. but a general solution which (2. a third. etc. which are used to represent the alphabet are used last letters quantities. <?. known and unknown and the relations means of letters. a sub three. 18). 1st. performing the arithmetical operations as indicated. etc. both are used to express analogous quantities of different values in the same proposition. a^. a^. a'". a reads. etc. c^. are pronounced a sub one. and the value of the unknown quantities is obtained by substituting the values of the known quantities in the formula and In algebra. and the imknown The notations a". 2d.. Such a general expression is called a formula (503). they are transformed to simpler forms and each unknown expressed in terms of the known quantities. Part I. 24. b divided b.. Ordinarily the first letters of to represent quantities. Having written a number of such quantities and expressed the relations between them. a plus b + b — c= dX e e 9 minus c equals d times minus a. known a'. a double prime... a sub two. by g. 446. The signs given in Art. may be applied to all analogous propositions quantities are expressed by which exist between them by signs.
The exponent has the same meaning as in arithmetic a^ = aaaaa. (88).are the 3Xa=a + a + a. but it is never written. and is read. A quantity : said to be rational when it does not contain a radical c A quantity is A A quantity is irrational when 4 it contains one or sfa^. The radical y~ indicates. b. a case r is is 169 a number. Thus. Thus. 2 coefficients. three a and twofifths it A quantity which has no number written before has 1 for its coefficient. Ba = 3 and . more radicals: a% it whole when 4 a'¥ contains neither radicals nor signs 3c^. as will be seen later on. and the b number is X b. Thus. and 2 p a = 5 a X 2 z) 5 a. is sum of the square of a and the cube 447. tity. also A coefficient may be expressed by letters. Vofe indicates the square root of the product of a and is to be extracted. All quantities which have no exponent written above them have 1 4th. is written 5 abc'. X c^ X to 5 b. for an exponent (305). and are read. that a left indi root and the index above and at the Thus cates the degree of the root. 5th. pression algebraic quantity represented which consists is of one or by an algebraic exmore symbols connected by signs of operation. of division + 5ac it quantity is a fraction when contains the sign of division 2a¥ + "^. The coefficient is the number written at the left of a quanand serves as a multiplier. read. a divided by b. a over or a is 3d.DEFINITIONS AND PRINCIPLES when one of the factors always placed first. . •J a? +W An indicates the cube root of the of b. a to the 5th power. as in arithmetic (264). in the following.
write simply 3 a' + &V. having regard for the signs. The numerical value of an algebraic expression or quantity is the number obtained in substituting the value of each letter in numbers and performing the operations as indicated. The numerical value terms less a polynomial is equal to the terms: of the positive that of the negative a^ab + ¥cc' = a^ + b^c{ab + c^)=4: + 3G(6 + U) = 18. is Trinomial. 450. 449. the parts of which sign of addition or subtraction. 3d. . 451. 4th. A is term positive or negative according as it is preceded by the plus + or minus  When the first term of a poly nomial writing positive. 5th. and c = 4. instead of Two terms sign is never placed before a monomial. The numerical value of a polynomial is not changed by changing the order of the terms so long as the signs remain the same: a^ — db of + b'^c — c' — b^c — ab — c' + a'. then substituting in the following expression. the sign not written. is c*. 453. ALGEBRA A term is an algebraic quantity. and reference to one its degree with reference to several letters is the sum of the exponents of those . Remark sum 1.170 448. Such are 3 ab and — cd. Binomial. by the is Monomial. an algebraic quantity but a single term: 3aV.¥c y/a + sign. 6 = 3. Let a = 2. Remark 2. Vc" is an algebraic quantity 4 o' of several terms: + 6^ ab + . one the sign + and the other the sign — are said to have unlike signs. 1st. is an algebraic quantity of three terms: I a" a*c + + + 3 c^ etc. the sign which precedes The relative or algebraic value is the value of the quantity. Thus. neglecting it. 452. of are not separated 2d. + The + 3 a' + bV. which have. is b. Polynomial. we have the numerical value: a''  a& + 6'c  c^ = 2^  2 X 3 + 3= X of 4  4^ = 18. The degree of its letters is the a monomial or of a term with exponent of that letter. b^c" an algebraic quantity of two terms: a + Vc?. The absolute value of a quantity is its value.
it is imderstood that it is homogeneous with reference to all its letters. the monomial 7 aV is of the second degree with reference to a. the polynomial 5 aWc reference to this or these letters. is the letters in the term.5 a^bc' + 2a^b(? is not homogeneous. the polynomial 3 a^6V . . that is. without any other qualification. and of the fifth with reference to both a and b. + 6 aW(? — a'bc? is homogeneous and of the 2d degree with reference to a. A polynomial is several of its letters when all its reference to the letters b and c. When a polynomial is Thus. • AND PRINCIPLES 171 Thus. all of its terms are of the same degree. Thus the monomial to of the 6th degree.5 a^¥(? = aV is homogeneous and of the 6th degree. it is of the zero degree with reference to this letter (483).DEFINITIONS several letters. and is homogeneous and of the 4th degree with 455. homogeneous with reference to one or terms are of the same degree with Thus. The polynomial 3 a^bc^ . When it is qualification. and of the 7th with When a polynomial or monomial does not reference to a and b. of the 5th with reference to b. it is understood to a question of the degree of a monomial with no other be the degree of the monomial all with reference to 7 a¥(? 454. contain a letter. homogeneous. the polynomial 5 ab^ + 6 aW — 6 a^6^ is of the 4th degree with reference to a. Thus. of The degree a polynomial with reference one or several of its letters is the largest exponent of the one letter or the largest sum of the letters in one term of the polynomial. of the third with reference to b.
each preceded by represented by sign . Terms which contain the same letters having the same exponents are said to be like terms. Thus. 172 . (452) 3 a^c — — ab'' reduces or to a'c. having 3 a&2 — 4 a'c + 3 a^c . 2 aV. sign.a¥  5 a=c + + 7 be.BOOK I THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS THE REDUCTION OF LIKE TERMS 456. but a¥ and aV are not like terms. replace the groups of like terms by one single like term. and preceded by the sign of the largest sum. terms. + aa. reduce each group of like terms to a single term. ab and 4 ab are hke aW and — 2 a^b^ are also like terms. which may be written. Sometimes the coefficients are coefficients of the its same term is are written in parentheses. ab^ 3 ab^ 3 aV^ + 3 d'c  4 a^'c — 5 a^c 7 be. 458. this the case when the letters (471). — abx + + aj/^ — — cj/' — cdy^ may be reduced thus: (7 + a — ab') x (a c — cd) y'^. To reduce the like terms of a polynomial. The polynomial 7 a. Like terms can differ only in coefScient and 457. In reducing the like terms of a polynomial. 5 Thus. having a coefficient equal to the difference of the sum of positive and the sum of the negative coefficients. 3 a^c 4 a^c — 5 a^c reduces to re 9 ah 6 and therefore the given polynomial duces to 2d'b  6 a^c + 7 be.
as In practice. 6 ab Q ab  a^. Thus. then reduce the like terms if Thus. subtracting 3 a^ — 2 ab + be — ¥ 3 a^ from 7 1 a^ — 6c 2 a6. SUBTRACTION 461. reducing. To subtract one algebraic quantity from another. To add several algebraic quantities. and reduce the hke quantities (458). the other.7 0^6 + 4 0^6 ( c 4c 1 h c h 6c 25 F  2c 6c + 25 Remark. therefore added to a quantity is an algebraic not necessarily an augmentation. each preceded by its sign. write the quantities one beneath . the quantities to be added are written one under shown below. addition is According as 7 or — 7 is that quantity increased or decreased by 7.SUBTRACTION The reduction operations. monomials or polynothem one after the other. of the reduction and write the results with their respective signs below: 4 a' 2 a' 6 a^6 6 a' + 5 0^6 . f 7 a6 4 5 6= 6c. 32. the sum of the alge460. and 2 6c 3 a^ reducing. 51). 27. 4  6c 1 To facilitate the operation. + iab + 2 a^  a^ + 5W 2 3 ab  2bc. write braic quantities is 3a^ + iab. we have. of like 173 terms is frequently employed in algebraic ADDITION 459. mials. quantity to be subtracted at the right of the other and change all its signs. 7 a^  2 a6 a^ 2 a6 6^  + ¥. write the there are any. The four fundamental operations on the algebraic quanand therefore need not be defined again (24. reduce the like terms as though the quantities were written one after the other. 5W  3 a6. tities are analogous to those in arithmetic.
of it is desired to reduce all it to a single polynomial. to subtract 2 a thus: + 3 6^c — 7 from 8 a — 5 6^c — 4. A letter which does not appear in one of the factors has for an exponent in that factor (482). putting like terms in the same column then changing the signs of the subtrahend. changing the signs the quantities within the parentheses. 4th. The exponent of the the product the factors. Thus either   times t or — times — gives I for the product. According as + 7 or — 7 is subtracted from a quantity. 7). 3d. of letters. MULTIPLICATION In multiplying a monomial by a monomial. operate 8 a remainder 2 g 6 a not necessary to — 5 &'c 3 yc 8 6^c + + 4 7 3 When it is write the result in the form of a single polynomial. that quantity is decreased or increased by 7 and there Remark. reduce the like terms. placing a minus sign before written. The law The law of coefficients. distinct laws to . the other. there are 4 be considered: 1st. as in the first case. All letters which enter in one or both of each letter in letter in of the factors appear once in the product. The law of signs. equal to the letter sum exponents of that which has no exponent is supposed to have 1 for an exponent (446). fore an algebraic subtraction does not necessarily signify a dim inution.the product of two monomials having 462. Thus the preceding example is S a If. . and either times — or — times + is gives 2d. The coefficient of the product equal to the product of the coefficients of the factors. Thus we ob tain 6 a — 8 &c^ + 3. The product of two monomials having like signs has the sign . of the other quantity. The law is of exponents. proceed as in addition.174 ALGEBRA . Thus. — for the product. xmlike signs has the sign — . ~ 5 ¥c  4:  (2 a + 3 b^c  having written the result as above. A . write the quantity to be subtracted in parentheses and at the right the parenthesis.
= . of the ( 3 a¥cy = .¥0" X . (  3 aWcy = a%V. multiply the exponent of each letter by is The 9 sign of a square always (3 + aWcy = 9 a'¥c^. its is 2 a X 3 a^fe X .5 a'b(^ X . . square the coefficient and 2. cube the coefficient and multiply the exponent of each letter by 3. this product by the third.150 a'&V.5c = . is equal to the sum of the exponents Thus we have: 3 a' 464.MULTIPLICATION Applications of the rules 175 ^ 463.4 a^b^c^. 465. 3d. of several monomials is obtained by multitwo monomials together.6^0 X + 4 c^d^e^ Sa"" 2 a = Sa^+i.3 aW X 4 a^b'c X . The cube has the same sign as the given number: (3 aVcY = 27 a'bV. 4th. The degree of the square or cube of a monomial is respectively equal to two or three times the degree of the given monomial (465). The product has the sign + when the number of negative factors is even. and the sign — when it is odd. X The product of several monomials changes or does not change sign. . is (463) 466. and so on imtil the last monomial has been employed as multiplier.27 a'¥(^. = 6 a='6^ = . to the The degree product of several monomials equal sum of the degrees of the factors (453.8 bVd'e".2aP X . The exponent of each letter in the product of that letter in the factors. 463). From this rule and (427) we have the following laws: 1st. The coefficient of the product is equal to the product of written once in the coefficients of the factors. (462) To cube a monomial. according as the sign of an odd or even number of factors changed (463). To square a monomial (87). The product first plying the 2d.5 = 30 aW(^. 2 fc^cci X a . Each letter found in any of the factors is the product.
to indicate that 3 a' + Aab — X 2 ab\ b^c is multiplied by 2 a¥. This rule also applies where there are some monomial factors.¥c cessively each 2ab^ 6 a^b^ + 8 aW  2 ab*c To indicate the multiplication of a polynomial by a monoit mial. Example: 3ab^ + iab . Thus. The product of several algebraic quantities. the product of these by the third. to the To arrange a polynomial according powers of some . and add the partial products (460 and 472). is not altered by changing the order of the factors (41). To multiply a polynomial by a polynomial.5 ab*2b^ 13 aW + a¥2¥ by another. It may also be omitted when it is negative.176 467. multiplicand polynomial successively : Multiplicand MultipHer 1st partial product 2d partial product 3d partial product Product + 2 a^b ~ Sab + 8 a= + ia^b . write: (So" + 4. or (4 a' 469. multiply the by each term of the multipHer (467).12 a'b 4 a' 2a'  5 ab^ b'' + + 2 b^ 10 a^b' 6 4 2 aW + 6 ab* aV + 15 a'¥ 4 a^¥ 12 a'b' 8 a^  8a'b  aW . 471. the sign X may be omitted. ~ 5aV  2 ¥) 3 ab The product of several polynomials is obtained by multiplying the first two together.ab  ¥c) When the monomial is positive. polynomials or monomials. Example 468. Thus. but then the monomial is placed before the parenthesis. 470. — a (a — 6) is the same as  a X (a  6) or (a  6) X a (470). ALGEBRA To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. as To write indicate the multiplication of one polynomial them (4 a' in parentheses and 2 a'b 2 a'b consider 6^) them monomials. write the polynomial in parentheses and consider as a monomial. Thus: + +  5 ab''. multiply sucterm of the polynomial by the monomial. following the rules given for the multiplication of monomials (462).  2 X (2 a^ (2 a'  3 ab + + ¥) ¥). and so on until all the polynomials have been used as multipliers.
arranged according to the ascending powers of a. The polynomial ah^ + 3 a'6  5 aW + + a'. VJl write the terms in such an order that the exponents of that letter either descend or ascend in order of magnitude. 2 a?  Z a? by {& a + h)  a^ a The coefficients of the principal letter x. the polynomial V 5 aW + 2V + a? +  4. and the multiplication performed ac cording to the general rule. and according to the descending powers a* of a. is arranged according to the descending powers of the letter (3 6  1) a^ + 1 (5 &2 T? 4 6 c) a  3 &^ or 36  + bV + 4& — c +  26^ 3 6^ It is well to arrange the polynomial multipliers of the different powers of the principal letter a according to the powers of another letter h. the multiplication little more complicated. all the terms of the multipli . write this power of the letter only once.MULTIPLICATION letter.h) x^ + {5 a? X 4. is not being numbers. and is shown again in the example which follows.. but polynomials. 472.^V + 2 6= ac. ah . gives: a¥  5 a?W + b 3 a=& a^. Multiply iZ a . and at the in a left of it column. a. also arranged according to the powers of The letter according to letter. This is what was done in (468). The reduction of like terms in the multiplication of polynomials is greatly facilitated by arranging the polynomials according to the powers of some one letter. Z a^h write the multipliers either in parentheses or Thus. as was done in the above example.a + 2 h) X + h. Ordinarily in this case the expression is arranged according to the second method (471). Thus. which a polynomial is arranged is called the 'principal When several terms of a polynomial contain the same power of the principal letter. + ^a?h  aW + ah\ is In this example it is seen that the polynomial h.
and then the like term of the multiplier and so on tintil the terms in each column of a^.178 ALGEBRA first cand are multiplied at last by the first 6 ax. the third 2 has been used. partial products are reduced. Multiplicand 3a 6a x' + + 5 0.^ X 4a b +  20? 3a2 Multiplier Product . then by the second bx.
3d.(^abf = of the a" + 2ab + W  a? + 2ab V = 4.aV + 3 b^. When each letter of a monomial or of an homogeneous polynomial of the mth degree is multiplied by a factor k with the exponent of each letter. is Likewise the product of one or several monomials and one or homogeneous polynomials an homogeneous polynomial If is of a degree equal to the all sum of the degrees of the factors. Thus (a + &)2 = a^ + 2 a& + 6^ (468) 480. The square is of the sum two quantities the square of their difference equal to 4 times the product of the quantities (461. the polynomial factors are not homogeneous.aW&)k\ of the 479. polynomials the The product of two or any number of homogeneous is an homogeneous polynomial of a degree equal to of the degrees of the factors (455). The square first sum of two first quantities is composed of (87. 2d. 482.MULTIPLICATION 476. plus twice the 3d. 2d. (2 a^b Thus: (468)  bey = 4 a'V of  4 aWc + V(?. is sum If all the factors are not homogeneous. the product several not homogeneous (469). The square of the difference of two quantities is first composed first the square of the quantity. 2d. the monomial or polynomial multiplied is by fc™: 5 aPF 5 d'k^ X 6'P X bW X ck = 5 aWc X k^.ak X bV X cV = (5 a'b^c + 6 aWc . The cube sum of two quantities is composed of (87. 179 an homogeneous polynomial (455) containing only arranged according to the ascending or descending powers of one of the letters. minus twice the by the second. the square of the quantity. 479. plus the square of the product of the second. 486): (a j^iy . 3d. 478. X c/e + 6 aW X Vk"" X ck . plus the square of the second. 269): 1st. triple prod276): 1st. the product not homogeneous (466). it is also arranged according to the When two letters is descending or ascending powers of the other letter: 4 a^ 477. + 7 a^fe . of: 1st. and the second. plus the the second. plus the triple uct of the square of the first and . the cube of the first quantity. less 481. ab.
4th. 468): + b {a + bx \ ex" . In dividing one monomial by another. 487. to be observed: 486.2 ac . An algebraic quantity is quotient obtained 1st. ence is by = a^ 3 a?b + 3 aW. The exponent . (468) 483. as in multiplication (462). The sign of the dend and divisor have 4 quotient is + or  according as the divi like or unlike signs. Thus.2bc + c^• + d3?f = a^ + 2 aba. 4th. of: (465. the square of the third. minus the triple product of the square of the first uct of the first and the second. there are 4 laws. plus the triple prodand the square of the second. twice the products of each of the first two terms and the etc. twice first the products of each of the three terms by the fourth. in the dividend and divisor appear once in the of each letter of the quotient is equal to the 3d. 3d.divided by — divided by The All gives 4.cf = a^ + 2 ab + V . — . 4th. letters quotient. {a Thus we have (465. plus the cube of the second: (a + by = a^ + 3 a'b + 3 ab^ + W. + Vx" + 2 ac3? + 2 6cx^ + + 2 ad3? + 2 bd3^ + 2 cdx^ + d?x\ DIVISION <?x' is divisible by another when the a whole quantity (447). gives and + I — for the quotient. coefficient of the quotient is coefficient of the obtained by dividing the dividend by that of the divisor. 2d. 4 divided by divided by or or 2d. + 3 Vc) X a& X  (a  &) = 4 a'  b'.for the quotient. minus the cube of the second: (a 484. the square of the fourth. the square of the second. twice the product of the term and the second. third. The cube of the difference of two quantities is first composed of: the cube of the quantity. 1st.  b\ (468) The product of the sum of two quantities and their differequal to the difference of the squares of the quantities: (a + (2 6) {2ab 485. 3 Wc) = aW is 9 6V. 468) The square of any •polynomial composed first the square of the first term.180 product of the first ALGEBRA and the square of the second.
Remark divisor. Therefore letters having the same exponent both dividend and divisor can be canceled. equal to the degree of the dividend less that of the divisor Special cases: (453. the law of exponents (487. 488. 4th) the exponent of this letter in the quotient is negative. When the coefficient of the dividend is not exactly lowest terms divisible is by that of the divisors. from the law of exponents we may suppose that letter 4th. When a letter has the same exponent in both dividend and divisor. 1. From these laws we have. a letter has a larger exponent in the divisor than in the dividend. the degree of the quotient 2.. One monomial dividend is is is divisible coefficient of the divisible by another when the by the coefficient of the and each letter of the divisor is with an exponent which letter in the divisor. ^ CL = a'. the coefficient of the quotient its written in the form of a fraction reduced to (146). Thus a^ Evidently ^ = in 1 and a° = 1. 1st. the law of exponents. 4th) gives the exponent in the quotient.DIVISION exponent of that letter in the 181 dividend minus the exponent of the same letter in the divisor. When a letter is . From 3d. Thus a^ and therefore = When a" found in the divisor which is not in the dividend. from the law of exponents (487. a (305). 9^ = 3'^^ 2 . not less fomid in the dividend than the exponent of that Remark is In case of divisibility. and ^ (Jb = — iif — /\ (J/ = a. Thus: 6aV 2d. 466).
with their respective exponents. 4th. to be in the dividend with the exponent In the quotient the letter will have a negative exponent equal to that in the divisor. Thus a' a'h" . Although the method of using negative exponents is very convenient in many cases.182 ALGEBRA (2d). may In the cases shown above (488)._. the dend is quotient will also be arranged according to the same letter (471). by dividing the by their greatest common divisor. it will not be used at first. excepting the 2d. and the denominator the divisor. by subtracting the smaller exponent from the larger and writing the letter with an exponent equal to the difference in the term which had the larger exponent. Thus we have. by canceling the letters which have the same exponent in both terms of the fraction. the numerator being the dividend. Thus we have. 3d. If the diviarranged according to the powers of some letter. the division of the entire polynomial by the monomial polynomial is A divisible divisible . a^b by a monomial when each term of the polynomial is by the monomial (487). 2d. in the terms where they appear. its lowest terms: 1st. To divide a polynomial by a monomial. by writing the letters not common to the two terms of the fraction. the quotient be written in the form of a fraction. divide successively each term of the dividend by the divisor (487): 4 a=6 + 2 a'b'^c  5 aWc^ 4 a^ I 2 a^bc  5 abV.. It is seen that the negative exponents make the rules in (487) of general application. 489. In case some of the terms are not exactly divisible by the divisor. A fraction is reduced to two coefficients  \2a'Vcde 8 a'bc'dp _ Sa'be ~ 2 c' f _7¥c_ " 3 a'd?' 48 a'b^cd' 36 aWc^de _ " 1 4 ad' Ybce' 7 3 a¥dd a'bc^dJ' 7a% 21 a*62 " 3 a^fe 490.
3 aW Remainder of the division Example 2. by reducing the like terms (461).'M) a^b 5a'' + 4ab + 3¥ 2a' + 8ab5¥ + 57 aW+ 4:aW15¥ + 3b^ + c +25aW20ab^l5b' + 3¥ + c 25 a^b^ + 20 ab^ + Wb* + 40a%32aW24:a¥ Remainder of the division +3b' + c . products are written changed.& aW — aW + 3 a^b^ + a%^ . To divide a polynomial by another (see below. 1st g^ 4. — 2 a*b. by the second term and subtract the product from the first remainder. Example 1. the under the remainders and their signs is performed by means of an addition. multiply the divisor The operation first is or a remainder. divide the first term a^ at the the dividend by the first term. Then divide the first term. which gives the second remainder. visor. ( } 10a^48a3& + 51a'6='+ 4a¥15b' + 3b^ + c 10a'+ 8a^b+ 6aW . multiply the divisor by this term and subtract the product + a^ — 3 a*b from the given dividend. left of the remainder. which gives the first term.3 a% \a^  2 ab ~V quotient. a^. a^. of the quotient. ~ 2 ab. a'. thus each subtraction according to the preceding rule we have: 3 a^¥ g^ j Dividend a'  5a'b + 5 aW +  3 a% divisor. of the quotient. or only the nondivisible terms 183 may be written as fractions: 2a'b ~2a'b'^ 2a'b 2a'b~ '^~2 2^' 491. at the left of the di which gives the second term. In subtracting the products of the divisor and the terms of the quotient from the dividend and the successive remainders. remainder — 2a*b \2a'b 2d remainder + 5 aW + 3 aW . at the left of the divisor. the continued in the same manner imtil a remainder first term of which is not divisible by the is term of the divisor.5 a'b + a= by a^" . obtained.DIVISION must be indicated. that is. Divide 5 aW + 3 aW .3 a^b. Example 1) arrange both dividend and divisor according to the descending left of powers of the same letter a (471). at the by the first term.
"! + ax^'^ + a^x""x"' H + + a^^x + a"! + x — a — a" is or is not divisible by x a. x" + a"" is not divisible by x the remainder a"" . and we have respectively: ^'"~""' =r'»iax"'^+ax'»^ X + a ±a"='xTa"''+ "^ ^^ ~ "" X + a When m is even. and we have respectively: —Z— + X a =x™'ox"'=' + a2x'"3 T oT'^x ± a"'+ — a"" "^ x+a When is m it is is odd. the remainder a"" + a" = 0. — • • • a."! + af"^ + x"—^ — a. according as — — + a"* — a™ = 0. Example Divide X* a. the remainder is odd. and when m = — 2 a"". — x^ — + — { a ax^ a'3? \^ + (^x + a' — a7? + a^a. X —a a = 1 a. and we have: a^^a. according as m is even or odd.^ — oV+ (^x a?x — a* — a?x + a* 492. and when m di even. thus we have X ^ — a = a. 493."! + ax"—^ + a^x"^ + + + a"!. x" + a" is or is m is odd or even. When = or we have H 1 I = x\ a. the remainder a"* a" not divisible by x + a. + + a" = 2 a"". a. these coefiicients are ar . ' x is + 2 1. In the last example 1 it is seen that the exponents of x 1 diminish by partial and those of a increase by remainders and quotients."* in the successive Thus — a"* is exactly divisible by a. When the principal letter in the polynomials to be vided has polynomials for coefficients.184 ALGEBRA 3.* — a* a* ( hy x X — a.
DIVISION 185 ranged as in multiplication (472). and the division performed according to the general rule (456): 18 a^ x' + 24a' 1 3ab .
2 a' which terms are independent by the first term of the divisor and — 3 a^. An algebraic fraction is the quotient expressed by two quantities to be divided. divide the their common factors: . 1st. When the dividend and divisor are homogeneous (455) the quotient and the successive remainders are homogeneous Furthermore. thf quotient has no end. and all the remainders are the same degree as the dividend. All that was said concerning numerical fractions applies to algebraic fractions as well. are algebraic fractions (446. 30.186 of the second remainder is ALGEBRA divided of which gives the other terms. are the The proofs of the four operations on algebraic same as in Arithmetic (26. qiuintitiei ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS 496. a b' a^ a + + b* ' b pronounced a over b and a' + b* over a + b. Thus we have: (136) a=j. of the quotient x in this particular example Multiplying the divisor by the expression 2 a^ — 3 a' and subtracting the product from the second remainder. or a divided by I and a' + b* divided by a + b. the degree of the quotient dividend less is equal to that of tht ol that of the divisor. '' 4th. When 495. 48. the remainde: of the division is obtained. 494. Thus. and the numerator and denominator are the terms (130). 65). the divisor is the denominator. :=£=^^ (^*^) «^ = ^^ be b : (142) c To reduce a two terms by fraction to its simplest or lowest terms. The dividend is the numerator of the fraction. the dividend is homogeneous and the divisor is not. 497. which in this case is 0. 2d).
since that is to multiply both terms by 1 a b 5th. of n figures.ppp represent the fraction. (a+^^x(mP) = ^^^±^l^ a:c b = ac r. 160) V). 153. . 156) X c b = ab — c ac b 7th. 166) 8th. Then letting x = O. The sum of the terms of several equal fractions gives a fraction equal to any one of those fractions: a _b _c _ a + b + c d'"e~']~ d+ e + f' cV^T^T? /a' + b^ + c^ "Vo^+ ^l + e^ + f V ipr+ cP d" / Vrf2 + e^ + f . we have 10''x = p. c/ \ {mqp)c a a b'c a b b a —J c a b 'b 9th. 155. . c ad ± bd be b^d^ a J and a ± . of a simple periodic number. = p.ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS ac be 187 a b' and 12 a¥c* 3 4ab (389) 6V — both It does not alter the value of a fraction to change the sign of its terms. c (152. and 10th. . we have x = ^^ j which confirms what was said in Arithmetic (195) . decimal . (a \ . ^^^ a + b —b' 2a — d — 3c _ — a — b + 3c e' + e~ —2a + d — same common de Tfie rules for reducing fractions to the nominator are the same as (151): a 6th. and multiplying by 10". d bd' (159. ^ —a. therefore X = 10" 1 If n = 3. we now have (10" — l)a.ppp Subtracting the value of x. a c ad be a: c b Vd qj a c bTd (164. '^ '^ (353) 6"" e"" + c" +f Let p be the period. + ^):(mP) = }^^±^. . b c = ac ±b .
When the two as in the last members of an equation are the same. one member is nothing but the result of the calculations indicated in the other. =. + yf = x^ + 2xy + an y^. Any equation should become identity when the numerical contains no letters values are substituted for the unknowns. {x 501. = a^ + 4c the second member is the expression of the value of the un known. in such a 188 . two examples (445. When member of the equation contains only the is unknown and formula (445). iaby = a^2ab + ¥ and (a + b) {ab)=a^¥. algebraic or literal when the knowns by one letters. a.BOOK II EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN equal expressions joined by the sign = constitute an These expressions are the two members or sides of the equation. Two quantities which vary simultaneously. 3 + a. 449). 498. sign of identity. and the one Such are: at the right the second member. 504. in the following. 502. are represented 503. Two equation. = 7 and x + y = tof 499. the equation called a Thus. the equation is an identity. the other the knowns. 500. Such are the equations 2x + 4: = 2x + 4:. Equations which hold true for all values of the symbols involved are called identical equations or identities. An equation is numerical it is when it except the unknowns. and the members should be connected by the Thus. Equations which hold true only for particular values the symbols involved are called equations of condition. the one at the left being the first member. or when.
An equation is not altered by transposing a term. of The root the unknown of an equation or system of equations is each value or each system of values of the unknowns which renders the equation or system of equations identical (501). (See Trigonometry. and conversely the time is a function of the distance. This rela(See tion is represented in a general way by = /(r) or ^(r). while for the other the variation is determined by that of the first. one of the quantities is considered as varying in an arbitrary manner. The area s s of a circle a function of the radius. but if the relation between the function and the independent variable cannot be X. When the relation which exists between several variables can be expressed by an equation containing only algebraic quantities (447. The solution of equations and systems of upon the following principles: An equation is not altered by increasing or diminishing 1st. Trigonometric functions are also transcendental. a. equations rests 509. equation both its members by the same quantity. varies with the radius r. function is said to be transcendental.EQUATIONS — ONE UNKNOWN manner that the are said to be functions of each other. = 15 and x + 7 = To alter an equation or a system of equations is to transform them so as to change the roots or the number of roots. 5 508. and exponents. the expressed by the signs +. have the same Such are: 10. . an may be simplified by canceling the terms common to both members. it is 189 variation of one causes a variation of the other. and is called the independent variable. Thus. — . a. that is. 2d. = 15.) Likewise the distance which a body falls is a function of the time. 499). Thus the logarithm of a number is a transcendental function of the number. Two equations are equivalent when they roots and the same number of roots. 507. To solve an equation or system of equations is to find all the roots of the equation or system of equations. ^. ^/~. the function is said to be algebraic. Thus the value 3 of x is the root of the equation 5 506. and this one is called the function or the dependent variable.) 505. Geometry. Ordinarily.
Dividing by a quantity which contains an the imknown number of roots of the equation. a new equation is obtained which is equivalent to the first.  21 0. whence (538). An equation is not altered when both members are multiplied or divided by the same quantity. and changing is which is the same as adding this term to both members or subtracting it from them according as the sign — or +. which cannot be If the zero nor contain any unknowns. Thus. denominators from the equation: of the Eliminating the 2 „. contains the root x = = 5 of the first equation. and therefore it should be the least common multiple canceling the factors or According to the above. new equation would not be of the it. an equation may common divisors of the denominators of the given equation. besides the root a. 0. the a. 4cx21 +— = 6 + x . which is done by reducing all the terms of the equation to the same denominator. same manner on the equation: Operating in the .  5 = 3) by X — 3. 3d. For simplicity the common denominator should be as small as possible. 3d. 4th. of the would have that equation obtained by putting the quantity used as multiplier equal to 0. new equation reduces 3 of the equation — 3 = 0. In eliminating the denominators. we have a. be simplified by two members. if first.2 H 4 a. + or a. 5th). same degree is as the first and would not be equivalent to in addition to the root of the the equation it multiplied. = 0. the quantity contained unknowns. From this it follows that the signs of all of the terms of an equation may be changed without altering the equation. ^— — + 9 6 + = — = Gx + 6 x" x^ a. 6 + —= a. multiplying the two members of the equation a. a. a. + 9 ^.190 ALGEBRA member to the other transferring a term from one its sign. we have (x  5) (a. = j _ ^• These two roots satisfy the given equation. or 122a. and then leaving off this denominator (497.
Thus. has. When the denominators are eliminated. and 7th degree. of A is them 7th. which gives x only root is —  = 0. and should be canceled (526). we have The X root. 1/V = 1  x". since it makes the denominator equal x^7x + X 6  1 _ ~ 0. the equation x — 5. the operations indicated by the signs may be performed without 5th. 3 xj/ = 18. When the two members X of 5. This method of determining the degree of an equation assumes that there are no are respectively of the 1st. besides the root of 5. — 1 — r 6 or X — = 1 • 0. of which the x = 6. whence x x = satisfies the given equation. X = 1 would be rejected and x = not altered by any modifications of its members which do not change their value. gives = 1. to 0. system of several equations is not altered when one replaced by an equation obtained by adding or sub tracting the members of the given equations. an equation is the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknowns in any one term of the equation. which or X results. 7x + 6 = 0. and the root. in the preceding example 6 retained.EQUATIONS — ONE UNKNOWN 1 191 + = X— la. x' — 6. for example. Thus 510. x^ 25. 5 = = the root of the equation x follows from x^ + 5 = 0orx= — 5) Which  25 = (x + 5) (x  = 0. 2d. Thus. if one or several roots render the these roots should be neglected. 6th. an equation are squared = = the equation. . The degree of the equations 2 X  2/ = 7. An equation is changing the value. common denominator equal to 0. and indicates that x — 1 = a common factor of the numerator and denominator. O' which expression is is meaningless. General Rule.
because in reducing all the terms to the b same common denominator. therefore x = o r = 4 2. that is. Transposing: 6x2x = 8 or + 2. transpose to one member. Transpose the terms. is +t = y. — a) y — bx — ab = 0. 511. generally the first. the algebraic sum of all the coefiicients of the unknown is taken as its coefficient. was a factor of the first it would be necessary it out before determining the degree. equation becomes ab + y. Finally the second or known member is divided by the coefficient of the first. and de unknowns termine the degree as shown in the preceding case. 4th. then the operations Reduce the like indicated by the signs in this coefficient and in the second member of the equation are performed. roots of the given equation are obtained which are of the true degree (526). unknown if Eliminate the denominators there are any (509). Reducing: (6 — 2) a. = 2. or y^ + (b y. General rule for the solution of an equation of the first degree involving one 1st. Example 1. b + member of the equation in its final form. the + ay + bx = by + y^. = 8. all the terms which contain the unknown. and 2d. 4th). which reduces the first member to one term. If the common denominator. and then neglecting it. and neglecting the roots which make the denominator equal to 0. terms (458).192 ALGEBRA in the denominator. 4 a. eliminate the denominators (509. In solving the equation without eliminating the common denominator as factor to divide of the first member. Example be d . The equation a degree. 6x2 = 2x + Q Q. which appears to be of the first of the second. to the other 3d. which gives the value of the unknown as quotient. When there are unknowns in the denominator. that is. member all the knowns.
4th) acdx 193 + + bdx — 2 bed = 8 bed — bex. Solution of the equation (511): Eliminating the denominators. the operations which quantities enter in these values (511). 13 a.EQUATIONS — ONE UNKNOWN Eliminating the denominators (474. which consists in determin2d. which consists in expressing algebraically the conditions of the problem considering it This amounts to indicating. ax = an the b. Example: . ^x + ^x + ^x + 2d. parts: 1st. 448. simply indicate its proof. it is seen that an equation of the first degree involving one unknown. Transposing and reducing: {acd + bd be)x = 8bed + 10 bed 2 bed = 10 bed. + 3x+12X45 = 12x = 4836. What is the number? Writing in the form of an equation: 1st. 6x + or 4a. 3d. The solution of the equations. The proof that the values of the unknowns satisfy the con ditiofts of the problem (501). by means of alge would have to be performed upon the imknown values to prove that they satisfy the conditions of the problem. Therefore X 512. of 513. to put a problem in the form of equations. .plus ^ plus 1 of a certain number x plus 45 gives 448 as the ^ o 2i sum. The solution algebraic problem is composed of three The writing in as solved. ing the values of th'e unknowns in such a manner that only known braic signs (446).= 372. 514. = acd + bd + be From that which precedes. form of equations. from which x = . can always be reduced to the general form. wherein b and a are known quantities. = 5376  540 whence x = ~. therefore. 4:5 = 44:8.
194 .
which gives an equation of the first degree involving only x. y and then two expressions. = —— c' Substituting this value of x in equation (1): c y = ^r'= ^5 + c' . being both equal to the same quantity. y. —— c + c' 2 — 2 c — c' = 2 For c = 12 and c' X Proof: = 12 —— x X = 6 we have _ + 6 =9. the given equations. which contains only one unknown. y = — 12 +y or 01 and 2d. and substituting this value in in terms of th^ other in each of the given equations. y in terms of is: = — or X = X c' (1) Substituting this value in the first: c' c. for example. —y 9+3=12. c —^ c' Substituting this value of x in one of the equations c (2). first and substituting that value is in the equation. solving for x. c — c' . C. we have: + c' . Then and c y = c — x y. Let X + y = c and x — y y = a. of one of the unknowns. the value of y found. substitute this value of y in the other equation. x. Given + — y y = = c. and y = x — c'. is expressed The value these The method of comparison. X \ X and 2 X = c + c. may be taken as members of a new equation.EQUATIONS — SEVERAL UNKNOWNS 195 y in terms of x (511). we may x X solve for y. and . From the second. —3 = 6. c' be given. solving for the value of x. (2) \ — x = x — c' = from which x =.
Thus aa'x aa'x + a'y = — ab'y = ca'. (4) (5) . c — 2 c' ^f — h'y = {a'x unknown both equations. the elimination is unknown x. and thus the resulting equation contains only one unknown and may be solved. ALGEBRA The method of addition or subtraction. it may be eliminated by adding the members of the two equations. ^ x Kx — + y y = = c. and since it has unlike signs in the two equations. the coefficient of one of the unknowns the same of the unknown in the other made to equal that of equation. Then the members is two equations which have the same coefficients are either added or subtracted. c. and since of the two equations. Having found the value of one.196 3d. + ah') x = eh' + c' and x = a' + ah' . the value of the other may be found by substituting the value of the first in one of the given equations. it is seen that the terms of equa to must be multiplied by a' and those of (2) by a in order obtain two equations with the same coefficients of x. Thus: Considering the efficient in 2x = c { c' or X = c — ^— \ c' Li Likewise considering the signs. Example 1. V ^ ' S (2) Considering the first y. By multiplying or dividing the terms of one of the equations by a certain number. it is seen that the terms of the equation must be multiplied by coefficient in V in order that it have the same Thus: aVx + Adding (2) h'y = cV. c'a. •' Considering the tion (1) unknown x. we see that it also has the same coefficient in both equations. we see that it has the same coboth equations. unknown y. according as the signs of the equal "coefficients are unlike or like. c — c' or y = ': c'. (3) and (a' (3). it has like accomplished by subtracting the members Thus: 2y = Example 2.
how many of each number of fives. c'. From the foregoing it is seen that any system of two simultaneous equations of the first degree involving two tmknowns may be reduced to the general form (512). be eliminated. aid of the three methods in (520) one of the unknowns. for example. = 26 dollars.EQUATIONS — SEVERAL UNKNOWNS Subtracting (5) from (a' 197 (4). methods y of (520): Solving by any one X of the 8 or or and = = 2.00 with 10 of these bills. 3d. d'. To solve a system is of three simultaneous equations of the degree involving three unknowns. + 5 y 1/ + = =10 bills. Between the equations (1) and (2): {ac' may  ca') X + + {be'  cb') y = = dc'  cd'. which the general form of any system of three simulfirst taneous equations of the degree involving three unknowns. ^""^ y=w^b^' Problem. (1) (2) d". twos and y = the number of Writing in the form of an equation (513): = the x 2 X 2d.00 and $5. he must $26. and y = — a + — ab • 521. ax + by = c. first + 10 26 dollars. bill of pay a kind A man has some S2. (4) 2d. 2x + 5y 523. will he use? Let X 1st. cV — be' T ac' — ca' ""^w^b^' 522. by the 1st. a'x+ b'y= From which. by b'y ax a'x a"x + + + b"y + + + cz c'z d'z = = = d. (5) .00 bills. for instance. such as the following. (3) z. + ab') y = ca' — ac'. Between the equations {a'c" (2) {b'c" and (3)  c'a") X  c'c") y d'c"  c'd". Proof: x + y 8+ 2= 16 10 bills.
ac'b" + ca'b" in + + bd'a" bc'a" 512. Considering the results articles and 523. To in obtain the numerator relative each of the unknowns. replace. the denominator. we have: ^ _ ~ db'c" ab'c" . we see: 1. 2. form with the letters a and b. and place a prime over the last letter in each term. of the first degree. (512) That for an equation of the first degree. and we have: dc'a" bc'a" In the same manner x and z ^ _ "~ ad'c" ab'c"  add" ac'b" + + ca'd" ca'b" . 120 or X 4 X 5 for five simultaneous equations.bd'c" + bc'd" . Considering the two equations with the two unknowns (521): To obtain the common denominator of the two values of 1st. (521) That for two simultaneous equations. (523) That for three simultaneous equations. involving four unknowns.dc'b" + cd'b" .cb'a'_'' may be eliminated. which gives the common denominator: 1X2X3 .ad'b" + da'b" . and so on.198 ALGEBRA Thus two equations. involving two unknowns. The use of the primes in the notation of the coefficients gave rise to a rule for the formation of the numerators and denominators of the values of the unknowns. separate these permutations by the sign — which gives ab — ba. the two permutations ab and ba.cb'd" .ha'c" + be' a" . involving three unknowns. the number of terms in the numerator and in the denominator may be reduced to 1. 524. involving five unknowns. involving one unknown.cb'a"' 521. 525. the unknowns. involving two unknowns. . are obtained.da'c" + . to 2d. the number may be reduced to 6 or 1 X 2 X 3. These numbers would be 24 or 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 for four simultaneous equations. (4) and (5). 3. which are the coefficients of the letters x and y in the first equation ax + by = c. ab'  ba'. the letters which represent the letters coefficients of the unknown.db'a" . the number may be reduced to 2 or 1 X 2.ba'c" + ba'd" ba'c"  cd'a" ' cb'a" Eliminating x and ^ y. eliminating y between them.ac'b" + ca'b" . we have: _ ~ ab'd" ab'c" . by the which represent the .
To obtain the numerator of each of the values of the un2d. introduce the letter successively at the right. this gives six new permutations. the constant quantity for the coefficient of the unknown. the  ac'b" + ca'b"  ba'c" + bc'a"  ch'a". a •problem. knowns. (b +x). substitute. X a + =3 r. age of the son? a being the age of a father and h that of x. to obtain the numerator of the value of substitute d for a. in the middle and at the left of each of the permutations ab and ba. his son.ROOTS OF EQUATIONS known the quantities.. 23. ahc — acb + cab — bac + bca — cha. IMPOSSIBLE. Placing in each of the six terms of this polynomial one prime on the second letter and a double prime on the third common denominator is obtained: ab'cT letter. c To ohtain the common denominator. we have x = ^ . leaving the primes as before. is positive or negative according as a : greater or less than 3 be stated according reckoned in the future or the past. Examples of some singular roots which may he obtained in the solution of 1st.. leaving the primes as they were. N 1 = a 3b —— — ^ ' Inspecting this formula. which gives: db'c"  dc'b" + cd'b"  hd'c" + he'd"  cb'd". Thus. in how long a time. NEGATIVE. 199 Thus. x. which can should the time x be For a is. for example. will the father be three times the Writing the problem in the form of an equation. AND INDETERMINATE ROOTS OF EQUATIONS 526. y. Considering the case of three equations and three unknowns: 1st. it is is seen that the value of x h. 55 _ 69 = — 7 yrs. in the denominator. which are separated alternatively by the signs + and — thus . asa>36ora<3& = = 11. Negative Roots. for unknowns x and the denominator ab' — ha' gives respec tively the numerators ch' — he' and ac' — ca'. /. that in six years the father will For a 55 and h be three times as old as his son. and x . = = 45 and 6 45 — 33 = we have x = ^ 6 yrs.
+ 30 = 5a. 0ora. pj.+2 x. Solving the equation.i. is. 2d. that is. + 42 = 5 a. and 12 jr x= 12 ^ . However.+42.we cannot have: O Solving this equation. it is what is the number? is From ij inspection seen that this problem impossible. 00 or — =0. . is: In general the symbol of impossibility —= 3d.=4230. the symbol ^ does not always indicate . and is therefore indeterminate.=12 or x = = <x). a. = « r^ and x= 42 \ 50 — 42 =r. ALGEBRA seven years ago the father was three times as old as his Impossible Roots.200 that son. that 0xa.Onehalf plus onethird of a certain number plus 7 equals ^ of 5 the same number plus 7. a value which will fiilfill the conditions of the problem. or (55) = 4242. q « ^^^^ equation is an identity for any value given to 3. + 3 + 7=g. + 7. what is the number? Writing the problem in the form of an equation: Since ^ 115 = 1 2 . The sign 00 is that of infinity. since ^ + o = . This formula indicates the impossibility of assigning to a. + 42 is. Onehalf plus . 3 we have: or (3125) x + 2a. = 0Xa. which is the symbol of indetermination. 00 Indeterminate Roots. a. a. Remark.onethird of a certain the same number plus 5 equals ^ of number plus 7.
which gives. ' The becomes zero when a canceled.INEQUALITIES that the equation is 201 indeterminate. 4th). Suppose the following to be the solutions of several equations: X "" ~ 2 {a' 3 (a . factor a which be = b. being common to both terms. for example. as. In this case the common factor must be canceled in order to obtain the value of X. may .h") . when the numerator and denominator contain a common factor which becomes zero for certain values of the letters (509.6)^ — b.
their squares form an inequality in the same sense a as the first or reversed: > b gives a? > ¥ and — a> — b gives a^ < ¥. p. By aid of these principles an inequality following the same steps as in solving may be solved. the inequahty reversed. 9a. + 4. Y~l^i' 12x2(4x 2)=8X 2. multiplied or divided not reversed when both members positive number. Thus 5 > 3. we have. 529. 4 — = 8. The sum of the members of several inequalities in the 3d.re 2d. a. 4th. y>' 12x2<4x2. An inequality by the same versed when the number is negative. The X which should satisfy the condition 3a. is and  5 <  3. „ ^ . but is re Thus: 12>4gives: having 12 12x2>4x2.202 It follows also that a ALGEBRA term may be transposed from one memis ber to the other by changing its sign. 3a.6x>42 + fulfills 4. o 46 quantity greater than ^ the conditions of the given . According as the two members of an inequality are positive or negative. 12x24x2 = 8x2. an equation (511).>^.2 27>a: + 3. same sense gives an inequality also in that sense. we have successively: 9x42>6x Any inequality. But if the signs of all the terms are changed.>46.
write simply Such quantities are called irrational monomials (447). a product (3 is equal to the product of the (299. A fraction is squared by squaring terms: (300) [w)W 533. is From this rule it follows and tliat its that a monomial not a perfect square. The powers and The square of roots in Algebra have the same significa tion as in Arithmetic (85. or surds. 531. square root cannot be extracted when its coefficient is not a perfect square (248). plus the square of the second. and its exponents even numbers. follows 534. having to extract the square root of 35 V35a^6. first The square of a binomial is equal to the square of the term plus twice the product of the first term and the second. simply indicate the operation by putting the quantity under a radical. When the square root of an imperfect square is to be extracted. The square root of the product of two or any number of factors is equal to the product of the square roots of these factors (301. V36 aWc^ = ^/36 X ^/a^ X Vft* X Vc^ 203 . Since in forming the square of the square root of a quanis tity the quantity it from (465) that in order to extract the square root of its a monomial. 532. 531). The double product is positive or negative according as the terms have like or unlike signs (479. 465) its squares of the factors: aWcf = 9 a'h^(?.) obtained. 480). (See Art. 535. 236. 485 for square of any polynomial. a*b. 444). Thus. extract the square root of coefficient and divide its exponents by 2: V36 aWc" = 6 a'b<^. 430.BOOK III POWERS AND ROOTS OF ALGEBRAIC QUANTITIES SQUARE ROOTS 530.
V^^ + d) ^ab^. The square of any quantity being positive (465). The general form of an imaginary quantity is a V— 1. leaving the surds under the radical. in which a is real. monomial has two equal square roots opposite in sign. V^^ = 4V^. fa Vi: 540. monomial (534). The square root of a fraction is obtained by extracting the its square root of each of terms: . and V8 ab*c^ 2 In the above expressions 6 a and 2 surd.„„^ Two radicals are similar when they only in their coefficients (536). Such (c are: 3 541. V. 2 (c + 2 d) V^.„„„ (302. 3 s/a6"' 3 VoS' + (c + (c + rf) d) = \l^ = ^/a6^ + c + d) ^/ab\ d) ^fc^. V4aW = ± 538. are the coefficients of the and the second member is called a mixed surd. Thus. The combination of similar radicals by addition or subPerform the operations upon the coefficients and use Thus. separate it into factors V36 aWc^ = 6 a VbV.532) differ . Thus. Any imaginary root in an equation of the second degree may he put in the form a ± 6 V— 1. Problems in the second degree often conduct to these results.r. (3 (3 the result as coefficient of the radical. 2 a^h. quantity being 537. c . ALGEBRA From this it follows that in order to simplify an irrational and extract the rbot of the perfect squares.204 536. (572). 6^ W V2a?. traction. Thus. V. The square of it a positive or negative follows that a positive always positive (465).aV = 2a^b V'^T.V6 . in which a and h are real quantities are algebraic are called imaginary expressions. 539.Sa¥=b VSa V^ They symbols which represent impossible operations. it fol lows that the extraction of the square root of a negative quantity is impossible. = Va .
we have: and subtracting we have: Va 542. = V^. as in this last case. A calculation involving irrational expressions may often . Thus.SQUARE ROOTS If the radicals were not similar. adding Va and 3 VB. the radical. the product is obtained by neglecting the >/" sign and multiplying the quantity under it by the product of the coefficients of the given radicals. ^/ab. 4a V6T^ = 4 ^a\b\c) = ^Jma^{b + Va = VOo^./a V^ VB b 544.15 V5~^.rr VS c. and for coefficient of the product take the product of the coefficients of the given radicals. the operations 205 would simply be indicated. of the coefficient (536). To place a factor of and write it under the 3 the coefficient under square it sign ^y~ as a factor of the radical. 8 d ^a%^c* = 8 bcH Vo^. —V 2b^ lb ' c 12acV66c F=. radical of the second degree by another. To divide a radical of the second degree by another. taking the quotient the quantities Thus. X 5 c V3 a + 6^ = 10 c V(3 a + b^Y =10c(3a+¥). Tlius. 545. ' 5a V5 F 2b\/c factors = 5a. write their which are perfect squares from under the square root outside of the radical as factors Thus.5 Va6 = . that if the radicals are similar. of the coefficients for the coefficient of the result. under the radical separately. tiply the quantities To multiply a Va X V6 = 2 It V3 a + is 6^ VSo^ X . 3 Vb.= Ac V2& 3a ^ . 3 evident. Divide 543. Thus. To remove radical. Va —= = . a Vb c). mulunder the radicals together. V3 aWc = ab^ V3c.
Examples 7 .206 ALGEBRA be simplified by eliminating the radicals from the denominators.
which gives the fourth term of the root. uct is These examples show that the mth power of a prodequal to the product of the mth powers of the factors (531). POWERS AND ROOTS OF ALGEBRAIC QUANTITIES OF ANY DEGREE to the with monomial to the mth power. (3 aWc)'' = 3"'a2'"6'"'c'". the polynomial 49 a* tract the square root. Given. the mth power has the sign of the given monomial (463): 547. 7a' la? 4a= 1st 4a3+14a2 + 3 remainder a^ 12 oH 42 a^ + 9 12a= + 42aH9 28a=49a* 2d remainder 28a= + 49a^ 12a= + 42a2+9 \2a?42a?9 3d remainder The root may have either the sign + or (537). raise its coefficient power and multiply the exponent of each letter by m If m is an even number. when m is . Remark. of the third term. the mth power has always the (465). divide the first term of the third remainder by twice the first term of the root. To raise a . 3V V^ by a' In general. (450). 207 and the square. sign + but if m is odd. 9. designating the absolute value of we have: even. 548. and so on. the terms to the The mth power of a fraction mth power (532): is obtained by raising each of /day _ 549. (  3 aVc)"' = ( 3)"'a^"'6""c"'.POWERS AND ROOTS OF ALGEBRAIC QUANTITIES third. for example. Square 4ta^ + 12 a' + which is 9 + 4 a^ + 42 a^ done as follows: + 28 a^ to ex + 28a^ + 4:9a* + 12a^ + 4:2a' + 9 2a?+ 4a3+ 28 a^ + 49 7a2 + 3 root.
^32a*Wc by = 2 ahK^. ^64 aV = 4 aU'. is therefore the its which could not be performed.= a™ we have: a™ Vtf^ = ^«"'"=« "• (550) . Thus. is These examples show that the mth root of a product equal to the product of the 551. 548): a fraction . invented by Descartes (306) Va^ 553. ^p symbol of a division is The expression a^ Thus. </S2 aW = 2 a^b.m a +p or —— = — ^m + p  ^p and — = a~^. a" a" exponent of the divisor Thus: = a'" When m= n. 547). /da _ V3a 552.208 550. we have: a a" = a""" = flO ^ J which shows that any quantity raised to the When m< n. The rule given in (550). = —. a^ 554. 482). this division gives a negative exponent. power gives 1. Since —. The mth root of its mth root of each of is obtained by extracting the terms (539. and true value 1 divided by a^. a^ and a' = =• a" Negative fractional exponents. </ar = a« • To divide a™ a" subtract the from that of the dividend (487. ALGEBRA To extract the mth root of a monomial. mth roots of the factors (547). Remark. Thus: . extract the mth root of the coefficient and divide the exponent of each letter by m (537. applied in its most general sense conducts to th6 notation of positive and negative fractional exponents. = a^.
\/— = ««. 554). r \a^) mr =a . 553. in the same for and negative fractional exponents are operated upon manner as whole exponents. Va^" \/7i VJ = a% = ab% = ai. example. ^^3 X s/a^ = a^ X a^ = at a*"" ^ = o^°^ /I ^/^ = a^ X n/ X = a^^^ .LOGARITHMS IN ALGEBRAIC CALCULATIONS Thus. xa'h^ = a^bK monomial having any exponent to To raise a any power. The following examples show the manner of operPositive ating in the different cases 1st. = a^^ =ar. in summing up the preceding (552. (ay = \a^) a". and as the exponent 2. {2aih^y=64:a'>b% (m\r 4th. ah 2d. ^f^ = a. *ci X 0^1)^0^= ah^c ^ J:„i^^f(i) = ^?f = „H o^6* 3d. = a^. a^j s= a' To extract any root of of each letter by the index of the root. IN ALGEBRAIC CALCULATIONS What was said in Arithmetic in regard to logarithms be repeated here (396). a monomial. The following examples sum up the uses which may be made of logarithms in shortening the arithmetical calculations which may arise in algebraic opera may tions: . multiply the exponent of each letter by the exponent of the power. V a™ 555. divide the exponent Thus. '^JT'^ahh THE USE OF LOGARITHMS 556. r. we have: Va"" 209 = a»> —= o^ ap. Thus. (a'bj = a"6^.
bac. The three give six permutations: abc. cab. b. ca. PERMUTATIONS. 8th. be. in groups containing made by taking n of them in as many different ways and placing them in a horizontal line. Log V(a3 ..bT = m "^log [(a  + ab + (a^^ 6==)] = —log 9th.—log (a + 06 + 6^). acb. taken in groups of 2. cb.log c — log d . b. ac. ALGEBRA Log Log (abc) fT.^ 1 = Log Log Log (a^ . The ments 2d. : three letters. are called Each permutation contains all the letters. ba. All the possible different groups of n letters. 3d. Log ( . VCa^"  V) = log + 6) + ^log (a  (484) 7th. COMBINATIONS 557. a. 3d. cba. a. bca. 1st. c.6) b). and differ any two permutations can letters. The different groups m letters. placing permutations. 6th. is as possible they occupy. ARRANGEMENTS. which can . c. + + log c. 5tli. 4th.210 1st. .j = = log a log a + log 6 log 6 2d. Log ^^f~^y^ = = Jlog (a glog 1 + 6) + ilog 3 + 6)  2 log(a+6) {ab)~ log (a b). give six arrange ab. v^a'') = a'+log \'a^ = 31oga + jloga= 6) {a? ploga. Log (a'^b^c") = mloga + nlogb + log a p log . only in the order of the letters. Having m distinct objects.¥) = log + m log 6 — n log c [(a + 6) (a . therefore which may be formed with these one by the other on the same line.6)] = log ilog (a {a + b)+ log (a . c. Any two arrangements differ by their letters or only by the order which n letters. . An arrangement of these m letters for example: m letters. (a 6) . (a' .
cb. abd. abk. . .d. . ad. ac.c. . ka... in such a manner that each group differs from the others by at least one letter.2) . of 3 are obtained in of each arrangement in the preceding table successively each of the m— 2 other letters arrangement. the combinations represent all the different products which may be obtained by taking nations. . rangements thus obtained are given in the table below: ab. . Therefore the number of arrangements of m letters n in a group is: (m . . . by writing at the right which do not appear in that particular abc.n + 1). . . . The number of these arrangements is A^ = m {m — 1) (m — 2). are called combiif No attention is paid to the order of the letters. . . taken in twos. acb. n of the m quantities in all possible manners as factors. cd. ac. c. ace. and their number. letters in The arrangements cessively each of the letter b of m groups of 2 are obtained by writing at the right of the letter a of the preceding series suc each of the 1 other letters. fc. . ab. be.b. .ARRANGEMENTS. . bad. PERMUTATIONS. . m— m— 1 other letters. ck. bae. . b. bac. so that the letters represent different quantities.. A^ = m. give three combinations. The 1. bk.1) im . The letters. COMBINATIONS 211 be made with these m letters. then at the right of the The ar . and so on.. . bd. kh. kb. . be. . ak. and their number. ca. A^ = m{m — 1). abe.. aek. The arrangements of m letters in groups the same manner. a. A" = m (m . which gives. . . following series of of m letters are arrangements in groups of m letters: a. ba. acd. .. 558.. kc. bak.
2. 2 . . . The permutations of these letters are ments m letters in groups containing simply the arrangeall the letters. 3.andC" =^. m. we have. hoc. Thus we have: A" Replacing =(r X P. Suppose that all the combinations of m letters n in a group have been made. and P„ Thus it is = 1 . 559). and at the tations of 2 letters.212 ALGEBRA Example. bca. In 1 . ab ha To form the right. seen that in general the perinutations of any number of letters is formed as here below: Pm= Example. 3 . 1 = 1 2 . the arrangements of m letters n in a group wiU be formed. . 4 . in the middle.2. 560. . 3 • 2 . = 9X8X7X6 m = 3024. we have Pm = 12. 3. if permutations are made of the letters in each combination. we have P™ = 1. 4. cab. How many ? different 4 significative figures m= of 9 numbers may be formed with and w = 4: A^ 559. The number of permutations is: 1) p^= A^ = m (m With 1 With 2 letter letters (m  2) .3n =m this formula gives c™ = 1. m. acb. cba. . 5 = 120. introduce the letter c at left of the preceding permu which gives ahc. how many ways may Ps 5 soldiers be lined up? From the preceding formula: = 1. 1) A^ and P^ by 1) their values (558. 3 • 4 • . the permutations of 3 letters. 2 . and the number of arrangements will be equal to the number of combinations of m letters n in a group multiplied by the number of permutations of n letters. . ^ _ m (m — »»" For n (m — 2) • • • (m —w+ 1.
is easily proved by aid of the formula in the preceding n The number of combinations of m objects in groups of number of combinations of m — 1 objects n in In— 1 in a a group plus the number of combinations of 562. n —1 — 1* . and that the numerator contains the n are found in same of n. Find the product . the second term b of the second binomial with the first term x in all the others.. 469).{x {x of + a)ix + b){x + c) + h) {x + k). arranged accord ing to the descending powers of Taking the first term x in each of the binomial factors. Taking successively the second terms in any two binomial . 3 ~ '^^• It is seen that the successive numbers from 1 to the denominator. it follows that this number the of polynomials product is sum of the products obtained by taking in all possible ways one term in each of the polynomial factors.NEWTON'S BINOMIAL THEOREM For 213 m= 7 and n = 3. From the rule for obtaining the product of any (468. m — n C in a group: = C m n .. and their partial products ax"\ bx\ . starting at n and descending. number 561. the kx''''^ are obtained. . x. The number of combinations of m objects in groups equal to the number of combinations of m objects. we have 1 ' • 2 . . which article. we have the first term x'" of the product. is equal to the m— group n c m n = cm— + . sum (a is + b + C+ +k):r'or S^x'"' the second term of the product. n is of successive numbers. . and so on. m binomials which have the same first term x. Taking successively the second term a in the first binomial with the first term x in all the others. c wi NEWTON'S BINOMIAL THEOREM 563.
.iX. . a» = C'^a^ = ^'^V^a^ "^^^ = a« a +. 2. 3.214 factors ALGEBRA and the first x in the m— 2 others. n. 02> Os> "iiJ ) ^m—l> ^m are nothing but the sums of the combinations obtained by taking second terms of the binomial factors respectively. to be equal to a.= + + a' Cja. the partial products aftx"*"*. The fourth term is: {abc + abd + ) a. and their sum {ab is + ac + ) x""' or S^^'^ the third term of the product.k oi the the m m . = ma. of all the second terms of the binomial factors.. are obtained. Finally the last term is simply the product . abc k..""'. then Si we have (560): = a a' + a + a+. b.. o„ = a = V a = a .. may be Oi. = 0^= ~ '^^. To raise a binomial (x + a) to the mth power. or SsPiT «m — Any term others and of the m— sively the second terms in n degree any n is factors obtained by taking succesand the first x in the summing these partial products. . 1. OT S„. Therefore the desired product x™ It + S^x'"' + S'x""' noted that ++ •) is Snx""" + ••+ S^^^x + S^. m in a group (557). The result may be written in the following manner: SnX""". . .. a. bcx'"~^. This is done by supposing each of the second terms. S.^^ " '^ a«. . c. ... binomial factors. .= S. 564. — 1. acx"'~^. + + a^+. The next to the last term is S„.
are equal. 2d. and therefore becomes for the last term. and having it any term may be calculated without having the others.n called a gmeral term. and has the follovping properties: {x + a)™ is composed of m + 1 terms. (x + ay = x'' + 7ax'' +21 aV + 35 aV + 35 aV + 21 a'x'' + 7a'x + ix + ay = a^ a''. and therefore the coefficients of two terms equally distant from the middle term if m is even. is m (m This term is 1) (m 1 • 2 2) • . we have: + 8 ax' + 28 a^x" + 56aV + 70a*x' + 56a'x^ + 28aV + 8a''x + a^. and becoming m for the last term. (x 2l6 +aT = a. . 4th. . the exponent of a increases by 1 from one term to the next. starting at the first term as 0. . is • + "^""""^ + «"• known as Newton's binomial theorem. m half of the terms. The term which we represented by SnX"'". . Applying these rules to the two following examples. The exponent of x decreases by 1 in passing from one term to the next. The coefficients of two terms equally distant from the extremes are equal. (m  n + 1) ^„^„ „ 3 .NEWTON'S BINOMIAL THEOREM therefore. by values of m and n in the above formula. we may write the coefficients of the remaining terms without further calculation. Thus it is seen that in any term the sum of the exponents of x and a is aj™ is equal to m. . substituting the Thus the (n + l)th = fourth term of the value of (x + a)"' is: 8lll^a3^8 = 56aV. and dividing the product 1 plus the exponent of a in the same coefficient of coefficient of preceding The term. any term is obtained by multiplying the term by the exponent of x in that term. of which the first and the last a". and from the Thus. 3d."" + max""' + ^^f ~ • • ^^ a'x"'^ + "^"r2r~'^ "^""'"^+ This formula 1st. having calculated at least middle if is odd.
. the figures in the horizontal lines are the coefficients of Newton's binomial for different values of m. and 2. 4. . objects (560).^^_. 3. . The vertical column 1 contains the . .max'"^+ m(ml) «'^"'~'' '' ^. number groups of combinations in groups of 2 of column 2 contains the objects. Y^ ±a" which 565. .a)™ = differs a. 3._i^ .™ . alternately positive from the first in that the signs and negative. 2. we have: (x . of the terms are In the following table.216 If in the ALGEBRA binomial formula we replace a by —a. known as Pascal's triangle. in general the ol column n contains the number of combinations in . number of combinations in groups of 1 of 1.
3 567. Kg. 15 = 5 10 + + = 1+4. m(m + is 1) (m + 2) 123 the (565) number of balls contained in the pyramid. (565) of the arith a number which the mth in the second column metical triangle (565). m balls on a side being formed rows which contain respectively 1. the in the = 20 + 4 + mth number in the is. 123 The number n (m+n — 1) 123• of balls contained in which has a tri angular base. m balls. 3. they represent the number of balls contained in the successive layers of a triangular pile. balls on a side may pyramid with a square base having m be considered as being formed of two tri A . that is. triangle of m . of . For m = 6 there are 56 balls in the pyramid. corresponds to the whole consecutive numbers contained in the first colunm of the arithmetical triangle. is m For m (m + 12 1) balls. in the second column of the arith metical triangle are the triangular or figurate numbers of the second order . m= 6. and 35 In general. triangle.. and the sum of the first m layers. 10. that (m + n— l)(m + w — 2) • m m (m+1)a pile m+n566. Fig. 2 the triangle contains 1 + 2 + 3+. These numbers are called figurate numbers of the first order. 6 . = 15 + 20.NEWTON'S BINOMIAL THEOREM 217 m first numbers 35 of the preceding column. and A . nth vertical coliunn is found (m + _ n — l)th row.. considering the 4th number 35 in the 4th colunm. there are 21 balls in the Thus the numbers 1. Thus. Thus the numbers contained in the third column are the pyramidal numbers. 2. and is represented by the mth number in the third column of the arithmetical triangle. we have: 5 1. 3.
. c = b + r. and a prism having a height equal to m — n balls and a triangular base of n balls on a side.218 ALGEBRA angular pyramids. 12 + 2^ + 3^ + • • • + TO^ of the squares of the first m whole successive numbers.k = j + r. . the number of balls which it contains is (566.. . m pile and the other n <m "^^^^ ®' with a square base n balls on a side. For m= 22 48. we have (564) 1 1. Having b = a + r. the total m is and (566): m— 1) ' 1 number of balls which it contains m (m + and this 1) (m + 2) (m "^ — 1) m (m + 1) 123 number is 123 _ m (m + ~ 1) (2 m+ 6 the sum..^ 1 (k+rr^^ = k^+ !!^rk+^^^^±^r^k^ + . k in an arithmetical progression whose common difference is r (357). 567): as being of a l) made up n(n+l){2n + 6 ^ = n{n+l)(mn) ~ n(n + 2 10. + + + 48^ = 4S X 49 X 97 D ^ ^^ ^^^^ Considering a pile with a rectangular base. the edges of which contain balls.^. one of the sides of the base containing balls. 6 569. The sum S^ of the mth powers of n numbers. we have: 3^ P+ 568. .+ !^rt+. X 66 = i„.b. 1) (3m 6 w + 1) For m = 25 and n 10 the pile contains X 11 t. . 1210 balls. a. since these of balls contained in the successive squares express the number layers of the quadrangular pyramid. . c j. .
and m = 2. c^+i. from which k = So = n. from which k = Sg = h. S. may be successively calculated. S^._i •. 3^ = 1. + S^ + For a . r = 2. . .. gives :. Si. and m = 1. + 2nl= n'. from which k = 2n — 1. we have • from which By means of this formula. and the formula gives (n be _ ^'~ _ (w + 1)^1 _ 3 1 + 1)^1 3 n(n + 2 l) n ^' 1) (2 3 °~ ~3 n (n + n + 1) 6 articles (566 These formulas for Si and S2 are identical to those found in and 567). r = 1. from which k = So = n. Sm becomes ^2=1^ + Si =1 + 3 + 5 + {2n — ly. For a = 1.. commencing with So = n. Si = in + 1)'  1 n 2 2 + l) = n(n ^~ (^^^) S. .. and the preceding formula Ss. „ Ss = n'(n + ly 1 n. except that m is replaced by n.n becomes jSa = 1^ + 2' + 3^ + n'. a + b + +k = S. . . and making a"' + &"'+• /b™ = S^. . and the formula gives: . 2. and m = 3. . <S„ becomes Si=l + 2 + 3 + . a"^'^ + fc™! H +fc"'i = (S„.. and comes aSs = 1^ + 2^ + 3^ m= + .„ For a = 1. n^. So = . . and the formula gives. r = 1. r = 1.NEWTON'S BINOMIAL THEOREM fc^+i^ 219 • • Adding these equalities. (2n + iyl 4 n(4n^l) The two preceding formulas for the values of S^ are used in the calculation of the lengths of rods used in suspension bridges. which are common to both members of the resulting equation. and cancelling the terms 6""+'.. + n. and n = So. . Per a = 1.
Such are Zo(? = 5. The complete quadratic equations. become: Ig 3. is why they are called twoterm equations. which have only terms containunknown and known terms. the.g 1 .BOOK IV EQUATIONS OF THE SECOND DEGREE QUADRATICS EQUATIONS OF THE SECOND DEGREE INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN 570. which contain both square and the first power of the unknown. 4x27 = 2x2 + 9. ^^'3 + ^a:'=^ Operating as in 3 x^ article (511). X +24^4' may be re _5 which shows that all complete quadratic equations duced to the general form: x^ + px = q. Such are: 5x27x = 34. these 5. This is why they are called threeterm equations.2 = 2 x^ ^ ig^ _ 79^ which shows that a pure quadratic the general form: ax^ may always be reduced to = b. 220 . There are two kinds of quadratic equations involving one unknown 1st. ing the square of the Pure quadratic equations. these become: . 4x2 + ^x + 3 = 8 + ^x. This 2d. Operating as in article (511)._7_34 r gX.
roots of the equation equal half the coefficient of x with resquare versed sign. the square root . = .. J= J Extracting the square root of both members: '+i=±v/?+^. it to the (570) Noting that a. This is why the solution of an equation of the second or any degree involving one tinknown..EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN 571. is positive. obtaining: x= + px +^ or (x + q. Letting the roots be represented by x' and x". 4g (576) The formula may be written: Vp^ 2 + When the quantity placed under the radical is real. we have . is called a root (505). +^ of X +I add ^ + members equation. plus or minus the square root of the sum of the The of this half and the known term. and x=2± vf+^2"^ V 4 ^ w The sign ± which precedes the radical shows that the imknown X has two values. 221 To solve a pure quadratic equation. reduce extract the root x' it to the form: ax' = b. 572. = _Yf^..2 7? + px are the (479).. X— — p± . first two terms to both of the square of the + pa.px = q. = _ + (1) Y^. reduce form (576): 01? \. x = ± y • (537) Thus the imknown x has two equal values opposite in sign. To solve a complete quadratic equation. which are obtained by extracting the square root of the known quantity.
From 5 the preced ing article we have: x"  p= a. .' + = x"^ 5  2 = = and 10. '^=(i+vf^«)(iv?^«)=«'the product of the roots is therefore equal to the known quantity taken with its sign reversed. second degree to be solved. and. for example. 573. These values of the sum and product of the roots of an equation two very simple methods for determining the exactness of these roots (575). we have: Thiis the sum of the roots is equal to the coefficient p of the term x taken with its sign reversed (460).222 ALGEBRA the quantity under the radical is 0. Further. therefore. its square root imaginary. 360_ '"22 V "^ 122^ 12) (572) x"=lvAlY+§60__45 ~ . — 3 x the Equations of 1.11" V 22 "'' 1^22^ 22 Having 4^=—. An equation of the second degree may he formed having its roots given. When both roots are equal If is the quantity under the radical is negative. Example ^x' 6 ^ix + 2 ^ 4 = 8 ^x 3 x' + ^. They the roots are exact (573). Adding the roots of the equation. and4x^=^. as are also the roots of the equation (538).  g = a.Y. of the second degree furnish 574. 2d): ^ + ^^^' 22 aiid l + i//l. x = 5 and a/' = — 3 2. also fulfill the conditions of the equation. 575. having (484). 12 This equation becomes (570.V' = X  2 =  10.
from which _6^ 2a 576. ^v/. (ax' a Example a gives:" correct. 4. This equation becomes: 37 37\2 12 F> 57 6 19 3?^x 6 = and X" 6 = 3 37 12 6 j ~^and ^ 6 The roots are correct. k 6 + = r6 X 3 = ^ 6 Example a^  2 x^ + 2 ax = 18 ab 18 6^ Transposing and solAdng: x' — ax = 2 a' 9ab + Qb" 6=' ^ =2+V4 I + 2a29a6 + 9 = 2a36 a and  y J + 2 a^ . In obtaining these values of ma^ be noted 9b^ is that the quantity under the radical j (479). The a roots are and (2  3 &) 4.9 ab x. This equation. without making  b = p and  c — q (572). + bx = 0. since 3. Substituting p = . 9 a' — 9 ab + 3 the square of . dividing by ___b ~ x' + X = a 2.EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN Example 2. The roots of the complete quadratic ax^ + bx = c be obtained without reducing the equation to the form x^ + px may = q.and q b =  c m the following: ». that is. it + 9¥ =  + 3b. since 2a — 3b — a + 3b = + 3 6) = 20" + 9ab .a' 0. in which the known quantity is 0.9V (468).^ = o b^ 4.a — 3 6 a. iW? + . 223 Qx^ — 37 x  57.
x . = 7 ^ When a = 1.  12 = (a. — a/'). + (a. 0. or (a.' have (572."^^ ^^" = ^±\/^.' + pa. — 4 x') a. + = 6 ± V62 + 4ac ^ y a' a 2a ' . we have a. we have:  {x' x") x + x'x" = 0. is 6 ± Vft' + 4c • 2 To the same as the general formula in article (572)." = q. 573): + x" = — 3^ p or — + (x' + a/') = p and a. (1) For example.49.2 . Since this trinomial comes from the equation 3^ + = . g = a. 3 ' that is. In this case we have: x' + x" = b ) and is . From the equation It ^'^T^+H'n^^ 3 a.28 X = .q. x'x" = c a a. 2a 4: (1) ^ ' This formula is more generally used than the former because the calculations are simpler. resolve a trinomial of the second degree x^ + px+ q = px into two factors of the first degree.224 ALGEBRA we have. — + x') {x — x") = {x and in general. 1st. a. the equation and a/' = 2. giving a. .we a. we can = 2 6' in the formula. the formula (1) becomes: _ Xwhich 577. Substituting these values for p and q in the trinomial.' = —6 + 4 a. x' = 7 and a.2 + — 6) 12 = 0.'a. ' we have: _ 14 ± Vl4'13 X49 _ 14 ± 7 ^~ 3 ~ • . which gives X =  2b'  ± V46'' X + 4ac 2a =  b' ± Vb'^ + ac a In this form the arithmetical calculations are still simpler.  2). a write 6 When the coefficient 6 of even.' (a.
and In the same manner. we haveg + px + ^ + q'^ = P. P= 3 a!='  6 a. the difference of these two squares may be written: .V Having the trinomial. 2) (x .') (a. when the trinomial is made equal to zero. Given the trinomial. + c ^ P. we have: + bx + 2 3 2d. Thus the roots of the equation 3a." and making equal to zero. + 6a. Example.  a. calculate the corresponding value P of the trinomial ax^ + hx absolutely any value. (x — x') (x — x") = P. + 2 = 0. + c c = in the same manner = a{x . having: + hx + c = P. hf)"(?^)=^. a.  45.^ — 7a. . xf Designating the roots of this trinomial by it and a. or hijm^^h (+I + v/?^')('+\/?^)^.EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN The trinomial aa^ ax^ 225 gives. write: P= in  a. x^ + px q = P.x') (x .^  7 X + 2 = + 3 (a.a.") = ax' ^ hx + c. (2) Adding and subtracting x^ ^ in the first member. ax^ Designating the two roots of the trinomial (2) by x' and x". (3) which expression x' and x" have certain fixed values and x has In giving x a positive or negative value. we may a (a. being x' = and x" = .").
In this form we can study .2 a. a^. the equation: 3x2or 6 a.  + 3).15 = 0. = + 1 ± Vl + 15. a. 45 =0. Therefore.3. x'= 5.226 ALGEBRA Find the roots of to be resolved into factors of the first degree.. the given trinomial may 5) (a: be written in the form: P= 3 (a. x"= .
574): z'' 2sz +  t = Qi. and therefore (576). which gives directly (542) z' = & + Vs^ t and z" = s  \ls'  t. if of x a.  2 sx + bt = 0. x = s — ^/s^ a y =s+ Vs^ j abt • For a = 6 = 1. of the system t + y = 2 s and xy = amounts to finding two numbers x and y. that s is. X = s±y/s^ a  abt Substituting this value of x in the first of the given equations. 2 s ehminating the denominators and changing the ax' signs. abt. . it is seen that they are the roots of the equation (573.. Noting that the solution X and conversely. = s rt Vs^ — t and j/ = s T Vs^ — — t t. or equal to. the given equations become x and the values of x and y are reduced to X + y = 2 s. s' must be are: s greater than. and solving: 6 y= SztVs^ — abt abt > abt The dently syste m of s> Vs^ — equ ations has two direct solutions. but in order that they be real. the sum and product of which are known. which shows that the two values of y are equal to those taken in an inverse order. is the value of — Vs^ — t is the corresponding value of Special Method. xy = t. because eviabt.EQUATIONS INVOLVING SEVERAL UNKNOWNS Substituting this value of y in the second. These two solutions when separated s + Vs' —  ^/s^  abt a b and . /2 s 227 — ax\ a „ . s + Vs^ y.
3. y t. putting succes The sively X = z' and y s = 2". 2/ = — may y = = — 3? This special method also 8. Therefore the solutions of the given system are: X a.228 ALGEBRA solutions of the equation are therefore.= — + Vs^ Vs^ — — t t. 2xy = 30 and we have again. 5. 5. This special method may be applied to the systemj X Putting 2/ — y = 2. 3. xy xy^ = 15. x^ 2 xy [ y'^ and the second one subtracted from it. a. y = 2s — = 2s — x = s s x. 3 5 3 . 2. X and y being the roots of the equation 2^ 8 2 =  15. or xy + = = = 2/ = 8 and xy = 15. 3. 34:. solve for the value of this imknown and . be applied to the system? X If + \ y = +f = = = 64. 83 = When one of the equations is of the first degree with reference one of its letters only. = z^ = 15 15. values found by the general method. to 3. and the solutions of the system are 5. the first equation is squared. X and X = = s + — Vs^ Vs^ — — t. 2/ 2/ X x 2d. = = 8 5 = 3. = = 5. which gives. 5. =  2/1. 2' = 5 and 2" 2/1 2/1 X X = = = = = 2 = 2 + 3. which gives 2' 5 and 2" = — 3. X +2/1 X and j/i. being the roots of the equation 2z = 5. we have: 15.
and substituting this in the we have: ar' + ^= 144 x^ is 25. a. a. 229 substituting in the other equation an equation of the third degree is Thus. or a. A system of two simultaneous equations of the second degree involving two unknowns. of the fomth degree. ^^'^ y = ±7T1 —— ° The roots of the given system are: x = 4. Thus we have an equation being a quadratic. 3. having ax' + by = 2 2 s and xy aa? = t. 2/ 2/ = 3. — 2 sx + bt = 0. . xy = 12. _ ' eliminating the denominators and changing the signs. from which a. aa^ 3d. The second equation first. = 4. gives y = —  12 . a: . (1) Subtracting the second multiplied by 2 from the 3? first. 4. — 2xy + y^ or {x 1. from the first equation. first: + 2xy + y'' or (x + yY = — yY = from which x + 1 i/ = i 7. These roots satisfy the system.* 25 x' + 144 = but 0. These equations added and subtracted give: X = rt7±l —— 2 a.2 + j/2 = 25. we have: =t 1. this equation. s Substituting in the second equation. easily solved (579). Thus the system may be solved by multiplying the second equation by 2 and adding x' it to the 49. and (2) giving the sum and difference of the and the quantities themselves may 2 be easily foimd. — = (2) The equations quantities x (1) y. = =  2/ 2/ 4.EQUATIONS INVOLVING SEVERAL UNKNOWNS obtained. = =  3. 2s b a ^ b . = 3.
+ /') ex + {a'f + d'y + g') c = 0. . Or if each term of the first equation is multiplied by c'. {{be' cb')y+fc' cf''\x + {ac' ca')y'']{dc' cd')y + gc' eg' = 0. the The trinomial equations are of a degree greater than the and their solution may be brought to that of an equation of second degree involving one unknown. 0. which could in one of the given equations would be obtained. + d'y + fx + g' = 0.eb') y + fc'cf will This value of x substituted in one of the given equations give the fimal equation for y.' by c. which gives _ ^~ {ca' — ac') y^ (&c' + {ed' — dc') y + eg' — gc' . we have: cc'x^ + + {Tay {b'y + /) c'x + {af + dy + g) c' = 0. which would be somewhat complicated. were the same in the two equations. The general form is. by of the first degree of x. equations involving two Considering the following: ay^ a'y^ + + bxy +cx' b'xy x. Without making this substitution.230 ALGEBRA of one (ff the unknowns in two complete quadratic unknowns gives an equation of the fourth The elimination degree. oa. and those of the second cc'a. an equation is obtained which contains only one unknown y If the coefficients of x^ subtracting them an equation (520.''" + bx^ = c. + c'x^ + dy + fx + g =0. second. we obtain Subtracting one from the other. + + ay^ arranged according to cx^ c'u? + + (by {b'y + + f)x f')x a'f + + dy d'y + + g gf' = = 0. be substituted from this equation the value of x in the terms of y may be found. TRINOMIAL EQUATIONS 579. and substituting this value in one of the given equations. 3d). it is easily seen that the equation in y would be of the fourth degree.
< + a. Which values satisfy the given equation. If give but one value of x. 576) But x^ = y and a. of A graphical method of obtaining an approximate solution of an equation any degree. Given.'  16 x^  20 a. 2/^ 25 2/ 144 0. = ± . a. equal in pairs and Effecting the calculations. and y = 25 rt V252  X 144 (572./25±V25^4X 2 144 which shows that the equation has 4 roots. Putting x^ = y.*  25 a. = 16 = ±4 and y and a. EQUATIONS OF ANY DEGREE 580. positive real values of y give If m ts an even number. . the equation ay^ is of the second degree: — hy ^ c. while the negative values of of is odd.TRINOMIAL EQUATIONS rhey are 231 called trinomial equations because they involve three : Idnds of terms terms. the terms in x "". those of x by the formula: X = Vj/. and the known Putting aj"* = y. all real values y give imaginary values of x (514). = ^ = =t 3. .= + 5 a. Having calculated the values are given of y from this equation.  16 = with all its terms in the first member. which is real and of the same sign as y. all two equal real values of opposite sign for x. a.2 + + 144 = = 4 0. we have. the equation. y m Given the trinomial equation. 2/ we find first: Then a. \fy^ x=±V opposite in sign. the terms in x".
which makes it necessary to find the signs but once for each sign of x. obtained on and on these the first values y of the mem ber for different values of x are laid off to a convenient scale. the same as the ing which need not be first.16X2. An examination of the equation shows that for .5^. which For 2/ =w = ui!. we have a.5= + 5X2. X = Ov = 0.. For X the = 0.5 16 =29. OA = — 16. Ox or Ox' according as they are Perat raised pendiculars are the points thus xx'.2 If and — is 4 of a.2. the curve plotted. a smooth is drawn the through distances them. the value y of of first member is the equation gives — 16. Hava sufficient obtained number curve of points. = 2.5. Constructing a table of these values. and from to the points where crosses xx' are this curve the roots of the equation.53. The different values given to x in the equation are laid off to a con venient scale on the axis positive or negative.5 16 = 16.5* + 0. x = — 2.5.5^20X0. 0. these are the real roots of the equation.5^5X0. the different terms which enter in the value of y will have the signs of the first or the second of these last two inequalities.= 4. is For 2/ According as x positive or negative. cut the axis xx' at the points for which x = 2. = 0.232 ALGEBRA axes Draw two Ox and Oy perpendicular to one another.5H 20X2. and x = — i. X = Ou = .16X0.2. Having obtained y it will = ior the values 2.5'.5'.
and no curve is plotted on the negative end of the xx' axis. = 0. 233 greater than the values of y are all and and furthermore. The graphical method is most useful when the roots are not of figures. — 4 are the only real negative roots. the roots are whole. to solve the equation. Furthermore. . may near this point. y = is quickly found.EQUATIONS OF ANY DEGREE values of x greater than 2. the nature of the problem generally permits of a fair guess as to the value of x. since the curve does not cut the axis xx' between x = 2 and a. and the curve need be drawn only When. and the corresponding value of X is the required root. they be obtained rapidly enough without tracing the curve. In this case the negative values of x are not used. upon augmenting or diminishing x. whole or when they contain a great number Given. In engineering practice the positive root is the one which is most often used. 2 is the only positive real root of the equation. as in the preceding example. Having obtained a value of y which approaches 0. In the same manner it is shown that — 2 and positive.
2403 5.45.85 of y. 3^ + 200 X 5.99 = 2.  5000 = 0.51.4928 = 5000. Given. which and substituting in the equation.234 ALGEBRA For X = 3.1. and x = substituted gives a fourth x 5.1 ^^ required root is 3.2403.866 = + 0. Suppose a.065. and x = 5. for an augmentation of 1. or 5 log a. Making a. and x = 5.8 to 3. 3^ = 5000.84 of y.2411.8 and 3. which The value x ting. = log 5000. we have more than accurate enough for ordinary X practice. . which amounts to supposing the curve to be a straight line between those points. we have == = 5. ordinarily the term which contains x with the largest exponent is excepted. or a.9 = 0. x has between 3. may be obtained in the the negative roots are desired. we have.85. they same manner.4928 first Substitute this value for x in the terms which were made equal to zero. Therefore. Therefore. The value of x augmenting from 3. the 1.2269. 581.0234. because the value of x is more rapidly approached when the coefficients of the other terms of an elevated degree are not very great. the equation. y = — 1. in all the terms which contain x except one.= + 200 a. Substituting this a^ new value in the equation + 200 X 5. 2. gives If y = 3.9.241.85 + 0. Solution of an equation of any degree by successive approxi mations. and substitu1.2269 = 5000.005. x would augment 0. is y = 0. a:= + 200 X = 5000. for the augmentation 1 85 = 0. supposing that the increments remain proportional.865. = = 5. This value gives a fifth x when = 5. = in the second term of the = given equation.8.240 may be y X y taken as the root.
In other cases a maximum minimum.MAXIMA AND MINIMA Instead of starting with a. maxima and minima for a later chapter. it is possible to start with any value which the nature of the problem may indicate as being near the true value. But when z = xy = Q j. occurs when these =^ two factors are equal. whose sum x + y is. z than — 4 which is the value. xy will increase in proportion as x — y decreases in absolute value. the product 4 xy. MAXIMA AND MINIMA 582.jo? + V4^' maximum = ^ 2V4^= xy should not be greater X and y are to have 2 ) real values. At this point.um is When follow it. that 1st. and as in 1st. A maximum none which relative is said to be absolute larger than this when the ex pression has no value which is maximum and it is smaller than the or minimum. The maximum of the product xy = z of two variable factors X. is. x = y = a ^ Having x + y = a. y. which gives (572): ^ If = a 2 . and xy = z. and therefore. it have reached a maximum or minimum when its value or greater than the values which immediately precede or or a minim. leaving the general treatment of 583. 235 = 0. * the two roots x and y of the equation are equal. it follows (574) that x 2d. we have a . and y are the roots of the equation u' — au + z = 0. and will be a maximum when that ./ (x + yY being a positive constant quantity. . = ais constant.la^ 2/ a . is said to is less an expression takes different successive values. only problems which may be solved by means of second degree equations will be treated. x — y = 0. . when x = y Having (481) {x + yY — {x — yY = 4 x.
sum of whose the legs is con stant. to that of s is at or z. the sum of which x + y = a = AB C '^' 2^ is constant. no matter what the position of C may be.236 3d. of Because if only two factors are unequal. on AB C as diameter describe a semicircle. b numbers which Thus. take successively the lengths AC and CB. z^ The maximum but 2 is of xy corresponds. and same peri meter 2 p. we have . this will be when p — b sum 2p — 6 — —p — 585. the sum a which is constant. B z^ = xy. That of all triangles of the same base a. a maximum when z the center of the semicircle. is a maximum. + + ' ci \ J n > „ ^abc /r . and we have: = x=y = a 2' it 584. s will be a maximum when the product {p — b) (p — c) is a maximum. The expression for the area s of a triangle being (see Trigo nometry) s= Vp {p  a)ip  b) {p  c). From the preceding article (583). and since the c = a is a constant. all rectangles of the follows: That of That same perimeter. /a 1 + b + n c \ \" . the square has the maximum area. Representing z by CD. and at erect a perpendicular to the values of AB. having abc . this it follows: That the arithmetical mean ^ < of n a positive are not equal is greater than their geometrical mean. we have. 1st. the product of the factors is increased. area. that is. representing to some chosen scale the numbers x and y. The product of any number of n positive factors. the factors p and p — a being constants. 3d. therefore. c ov b = c. of all the right triangles the 2d. replacing each by their arithmetical mean (337). the isosceles has the maximum. ALGEBRA On a straight line AB. what x and y may be. when all the factors are equal. From 1st. the isosceles has the maximum area. but the sum remains unchanged.
same perimeter 2 p. mth powers of which is constant. We have: m'^n" being a constant. Thus the square is the largest rectangle which may be inscribed in a circle. S being the area of the inscribed rectangle. we have: xy = s. b . s will is we would have a two were negative. having (584) b) = Vp {p of if a) (p  {p ~ c). for 2 p < b + c. Thus. in order that and therefore the area of the rectangle. x and y the dimensions. when p 586. since p is if positive. p be a maximum when the product of the three other factors maximum. the product af'y" will be a maximum composed when of —X— factors is is »Y" a maximum. the is — a = p — c™  = of p — or a = b = c. is. and example.= x + yoi n a maximum when all these sum mm factors are equal. a maximum when the factors are equal. and d the diameter of the given circle or the diagonal of the rectangle. s would have an imaginary value. 'it But n it > this last product If is tl m — and m n factors the is which constant. being given. . of two positive numbers x and y. p — b and p — c. being constant. that when m n . Let it be given to find the rectangle of maximum area which may be inscribed in a given circle. be a maximum. s^. which is impossible. The sum x + y = a.MAXIMA AND MINIMA 2d. that c. and x^ + y^ = d^. therefore. each of the three factors should be positive. wherein m and n are whole positive numbers. \n. x' must equal y^ and x = y. of the any number n of positive factors. The sum d^ of the factors x^ + y' being constant. The product abc sum a™ + 6™ + — . or x^y^ = s^. because one or all them were negative. 237 the That of all triangles having the equilateral triangle has the s maximum area. find the maximum of the product x™2/". 587. is.
— 2r y 1 2/3. many factors there From This applies. the sum y + {2r — of (2 y) = 2r is constant. EFLK. (See Geometry. no matter how the two equations may be. obtained by multiplying the value of x^ by y''. 3 y^. Construct a box having a of cardboard. X m+n an and y " m+n ABC AB. factor Therefore. being the exponent of the first and 1 that r— y). which is is a maximum. Let 2 a.238 ALGEBRA the product o^'if is Thus a maximum when x and y are propor tional to their exponents m and n. Designating the constant variable AB by 2 c of and the i AK by x. Inscribe isosceles triangle of a maximum area in a circle of a given radius r. Example 1.3 and y ^ we have for a maximum: ^r. The base so as to of the form the box is the I square EFGH. y). = 2 triangle is This value of y indicates that the lateral.) s wiU be a maximum when xy or x'^y'^ =y^{2r — y) But in this last product. maximum capacity. maximum an equi Example a square 2. be the base of the triangle. at equal distances from the sides. such as sides of the box. is a mean proportional between the two segments of the diameter. draw parallel lines remove the four squares at the corners and fold the four rectangles. and CD the diameter perpendicular to the base Then we have xy = s and x'' = y (2r — The second equation expresses that a. y its height. with ABCD To construct such a box. the capacity c the box = (2 Z  2 xyx = 4 (Z  xfx. . s its area. ^ — — =. X +y= ma a and m = na we deduce (520).
X and y are. ^ If a. maximum of c X 2 ^=. the = a of which of these factors is equal to a constant. sum z X + y = z. From 1st. Resolve a given number into two factors x and y."'z' — X and y shotJd have real values. at this lower limit. to obtain the largest box divide equal parts and draw parallels through the AB first and AD into six points of division. be the radius of the sphere. Circumscribe a given cylinder by a cone of miniits mum volume. = Sh and x = r. x the radius of the base of the cylinder. occurs when each the square root of the given product (583). = 2+Vi^' f^ z . I Thus. the Having of which should he a minimum. the two roots are equal. base. then we y 588. = r \/ _ /2 V3  Example 4. Let h be the height of the cylinder. this it follows: That of all rectangles. and we have: X = y =^ ^ = 1'yJa. for any value of z. the roots of the equat. andx = 21 =.on u^ — zu =  a. Thus the minimum product xy of the sum x + y is of two variable positive factors. [z^ y = 2Mi. 573): s . its base. the . and xy = a. or 3 should at least be equal to = 2 Va. In an analogous manner find the which can be inscribed in a sphere. .MAXIMA AND MINIMA and the sum corresponds to (Z 239 — xy+ I x being constant. and 2 y the height. and x the radius of find that for a minimum volume. which have the same area. r the radius of y the height of the cone. the square has the shortest perimeter. which gives (572. largest cylinder Example Let r 3. then y ^ r = —= or V3 2y = ^ r —r= V3 ? and a.
the one whose corners bisect the sides of the given square is the smallest.240 2d. their sum would be diminished. occurs when all the factors are equal. to y = a of which when the two quantities are equal. ALGEBRA That of all the right triangles. the sum of the legs of the isosceles is the least. is and it is seen that is. which have the same area. that is. of which the sum of the legs is con stant. 3d. Of Of all the rectangles having the same perimeter. the isosceles has the shortest hypotenuse. 0. Because if them is equal to Va. all the squares inscribed in a given square. 590. the The preceding comes under the general head of of finding maximum and minimum a trinomial bx ax^ + + + c. 1st. y^ = a^ — 2 xy. in order to obtain a real value of the following condi(1) must be fulfilled: 4:ay^4:ac and there are two tive or negative. according as the coefficient of x^ is posi . we have: + bx + c = y or ax' bx + c — j^ y = from which (576): _ ^~ b ± V4ay2^ tion (4ac x. cases. — ¥. Thus. the square has the shortest diagonal. without changing the product of the factors (585). each equM ^ Squaring both members of the equation. Designating the variable value of the trinomial by ax^ y. The minimum of the sum of any number n of variable positive factors. replacing each of when each by their geometrical mean. 589. we have y^ will x'^ + . and therefore. only two of the factors were unequal. that when (583) x = = From this it follows that: Of all right triangles. X + y = x'^ a. as would also the total sum. 591. the sum x = + z of the squares of two variable quanis constant. 2d. of which the product a is constant. + be a y minimum when xy a maxi mum. tities The sum x^ \ if X and y.
7 . in which the coefficient of x^ is positive. for their absolute minimum values. value. .) If in making a trinomial two real unequal roots are obtained. any quantity lying between these two roots. It is seen that the greatest value of y — 4 ac r — h"^ . .^^^3 which corresponds .PROPERTIES OF TRINOMIALS OF SECOND DEGREE Case 1. we have x = — ^— 2a Thus the trinomials 3 x^  7 X + 2 and x^ + X + 1. and this maxi mum corresponds to x =— ^r— • 2 a coefficient Thus the trinomial — of x' is negative.— 1. in which the an absolute maximum. — becomes ^ 0. have respectively . . 241 For a > 0. ^ to ^ x = ^^^ = • 77 4X1X11X13 = TT—. has for 9x^ + 6a. to x 1 =— 2 Case For a y < 0. 25 4X3X27X7 = . which corresponds to =— 1 2X9 3 PROPERTIES OF TRINOMIALS OF THE SECOND DEGREE The in the properties of the trinomials of the second degree written. form y = ax^ + bx + c may be summed up First property. ^ — 4 the relation (1) gives: 2 (since 4 Q^Q a is is negative). . 4X1 2. substi (Unequal of the second degree equal to zero. 4 which corresponds ^ A2 . . as follows roots. . 4X9X16X6 4 Xx 3636 = 9 6  36 0. the relation (1) gives: _ 4 ac — It is 6^ seen that in this case for real values of x the smallest value 4 ac — 6^ o/ y is and since for this minimum value the radical . .
that is. To demonstrate a. gives to this trinomial the same sign as that of the coefficient a of its first term.  x") = same sign as that of since the and (a — x") are of the same sign. and let x' and be the roots of the trinomial. Second property. substituted for x in the trinomial. we have the product a (a — x') (a x") = y. (Imaginary roots.x" < — x" 0. x" < y. a. . its first with the opposite sign to that of the coefficient a of From the above relations LL term. Replacing a. assume that a is positive. 0.  a. The trinomial may be written in the form y = a(x  x'y.) the roots of the trino number a substituted for x in the trinomial first the same sign as that of the coefficient a of the term. Third property. we have the product a (« with. by a number which between the roots.) In case the roots are imaginary. and a u. 0. the (a a.' — x') (x lies — x"). a a °^  x' <0. > a > — x' < . always have the same sign as a for any value positive and will approach infinity for increasing values of a = x." this. will give signs which are the opposite of that of the coefficient a of the first term of the second degree. then from the transformation in article (543) we may y write: = a {x a. two and the value If factors (a of — x') y approaches infinity as the value of a increases. any will give (Equal roots.242 ALGEBRA tuted for x in the trinomial. mial are equal.' x" > > a. and any quantity lying outside of the roots. a. and will or negative given to x.') . any value substituted for x in the trinomial will give the same sign as that of the coefficient a of the first term. that is greater or less than the roots.
ax' 243 + bx + c = 0.—^the trinomial has a 2 a 1.PROPERTIES OF TRINOMIALS OF SECOND DEGREE Solving the equation. a \ Substituting the value of n (2) In this form result y of the it is seen that sign as a same by replacing x by any value. therefore. " minimum value. 2a since the roots are imaginary. — is Example its It is desired to study the following fraction. is increased. and the = a. (2) The relation (1) may be written: a(x' +a. in the case of imaginary roots. The quantity .^  b Ji Vb^  4ac .. For X = — 7:. positive or negative. (1) we obtain. a value. a. ' we have: 4 ac > b\ and c o _6^ 4a^ positive quantity. when X is replaced by any value of the trinomial approaches infinity.being greater than a we may write: ^ = ^ +jfc^ + ) = aj 0. find maximum and its minimum when x varied. . a would be obtained. the trinomial ax? + bx + c = y its first always retains the same sign as the coefficient a of term.
+ 14 21 _ ^'  then a. 2/"+^ is and the first property and gives. is to be real. y may be varied from 2 to + infinity and roots are obtained. a negative trinomial and imaginary x.'  2 a.2 X If a.. a positive trinomial and a real y. from —^ to — infinity. 4 ± V16 + X 20 y 2/' = 2. the roots of this trinomial are: 9 2/'  8 2/  = 0.244 Write. we obtain: x' 7 for y' — 2 (minimum) and x" 2. the trinomial 9 y' — 8y — 20 9 20 must be positive. therefore. a.2 (1 = 1 + 3 + 21 = 6 + 3 + 2/) 2/ ail/ 2/ 14 2/ 14 + 82/ 21 = 0. for all values of y between y' and y". = a. = — 5 for y" 7 = — 10 pr (maximum) Example Study the variation 2/ of the expression. which does away with the radical and gives for X Substituting successively 2/' x: = 1 +3y. and for all values not between y' and y". . a^ ALGEBRA 6 a. the maximum It value of the given fraction.±V2ar' — a. ± V9 2/2   20. 2 a. =  = = 2 and y" — for y. remains to determine the corresponding values of of y The maximum and minimum 9 were deduced from the relation 8 2/ 2/'   20 = 0. or a. and 2 is the minimum and —^ x. of trinomials of the second degree Thus two unequal applicable. .
 1) gives greater absolute values of y for greater absolute values of x. ± ^12 3? from to = + a. = + a. therefore. ±V (2 a. it is seen that the relation a. and thus give an imaginary value to y. corresponding to the As to the maxima 2/ or minima X of y. a. y varies + oo and from ^ to — °o • Example 3.  to + a oo and from to — oo and that x" = ^ is minimum. = {x ± V. from this it follows that the quantity x can vary from for all real values of y. = — 3 the quantity . These roots being equal. the above trinomial may be written. of x. which may be written. y" x" = ^. while. y = + Z){x = + 2.any quantity not lying between those values would make the quantity 2 x^ — x positive. which give: = = x' = 0. and x = a maximum. any quantity between and J substituted for x would make the quantity 2 x'^ — x negative. a^ = 3 + 6a. but for a. x' = and x" =k • Thus two unequal roots are obtained. Study the 2/ variation. corresponding to the maximum minimum of x. and the first property must be applied in order to study the variation of the quantity 2 7? — x.2  x = 0. The roots of the trinomial are: a.)\ In this form it is seen that any value positive or negative would give a positive value to y. + 9 9. determine the maximum and minimum of y when the quantity x varies in all possible manners.9 + S) = {x 3. y' therefore. (2 X 1) = 0.PROPERTIES OP TRINOMIALS OF SECOND DEGREE that 245 is. the corresponding values of y may be calculated. Find the roots of the polynomial 2 a.
4 + 15 = 0. that any value substituted for x will give the as that of the coefScient of x^. Example 4.4 + . the third property of nomials must be applied in order to study the variation of the trinomial. seen that y is positive for all values of x. . 2/ = 3 a. the radical as small as possible. . that taking = 2. and x varies from + 00 to — 00 .1 ± Vn. + 15 15 = 2 0. 4 a.2 a. a. by making which gives = = ^' = y 2/' 3 5 5 X 2 . 4 + 15. As for y. trinomial the same sign The above trinomial may be written: a. a. but for a. Study the variation. — Vll (maximum). = 2 ± V4  = ± V^ni. y In this form X] it is + 15 = (a. tive or negative. y varies to + oo Example 5. . we may 1 write.^  4 a. Putting the trinomial equal to ar^ and solving for x. . a. form the radical is positive for any value. + VTT (minimum). From this minimum. and x may vary from — oo through to this + 00. Referring to Example 2/ 4. therefore.2)2 = {x2y + 11. are obtained a. 2)^ = 3 a. tri The values of x being imaginary. = 2. = 2 ± V^ni.  ± V(a. posiand that the value of y increases with that of the quantity j/ is a minimum and is equal to. its maximum and minimum is. y 11.  + 11. a. to y. y varies from + oo .246 ALGEBRA to y equals 0. 15. given to x. y =  3? — 4lX + 15. Study the variation. positive or In negative.1 ± Vaj^ . that is.
EQUATION OF THE THIRD DEGREE 592. (1) may be divided by a^ which will give + Bx'' + Cx + D = by proceeding (2) The term Given: x' may be eliminated as in the follow ing special case. true for all values of h. 2 Then substituting this value of x in equation (3). therefore. (4) wherein p sum of all the numerical coefficient of the term y. (a) . It is in this form (4) that an equais is tion of the third degree thing. and q the the known terms. (3) Let x = y + h.3 _ 4 a. a. The most general form ax^ All the terms an equation bx^ of the third degree is: + + ex a. y varies from y' to + oo. y = o.EQUATION OF THE THIRD DEGREE 247 These values are the Umits. which is the same a^ + px + q = 0. therefore. and y a new unknown.8yh 5) 4:h^ + 5y + 5h 'k¥ = = 0. f + 3y% + or Syh^ + h^  4:y^ . in the form: most often solved. 3? { px + q = Q. Transformations which permit the solution of an equaof tion of the third degree. we have an equation of the form: y" of the last + py + q = 0. or.2 + 5 a. we can put 3/14 = IThen substituting this value for h in all the terms equation. f + y'i3h4:) +yi3¥8h + This relation is +¥ + 5h  2 0. h being indeterminate. + d ^ 0.  2 = 0. The solution of third degree equations. and from y" to — oo but there is no value of x which can make .
+ = 0.When mined. y^ + z^ = — and z^ From these it follows that the quantities y^ are the roots of the following equation.248 ALGEBRA Let X be replaced by the sum of two unknowns. substituting x = y + z. = y + z. = Aa? + Ba. the square root is <^) positive. X Substituting in y^ (a). 3yz + z^ = q (d) Then reducing (c). f+ From equation (d). '/i+v/f^+v^iv/?^. (6) + Sy^'z + Syz" + ^ + p{y + {y z) + q = 0. therefore the following condition may p be imposed: 0. (c) The unknowns y and should satisfy only the relation (6). then the three roots of the equation of the third degree are: Xi Xi Xi = A + B. and are calculated from and the following formulas Let A B be the values of the two cubic radicals. the calculation may be effected without difficulty and the roots of the equation deterThe other roots are imaginary. = Aa + Bo?. of wherein a represents one of the two imaginary cubic roots . or y^ + ^ + z + z) (3 yz + p) + q= 0. (e) and from equation (e).
a to a loan of c = $11. write y then = 3x^  ix^ + 5x 2. Therefore. n = 50 to be solved. the square roots are imaginary. (See end of Trigonometry. The solution of an equation in annuities by the graphic method. 18. or one of the roots of the equation x^ sides a 249 = 1. the two roots: Note. Referring to article (410). the relation = r=^ c wherein r years. = 0. . 3. is ^ c (1  r)" (1) ' ^ = rate (unknown). 1. it and consequently so are the cube roots.^ is negative. But here is It is called the irreducible case of the third de a peculiarity of the third degree equation. because the three roots are real. etc. c = $200. appears that the roots should be imaginary.  of the equation (546). gree equation. make a. and calculate the corresponding values of y.000 for 50 years.  18 = 0.000. similar to that in (580). Calculate the rate of an annuity. corresponding $200. having given: 3 a.  1. and the quantity ^ + . — See examples When at end of Trigonometry (1072) Remark. 593.986. and plot the graph The points where the graph cuts the xaxis will determine the roots of the equation with a sufficient degree of accuracy.986.) In many cases numerical equations of the third degree may be solved without recourse to the general formula (A). 2. a = $11. which gives be = 1.='  4 a^ I 5 a.EQUATION OF THE THIRD DEGREE unity. to and trigonometric transformations must be used express the roots. by a process Thus. 3. it is seen that the solution of this problem is expressed by the formula (3).
we find y = + 0.986 200. c(l+r)» *• ^"'^ y =  r =  0.06 in equation r (1).06)5° 0.05669 0.0558. thus the value r = 0.056 and 0. write (1) in the _ Substituting 0. Below are the various values obtained Values of r in the trials: Values of y 0.055.250 It is ALGEBRA noted that the second term of the second member of the is equation smaller than the first — j if the second term is neg lected. the value of r will be too large.0000007. which shows that the value of r lies between 0.056 0.056. and in the given example.05669 for a a . r To form find if this value is too large or too small. = 0. Now it is seen that this value is too large.0558.05669.0000007 O. which shows that r lies between 0. try r = 0.05669. 200. Trying r = 0.056 and 0.055.056 is correct to less than one thousandth.05993 = 11. This very small value indicates that the value of r correct.0555 + 0. the equation (2) gives: y =  0.0008089. r .055. it is foimd that the value of r lies between 0. The same is found to be true for r = 0. y~c r. and so on. we still get a positive value for y.05993 0.0559.00041 Thus the method of trial and error consists in giving values to which give opposite signs to y.000 (1.056 and 0.000 ^^^y^'^ Substituting this value or 0. If r is is very nearly taken as 0. then with logarithms.
Only one straight line can be drawn ^ . but two size Two equivalent figures are not necessarily equal. The Umit of a body or its volume is the surface of the body or the volume. but geometry has nothing to do with the material. and thickness. a line has only one. 595. length and breadth. a point has none.PART III GEOMETRY DEFINITIONS 594. Two figures coincide when they have the same shape and and are superposed one upon the other. a surface has two. 597. Geometrical figures are represented to the eye by material objects. it is simply the shape and size which are studied. breadth. A straight or right fine may be thought of as a thread tightly stretched between two points. The volume of a body is that portion of space occupied by the body. and lines come imder the common head of geometrical figures. Remahk. . The limit of a portion of the surface is a line. 251 which have two and two points are sufficient to determine a straight fine. surfaces. Two equivalent figures have the same size. a volume has three dimensions: Length. equal figures have the same shape and size. and coincide throughout their extent when superposed one upon the other. Volumes. The extremities of a portion of a line are called points. ^ between two points points in A and B. two straight lines common coincide throughout their length. Two equal figures are always equivalent. is A straight line the shortest dis' tance between two points A and B. Remabk. 596. length.
but only one such plane can be constructed. 604. common A figure is a plane figure when it has all its same plane. all planes containing three points. lines. Third. is a straight which contains points in the the points 605. 10 we have the sidered as Directions of directions AB and BA. two intersecting lines or a point and a coincide and are one. 610. figure which contains is is the points that fulfill a certain set of conditions called a geometrical locus (585). is composed of a series of different successive straight lines. It is the limit of its elements is a surface no part of which is plane. approached by a broken surface when the number is indefinitely increased (601). is is the line which bounds the surface on 607. any to contain: First. A A A broken surface curved surface surfaces not situated in the 608. . Second. Plane geometry treats of plane figures. a line. all 609. A broken line ACDB 601. such that a straight line joining that surface will 603. the science which treats of position. Every straight line may be conhaving two directions: thus in Fig. The contour or perimeter of a surface all sides. because line. 606. 600. lie any two points in wholly in the surface. Solid geometry treats of solids and space. a surface composed of several plane same plane (600). line. It is the limit which a of broken line approaches when the number of its elements 602. its extremities and B. GEOMETRY The direction of any straight line AB A is the line itself prolonged indefinitely from 599. A curved line AmnB is a line no part which is straight. form.262 598. is indefinitely increased (136). which are distinguished by the order of the letters. Geometry and magnitude. is A plane an indefinite surface. A jilane may line he constructed points not in a straight line. The intersection of a plane and a line is a point. any three any two intersecting straight and a point which lies outside of the line. The all intersection of two planes to both.
Two angles are vertical angles 253 when they have the same . in general. one would say the angle A. at first 0. and are exterior to one another (Fig. increases in value as the legs of the compass are separated. which may and sides of the angle. are the drawn from the same form a geometrical figiire and AC. Two angles BAC and CAD are adjacent when they have the same vertex A. The magnitude of an angle is independent of that of the sides. which may or may not be situated in the same plane.angle between two straight lines is determined by the direction of the lines. But when there are several angles which have the same vertex. 14). the lines AB be prolonged indefinitely. is the angle BCD' formed by one of the lines AB and a line CD' paral^s. with the letter which represents the vertex in the middle. thus. the angle between the two straight lines AB and CD (Fig. AC and the common point A is the vertex of the angle. 13). 613. and one side common. and then that they be spread apart like a compass. 612. It is seen that an. the angle. Two straight lines AB point A and in different directions called an angle. and. The angle A is the angle between the two straight lines AB and AC (Fig. thus. 12). for the direction AB and CD the angle would be AC'D'. A single angle is designated by the letter at its vertex. each is designated by the three letters BAC or CAB.PLANE GEOMETEY BOOK I STRAIGHT LINES 611. A very clear idea of an angle and its ^^ '^'®' magnitude may be obtained by supposing the lines to coincide first.^^ lei to CD and intersecting AB in any point C.
supposing their sum BAD to be a right angle. A vertical line is one if prolonged would The angles formed pass through the center of the earth. less angles. 14). supposing A AOC = CD pendicular to AB. 15). 16). B"OA'. is equal to a straight angle or two right angles. 14 rig. 15). 18 B Fig. AB and CD in (Fig. and all angles AOD (Fig. by the intersection of pendicular to one another are called right angles. such are the angles BAC when CAD sum (Fig. 618. 15 Vertical angles are equal. 15) 'A B >C' A Fig. BOD B (Fig. Two is angles are supplementary or supplements equal to two right angles or a straight angle. Thus (Fig. BOB'. 15). 16). point The perpendicular PO erected at the point . and therefore. 15). All angles BOD (Fig. 617. Two angles are complementary or complements when and their their sum is equal to a right angle. Lines which intersect and are not perpendicular are oblique lines. All straight lines perpendicular to a vertical are horizontal (766). intersection of one with the other equal adjacent angles are is perBOC. Such are the two angles AOD. about a A! Fig.254 GEOMETRY Such are angles the sides of the vertex and the sides of one are prolongations of other. AOC and BOD. B' angles The sum of all the consecutive adjacent AOB. AB is also perpendicular to CD. are obtuse angles. 17 A on one side of a straight line A' A. straight line is perpendicular to another when by the 614. AOD and BOC (Fig. Such are 615. B'OB". two lines perSuch are AOC and BOC in (Fig. the latter is also perpendicular to the former. 616. When one line is perpendicular to another. All right angles are equal. are acute than a right angle. greater than a right angle. formed.
B'OB". and AG. third. AG. q rig. second. is. a perpendicular First. . If two angles AOB. the two obliques AE. which cuts '^' off the shorter distance from is the base of the perpendicular. taken ^e erected at the middle of on CD. A outside of a given straight line BC. The bisector of an angle is. 619. OA'. according as E is on the right or left of CD. drop and several obliques AE. the shorter line. the distance from the point to the line. the exterior sides OA. B"OA'. 20 The bisector AD of an angle BAC is the That geomet rical locus of all the points within the angle equidistant from the sides (609).^ a straight line which divides the angle into two equal parts. The sum of all the consecutive adjacent angles AOB. but only one can be drawn from that given point. we have AE > BE or AE < BE. of the two obliques AE. 622. B'OB" by any number of straight . BOB'. formed about a point lines radiating from the point. The converse holds is for all these statements. 620. the one AE. To drop a perpendicular CO upon a straight line jj AB (Fig. then: the perpendicular is shorter than any oblique. BOA'. is equal to four right angles. which cut off equal disFrom a point AD tances at the foot of the perpendicular. 621. The perpendicular AD. are equal. A perpendicular CD is. form a straight line. 16). From any point a perpendicular may be drawn to a given line. is to draw a perpendicular through B' the line at a point taken on the line. being the shortest distance from the point A to the straight line.. That a line AB is from the extremities that any point C. the geometrical locus of all points equidistant of the line (609). are supplementary (617). is to draw a perpendicular to the line passing through a given point C outside of . AF.STRAIGHT LINES are equal to the 255 on AA' determines two right angles AOP and POA' which sum of AOB. AF. 16). To erect a perpendicular OC upon a straight line AB (Fig. the line. gives AC = BC. if and from any point E taken on AD the perpendiculars . BOB'. and any point E not on the Hne CD.
5th. . BGH. 617). Interior angles. each of the four angles formed outside 2d. bisectors The (613). interior and not adjacent. The sum of the two exterior angles on the same side of 2d. BGE. the transversal is equal to two right angles and conversely. per pendicular to one another and form a right angle (612. called a trans folloAving angles formed: the two given formed between Such are AGH. Two straight lines AB 22) are parallel when being in the and CD (Fig. each of the four angles lines. DGH and BGE. When any two we have the can be drawn. one exterior 4th. these perpendiculars are equal. straight Hues same versal. Such are AGH and CHF. CHG and AGE. Such are AGE and DHF. The alternateinterior angles are the two angles formed on opposite sides of the transversal. a point H of is taken outside of AD. plane. Any two angles of the same name. same plane they may be indefinitely prolonged without meeting (598). When the two lines AB and CD are parallel (Fig. DHG. 614. 3d. BGH and DHF. 625. if the sum of two interior angles situated on the same side of a transversal is equal to two right angles the lines are parallel. situated in the EF. exterior and not adjacent. . of the two given lines. DHF. 22) exterior to a given line CD. the perpendicular HF line be greater than HI. Such are AGH and DHG. two vertical angles form a straight The bisectors of two supplementary adjacent angles are 623. are cut by a third straight line AB. alternateinterior or alternateexterior. CHF. 22): The sum of the two interior angles on the same side of 1st. Exterior angles. BGH and CHG. 3d. CHG. The interiorexterior angles are two angles. and conversely. Through a point A (Fig. and conversely. Such are AGE. The alternateexterior angles are the two angles formed on opposite sides of the transversal. CD.256 GEOMETRY and if EG will EF are drawn to the sides. 1st. and one interior. are equal. both on the same side of the transversal and not adjacent. one and only one parallel to this ^' line 624. the transversal is equal to two right angles. BGE and CHF.
and ABC is supplementary to DEF' or D'EF. The same holds where the angles have not the same OC. are either equal or supplementary. . The two 629. and OB to the supplement of Two angles whose sides are parallel each to each. B g the perpendicular the parallels CD is a constant. The two angles are equal when their sides extend in the same direction or in opposite \'^ Fig. is also parallel to the other.0 ' . 257 Two straight lines AB straight Une CD. we have AOB DOE or COF. vertex. that equidistant is. and AOB is Remark. we have ABC = DEF or D'EF'. 630. which is parallel to one. 627. 628. OA being perpendicular to = COD or EOF. and BC to EF. Two angles whose sides are perpendicular are either equal or supplementary (617). are parallel to and A'B'.STRAIGHT LINES 626. AB being parallel to DE. are everywhere from ^„ 23 one another. 24). and supplementary when two of the parallel sides extend in one direction and two in the other. The part intercepted by the two parallels on A' . straight lines AB and A'B' being parallel to one another (Fig. OD. 26 directions from their vertices. Any straight line CD perpendicular to one of two parallels is perpendicular to the other. any straight hne EF. perpendiciilar to a third one another (614 and 623).
ABC . one of eleven. the sides opposite these angles equal and the triangle angle the altitude Fig. one of fifteen. . line AC joining two vertices not adjacent is a diagonal of the polygon. A triangle ABC is an isosceles triangle when two of its sides AB and AC are equal. of the straight lines . Such is the figure ABODE. an octagon. AB. one of nine. 29 is In an isosceles tri Am bisects the angle A and the base 5C (639). endecagon. a decagon. A triangle ABC is ABC. if sides are equal. form the perimeter of the polygon. is a side of the Each of the angles EAB. 635. A polygon of three sides five. . one of six. . polygon is a plane figure bounded on all sides by a which broken line (600. Each polygon. in a triangle two angles isosceles. the angles B and C opposite the equal versely. one of a pentagon. gon. 605). two adjacent the polygon. a pentadecagon an icosagon. a dodecagon of twenty. is formed by an angle of Any 632. one of four a qiiadrilateral. BC. one of its angles is 633. In an isosceles triangle. B and conand C are are equal. one of twelve. Remark. The hypotenuse right angle 634. . of a right triangle is the side AC opposite the A triangle an obtuse triangle when one of its angles is obtuse (616)... 258 . an enneagon. sides of the polygon. one of seven. is called a triangle. A triangle is an acute triangle when all of its angles are acute. sides. one of ten. a heptagon. . .BOOK A II POLYGONS 631. a hexa. is a right triangle when one a right angle (616). one of eight.
640. and. 29). In any triangle ABC. 31 In a triangle ABC is (Fig. two opposite It is also a parallelogram when sides must be equal and parallel. 259 is equilateral when its three sides are equal. Such is ABCD.'aa a parallelogram is the distance from the base to the opposite side. or when the opposite of angles are equal each to each. In order that a quadrilateral be a parallelogram. A parallelogram is a quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel. n E g \ 641. i"' 'B SHg. E The vertex of a triangle is the vertex of the ^ angle opposite the base. 30 Kg. the angle smaller than the angle B. is In the isosceles triangle (Fig. the triangle is equi A triangle Remaek. the side is opposite the smaller angle. and. In an equilateral triangle the angles are all equal. 637. of two unequal sides AB C Emd AC. the smaller side versely. 639. if all the angles are equal. opposite sides. Any side may of be taken as the base a parallelogram. 30). 638. 32 Thus. The base of a triangle may be any side.POLYGONS 636. the side BC which equal to the others is taken as the base. lateral. not p / is \ The altitude of a triangle the perpendicular is f/ f —^ / distance from the base to the vertex. Fig. A sum triangle is a scalene triangle when none side of its sides nor angles are equal. any AC is smaller than the AB + BC of the difference AB . other two sides and greater than their B^ Kg. In a parallelogram the opposite sides and angles are equal.BC. con AB being smaller than the side AC. are equal each to each. The altitude . conversely. having is BC as base (Fig. 31). the vertex A. the altitude AD. the.
the altitude is the EF intercepted by the base and the side DC (627). GEOMETRY AB for the base (Fig. 36 A trapezoid is isosceles or symmetrical when or legs are equal. its nonparallel sides A rectangle is a parallelogram ABCD whose angles are right angles (Fig.260 Thus. two A trapezoid is a quadrilateral which has two sides and only Such is ABCD (Fig. and the 647. altitude the adjacent The side. A square base is a rectangle ABCD with equal sides (Fig. (636. The bases of a trapezoid are the two parallel sides AB and DC. 34 Fig. Fig. 644. side may altitude of the be taken as the base of the rhombus. (641) rhombus is the distance from the base to the is opposite side (627). A trapezoid is rectangular when one C of the nonparallel sides is perpendicular to the base. A rhombus a parallelogram ABCD whose sides are all equal (Fig. Pig. A polygon equiangular when all its angles are equal. 37 Pig. any one is of the sides. 36). 32). Such are the equilateral triangle and the rectangle .' The 645. 35). altitude of a rectangle is is the length of either side adjacent to the base. The base of a rectangle may be any side. bases (627). 643). 34). 643. The altitude of a trapezoid is the distance EF between the two sides parallel. 38 Any The 646. 33). having taken perpendicular 642.
is A closed convex line greater than any convex line totally included All which has been said applies to convex lines which are wholly or only partly composed of curves as well as to broken lines. Such are A and C with 651. and AH < AEFH. etc. A'EFGB. 601) is said to be convex when it lies entirely on one side of any one of its straight line elements. by Remark. A polygon is convex when bounded by a convex line. 609). A broken line or a curved line (600. A polygon can be equiangular and equilateral at Such are the equilateral triangle and the square. 41 D Angles formed by one side of a polygon and the prolongation of an adjacent side are called exterior angles of the polygon. J A 650. 37) and infinitely small in (Fig. Such is the angle DCH. finite in (Fig. angles of a triangle not adjacent to the exterior angle are called opposite interior angles.POLYGONS 261 A polygon is equilateral when all its sides are equal (600. 649. When the exterior convex line A'EFGB meets the line prolonged in A' so that the perpendicular AL < A'L. formed by the side CD and the prolongaEDI. A certain convex line AEFGB is greater than any other convex line ACDB which is included by the first when the two have their extremities at the same points A and B. B Fig. The two reference to the exterior angle CBD (653). 38). may be formed by two sides of a and the by two lines joining a point with in the triangle to the extremities of the base. Remark. CI < CHGI. Since DB < DIB.. are exterior tion CH of the adjacent side CB. . AHGB < AEFGB. 648. we have AB still ACDB < it. AEK. angles (653). we have ACDB < ACIB < tlie same time. interior line The exterior line triangle. A straight line can not cut a convex line in more than two points.
656.. s s For For For For the triangle n the quadrilateral n n the pentagon the hexagon n for = = = = 4. to the The exterior angle CBD (Fig. A'B'C. 5. 1st.AB = AC = one A'C. = = = = 2 (3 2 (4 2 {5 2 (6 — —  2) 2) 2) 2) = = = = 2 rM. the two others are acute. 8 and so on two right Remark. ^. 653. r< rt rt 4 6 ^. . the sum CBG + two triangles DCH+ EDI + ABC. and n the number of sides = 2 (n — 2) = (2 n — 3. 655. When the hypotenuse and an acute angle of one are equal to the hypotenuse and an acute angle of the other: = B'C.262 652. any number of sides.. sides and the included angle of the other: ZA=ZA'. A'B'C. right triangles ABC. 40). Any are equal: sides When two and the included angle of one are equal to two A'B'. sum of the angles. of the exterior angles always equal to four right angles. 633). The sum of the angles if of a triangle being equal to is angles. A. 41) of sum of the two opposite interior angles a triangle is equal A and C. Z B = Z B'. 654. s being the of a polygon. 2d. 4) rt /4 (right angles). parallelograms are equal when two adjacent. of a right triangle are coniDlementary The two acute angles (617. we have: & many times less two as the figure has sides. 2d. sides . ZB Two BC = ZB'. one side and the adside When jacent angles of one are equal angles of the other: 3d. s s 6. it follows that one of the three angles right or obtuse. are equal: When Two they have three sides equal each to each (663). When is the successive sides of a polygon are prolonged as in (Fig. to and the adjacent A5 = A'B'. and con sequently greater than either of them. Z A = Z A'. 1st. When the hypotenuse and one leg of one is equal to the hypotenuse and one leg of the other: B'C = BC. A'B' = AB. GEOMETRY The sum of the interior angles of a polygon is equal to two right angles taken as Thus.
side of equal to one side of the other sides (646). side of the second. then the third is side of the first greater than the third side of the second. 45 660.POLYGONS and the included angle of one are equal to 263 two adjacent sides and the included angle of the other (640). and these conditions suffice when they are properly chosen. figure is The diagonals if of a parallelogram bisect each other. therefore. Two rectangles are equal when two adjacent sides of one are equal to two adjacent sides of the other (643). is of the other (645). 44). sides of a triangle are equal respectively Conversely. In an isosceles triangle (Fig. the a parallelogram (Fig. The number of conditions necessary for the equality of two polygons of n sides is. and situated in in the n — 1 sides or angles equal each same order. but the included angle of the the same order. When two triangles have two sides of one equal respectively to two sides of the other. the line Am drawn from the vertex to the middle of the base is perpendicular to the base and bisects the angle at the vertex. equal Two polygons of n when they have n — 2 are angles or sides equal each to each. to when two but the third side of the first is greater than the third side of the second. versely. and situated first greater than the included angle of the second. 658. Besides these properties of a parallelogram: . Hg. 659. con the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other. 29). (w — 2) + (w — 1) = 2 n — 3. and respectively to each. then the angle opposite the third side of the first is greater than the angle opposite the third two sides of another. Two rhombuses are equal when one side and one angle of one are equal to one side and one angle Two squares are equal when one one 657. 44 Fig.
664. C. 4446). that the middle of is. When the three sides are given. two such transversals and connecting their extremities by straight All transversals which pass lines. from this it follows that in a right triangle BCD. lie in ^E_l2\^ A formed by producing the line. . of a square are equal and perpendicular to each other. the middle point to one of the equidistant from the three vertices. the straight line onals. a rectangle. The converse statements of the above are true. divide the parallelogram into two equal through the point lies in polygons. 661. When two sides and an angle opposite one (See problems in Geometry. we have a parallelogram. In any trapezoid: First. of intersection of the two diagonals of any paralThe point lelogram point is the center of the figure (Figs. of the sides are given (654). and the vertex of the angle legs. of a 2d. The diagonal of a parallelogram divides the figure into two equal triangles (Fig. 3d. GEOMETRY The diagonals hypotenuse is of a rectangle are equal (Fig. when two adjacent sides are given. 3d. a rhombus. a square. A triangle may be constructed: 1st. or legs. D. second. 44). which is joins the middles of the diag the bases. A parallelogram may be constructed when two adjacent and the included angle are given. when one side and one angle are given.264 1st. 2d.) given. B. coincides with EF. parallel to the bases and equal to half their sum. When two sides and the included angle are When one side and two angles are given. the same straight 663. 4th. 46). The diagonals The diagonals rhombus are perpendicular another (Fig. 662. the straight line MN. 46). MN = ^ . sides . . the any transversal which contains Drawing it and terminates in the perimeter of the parallelogram. when one side is given (656). which is joins the middles of the opposite nonparallel sides. „^ EF „ MN and ABDC = ^ equal to half the difference of '''^^^ ^^ „ E '^' In any trapezoid the middles of the bases. 45). the point of intersection of the diagonals. The diagonals of a rhombus and a square divide the figure into four equal right triangles (Fig.
An arc of a circle of is a portion The chord ties of an arc is a straight line BmC of the circumference. Two 666. Any chord BD which passes through the its called a diameter. Any straight line drawn from the center to the circumference is called a radius. That part is of a circle BmC. whose vertex at is at the center. bounded by an arc and its chord. is the arc. called a segment of the circle.into two equal parts. other than a diameter. The arc is the base of the the vertex. That part AOD two radii is called a sector of The chord is the base of of a circle bounded by an arc and a circle. all points of from a point within. which does not pass through the center. and any chord. than the diameter. BC joining the extremicenter. of the is less The diameter into divides the circle and circumference into two equal parts. circles of the same radius are equal. 667. the angle are drawn to the extremities 668. 265 sector. divides them called two unequal parts. the segment. Any angle AOD. The diameter is equal to two radii. and since the radii same circle are all equal. and their circumferences are equal. Any chord BC. called the center. is an angle at the center. and divides the circle and circumference. the center of the circle is . The circle is a plane surface bounded called the circumference.BOOK m by a curved line which are equally distant THE CIRCLE 665. so are the diameters. is Thus the circumference of all points situated the geometrical locus at a distance equal to the radius from the center (609). An arc is intercepted by of an angle the center when the radii which form the sides of the arc.
3d. AB' (Fig. the longest line from the point m to the circumference is mD'. are subtended by equal angles at the center (Fig. Of the two chords AB. and conversely. subtended arcs into two equal parts. 50). 7th. In the same circle or two equal circles: Two equal arcs ADB. A'B'. center.266 669. is subtended by the greater chord. D'A = D'B. 5th. Thus (Fig. 51). and conversely. are the bases of equal segments. nearer the center. Fig. are equally distant from the Two equal chords AB. The two equal chords AB A'B' (Fig. are subtended by equal chords AB. perpendicular to a chord of its AB. . 60 Fig. Any diameter DD' (Fig. 52 671. the shortest chord is the chord AB perpendicular to the diameter DD'. 50). is the diameter of Kg. The shortest and the longest line which circle. the longer is OD < OD'. and the shortest is mD. A greater arc is subtended by a greater angle at the center. GEOMETRY The longest chord lies wliich can be drawn through a point m. and conversely. not greater than a semicircumference. Equal arcs ADB. and conversely. A'B'. 50). A'D'B'. 672. OD = OD' (Fig. and conversely. 670. A perpendicular erected at the middle of a chord passes through divides the chord and each the center of the circle (621). which within the DD' which passes through the point. 49). 49 can be drawn from a point to the circumference a circle have the same direction as a line drawn from the given point circle. Of two arcs the greater 2d. and conversely. to the center of the whether the point be within or without the circle. 51 Fig. 49). 52). 6th. 1st. 4th. A' D'B' (Fig. DA = DB. mA = mB. and conversely.
may fig. sides pass through the ends of the base All angles inscribed in the A polygon is inscribed in in the circle (Fig. and all radii are normal to the circumference. A it has its An angle is inscribed in a segment its when its vertex Hes in the circumference and of the segment. 62). The angle CBD formed by two chords which meet at the circumference is called an inscribed angle (Fig. and conversely. 54. lies They are externally or internally tan gent according as one wholly without or within the other. A be thought of as being the limit of a secant where the two points of intersection approach each other and finally coincide. 50). 53 The perpendicular tangent All Om erected at the point of contact of the circumference at the point m. B5 Two circles and 0' are tangent in to each other when they have one point m common. normals to the circumference pass through the center. A A straight line all same segment are equal (684). 48) when extremities in the circumference of that circle. The shortest and longest distance from a point to the circumference of a circle are the normals to the circumference which pass through the is AB normal to the point C670). lines which cut the circumference in two is points are called secants. The perpendicular AB erected at the extremity of a radius Om is tangent to the circle.THE CIRCLE 267 8th. can not cut a circumference in more than a circle two points. Fig. 674. 48). The point common to the tangent and circles Two . are the bases of equal sectors. Two equal arcs ADB. Fig. A'D'B' (Fig. when its sides are inscribed The polygon is circumscribed by the circle. tangent to the same line at the same point are tangent to each other. straight line AB tangent to a circle when they have but one point tangent m in common. and 675. 673. straight line BC is inscribed in a circle (Fig.
FI .
and the same distance from inscribed angle it as the other point. the perpendicular bisector of the chord mp which joins the points less common to both. which same arc jBD angles. When two circles have a common point m outside of the line of centers. 58 Fig. and therefore. 61 the locus of the vertices of the right trian which have the given line for hypotenuse (609). (673). . and conversely. gles ACB ® B Fig.THE CIRCLE 683. 60 Conversely. 63 685. 60). The opposite angles of any quadrilateral inscribed in a circle are supplementary. which is subtended by the same arc CB.O'm (637). it is equal to any angle inscribed in the segment CDB which has the chord CB for a base. and the than the sum of the radii and distance between centers is greater than their difference. A + C= B +D = 2 right angles. All angles inscribed in a semicircle are right A is circle drawn upon a given all line as diameter Fig. when the sum of the radii distance between centers is less than the and greater than their difference. they cut each other in a second point p. Fig. Any angle formed by a tangent AC and a chord CB is equal to half the angle at the center COB. 62 Fig. Any BCD is equal to half intercepts the the angle at the center BOD. we have 00' < Om + O'm and 00' > Om . is 269 the line of centers When two circles intersect (Fig. situated on the other side of the line of centers on a perpendicular to the line of centers 684. the circles in tersect each other. 59 Fig.
axis of The is radical (Fig. ing a common circles exterior tan gent KK' to the two and bisecting we can construct of the locus by drawing a perpendicular to the line centers through the middle point of the If common tangent. that is. DrawFig. vertices The three medians. These circles are called 688. The angles three bisectors of the exterior of in pairs a triangle (Fig. 67) a geometrical locus two circles XX'. 687. which is the center of a circumjoining the in the scribed circle (680). meet is same point. XX' being perpendicular to the line of centers 00'. 690. 66).270 686. the two circles are internally or externally tangent. such that if tangents and MT' to the circles be drawn from any point on the MT M line they will be equal. and these points of intersection 0'. 0'". 0". The three bisectors of the angles of a triangle intersect in the same point (Fig. the radical the common chord indefinitely produced in both directions. The perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a triangle intersect in a point (Fig. the is radical axis the common tangent drawn through the point of contact. and conversely. 65) meet on each of the bisectors of the interior angles produced. GEOMETRY The sum AB + DC about a of the opposite sides of a quadrilatcircle (677) is eral circumscribed equal to the sum AD + BC of the other two sides. axis is and if the two circles intersect each other. . 689. 65 of the sides of the triangle and the escribed other two sides prolonged. are centers of circles each tangent to one Fig. 64). the three lines and the middles of the opposite sides. which the center of gravity of the triangle. which is the center of a circle inscribed in the triangle. circles. 67 it.
and Problems). RS. . Thus: AB BC CD .. To divide a line in extreme and mean ratio. The parallels AA'. 344. these units maybe substituted in the ratios and the arithmetical operations performed. Lengths being measured in certain fixed units.BOOK IV SIMILAR POLYGONS AND THE MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES 691. 68 CC . BB'. . 692. intercept proportional segments on the transversals PQ. is to divide it into two parts such that the a/ larger part tional is the mean proporline between the whole and the other part (330. ratio is Two lengths are proportional to two other lengths when their equal to that of the others (326). 'S Fig. 693.
Bb. B one polygon are respectively equal to the angles A'. they are said to be homolo.). Fifth. homologous the vertices homologous angles are homologous vertices. ACD and A'C'D'. ogous Third. which AC and A'C homologous Vertices are homologous diagonals. . B'. and we have. B = C = C . 71). . the adjacent sides AB and A'B'. OA^OB Ob"" Oa ratio of AB Ab' symmetry. Fig 71. Fourth.B' . when true The same is . Second. this two called the center of symmetry. when the angles A. but placed in an inverse order. 696. of In two similar polygons: First. which have homologous vertices. (AB _ BC_^ \A'B' DC^ B'C D'C )• \ . triangles ABC and A'B'C. If the figures have equal angles and proportional sides. .. . gous angles. . . . of another. are similar whew the angles of one are equal to the angles of the other and in the same order (A = A' . OA^OB AB Oa Ob"'Ab' Two points p and p' in two similar figures (Fig. The straight lines Aa. and homologous sides are proportional. which join the vertices of similar polygons. are said to be homologous points. A'B'C'D'E'. 72).272 695. Fig. in (Fig. The ratio of the homologous sides of two similar polygons is the ratio of the symmetry of the two figures. they ^ still have a center of symmetry 0. angles BC are and B'C of of homolsides. meet in a point when prolonged. 70 . GEOMETRY Two polygons ABODE. such that a line joining them passes through the center of symmetry prolonged. are homologous triangles... We have point is diagonals join .
0". Thus. AE. DA. circles have in general. which are located at the inter sections of their 697. figures in involution. situated in threes. All transversals which cut the three sides of a triangle B Fig. determine six segments such that the product of any three which are not consecutive. FB. In any triangle ABC (Fig. If three unequal but similar have their homologous dimen sions parallel (Fig. 72 Kg. six centers of of symmetry. these points are in a straight line. we have BD X AE X CF = DA X EC X The six FB. 76). the three centers of symmetry 0. Conversely. the centers of symmetry still fall in one straight line. equals the product of the other three. if The transversal may cut the sides of the triangle prolonged. the consecutive segments being BD. 273 circles have two centers of symmetry. CF. on four axes symmetry (Fig. If and this line is called the axis of symmetry. its one of the figures has dimensions situated in the inverse order of the others (Fig. Three 699. one between them and one external to them 0. 78) a straight line DE drawn . 77). 73 ABC.MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES Two 0'. 75). EC. are in a straight line. segments are said to be in involution. 0'. three points taken on three the sides of a triangle determine six segments 698. common tangents.
/ 4th. A'. therefore. 80) 5th. A' ' A?_ A'B' =A^ A'C . triangles ABC and A'B' ^ C are similar: 1st. When they are right triangles and have the hypotenuse leg proportional each to each. 2d. the parallel or perpendicular homologous sides are each to each. 701. Second. 79) or perpendicueach to each. BC B'C CA C'A' When they have equal angles between adjacent pro portional sides: /A . 2. . the angles are equal each to each: = two triangles are similar C A = be. When their sides are proportional: AB A'B' 3d. together with the adjacent sides of the triangle. the base. divides the sides proportionally. Fig. C' When two angles are equal. — = — = — and conversely. B= B'. 79 Fig. when two angles are equal each to each. 1. a triangle first ADE Two which 695). and one Remark Remark In two similar triangles the homologous sides are In two triangles which have their sides parallel opposite equal angles. Two parallelograms are similar when they have equal angles between adjacent proportional sides (695). When 700. forms.274 parallel GEOMETRY to . . the third must and. When lar (Fig. they have sides parallel (Fig. 78 Fig. First. is similar to the ^5C (693. 80 or perpendicular each to each (4th).
are called conjugate harKg. but the problem is is determinate when AB it and AC or their ratio given. form a harmonical system.^ base to BC into two segments proportional ^ = j^> the adjacent sides. Since. ^"^ XBI = y CI. conversely. AB + BC + CD + DE + EA + B'C + CD' + D'E' + E'A' AC A'C G AB A'B' (695) The bisector of the vertex angle of a triangle divides the . 82 monics. . B. parallel to the base and cuts in infinity. thus (Fig. . C. form segments which are proportional to the adjacent ^ = j^ = ytt' and conversely. the points I. I'. each other. 275 Two divided into the same same order. ^^l/^Vs" . the > position of the points I and I' depends upon the ratio AB j^ it is seen that the line BC may is be harmonically divided in an infinite number of ways. In two similar polygons the perimeters and homologous diameters are proportional to the homologous sides. I " ^n ^ The bisector of the exterior angle GAB cuts the opposite side produced so as to sides. I.MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES 702. the line BC is same harmonically divided by the line two points I. 70): we have A'B' 704. for the BC. When AB = AC the bisector AI bisects the base BC. to when they can be number of similar triangles situated in the and conversely. The proportion (a) is said to be a harmonical proportion.. the points /'. 70) similar 703. CI' BI CT'^'CV BI' . Two polygons similar to a third are polygons are similar (Fig. From the proportion BP we have. and AI. which shows that the product of the whole line CI' and the middle segment BI is equal to the product of the two extreme segments BI' and CI. I'. and .
AD = AE AC.276 705. thus: AB .AB proportional between the hypotenuse and adjacent segment (330).AD AD : CD. is Third. of 707. are drawn. This product is equal to the square of half the chord dicular to the diameter point. If from a fixed point A without a circle. which terminate in the circumference. : and AB X AE = AC X If AD. AB X. are drawn. which inversely proportional (326). which terminate in the circumference of the circle. When a perpendicular is drawn from any point A in a circumference of a circle to the diameter BC. are similar to each other and Second. secant from a fixed point A without a circle. ADC. and Fig. a tangent AF and a AB. thus: AB :AC = AD AE. Thus we have: : : : BC = AB BD and BC AC = AC CD. The parts two chords BC and DE. and chords AB and AC are drawn between this point and the exB. 82): First. the triangles similar to the original triangle triangle is ABD. are diameter and the adjacent segment. 706. : From parts of the last equation all it is seen that the product of the two the chords which can be drawn through ^ the same point A are equal. they are proportional to their external segments. GEOMETRY If in a right triangle ABC a perpendicular AD is drawn from the vertex A of the right angle to the hypotenuse BC: First. each chord is a mean a proportional between the proportional between the intersect. two secants AB and AC. the perpendicular a mean == proportional between the segments of the hypotenuse BD . ABC. which is perpendrawn through the given 708. the perpendicular Fig. 83 is mean segments of the diameter.AC = AD X AE. — ^D tremities of the diameter (648. the . each leg of the right its a mean . Second.
circle (707). 712. On the contrary angles of the same number of degrees are always equal. which is the 360th part of four right angles. 709). 710. An angle inscribed in a circle is measured by onehalf its The same is true of an angle formed by a tangent intercepted arc. Generally the arc of one degree taken as the unit arc (222). All angles at the center are measured by their intercepted arcs. intersecting without the circumference. 84). (684. . ^. . Thus. arcs of the same number of degrees may be imequal. and these in turn are subdivided into 60 equal parts called seconds. It should is degrees specified. and a chord 711. two secants. Thus angle (Fig. An angle formed by two tangents. is .MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES tangent terior is 277 its a mean proportional between the secant and ex segment: AB lAF = AF AE : and AB is x AE = circle. therefore. In the same or equal circles. This result is analogous to the one obtained when the point was within the 709. (Fig. the angle BAC is ^ measured by ^ . the unit angle intercepts an arc of one degree. that the angle contains the unit angle as many times as is the arc contains the unit arc. but simply the number of times this arc contains one 360th part of the circumference which has the same radius as the arc. The angle of one degree is divided. measured by onehalf the sum EC + BD ^ of the intercepted arcs. 83) intersecting The angle formed by two chords the within circumference . into 60 equal parts called minutes. two angles at the center are to each other as their intercepted arcs (667). as is the arc. and FAC is measured by . be noted that when an arc of a certain number of no length is designated. That is. or a tangent and a secant. AF^^ the product of Thus for a certain point its A without the the secant and external segment constant and equal to the square of the tangent drawn from that point. is measured by onehalf the difference of the intercepted arcs.
which of length for a side used in expressing . The area of a rectangle is equal to the product of its base and its altitude (644) : S = B XH. ratio of that surface to the unit surface. making we have: S . having S = B X H and S' = B' X H' we have: S:S' = BXH:B'XH'. drawn from Fig. ^( f. Thus. 321). 278 .S' H :H'. Two rectangles are to each other as the product of their bases and their altitudes. is. surface contains This expression for the area indicates that the as manj' units of surface.15 = 7. 85 point to the The projection of a line AB on another CD is that part of the latter EF which lies between the projections of the extremities of the first AB on the second CD. B= = B' in the preceding proportion Two rectangles having one equal side are to each other as the other sides.BOOK V THE MENSURATION OF POLYGONS 713.5' and H = 2. Thus. have the unit ~B~ ^'s B and H. i i 715. 716.15'. The product The of two lines is the product of their lengths.525 square feet. that 714.5 X 2. as the product B X H contains units. we have: <S ^ = 3. Having B = 3. the the is. The area of a surface is the measure of the surface. (224) 717. that whole line to one of xinit length (216. 'projection of a point A on a line CD that ! n is the foot £ of a perpendicular line. ratio of the The length of a line is the measure of the line.
we them have: . 718). 87 A' B 88 cu B Fig. then: tude. ——=——= ^ ^ S' . Two triangles are to each other as the products of their bases and altitudes: = BX H . 89 Kg. 279 The area of a triangle is equal to half the product of the base and altitude (639).5 square feet. It is seen that the area of a parallelogram is double that of a same base and altitude (718). ft. B Fig. their vertices fall on the same C'C parallel to their common base AB. B = 5 feet. the sides oppo the base will on the same is base AB.S = S X H= 5 X 3 = 15 sq. 722. The area of a 'parallelogram is equal to the product of the base and the altitude (641). Two triangles ABC </ and ABC C_ which have the same Placing bases and the same altitudes are equivalent (596. 721. Having B = 5 feet and H = 3. two parallelograms are to F 'D E\. c each other as the product of their altitudes and bases. ^^' ^ A parallelogram lelogram or rectangle tude. As for rectangles.B' X H'. Two triangles which have the same bases or the same altitudes are to each other respectively as their altitudes or their bases: S:S' = H:H'ot:S:S' = B:B'. 723. line so that their bases coincide. = 3 feet. and two parallelograms with the same B bases or altitudes are to each other respectively A triangle having the as their altitudes or bases. and is equal to a rectangle having the same base and altitude (716). The area of a trapezoid equal to half the sum of the . and the alti H S= 719. Let the base. 720. site A BCD is equivalent to another paralABEF which has the same base and altiline parallel to the Placing them fall so that their bases coincide.S' 7.MENSURATION OF POLYGONS 718.
:s ^ AB. and the area is: H= 1 foot. 70) being similar. plus twice the rectangle formed by the two lines.280 bases GEOMETRY times the altitude (642). side A'B'' = AC A'C (703) of two lines The square whose AC is equal to the sum contains the square of the first line. triangles Two ABC. which have one s angle equal. S 727. two The areas of similar polygons are to each other as the squares of two homolo A Fig. . The polygons ABCDE : and A'B'C'D'E' S and s being their areas. 94 gous sides or diagonals. plus the square of the second. AB and BC Thus we have (479) (Fig. S^^4^XH The area b "\ 3 + X 1 = 2. R Fig. (Fig. 92 Fig. is equal to the area of the polygon (718).5 square feet. 718). are to each other as the products of the sides which are adjacent to the angle. we have: . we have: S 726. the Dividing any polygon into triangles by drawing sum of the areas of these tri angles 725. in general.s = AB X AC :AB' X AC. of a trapezoid is also equal to the product of the line joining the middle points of the legs 724. two similar triangles and. The area of and the altitude (662). 91 J the radius of the circle (677. B = 2 3 feet and 6 = 2 feet. AB'C. 93): AC or {AB + BCy = AB' + BC ] 2 AB X BC. 93 C. any polygon circumscribed about a circle is equal to half the perimeter times B Fig. the altitude of the trapezoid. Thus S and being the areas of the triangles. being the bases. . the diagonals.
The square of the diagonal of a rectangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the sides (730). Thus (Fig. 96): The square BC" = AB" + AC^ and AB" = or AC' = BC'. lines 281 The square whose side AC is equal to the difference of two and BC is equivalent to the square of the first. 732. . We have BI and further . BC A C Fig. The square constructed on the hypotenuse is BC triangle equal to the of sum of the squares on the other two one of the legs is equal to the difference of the squares of the hypotenuse and the other leg. are equal. (705). Likewise: BC X BA' = AB X BC and AC X CB' = BC X CA'. In any ABC. or (AB . IF = BC X BI. differ The ACED the whose sides are respectively equal to sum and q ence of two lines is equivalent to the dif ference of the squares of the two lines (484) {AB + BC) {AB .AB\ two adjacent W AC^ 731. The perpendicular AI. 94): AC" 729. drawn from the vertex of the right angle in a right triangle to the hypotenuse (Fig. The square of the diagonal is equal to twice the square of one side.BC) =AB^ 730. and triangle AX? = CB X CI.BCf =AB' + rectangle BC'2ABxBC. plus the square of the second. IC. 96). 95 B of a right sides. IF = BIX 733.MENSURATION OF POLYGONS 728. divides the hypotenuse into two segments which are to each other as the squares of the sides adjacent to the right angle. the products AB X AC their AC X AB' jections of the two sides AB and AC and and mutual pro upon one another. from which it follows that the ratio of diagonal to one side is 's/2.IC = AB": A:C'. less twice the rectangle formed by the two AB lines (480) (Fig.
1st. 736. two In any triangle: The sum BC' + BA^. is of the square of the sides adjacent to the vertex equal to twice the square of the median C Fig. BA. BA. The product of two sides BC. less twice the rectangle side formed by one and the projection of the other upon BC' 735. is also equal to the product of the altitude BD. plus twice the rectangle formed sides and the projection upon 2 it. = AB' + AC'' 2ACX AD. by one Thus of the W= In any triangle angle A. we have: BC X BA = BE' + CE X EA. Thus in (Fig. plus the product of the segments formed by this bisector on the third side CA. supposing ££• to be the bisector of the angle CBA. is The difference of the squares of these sides equal to twice the rectangle formed by the base of the triangle and the distance between the foot of the perpendicular to the base drawn from the vertex. considering the third . and the foot of the median B^  BA^ = 2 AC X DE. + 111' = 2^^ + CW. is Is' + iC" + the square of ABC. GEOMETRY In any obtuse triangle ABC. is equal to the square of the bisector of the angle which they form. a side BC opposite AC X AD it: an acute of the equal to the sum of the squares AB^ and AC' other two sides. the square of the side BC is equal to the sum of the squares of of the other opposite the obtuse angle the other two sides. of a triangle BCA. 97 B A Fig. AC X AD. plus twice the square of half the base CE: 2 BC' 2d. drawn from the vertex to the middle of the opposite side. 99). The product of the two sides BC.282 734. of a triangle BCA. 98 n BE.
the of the squares of the legs is equal to the sum of the squares of the diagonals. + BC' + Ci^ + DA" = ic' + fiF + sum In any trapezoid. Referring to Fig. plus four times the /^ ^ 4 / ^E^^jr \ ^\\ ^ square of the line which joins the middle points of the diagonals „ EF\ EF: AF 738. . In any quadrilateral is ABCD.MENSURATION OF POLYGONS side as base. 283 and the diameter of the circle circumscribed about the triangle (673). 47: ad" + BC' = AC^ + 739. and con versely. is BW 2ABX sum DC. the the squares of the sides equal to the sum sum of of T>—pP the squares of the diagonals. the of the squares of the sides equal to the sum of the squares of the diagonals. less twice the product of the bases. In all parallelograms. 737.
the tangents drawn at the points of division form a regular circumscribed polygon. the chords which join the consecutive points of division form a regular in\„ scribed polygon. 741. the vertices of a regular inscribed polygon divide the circumference into equal parts. product of perimeter and apothem OP . When side is a regular polygon is circumscribed about a circle. and only one. may be circumscribed about in any regular polygon (741). Second. 740). Second. may be inscribed polygon. is called the sector of the polygon. Conversely: First. A regular polygon is a polygon which is equilateral and equiangular (647).BOOK VI REGULAR POLYGONS AND THE MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE 740. The circle inscribed in and the circle circumscribed about the same regular polygon are concentric (679). A circumference being divided into three or more equal parts: First. OA of a circle circumscribed about the polygon The apothem of a regular polygon is the radius OP of a circle inscribed in the polygon (677). One circle. The center and the radius of a regular polygon are the center and the radius (673). the points of contact of the sides of a regular circumscribed polygon divide the circumference into equal parts (673. and only one. each divided into two equal parts by the point of contact. 677). One circle. The angle between the radii drawn to the extremities of any side is called the angle at the center of the polygon. any regular The area its of a regular its polygon 284 is equal to onehalf the (724. 742. The part OABC. included between two consecutive radii OA and OC. 743.
the same C = 2c = VSR. 745. are similar. a circle The is side C of an equilateral triangle circumscribed about equal to double the side of an equilateral triangle inscribed in circle. equal to the chord which subtends an arc. which is equal to the difference of the arcs subtended by the sides of a regular inscribed hexagon and decagon. 726. The side (632. is subtended by the side (See Problems. 740). side c of and c = R V2.MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE 744. and their surfaces are to each other as the squares of these same dimensions (695. . of a regular decagon inscribed in a circle is equal to the greater segment of a radius divided in extreme and mean ratio The side of a regular inscribed pentadecagon is.) of a regular inscribed polygon of thirty sides. The difference between the arcs subtended by the sides of a regular inscribed pentagon and hexagon. 692). : i? = V3 : 1 and c = RVS. c:R = \/2:l radius of the circle. The side C of a regular hexagon circumscribed about a circle is equal to onethird the side of a circumscribed equilateral triangle about the same circle. 703. 285 of sides Two regular polygons having the same number Their perimeters are to each other as any two homologous linear dimensions. The side of a square circumscribed about a circle of circle is equal equal to the diameter of the circle. The to side c of a square inscribed in a radius R is V^ 2? The The (695). side of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle is equal to the an c equilateral triangle inscribed in a circle of radius R is equal to Vs R.
286 GEOMETRY Sides and Apothem of Regular Polygons Inscribed in a Circle of Radius B .
MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE Areas of Regular Polygons 287 .
Let p and P be the perimeter of two regular similar polygons.45509 X 3. to circumscribe a number of sides. describe a circle of 2. draw tangents to the circle at the middle points of the arcs intercepted by the regular polygon of twice the sides of the given polygon.75 cubic feet.25 = 0. to be 3 feet deep. 746.306563 X 1. Having a regular circumscribed polygon.306563 = 1. and its base regular octagon.45509 V12. 747. inscribed polygon The circumference is greater than the perimeter of any and less than that of any circumscribed poly . The area of the base —^ : = 12. Having a regular inscribed polygon of an even number of sides. which wiU give the regular octagon that is to serve as base to the reservoir. to circumscribe a regular polygon of half the number of sides.592815 feet. draw connecting every other vertex of the given polygon. one inscribed in and the other circumscribed about the sides greater Having a regular circumscribed polygon same sides.andp'=VP^ = v/?^^ ^ P+p VP + p 748. eight times.25 : 1 = 0.592815 feet. From and the table (1st) R R= : 1. Having a regular inscribed polygon. of an even number of than four. to inscribe a regular polygon of twice the number of sides.4550r = 12. erase every other side of the given polygon and prolong the remaining sides until they meet.5 = 1.592815 = 2. inscribed designating by p' and P' the perimeters of regular and circumscribed polygons of double the number of we have: P'=^. 1. Therefore.288 GEOMETRY Construct a prismatic reservoir which is is Example. join the vertices of the first to the middles of the arcs subtended by the sides of the first.592815 : 1.25 square feet.081 feet radius and lay off the chord 1. to conto be a tain 36. circle. Then from the and c table (2d) c^ 0. to inscribe a regular polygon of half that lines number of sides.081 feet.
It is the limit 289 which they approach as is their sides of sides smaller and smaller. and the chords which subtend them. and chords (749). Their circumferences r. 649). In practice generally not more than four places are expressed thus: TT = to 3. It . tt".141 592 653 589 793 238 462 643 . 749.1416. \lir. TT =^= 3..and \/ > which are often met with in formulas. seventh decimal place of the k^. Vtt. the Tables of the nearest values First 9 multiples of v. diameters. as the number become becomes Two c d. that greater (601. 751. arcs. their diameters. The ratio of a circumference C to its diameter D is a constant uncommensurable number. sectors. Similar sectors and segments are to each other as the squares of their radii.MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE gon. C and ter are to each other as their radii R and or as their diame D and and their areas are to each other as the squares of their linear dimensions: == c d ' and = s r —— ~ r^ d' (744) 750. In two different be similar circles arcs. which is commonly represented by T. circles are always similar. and segments are said to when they correspond to the same angles at the center (667). ^> ^) V . . Similar arcs are to each other as their radii.
290 GEOMETRY 1 IT .
it is only necessary multiply it by onehalf the radius.0 inches. Otherwise. \/ = \/X y/S = 0. which contains. the diameter D of a circle being given. The solution of the preceding problems using a table.5642 V530:9 = 13. multiply by 10. What is the area of a circle whose radius is 13 inches? 2d. What is is the length of the circumference of a circle whose radius 13 inches? (716) From C = 2 ttR = 2 3. 2. 3. 754. then the table gives D = C = 78.1416 • 13 13 = 530.1416 • 13 = 81. to two decimal figures. calculate the length of the circumference and Converting the given diameter into units of an order such that the whole part is the greatest possible number less than 1000.5^ = 7. is What is the radius of a circle whose area equal to 530.85. 753) R= 755.5 inches. but since the circumferences are to each other as the linear dimensions (749) ^' = W'¥5 = W ^=78. if the decimal part of this number is zero. which gives 25. according (753) to to we have: S = nE^ = 3d. we have: C Problems. the length of the cir cumference may be read directly from the table in units of the order given and correct to within one hundredth of these units.9 square inches. the lengths of the circumferences and the areas of circles The radius R or 1st. of whole diameters from 1 to 1000.5. = 4 nS. . and the area may be read directly in units of surface correct to within one hundredth of the chosen units. Having calculated the circumference.MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE Substituting for 291 R in (a) its value in terms of the circumference C (752). For D= 25. to the area of the surface. and <S = 490. Example For 1. 1st.9 square inches? From (751.68 inches.
0046 square feet. .000. is accuracy is desired.0252 inches. Example in units less Let C = 7.000 . such that the number be the greatest possible number than the greatest number in the table. . _ ^ = 49. For d = from the table 100 = 4. For S = 5.03. multiply by 10. but it is possible to obtain the same result by terpolation in the tables.92 C _2520_ q. or the area The circumference C S of a circle being given. then Example 2. C= 10.52 feet.^. is we have C = circumference and looking in the table we find the nearest and may ligible.592 square feet.875.000 j^^j^^ W 0.9303 feet. which corresponds to a diameter of 252 be taken as the required diameter as the error is neg Thus: D= If greater 252 jQQ = 2. and the feet.000 „_ 49. table gives for D' = 252 C = 791. — 252 " and S' ' square we have. 79L68 ^ ^^^g^gg 10. and the is corresponding diameter 252. C ^ 00252 ^ ^. 490 tttt.875. multiply by 10.92 Example 3.68 inches but ^ ^""^ and <S = 49. Multiplying by 100 793. to 0. For D = 2520 . 791. we find the nearest surface in the table is 49.987. = 4.292 GEOMETRY as the squares of and the areas are to each other mensions (749) any linear di ^ _ ?:^ = J— S = 100 S'" 25^ Example 2.000 = 2d.000.92 square inches.875.000. find the diameter D or the radim R.68.000.. 0. it better to substitute in the in formulas (752).875.0004987562 square inch.0252'_^^J__ " ^52^ ^ 10. then it should be expressed 1.79168 = 7916.8 feet S and since __ (2520)^ "~ e> (252)^ — . divide by 10.68 feet and since = 49875.9 square inches. then C = 791.92. 100 feet.S 252 ^_ 10.92 10.
68 (754. .S. and areas as the squares of those dimensions having the dimensions of one is circle and its the corresponding dimensions of another circle if may be found one dimension known. 8' of in the arc to 360°. at times the calculations may be shortened when some one of these has already been calculated.92 1 1 ~ ~ VIO^ ft. .. to find the length of 13 inches. d respectively: _. s 16.the diameter D. Thus. or s A? ^S. Is. according as d or or s = S^ = 2 D. and 757. 4C. and letting the length of the arc be A we have: . 4 D . . or c = = ^C. Circumferences being to each other as any homologous Unear dimensions. are the what same dimensions of a circle whose diameter df c=C^ Thus. 4 ' is ^S. D circle is The length of an arc of a equal to the circumference of the circle multiplied by the ratio of the number of degrees 25°. J 16' 9 ' The surface of a circle being equal to the product of the circumference C and half the radius B or . an arc of a circle C = whose radius is 81. Thus. Jc. 4S. let C and S is represent the circimiference and area of a circle of the diameter D. . 2. ~ ' 100 ^=1 = (749). 2 3 4 ' ' . D D 3' D 4' we have c = = 2C. = 2' . it follows that area. 3 D. ^C.987592 V49. 3C. .MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE 293 D _ D' V4.52 756.875. Thus 4 758. 9<S. 755).
. minutes.294 GEOMETRY lengths of arcs containing 12 decimal places (176) in The nearest circles of unit radius expressed: First. in grades. in degrees. Second. and sec onds.
8821866358 is 0. the rise by / and half the angle at the center by a. find the length which correto grades and vice versa.0000109956 2.7 inches (758). 761. Designating the radius OB by r. and r P + f = yp' .08 295 0. The area of a sector is also equal to the surface of a circle of the same radius multiplied degrees. 102). minutes. equivalent to the area of a triangle which has a base equal to the base of the sector and an altitude equal to the radius (718).7— = 37. in. In practice the span AB and rise DE of an arch are often given and it is required to find the radius OB. The area its is sector is duct of This base and half its radius (668). 600 X The table in 2. To do this.9 ?^j^r^^^ = 37. sponds to a certain arc in degrees and then find that same length in the other part of the table. which will give the equal to the pro number 760. the length of the base is calculated to be 5. Thus the radius of a sector being 13 inches and the angle at the center being 25° 8'. and seconds. the length of the arc ADB. of grades and vice of versa. and we have.8821866358 = 1729.9 (754). the right triangle ' OBE gives (694): r2 = p + (r.1 square inches. the preceding article may be used for re ducing angles or arcs expressed in degrees. by the ratio of the and seconds to 360°. The area of a circular segment is equal to' the difference between the areas of the sector and triangle OAB (Fig.311981.4857 gr of the arc in feet The length 759.0000785398 0.fy. The area have also: « of a circle of 13 radius being 530.005 0. minutes. half the span BE ^j I.0007 Total for 183.MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE 0.1 square inches. we = 530. angle of the sector in s = 5. and the area of the segment.0012566371 0.
tities.296 GEOMETRY also sin a and =  I (See Trigonometry. I. and a. we have all that is necessary to calculate the length of the arc ABD. the area of the seg ment ADB. The following table contains these various quan Table of the Lengths of Arcs and the Areas of Segments. the Rise Being Taken as Unity t o . and therefore.) Having r. the area. the area of the triangle OAB. the area of the sector OADB.
034 = = 20. = 51967. and the area 5.034. 297 The is rise of a circular arch is 2.042  (8. 7. we have: 2.6)2 35. These results are ordinarily sufficiently accurate.909 feet and 5.1967 • (2. For an arch having 2.1297 square feet.2020  5. Taking the the span becomes—^ = 20 7.2020 • (2.1655 square feet. feet. we find and the corresponding length of arc is 8.6 = = 20. but if a higher degree of approximation is desired. In the above example the arc would be 8. and area is rise 5.042 feet.2020 sqiiare feet.888 feet and 5. recourse may be had to interpolation (404).692.042 .1316) '^'fjoZJ^QQ feet.MENSURATION OF THE CIRCLE Example.6)2 35.6 feet 8. when reduced to feet 2. .2020  (5.70 Looking in the table for the nearest chord to 7. the span 20 What formed by the length of the arc and the area of the segment the arch? rise as 1.946) ^ ^^ — 7 692 _ ^ ^^ = 8.6 and square become: 8.692.6 feet. which.042  7 70 7.
EF. drawn from a point A to a plane. which are not equidistant from the foot of the perpendicular. OC. Third. to the plane. . which pass through its foot and lie in the plane. 103 /j.SOLID GEOMETRY BOOK PLANES 762. The line is oblique to the plane when not perpendicular to all the lines drawn through its foot and contained in the plane. GA = GB. drawn through a point B. same plane. pendicular to the plane. when any line in the plane is per MN AB. i^'D / '' perpendicular to that plane can be erected. can be drawn perpendicular to the line. and only one. The perpendicular OG is shorter than any oblique OA.*"* equidistant. and that line is per. I (Arts. The perpendicular OG being the point 0. 764. 763. it is perpendicular to the plane. /c^ Fig. which are^ ^s. is the projection of the point upon the plane. Through a point B taken on a line and a point C taken outside the line. lie in the CD. 765. and conversely line is The a plane the projection of the line (620). At a point 5 in a plane. If AB is perpendicular to two lines CD and EF. one. OB. and conversely. "V The foot of a perpendicular. When a perpendicular and several obliques are drawn from an exterior point to a plane: First. one plane MN. Of two obliques OA. it is the shortest distance from the distance of the point from the plane. from the foot of the perpendicular are equal. Second. that one OC which is farther is longer. formed by the projections of the points of a line upon upon the plane (715). . 298 . and only one. All the perpendiculars in a line. Two obliques OA. 602605) to A line AB is perpendicular of the line drawn through the foot pendicular to the line it is AB a plane MN.
two straight lines perpendicular to the same plane are parallel. The horizontal globe. locate three points in the plane equidistant from the given point.) 771. Conversely. 665). When one straight line AB is perpendicular to a plane. angle which 767. formed by its foot and in the plane. the line AC. 299 locus of the feet of the equal obliques is drawn from the same point 0. in a plane. A perpendicular to a circle passing through all center is the geometrical locus of the points equidistant from the cir cumference (609. first a horizontal then a perpendicular to this horizontal. 766. all lines A'B' which are parallel to this line are also perpendicular to the plane. 663). oblique to the vertical line is an inclined plane. A plane perpendicular to a vertical is horizontal (615).PLANES The cular. (This is called the ^jg j^g theorem of the three perpendiculars. then.is a circle whose center at the foot G of the perpendi From this it follows that in order to draw a perpendicular from a given point to a plane. . is The which has the greatest slope in a plane that line in the plane which makes the greatest angle with the horizontal plane and consequently the smallest with the vertical. is perpendicular to the line in the plane. the line OA and its projection AG on the plane (611. Drawing slope of 769. the perpendicular is the line with the greatest its any in the plane. If from the foot 5 of a perpendicular is AB to a plane MN. drawn from its intersection with the line in the plane to any point of the perpendicular. the center of this circle coincides with the foot of the desired perpendicular. as well as the vertical varies for each point on the A plane 768. drawing a circle through these points. 770. The angle that a line OA makes with a plane is the smallest is formed by that line and any line drawn through This angle is the one OAG. A plane perpendicular to a line and passing through point is its middle the locus of all points equidistant from the extremities of the line (621). a straight line drawn at right angles to any line DE in the plane.
A'B' in a plane. however far produced (602. 772. lOS j. line are parallel to each other (628). however far they parallel to a certain straight line are produced. 623). to a given straight line (623). can be drawn 773. parallel to that plane.300 GEOMETRY Two straight lines parallel to a third straight Corollary. Corollary passed parallel to Through a given straight line a plane can be any other given straight line in space. and only one. Every straight is 1. Through any point in space one parallel. planes are parallel if they can not meet. line AB. re A A' A bV Z/V Fig. is A Hne parallel to a plane if it can not meet the plane. Two 774.l^_ .
CD.PLANES Corollary allel to 1. RS. Corollary. 780. their corresponding segments are proportional: IB " OD '^^^'^^ M . Two parallel planes or a line and a plane which are parallel. are everywhere equally distant. Through a point taken out. 301 Two planes parallel to a third plane are par7 each other. If Fig. and only one. 2. m parallel planes two straight lines AB.U. plane / ^r 7 / can be drawn parallel to the given plane. 779. are intersected by three MN. PQ. Corollary side of a given plane one. are equal. Parallel lines included between parallel planes or between a line and plane which are parallel.
If two planes intersect. PABN. and the sum of all the consecutive dihedral angles about the same edge is equal to four right dihedral angles. The sum of the the intersection of two planes. All right dihedral angles are equal. formed by is equal to two right dihedral The sum of all the consecutive dihedral angles formed on the same side of a plane about a given edge AB is equal to two right dihedral angles. with makes adjacent When a plane meets another plane and is dihedral angles equal. A plane PQ is oblique to another MN (Fig. MN . plane MN if it 787. or when there are several dihedral angles which have the same edge. 785. Such are: PABM and QABN. angles (618). placdihedral angle is A to avoid confusion. PABM. their vertical dihedral angles are equal (613). by the four letters MABN of the faces. each of these angles angle (Fig. Fig. are adjacent if they have the same edge AB and a common face PAB between them (576). 786. the vertical angles formed which are not adjacent are dihedral angles. 114).'602 GEOMETRY is points describes an arc of a circle the center of which on the edge of the dihedral angle.^115 are obtuse dihedral angles 789. 790. two adjacent dihedral angles. designated by the letters AB of the edge. Two dihedral angles coincide when having the same edge Two dihedral angles are equal when they can be made to coincide. 115) when the first forms two imequal adjacent dihedral angles the second. called a right dihedral All dihedral angles PABM smaller than a right dihedral angle is are acute dihedral angles. When two planes cut each other. ing the edge in the middle. 788. A plane P is perpendicular to another forms with this second plane a right dihedral angle (614). and all dihedral angles is PABN larger than a right dihedral angle (616). Two dihedral angles PABM and PABN their faces coincide (596).
every plane Q passed through the line is perpendicular \ ^m ^ D' Fig. are perpendicular to each AB drawn in one of them perpendicular is other. . CBD. The plane angles of two equal dihedral angles are equal. According as a dihedral angle its is right. plane (763). Q. a straight line is perpendicular to a plane AB P (Fig. straight two planes P. If straight line two planes P. plane angle 793. are perpendicular to each other. 118 to the first plane (787). 798. is right. the perpendicular plane is the projection of the line AC on the 795. Two dihedral angles are complementary and supplementary under the same conditions as plane angles are complementary and supplementary (617). Q. It is the same with alternateinterior or alternateexterior angles (624. Any plane Q which is perpendicular to two others P. angle CBD conversely. All planes parallel to AB are also per pendicular to the plane P. A'B'. straight line AC not perpendicular to a plane one plane ACB. and 792. erected in each of the faces at the same point B in the edge. The plane angle of a dihedral angle AB (Fig. a to their intersection xy 797. and conversely. 799). 116 c L Fig. or obtuse. Two dihedral angles AB. Through a 105). and only one. 117 '. MN (Fig. and conversely (709). P'. acute./ Fig. 117).PLANES 303 791. 796. acute. or obtuse (72). If perpendicular to the other (762). are to each other as their plane angles 794. When C'B'D'. which is perpendiThe intersection BC of cular to the first plane. 116) is the formed by the perpendiculars BD and BC. can be drawn. every Hne AB perpendicular to one of the planes is parallel to the other or wholly contained in it.
304 GEOMETRY intersect. The converse first statements are also true when the is intersections of the two planes by the third are parallel (791). are cut AB (Fig. also perpendicular to the other. When two by a third plane Q (Fig. 800. the angle of the perpendiculars and the plane angle of the dihedral angle are equal or supplementary (792). . 799. 110). P'. we have the same relations for the dihedral angles as those given for plane angles in article (625). is Every point in the plane which bisects a dihedral angle equidistant from the faces of the angle (609). perpendicular to their intersection parallel planes P. 801. When allel the transverse plane it is perpendicular to one of the par planes. If two lines are drawn through a given point in space perpendicular to the faces of a dihedral angle. Two dihedral angles whose faces are parallel each to each are equal or supplementary (782). is which 118). 802.
Remark.S^. SB. 120 polyhedral angles which coincide are equal. Two Fig. of the planes which form the polyhedral angle are the edges. tetra hedral. pentahedral.. SA'B'C. j \ A its polyhedral angle is designated by the letter S at ^^s us when there are several polyhedral angles which have the same vertex. that is. etc. or. to avoid confusion faces is a convex polygon (648). Two is polyhedral angles SABC.. We will consider only the convex polyhedral angles. by the letters SABCD of its edges commencing with the vertex. A polyhedral angle is the opening of three or more planes which meet at a common point. and each angle formed / /• ^ ^ by the consecutive faces is a dihedral angle. those in which any section made by a plane cutting all its vertex. the vertex of the polyhedral angle.BOOK II POLYHEDRAL ANGLES — POLYHEDRONS SYMMETRY 803. according as it has three. five. In any trihedral angle: Any one of the face angles is smaller than the greater than the difference of the two others (637).. ist. 805. 806. 807. 808. etc. 804. are symmetrical when one formed by prolonging the faces of the other through the vertex (789). A trihedral angle is birectangular or tri rectangular according as dihedral angles. is called a trihedral. it has two or three right Two polyhedral angles coincide when they have the same vertex and their faces coincide (596). faces (632). A polyhedral angle four. sum and 305 .. . the portion s of the indefinite plane ASB included between the A^ edges is a face. the angle ASB formed by two con/I \ \ secutive edges is a face angle. The common point S is called The successive intersections .
SA = S'A'. the dihedral angle included be tween the two equal face angles is smaller in the first than in the second (658). When two trihedral angles have two face angles equal each to each. When two dihedral angles and the included face angle of 2d. each to each and situated in the same order. 812. the opposite face angles and conversely (635). one are equal to two dihedral angles and the included face angle of the other and are situated in the same order: ASB = 3d. SC = S'C. When the three dihedral angles of one are equal to the three dihedral angles of the other and are situated in the same order: SA = 810. \„/ 811. 121 first smaller than that of the second. SB = same S'B'. CSA = C'S'A'. A'S'B'. angle. 1st. SA = S'A'. ASC = A'S'C. and conversely (638). ASB = A'S'B'. one are equal respectively to a dihedral angle and the adjacent face angles of the other and are situated in the same order: are equal. then the is third face angle of the first smaller than that of the second. SB = S'B'. When their edges are parallel 2d. if the third face angle smaller in the first trihe dral angle than in the second.306 2d. is Conversely. The smallest dihedral angle is opposite the smallest face 3d. If GEOMETRY two dihedral angles are equal. (654) Any two polyhearal angles When the dihedral and are equal: face angles are equal each to each and placed in the same order. A'S'B'. S'A'. BSC = B'S'C. 809. Two trihedral angles S and S' are equal: When a dihedral angle and the adjacent face angles of 1st. When three face angles of one are equal to the three face order: angles of the other and are situated in the ASB = 4th. In any two vertical polyhedral angles the dihedral and . but the included dihedral angle of the rig.
are parallel. 816. The altitude of . . S'C. of the dihedral angles of The sum any trihedral angle is less than six and greater than two rightdihedral angles. perpendicular to the edges SA./ dral angles of a trihedral is angle intersect in a faces straight line. 6 . of this trihedral angle. If by the angle and equidistant from 122) perpendiculars S'A'. SB. (632). A'S'B'. a hexahedron. a penta.A. called lateral edges. the intersections of the faces are the edges. These polygons are the faces of the polyhedron. line joining any two vertices not in the same face is a diagonal of a polyhedron. SC. is. a trihedral angle may be constructed (808). called respectively a tetrahedron. The planes which bisect the three dihe. Thus. and the other faces. the trihedral angles S and <S' are supplementary. they are not equal.POLYHEDRAL ANGLES. S'B'. A'S'B' the supplement of the plane angle A'OB'oi the dihedral angle SC. a polyhedron of which two opposite faces. they cannot be is made less 813. but arranged in reverse Therefore. The sum of the face angles of any polyhedral angle than four right angles. 814.POLYHEDRONS SYMMETRY order. drawn to the respective BSC. which the geometrical locus of its the points included (609). A straight 818. D the face angles of one are supplementary to the plane the dihedral is >\C angles of angles of the other (792). 307 face angles are equal each to each (807). and the intersections of the edges are the vertices of the polj^hedrons. intersect in parallel lines. 819. called lateral faces. of the first. that to coincide. . A'S'C. Z. A polyhedron is . Having three face angles such that their sum is less than four right angles and each one of them is less than the sum of the two others. 5. that is. 815. are faces from a point S' within a trihedral angle SABC (Fig. ASB. and Z ASB is the supplement of the plane angle of the dihedral angle S'C. hedron. a second trihedral S'A'B'C is formed with its faces B'S'C. 817. ASC. A solid bounded on all sides by polygons is a polyhedron (631). according as it has 4. faces A prism is called bases. . Furtherangle more.
. 823. This base and the section are called the bases of the truncated prism (894). is a parallelopiped (640). 123) the lateral edges AG. . A prism whose bases are parallelograms EFGH. A truncated prism is that part of a prism included between one base and a section made by a plane not parallel to the base. SBC. ig. BCIII. 821. / /* A . are parallelograms (640). A pyramid is a polyhedron is face ABCD. 824.^\" (^ A^. according as edges are perpendicular or oblique to the planes of the bases c (762). and the lateral faces ABHG. CI. DABC. is and the g dis tance between the base and the opposite face altitude. In any prism (Fig. . . cular to each other. pentagonal. The cube is a rectangular parallelopiped whose faces are squares. / JjA any one vertex E. which are equal in pairs. its lateral A D prism is a right or an oblique prism. 125) of which one a polygon. BH. EH. that is. Thus. are triangles having a common . a parallelopiped is a hexahedron made up of six parallelograms. are perpendi.308 the prism is GEOMETRY the distance between the bases (779). and the other faces SAB. All its edges are equal. according as bases are triangles. (Fig. the three adjacent edges which meet in any vertex. parallel to the bases is equal to A section of a prism made by a plane perpendicular to the lateral edges is a right section. 121 g2Q sections of a prism made by parallel planes are equal polygons. the A parallelopiped is A are rectangular all one whose faces /i\\ 1 parallelograms. 124). thus the bases of a prism are equal. which meet The three The three edges ED. 3 / ^ terals. . its . and any section made by a plane the bases. pentagons A regular prism rpj^g is a right prism whose bases are regular polygons (740). \S^^^ dimensions of a rectangular parallelopiped ^^ ^^ are the two dimensions of its base and its altitude. . in EF. Any face may be the base of the parallelopiped. . 822. . quadrangular. . called the base. . (Fig. . are equal (779). . prism is triangular. called lateral faces. quadrila(632). .
126) (895).23) two pyramids of the same altitude are cut by planes and at equal distances from their vertices. Thus. its base is is a triangle. order. when their surfaces are composed .99^ . according as (632). pentagonal. The frustum of a pyramid is the porpyramid included between the base and a section made by a plane parallel to the base. bases. and the altitude Sh pro portionally. If the bases are equal or equivalent. tion of a tion are the bases of the frustum (Fig. 828. the sections will have the same ratio as their parallel to their bases.POLYHEDRAL ANGLES— POLYHEDRONS— SYMMETRY vertex S. Thus. . .g SA' Sh'' (. The base of the pyramid and the sec827. any one 829. pentagons. SB. Two . Thus. . (Fig. A plane P parallel to the plane of the base ABODE of a pyramid 1st. . The which lateral is are equal isosceles triangles. A pyramid regular when its base is a regular polygon faces and its lateral edges are equal. quadrangular. If _^. quadrilateral. the altitude of called the slant height of the pyramid. is SB'"" The section A'B'C'D'E' and the ratio of the the lateral two polygons is equal to the edges and altitude. quadrilaterals. A pyramid is triangular. ratio of the squares of ABODE A'B'O'D'E' 826. . two pyramids . the sections are also. pentagon. same number placed in the same of triangles. the lateral faces are called lateral edges. 126): . ^Sh Sh' similar to the base. called the vertex of the pyramid. 309 The intersections of Such are: SA SB The altitude is the perpendicular drawn from the vertex to the base. SA^^SB^ SA' 2d. Divides the edges SA. polyhedrons are of the same kind of the . . A polyhedron is convex when it is situa ted totally on one side of the plane of of its faces (648). . 825.
Two tetrahedrons are equal (818): First. 833. D. 832. when one face and the three adjacent dihedral angles of one are equal to one face and the three adjacent dihedral angles of the other and arranged in the same order. Two prisms are equal if three faces. 834. B. Second. when two faces and the included dihedral angle of one are equal to two faces and the included dihedral angle of the other and placed in the same order. Thus. 835. when the edges of one are equal to the edges of the other and are arranged in the same order (809). we have: ^2 + 52 + (7 + 2)2 = 4 a2 + 4 52 + 4 c2. the diagonals bisect each other. Thus. being the diagonals. when and the included polyhedral angle of one are equal to three adjacent edges and the included polyhedral angle of the other and placed in the same order. C. F the number of faces. The sum of all the face angles of a polyhedron is equal times four right angles as there are vertices in the polyhedron less two. including a trihedral angle of one. the sum of the squares of the diagonals is equal to the sum of the squares of the sides. to as. including a trihedral angle of the other. of sides. V + F = E + wherein the V is the number of vertices. are respectively equal to three faces. and a. c. 2. the three adjacent sides. Third. In any polyhedron the number ber of faces is num equal to the number of edges plus 2. right prisms of the and are similarly placed. for 7 = 8.310 or prisms are of the GEOMETRY same kind when their bases have the same three adja number 830. and E number of edges. All cubes of vertices plus the which have an equal side are equal. (739) . In any parallelopiped (822): First. s many = 4 (7  2). Second. Fourth. Thus. A. h. s = 4 (8  2) = 24 rt 4 (652) wherein s is and V the the sum of the face number of vertices. Two same base and altitude are equal. angles expressed in right angles. The number of conditions necessary for the equality of two polyhedrons of the same kind (829) is equal to the number E of edges. cent edges 831.
and plane of symmetry. and we have: D^ Thus to the = 3 c^ and —= to Vs. the three sides are equal. Two polygons or two line. homologous dihedral angles In general they cannot be made to coincide. the four diagonals are equal. or two polyhedrons symmetrical with respect to a point or a plane. or the plane. (731) the ratio of the diagonal D one side c of the cube to is equal square root of three VS. Two straight lines. Two points are symmetrical with respect a third point if this third point bisects the straight line which joins them. and plane are respectively called center of symmetry. a line. . axis of symmetry. two polygons symmetrical with respect a point or a plane. are equal. to Two Two straight lines. to Two points are symmetrical with respect a line or plane when this line or plane bisects at right angles the line which joins the a point. = 4: a" + 4:V + 4: c" or D^ is = a^ + V + c'. If the parallelopiped is a cube. polyhedral angles. the square of one diagonal equal to the sum of the squares of three sides. 836. 839. or 838. are equal each to each. The point.POLYHEDRAL ANGLES — PLYHEDRONS — SYMMETRY In any rectangular and we have: 4 D^ that is. line. or polyhedrons are symmetrical with respect to a point. a a plane when each vertex of one has a symmetrical vertex in the other with respect to the point. two points. 837. or plane. 311 parallelopiped. two polygons symmetrical with re spect to a straight line. have equal and arranged in inverse order. the line. Two straight lines are symmetrical with respect to a plane when their extremities are symmetrical with respect to the point. line.
The bases of as axis is called the axis of ^313?^ the cylinder are the circles described by the sides the distance AB and the DC perpendicular to the axis. ABS about one The side SB which serves as an of the cone. parallel to the base is a circle. The lateral surSA is the face is generated by the hypotenuse SA. is a rectangle whose opposite sides are two elements of the cylinder. The vertex of the cone is the point where the lateral surface meets the axis.BOOK A III THE CYLINDER— THE CONE— THE SPHERE 840. or cone of revolution. Any position of the gen an element of the surface. Second. parallel to the bases is a circle equal to the bases. The section of a right circular cylinder made by a plane: First. which makes one entire revoluThe side AB which serves tion about one of its sides as an axis. is Second. 312 . the cylinder. Any position of the generatrix is an element of the surface. right circular cylinder. face generated by the side CD parallel to the CD eratrix 841. The slant height hypotenuse of the generating triangle. is A by an a solid genof its erated legs as the revolution of a right triangle axis. or cylinder of revolution. parallel to the axis 843. is is called the generatrix. passing through the vertex perpendicular to the base sides are an isosceles triangle whose two elements of the cone. is cylinder AB The altitude of between the two is The lateral surface of the cylinder the suraxis. of the cone is the 842. generatrix. is a solid generated by a rectangle ABCD. right circular cone. axis is called the axis or the altitude The base of the cone is the circle generated by the side AB perpendicular to the axis. The section of a right circular cone made by a plane: First.
and prisms . and an oblique cylinder as an oblique prism. according as the generatrix not perpendicular to the plane of the bases.THE CYLINDER — THE CONE — THE SPHERE 313 844. right section of a cylinder is a section made by a plane per pendicular to the generatrix (820). which moves parallel to itself and concalled stantly directrix. The base of the cone and the section are the bases of the frustum. AB and the between the two bases the distance CD between the bases (827). and a cylinder a solid which are limited planes. the cylinder may be considered as being the limit approached by any inscribed or circumscribed which have these polygons for bases. the surfaces or volumes of prisms apply as well to cylinders. A is cylinder is right or oblique. according as their bases are inscribed in or circumscribed about one another (673. In a right circular cylinder the directrix is a circle (840). 677). the right cyhnder may be considered as a right prism. made by is planes cutting the surface which are parallel to the plane of the directrix are equal to the directrix. Therefore all properties of. is The part 138). called a 845. A prism and a cylinder are inscribed in or circumscribed about one another. Just as a circle. CDEC'D'E' included by the parallel planes. slant height of the frustum of a cone of revolution of the generatrix included altitude is that (Fig. The frustum of a cone is that part of a cone included between the base and a section parallel to the base. or The 846. touches a fixed the directrix is curve CDS the b7 all When sections a closed plane curve. is a curved surface generated by a moving straight line AB. Thus. and the distance HH' two parallel planes between the bases is the CDE and is altitude. provided that these properties are independent of the number of sides. A cylindrical surface generatrix. by the curves equal to the directrix and that portion of the cylindrical surface included between these parallel The bases of the cylinder are the C'D'E'. or in general any plane sur face limited be regarded as the limit by any inscribed or circumscribed polygon approached by a curve. the may when number of sides is indefinitely increased (601).
in general. it is a rectangle whose altitude is the altitude of the cylinder and whose base the base of the cylinder. oblique. a pyramid. the cone a right circular cone When these conditions are not fulfilled the pyramid and a cone are inscribed in or circumscribed same vertex. their bases are inscribed in or circumscribed about one another. the perimeter of A conical surface is the surface generated by a moving straight line SA. the development is a rectangle. called the directrix. 847. having the a plane surface. and the altitude from the vertex to the plane of the base.314 GEOMETRY that the bases and altitude of the cyhnder are substituted for the bases and altitude of the prism. a fixed point S. included between this surface and the vertex. passing through vertex. as is is also that of the lateral surface of a cone. called the and constantly touching a fixed curve BCD. the development a plane surface. and the vertex is lies on a perpencone is dicular erected at its center. The plane surface is the distance SH the base of the cone. Therefore all properties of surfaces or volumes of pyramids apply as well to cones. is whose altitude the altitude of the prism and whose base the perimeter of the base of the prism. and. according as. The development of the lateral surface of a pyramid is 849. Thus the right circular cone (841) may be considered as a regular pyramid (824) whose slant height is the side of the cone. and when is the cylinder is a right cylinder. The development is is of the lateral surface of a prism is a plane surface. the development is of the lateral surface the sector of a circle whose radius the side . is is called a cone. of the lateral surface of a cylinder is Likewise. the solid SBCD. 848. is When (841). 850. any cone may be considered as being. and whose base is a circle. The cone may be considered as the limit of inscribed or circumscribed pyramids when the number of sides is indefinitely increased (846). If the prism a right prism. called the generatrix. When the directrix BCD is the boundary of a '^ plane surface. provided that they be independent of the number of sides of the base of the pyramid. the directrix a circle. When the cone is one of revolution. A about one another.
all the . 841) which passes through the E (Figs. A plane tangent to a cylinder or a cone of revolution solid. The above statement applies to any cone or cylinder whose base is a convex polygon. that when it touches only one element of the surface of the is. All great circles divide the sphere into two equal parts (666). CED. A circle sphere may be considered as being generated by a semiits KCH. in OA.THE CYLINDER— THE CONE— THE SPHERE of the cone. made by a small circle. 315 and whose base is is an arc equal to the circumference to of the base of the cone (760). In the same sphere or in equal spheres two tmequally from the center are equal. are called great circles. and K of the diameter perpendicular 855. The extremities distant circles H to the plane of a circle AFB are the poles of this is circle. 853. made by planes passing through the center. the smaller one is the converse statements of the above are also true (672). Each from all of the poles H and K of a circle AFB equally distant points in the circumference of the circle. when it contains a tangent EF to the base and the element (840. point of contact plane tangent to a cylinder or to a cone of is perpendicular to a plane passing through the axis of the cone and the element (841) of the surface at the point of contact. section is AFB. 127 and 128). All diameters are equal two radii All sections and consequently equal to each other. All straight lines are called radii. A chord CD which passes through the center to a diameter. which has its extremities is the surface of the sphere. 851. of Any A sphere is is a solid bounded by a surface every point called which equally distant from a point the center (665). a plane which does not pass through circles equally the center. 854. drawm from the center to the surface. is a chord. The distant from the center. A straight line AB. and of two farther. that is. revolving on axis KH. The distance between two points on the surface of a sphere is the arc of the great circle joining these two points. revolution 852. A A quarter CE = ED of a great circle is called a quadrant (222).
and the circular sectors OABC. 858. AC. The dihedral angle formed by the planes of the semicircles is the angle of the wedge. A its spherical lune or wedge is right. A A part ABC of the surface is of a sphere boimded by three or more arcs of great circles called a spherical polygon. acute. or obtuse. spherical pyramid is a solid spherical polygon ABC. the line is the circumference of the circle which has this point arcs for its pole. and the surface into four equal right lunes. 133). under the same conditions as a plane triangle (633. The polygon ABC is the base of the pyramid. Conversely. OAC. 860. 635. The point lune is meeting the vertex. acute. or obtuse (788). 856. and the center of the sphere is the vertex. bounded by two semicircumfer ences of great circles. isosceles. OBC. 636). A a portion ABFCA the sur face of a sphere. and of the arcs the sides. A as it spherical triangle is birectangular or trirectangular according has two or three right angles. A spherical pyramid is birectangular or trirectangular accord . The 859. whose bases are the different sides of the polygon and whose vertex is the center of the sphere (Fig. according as angles are right. or equilateral. AB. The plane angle of this dihedral angle is the angle DAE (792). angle The angle of the lune is the its DAE between the semicircumferences which wedge is form boundaries. A. Two great circles the planes of which are perpendicular to each other divide the sphere into four equal right wedges. arcs are the sides of the polygon. is is of two great A circles which meet in a point of called a spherv D cal angle. A A spherical triangle is the polar triangle of another first (855). The angle formed by the V. if all points on a line drawn on the surface of a sphere are equidistant from one fixed point in the circumference.316 GEOMETRY and the cir arcs of the great circles passing through the pole cumference are equal. bounded by a OAB. A spherical a portion AOFBC of a sphere bounded by a lune and two great semicircles. 857. when the vertices of the second are the poles of the 861. spherical triangle is right.
638. 132). Such is AB (Fig. Third. is A zone that portion of the surface of a sphere included between two parallel planes CED. 862. when they have three sides equal each to each and similarly placed. The bases of the zone are the two circumferences CED and AFB. the zone has only one base. The distance between the bases 869. In any spherical triangle any side is less than the sum of Articles the other two and greater than their difference (601). When one of the two planes is tangent to the sphere. 863. is the altitude of the zone. AFB (Fig. A polyhedron is inscribed in a sphere when all its . of the angles of a spherical triangle are less The sum than and greater than two right angles (813). which include the zone. 636. same or equal spheres are and the included angle of one are equal to two sides and the included angle of the other and similarly placed. and the surface into eight equal trirectangular spherical triangles. 809). is The angle of two arcs of great circles (856) equal to of the plane angle of the dihedral angle formed the two arcs. 658) apply as well to spherical triangles as to plane triangles. its 317 base is a birectangular or trirectangular triangle Three great circles. Second. Fourth. (635. when three angles are given (663). Third. 132). when they have three angles equal each to each and similarly placed (654. The sum of the sides ot any spherical polygon is less than the circumference of a great 864. by the planes The angles 865. such that the plane of each is perpendicu lar to the planes of the two others. Fourth. when one side and the adjacent angles of one are equal to one side and the adjacent angles of the other and similarly placed. Two spherical triangles on the equal: First. when two sides the adjacent angles are given. when two sides and the included angle are given. 868. circle. Second. 867. when three sides are given.THE CYLINDER — THE CONE— THE SPHERE ing as (859). A spherical triangle may be constructed: First. when one side and 866. six of dihedral angles formed a spherical polygon are the plane angles of the by the planes of the sides (792). A line is inscribed in a sphere when it terminates in the sides are surface of the sphere. divide the sphere into eight trirectangular pyramids equal each to each.
and all The shortest and radii are normal to the surface of the sphere. A AE and in to a sphere a sphere are tangent when they have only one point A common (Fig. Any straight line AD perpendicular to the radius OA is tangent to the sphere. The six planes drawn perpendicular to the middles of the edges of a tetrahedron meet in a single point equally distant from the four vertices of the tetrahedron. 871.318 inscribed in the sphere. The six planes which bisect the dihedral angles of a tetra hedron meet in a single point equally distant from the four faces of the tetrahedron. GEOMETRY A sphere is circumscribed about a polygon when the polygon is inscribed in the sphere (673). 874. and lies in the plane which is The perpendicular the point of contact tangent to the sphere at that point A. A sphere. This point is the center of a sphere. 873. 133). and only one. which straight line may be circumscribed about the tetrahedron (688). A plane DAE is tangent when they have but one point A in common. may be passed through four points in space not in the same plane (680). is on the according as the point situated between the centers or on the prolongation of the line of centers. Two spheres are tangent when they have but one point in common (675). OA erected to the tangent plane is DAE at normal to the sphere 0. 870. inscribed in a polyhedron A sphere when the polyhedron circumscribed about the sphere (677). 872. . Two spheres which have their common point line of centers are either tangent externally or internally. Any is plane DAE perpendicular to a radius OA at its extremity tangent to the sphere (673). Any line normal to the surface passes through the center of the sphere. A polyhedron of its faces is is is circumscribed about a sphere when each is tangent to the surface of the sphere. except that the surfaces cut each other in circles. This point is the center of a sphere which may be inscribed in the tetrahedron (687). Articles (681 to 683) apply to the surfaces of spheres as well as to circles. longest distances from a given fixed point to the surface of a sphere is the normal to the surface of the sphere passing through the point (675).
Two polyhedrons composed of the same number of tetrahedrons similar each to each and similarly placed. 126). Fourth. cuts similar to the original 877. off drawn parallel to the plane of the is base of a pyramid. Second. pyramids (819. or two Two prisms pyramids are similar when they have an equal dihedral angle at the base included between two faces similar each to each and similarly placed. (700). All cubes are similar. when they have an included between two faces similar each to each and similarly placed. and the converse is also true (702). when they have a when similar face dihedral angles equal each to each and situated in the order. 876. A plane P (Fig. and three adjacent same their edges are proportional each to each and similarly placed 878. 824) are similar when their bases are similar polygons and their altitudes to each or two regular Two prisms other as the sides of their bases. Two polyhedrons similar to a third are similar to each other. when they have an equal dihedral angle equal polyhedral angle included between proportional edges and similarly placed. a pyramid SA'B'C'D'E'. 319 . Two polyhedrons are similar when their dihedral angles are equal each to each and are similarly placed. Third. are similar. Two tetrahedrons are similar: First. or as the radii of the circles inscribed in or circumscribed about the bases. Two right prisms are similar when their bases are similar and their altitudes are to each other as the homologous sides of the Two rectangular parallelopipeds are similar when their dimen sions are proportional. and the homolo gotis faces are similar (695). 879. which pyramid SABCDE (825).BOOK IV SIMILAR POLYHEDRONS AND THE MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES 875.
GEOMETRY All dihedral angles are measured by their plane angles is. 2d. Any spherical polygon is measured by the excess of the sum of its angles over as many times two right angles as there are sides less two (858. 928). A sum spherical triangular of its pyramid is measured by the excess of the angles over two right angles. 919). 882. that (792).320 880. they contain as many right dihedral angles as their plane angles contain right plane angles. Taking the spherical trirectangular pyramid and the right angle as units (881): 1st. lar trihedral angle and the plane right angle as units (792. Taking the trirectangular spherical triangle and the right triangle as imits (881): 1st. A spherical lune is measured by twice its angle (857). 884. it contains as its many trirectangular spherical triangles (861) as twice angle contains right plane angles (918). that is. that is. 805). 864. contains the trirectangular spherical pyramid as many times as its plane angle contains right angles (857. 861. Any trihedral angle is measured by the excess of the sum Taking the trirectanguof its plane angles over two right angles. 929). 864. 883. spherical Any pyramid is of the angles of its base over as . A spherical triangle is measured by the excess of the sum of its angles over two right angles. its A it spherical wedge is measured by twice plane angle. 881. measured by the excess of the sum many times two right angles as there are sides to the base less two (861.
889. is The area equal is expressed in units of surface one side of which 887. Two cubes are to each other as the cubes of their edges (823). or as the products of their bases altitudes.BOOK V MENSURATION OF POLYHEDRONS (781) 885. The volume of a prism is equal to the product of its base and its altitude (819). and they have an equal dimension. altitudes 890. is equal to the cube of its edge (823). The volume of a body is the ratio of that body to another taken as unity (216). lent bases or equal altitudes they are to each other as their alti They are equivalent if they have the same equal to the perim and equivalent bases. they are to each other as the products of their other two dimensions.2 cubic feet. Thus. and according as two prisms have equivatudes or their bases. product of base and or the product of mensions (822). is to the its three di The volume its a rectangular parallelopiped its altitude. when a body. of any form whatever. being simply a special case of the prism. and if they have two dimensions equal they are to each other as their third dimension (717). supposing a cube whose side is equal to one foot is taken as iinity. 886. The volume of a cube 888. the unit of length. The product of a surface and a line is the product of the area of the surface by the length of of the line (713). The lateral surface of a right prism is 321 . Any two prisms are to each other as the products of their bases and their altitudes. the altitude is equal to one of the lateral edges. The volume of a prism is also equal to the product of its right section and one of its lateral edges (820). Any is parallelopiped. measured the same as a prism (887). the volume of the body is equal to 1. contains the tenth part of the foot cube twelve times. When the prism is a right prism. Two If parallelepipeds are to each other as the products of their three dimensions.
c). The lateral surface of a regular pyramid is equal to half the product of the perimeter of the base and the altitude of one of the lateral faces (824). The volume of any pyramid is equal to onethird the prodIt is equal to oneuct B X of the base and the altitude. They are equivalent if they have the same altitudes and equivalent bases. c. The volume is of the frustum of a pyramid ABCDEFGH (827) equal to the sum of the volumes of three pyramids having an altitude equal to the altitude of the frustum and their . which have an equal polyhedral angle. C. volume of a prism of equivalent base and equal altithird the H tude (824.322 GEOMETRY altitude. b. C. 891. base. and a. of the upper base of the prism. Two tetrahedrons. Any two pyramids bases and are to each other as the products of their their altitudes. 894. 895. triangular prisms. are to each other as the products of the sides which include the equal angle (725). F = B(a + 6 + wherein B is the lower the altitudes of the various vertices A. 134 (821) is equal to the sum is whose common base of the volumes of the three pyramids the lower base of the prism and whose vertices are the vertices A. with respect to the base B. 889). is V the volume of a truncated prism. B. and according as the two pyramids have the equivalent bases or the same altitude they are to each other as their altitudes or their bases. or parallelepipeds. B. eter of the base times the and the its lateral surface of any prism is equal to the perimeter of right section times one of the lateral edges (820). 892. The volume of a truncated triangular prism ABCDEF F Fig. 893.
divide it into parts bounded laterally by vertical planes. as is sometimes the case. 137 generated by a straight line which moves on the two opposite lines EF and GH. 6 [b(2a + a') + b' (2 a' + a)]. V is the volume of the frustum. we have: xised for V = ^b(2a + When the bases are similar. ^HXB + ^HXb + ^H\fBb = ^H(B + b + V56). Thus. Since the area of a trapezium is expressed in triangles. G. lower base. 136) . on the bottom by any quadrilateral ABCD (Fig. by b. and their sur faces are to each other as the squares of these dimensions. The volume of a pile of stones or the capacity of dumpcart. a and b the dimensions of the The same formula may be If b' the calculation of the capacity of a dumpcart. F. which has no geometrical form but which may be supposed to be Fig. is the frustum of a pyrain ar mid. h. b'". ABD. and on the top by the surface of the soil. 897. CDB. volume may be calculated from the formula ticle (895). . all being on the surface of the soil.MENSURATION OF POLYHEDRONS bases respectively. and a mean proportional between these two bases of the frustum (344). V= wherein 896. V. the points E. the upper base ABCD. and 898. 137). the lower base 323 EFGH. and a' and those of the upper. or EH and FG.. To calculate the volume of an excavation. B the lower base. The volumes of two similar polyhedrons are to each other as the cubes of their homologous linear dimensions. H. then its volume is (Fig. and total designating respectively the areas of the triangles ABC. the solid its a'). Suppose a pile of crushed stone to be piled so that its upper and lower bases are rectangles. Excavations. CDA. and b the upper base. should equal zero. wherein h is the height of the b' pile.
and the formula becomes: V= B = and upper base 6 (/i + /i' + /i" 2 + h'" + + h" 4 + h'" ^' 2 & being the total surface of the base EFGH is plane. we have ^ =^ h = h' = 6" = 6'". we have further h ^' ABCD. or a paral lelogram. and the volume v=4 . In this is case. b(h 2 + h') ^h + =^^ Finally. When the + h" = h' + h"'. the soHd (894). if the upper base become reduced to a single point is E. a trapezoid. we have a pyramid. according as the base a trapezium. we have respectively. making h" and h'" = in the preceding formulas: „_ ^ T7_ b{2h h(b + 6 b' + b") +h'ib + V + 6 b'") ' + 2h') + b" (h + h') _(h + h' h') (2 6 + b") ' 6 ^= ^.+h" + h"') + h"'{h'+h"+h"') 6 b When ABCD is a trapezoid. AB being parallel to CD. and we have being the surface of the triangle B ABC. the altitudes h" upper base may become reduced to a and h'" becoming zero. h' y single edge ^^ h + + h" _ It is possible that the EF. have _ If b (2 fe + 2 /t^ + fe" + /t"0 + 6 h" (h + 1 h' +2h" + 6' 2 h'") ABCD  is a parallelogram. therefore: V_B^ + ^" B When the base + ^"' ABCD is reduced to a triangle ABC. we = h' and &" = V" and the preceding formula becomes: . becomes a truncated triangular prism.324 the volume of the solid is GEOMETRY equal to b{h+h'+h")+b'(h+h'+h"') + h"(h.
scribed. (740. POLYHEDEOSS. A regular polyhedral angle is one which has all its dihedral angles equal 900. Two polyhedrons of the same kind are always similar (829.third its apothem Table of Five Regular Polyhedrons Giving the number and kind oj their faces. their edges being taken as unity (745). A regular polyhedron is one whose dihedral angles are all and whose faces are regular polygons. . The apothem of a regular polyhedron is the radius of the sphere ec^ual inscribed in the polyhedron (743. The center and the radius of a regular polyhedron are the center and the radius of the sphere circumscribed about the polyhedron. AND SPHERES 899. In any regular polyhedron a single sphere may be in and about any regular polyhedron a single sphere may be circumscribed (900). 869. The volume of a regular polyhedron (900). and their volumes. equal each to each Thus all cubes are regular polyhedrons (823). 875). and all its face angles equal (803). 903. 901. is equal to its sur face times one. 902. CONES. 872). their surfaces.BOOK VI REGULAR POLYHEDRONS AND THE MENSURATION OF CYLINDERS. 817).
for a circular cone. The volume of any cylinder equal to base times its altitude. tR half the circumference of the base. V = wherein 908. and H the altitude is is of the cylinder. R the radius of the base. that is. 910. 805) are simialtitude h when the and radius r of the base of the r' first are proportional to the altitude h' and the radius of the base of the second. a cone of revolution its base by is equal to half slant height its Thus. V is the volume. for a circular cylinder: a cylinder of revolution (840. Two cylinders or two cones are to each other as the products of their bases and their altitudes. F is the volume. lar GEOMETRY Two cylinders or cones of revolution (804. 905. S = wherein 2 ttRH. 906. nR^ the area of the base. for a circular cone. irR^ the area of the base. R the radius of the base.326 904. ttR'H. Two The spheres are always similar. R the radius of the base. for a circular cylinder. 2 irR the perimeter of the base. 909. R the radius of the base. The 907. 841). 845) is Thus. Thus. The lateral surface of the product of the circumference of (718. 890). and H the altitude of the cylinder. and H the altitude of the cone. lateral surface of equal to the perimeter of the base times the altitude. wherein S is the surface. and C the slant height. 7= wherein i ^R'H. If they have the same . The volume of any cone is equal to onethird the product of its base and its altitude. Thus the volume of a cone is onethird that of a cylinder of an equivalent base and the same altitude (907). lateral surface of any cylinder equal to the perimeter its of its right section times its generatrix (845. S = ttRC. S is the surface. when h:h' ^r:r'. Thus.
R the radius of the base. R the radius of the lower base. Thus. R the radius of the the surface. 914. The is lateral surface of the cone (836) equal to the slant height. and D the diameter of the total The lateral surfaces and the surfaces of similar cones or cylinders are to each other as the frustum of a right Fig. C the slant height. H the altitude. s = cwherein (S is .MENSURATION OF CYLINDERS. 909). 913. y wherein base. altitudes they are to each other as their bases. if ETC. times half the sum of the circumferences of its bases. 138 squares of these same dimensions. and the altitude of the frustum. C the slant height. V " H'^ " C'^ ~ R'^~ D'^' V is W C^ R^ D^ the volume. revolving about an MN. V= i ^Rm + lmm+ I V«2 X ^R'H = o o i TTff {R' o + r^ + Rr). and r the radius of the upper base. and the mean proportional between the two (895).2irR + 2Trr = C^{R+r). 907. axis an isosceles triangle ABC. the upper base. The volume of the frustum of a cone is equal to the of the sum volumes of three cones which have a common altitude equal to the altitude of the frustum. Two similar cylinders or cones of revolution (904) are to each other as the cubes of any of their homologous linear dimensions. The surface generated by the base BC H of Kg. which passes through the vertex exter nal to the triangle jection and PQ = p oi same plane. 911. times the cirin the . 912. 891. and their bases equal respectively to the lower base. Thus. lower base. r the radius of the upper base. 327 they have equivif alent bases they are to each other as their altitudes. II A l> QS 139 wherein V is the volume. and they have equal altitudes and equivalent bases they are equivalent (889. is equal to the prothe base upon the axis MN.
or of 2irRX2R = a sphere is 47rR^ to equal is the area of four great the a circle whose radius equul to the diameter of sphere (753). of GEOMETRY the circle whose radius is equal to the alti AD = r^ of the triangle. S = and 4:^R^ and ir'' = tt". S = 2iBa=4^i22 The surface of " . . is sector of a regular polygon under found in the same manner. The surface of a zone equal to the altitude H of the zone Thus. S = 916. 2 Trri. and on spheres two zones of the same altitude are to each other as the radii or diameters of the spheres (915). p being the projection of the entire base upon the is axis. the surface of a triangle is Thus S = Ria + b + c nR). 2 tRH. c. * any spherical triangle is equal to the radius of the sphere times the excess of the sum of the arcs a. 868). The surfaces S and s of other as the squares of their radii R s two spheres are to each and r or their diameters 4 : D and d. b. nr. S = Thus the surface of circles. = pX The surface generated by a the same conditions 915. equal to (915).328 cumference 2 tude. times the circumference 2 irii of a great circle (852. The surface of a spherical lune is equal to the arc a corresponding to its angle a times the diameter 2R oi the sphere Thus: (881). two zones are to each other as their altitudes. S IS = R' = D^ d\ 918. Thus. 917. The surface is oj a sphere of radius R = —> = 7rD\ when considered as a zone. of different radii On the same or equal spheres. and 919. corre sponding to the angles over the semicircumference (882). *S Thus.
Thus. r^ being the radius of the inscribed circle. in the same plane and external to it. The area its ETC. lsh. The volume generated by the revolution of a regular polygon about one of its sides as an axis: expressed in terms of its radius B. AD = r^ of the triangle. it is that of a cone when AC or AB coincide with (908). P X The volume of r regular polygon about a straight line a solid generated by the revolution of a sector of a drawn through the vertex.1^^ S triangle of a the lateral surface of the frustum of a cone (Fig. 329 of any spherical polygon is equal to the radius of the of the arcs corresponding to sphere times the excess of the angles over as sum many times a semicircumference as there are sides less two. . 920. in its plane of the base BC equal to the projection on the axis multiplied by twothirds of the area is and external of a circle whose radius the altitude 2 ^TJi^. ¥~A^ . the volume generated by the triangle ABC v= 921. is line drawn through vertex. isosceles triangle its The volume of a solid generated by an ABC p (Fig. and that of a cylinder when 5C is parallel to (906). the generated volume is jection a circle inscribed to the base. In any case. 139) revolving about a straight to it. p X 2 ^TT r^. is ' AD = hoi the is triangle. and if it be repreis by *S.MENSURATION OF CYLINDERS. is equal to the pro MN p of the base on the axis times twothirds the area of The sector may be a semipolygon revolving on its diameter. V= 922. equal to the surface generated by the base BC times a third of the altitude triangle. and in terms of its side c (745): . 140) (912). The surface generated by the base ^' MN MN In any case this surface sented may be measured. The volume triangle ABC vertex in by the revolution of any drawn through its the same plane and external to the D of a solid generated about a straight line MN.
F= 924. o also equal to one. The base of 1 the spherical sector is the zone described by sector is equal to the base ^ig AB of the circular sector (868). 27riJ3V2 f Peutagon . which serves as base. we have the volume of the sphere equal to its diameter. times twothirds the area of a great rR' circle.330 GEOMETRY 3 1 . times the radius (891. from the preceding article. 7rijW5 irija + ?\/5 ^7rcS(5 + 2\/6) Hexagon Octagon . 915). which serves as base. 2 B' vr+Tvi ^TRWb TT 2 7rc3(3 + 2\/2) \ T E' (Ve + V2) is 3 TT c' (7 + 4 VS) 923. external to the sector and same plane with it.third of the The volume its of a sphere is product of surface and its radius. Thus. of The volume 1« a spherical of the altitude H = MQ rRm. Thus. Thus. A spherical sector a solid generated by \ j the revolution of a circular sector in the OAB about a diameter OQ. 2rrRH XR = ^TvRm. Decagon Dodecagon . Triangle 4 . V = lx o 926. 7= 5 X o 47ri?2 XR = 5 7rM o . times twothirds the area of a great circle of radius R. The volume of any spherical sector is equal to onethird of the area of the zone. 6 925. Considering the sphere as a spherical sector whose altitude is equal to the diameter of the sphere 2 R = D. Square . the zone.
930. radius equal to the base Thus. we have (924): V= then 928. 4 K'^R^ o and v . we have: = 36 wV\ of the 927. F= 929.MENSURATION OF CYLINDERS. PQ = p plied CD = upon the a by onesixth is of the area of b. 931. half the sum of the bases replaced by half the base. thus. I (881. Writing ETC. (917) of corresponding to radius R. 331 R in Two terms of the surface S' *S (917). a spherical wedge is equal to the arc a angle a times twothirds the square of its Thus. H being the V= When is altitude. 868. circular The volume of a solid generated by the revolution of a segment CDm. multiI /t . exC vn is ternal to the segment. and r and r' the radii of the bases.d?. aR^. times its altitude. The volume is of any spherical segment is equal to half the of a sphere sum of its bases.r^ = 4 irr^ o . about a diameter AB. V The volume its :v = R^ = D^ . times onethird the radius (883. oi its base equal to the b projection axis. circle whose il ^ j^g j. ^"^^^O) . plus the volume whose diameter equal to the altitude of the segment. 924): 2 ^ + 6 ^ ~2~ ^ *" ^ 6 the segment has only one base. we have (753. B X ^R of the base. 2 6 which Considering the sphere as being a segment the altitude of the sphere. the is equal to the diameter 2 i? = H of D first . spheres are to each other as the cubes of their radii or diameters. Thus. 918) The volume of any spherical pyramid is equal to the product 919). V and v being the volumes two spheres..
Q^g cone is inscribed in a sphere sphere. 908. its verlie /^\^ y \ K Fig. 2. 12. cir 143) when axis is the altitude of an equilateral triangle circle of cumscribed about a great 933. The total surfaces of the sphere. 9. right cylinder is inscribed in little circles of a sphere when bases are circumits axis the sphere (852).332 GEOMETRY of the term in the second member and we have: above equation becomes zero. Remark Remark 1. 9. and a mean proportional between those two solids. The volume of the cylinder is a mean propor3. the sphere. 924). An is equilateral cylinder ADBC is scribed about a sphere (Fig. 907. and their volumes are to each other as the numbers 32. total surface of the cylinder is a mean pro portional between that of the sphere and the cone (344). are to each other as the numbers 16. are to each other as the 4. tional Remark Thus the total surface of the cylinder is the of the sphere mean its proportional is between that and the cone. 917. 932. A A right cone is equilateral its when its slant height is equal to the its diameter of base (841). of the inscribed cylinder and equilateral cone. a sphere. / ^"^ \ C its A G the (. 909. 6. A right cylinder is equilateral its when its height is equal to the diameter of base (840). of a circumscribed cylinder numbers to and their volumes are each other as these same numbers (906. 9. 143 tex and the circumference of surface of its base on the An equilateral EFG is circumscribed about a sphere (Fig. volume also . 143) when when a diameter of the sphere. between that of the cylinder and the cone. The The lateral surface of the cylinder is equivalent to the total surface of the sphere. 12\/2. The total surfaces of of a circumscribed equilateral cone.
Remark. them in combination for con Besides these two instruments we have several others. instruments are necessary. but when measurements are to be obtained by a certain construction. In order to do this. the protractor. these are: the Tsquare. which are generally. with the same radius. the second for describing circles. The first is used for drawing straight lines. Remark. tion of When lines. Figures which are drawn simply to aid in following the demonstration of a problem. the reducing compass. may be done free hand. having one figure given. describe the on the line AB. 144). The protractor is used for laying off and measuring angles. are used to draw parallels and perpendiculars. The angle may be constructed by tractor or with the triangles.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY DRAWING OF THE FIGURES 934. To construct an angle equal to a given angle E (Fig. The Tsquare is used for drawing parallel horizontal lines. one 60° and one 45°. All the instruments which are necessary to construct all the figures of elementary geometry are the rule and the compass. though not necessary. take CD = GH and draw the side OD. 935. The reducing compass is used for constructing similar figures according to a given proportion. then the angle DOC is equal to the angle E. 333 . and both of structing angles. with any radius EG. the triangles. from the point describe the indefinite arc CL. ANGLES — TRIANGLES — PERPENDICULARS — PARALLELS 936. arc GH. right triangle. by drawing lines sides aid of the proparallel to the and intersecting in the point (630). a point is to be determined by the intersec two these lines should intersect as nearly at right angles as possible. the figures must be drawn accurately and to scale. are almost indispensable. The triangles. which. from the point £' as a center.
and then angle HOE is equal to angle A plus angle B. then the angle GOF is the supplement (617).334 GEOMETRY construct To an angle equal to the sum of two given angles A. and. To construct the complement of a given angle GOE. B. the angles may be added or subtracted. erect a per D. In the same manner the sum of any number of angles may be constructed. then angle HOG = angle B. «E> A 0 C B E Fig. in general. prolong one EO. 144 G r^?\ . side To construct the supplement of a given angle GOE. construct angle GOE = angle A.
a triangle Construct the given angle A (Figs. and the probb' ^s. the line AB C we have in B and B'. drawing AB and AC.t Fig. When and the angle A is right or obtuse. there is still but one and that A. angle B is acute (652). is less because the angle 2d. If the angle is still A is acute and a>b is (Fig.^ C = B and ACB = C. The three sides a. c. the arc is BB' cuts AB in two points. but the triangle ABC the only one which satisfies the conditions. the point prolonged sides of mines the triangle If the where the these angles meet deter(654). and an opposite angle A. 119 1st. 940. the triangle solution. h. . the third angle struct the triangle (663). 150 to 152) on one of the legs of this angle lay off AC = b. we have of the re Two sides a and b.ws lem would be the same as the one preceding. A IV f A ""^ ABC C\A/B' angle opposite the side had been ' would have been deter«""" *Q mined according to article (936). 151) ZA> ZB. then from the extremities with b and arcs of circles are described. One side a. A/ Bt. CAB' than a right angle. 941. respectively as radii. joining these two points to the vertex one or two triangles which satisfy the conditions (663). Draw BC equal to a. then at the extremities construct the angles ABC . Draw the line BC c equal to the side a. quired triangle ABC (Fig. with C as center describe an arc of radius equal to a which cuts being given to construct the triangle. of a triangle being given to congiven. being given to construct the triangle (663). 939. 149) (654). and their point of intersection A determines the triangle. ABC. In there case a falls = b but one solution.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY two 335 In the same manner a parallelogram may be constructed when sides and the included angle are given. a> b (638). and the two adjacent angles B and g C. because the point B' upon the vertex of the angle .
When at tangent to AB CD. Second.A<Z.336 3d. which completes the triangle ABC. the hypota Fig. from the point with a radius equal to a describe an arc cutting B PH Fig. coincide with the right triangle ADC. is parallel + OK of the perpendiculars drawn from a BC of an isosceles triangle. The sum 01 in the base point legs. 152): in the triangle ABC.B. take BC = a. 943. its sides Construct a right angle. and the two triangles ABC and a 6 is equal to < AB'C 942. then OK = PH . (Fig. satisfying the conditions (655). Draw OP to AC. Construct the angle CBA = B (937). the angle B is acute. which is the only solution. perpendicular to BH. we have Z. the hypotenuse a and a leg h: 1st. the arc BB' is the point D. having given: First. 157 AB in B. and the from the point triangle 2d. and there are two solutions (Fig. on one of take AC = b. that is. 156 C WV A /C /c Fig. ABC satisfies C the conditions (655). and draw CB. GEOMETRY ZB When A is acute and a < 6. which satisfies the conditions. There are two solutions when a pendicular < than the per DC. 155) to the constant and equal to the perpendicular BH. 154 enuse a and an acute angle B. Construct a right triangle. which 6 is greater also satisfies the conditions. that is. the angle B' obtuse. C draw a perpendicular CA to the line AB. 153 Fig. may be either acute or obtuse. in the triangle is AB'C.
635). 158 MN through the point parallel to BC. To solve the same problem with the . Draw Fig. 156) to the three and equal to B altitude AH of same is triangle. a point A. OE + OD = 944. place the edge of the rule against the leg. To erect a perpendicular at the extremity B of a line . 945. m being the point /I / I through which the perpendicular to the line xy is to be drawn. place the triangle with its other leg against the rule and its hypotenuse on the point m. therefore OP + OE + 0D = AH. because the right triangles OBP and OIB having the same hypotenuse and angles POB and OBI equal each to each. cutting the line in two points B and C. and then draw the line AC. with these points as centers and a radius longer than half the dis(Fig. 337 = BP. is constant equilateral triangle sides of the (Fig. which is the reqiiired perpendicular. 157) passing through tance between the points. the of the perpendicthe in drawn from any point 0. The sum ulars OP + OE + OD ABC. then. taken inside the triangle. and. . slide the triangle along the edge until the point m coincides with one edge of the triangle. From the construction given in Fig. then OP equals /ff (631) since the triangle AMN isosceles as well as equilateral. therefore the line AI the required perpendicular (621). holding the rule fast. AI. which may be in or external to the line. I is is also equally distant from B and C. 159 It is preferable to make the hypo tenuse of the triangle coincide withxy. and then draw the perpendicular C'B'.(:" triangle. using this as J a guide. place one edge of a Tsquare or rule paralb 7 lei Q/ !. describe two arcs which intersect in I. 162 we have the method of drawing the perpendicular bisector of a line AB. both being equal to and 01 are equal. To erect a perpendicular to a given straight line BC.„ * to the line xy. the angle C (625. equally distant from A.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY [626). Fig. From the point as a center describe an arc.
and so on. which is the perpendicular bisector of AB. an angle at the center ACB. 671. these parts may also be bisected. 160 venient radius. we have the required perpendicular BC. with the from the point D as which cuts the first in E. B. . C. and fulfills the three conditions (621. From A and B as centers describe arcs intersecting in /' and /. CD (630). The perpendicular may is the required also be drawn with the triangle (944). connecting C with B.338 GEOMETRY which can not be prolonged. 160). same radius. n being a whole number (967). then the line BC perpendicular (684). CD. From any point without AB and OB as a radius. draw parallels to the sides AB and CD. Repeating the same construction. draw the line //'. Second. With B as a center and any con AB as a center id DFig. To bisect an angle whose sides AB. from D draw a diameter DOC of the circle. therefore the bisector IK the conditions of the problem (946). would lie on the circumference. Third. For. a straight line AB. describe an arc therefore this construction may be used to divide a line into 2" equal parts. Another Construction. describe an arc of a center. 672). D. draw the line DEC and lay off with the compass the distance EC = DE = EB. circle. 946. describe an arc DBC (Fig. At any distance EF = GH. To bisect: First. all three points. if from E as center a semicircle were described with radius equal to EC. 947. therefore the angle DBC is inscribed in a semicircle and is a right angle (684). same as that the angle between these lines lines is the between the given fulfills AB. which will divide the line into four equal parts. an arc AmB. do not intersect. corresponding to the arc AmB. each half of AB may be bisected.
165). taken by the hypotenuse during movement from lel CD to E"B". 950. Having AC = A'C and AC = A'C = A'B and (621). then drawing CE parallel to BD. CF to BA. on and draw a hne AE through tha and the point E. do not intersect. then. DE. then taking ED = AC i If the Hne CD is \ •' and drawing AE. given line.' ^'^^Z J} (676). the arc described from the point 5 as a center may be prolonged to ]? a cut CD again in D. with center and any convenient the same radius and the point the B arc EB on the Hne lay off given point 672). Through a given point A (Fig. describe the CD as EB = AC long enough (Fig.g_ jgg Thus. is also paral to CD. which is the shortest dis q e b D tance from line A to B by way of the CD (Fig. other position E'B'.. C of the D The solution triangle. 168). same problem with the ^^^' ^^ place Make the hypotenuse coincide with the line CD. AC + CB < AC + C'B. exterior to a given line CD. From the point drop a perpendicular to DE and take DA' = DA then the straight line A'B determines the point C. draw a line through the vertex of an angle whose sides BC. A arc AC. A . we have the required parallei . and draw BD. and EF to DA. 167). „ y^ to line ACB. the line which joins A and F passes through the vertex.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY 948. AC + CB < AC + C'B. this hne is parahel to CD (625 center. j. taken on the sides of the angle. draw a parallel to the radius describe an arc With A as a BE. + C'B = A'C + C'B. body AC we have and since A'B AC + CB < A'C + An elastic or a ray of heat or Hght coming from A and . then draw E"B". This construction may also be used when the point A is not included by the sides. the rule against one leg and slide the triangle along the rule until the hypotenuse comes to the point A. C'B (601). To find the point C common to the line DE and the broken 949. 339 Through a point A. 165 A to two points B and D. its which is Any A/ the required parallel (625). Join Kg.
the another B. join C to the 5 in the line and draw DO parallel to C5.X AB. 169 on AA' perpendicular to NP take DA' = DA. 168) are to receive water through a single intake. 167 Fig. and AC. and aims at A'. AM = MN = 3. and on A' A" perpendicular to MAT' take D'A" = D'A'. then lay off square.340 being reflected GEOMETRY by DE to B takes the shortest path ACB. Since AC = ^ V2= 1. • • . If DE is the bank of a river from which two will require factories A C and is B (Fig. gives less MN AM AN = AD. • O. a the location of the intake pipe.A \^A*^ Fig. It is to be noted that CA and CB make equal angles with DE. CIRCLES — TANGENTS The circumference of a circle cannot be developed geometribut with the following construction. If it is desired to hit which minimum length of the cushion twice with the ball in Fig. and is equal to the BCF of reflection. The angle angle ACF is called the angle of incidence. the side of the inscribed square. 168 Fig. by Commencing at the point A. wherein B before hitting the ball A as shown MN and NP . a fifth of AC. by adding three times the diameter and onefifth of one side of the inscribed cally (752). therefore the perpendicular CF erected at C bisects the angle ACB. 951.1414 X AB. lay off the radius of the circle six times in the direction of the diameter AB. aiming at A". 168) with DE. equal to the circumference a straight line than two tenthousandths of the diameter.414 and consequently . by shooting the ball against the cushion player constructs mentally DA' = DA.X^ (709). and then from C are the cushions: to^. the ball is reflected at C toward A'. 169.UU. To hit a billiard ball A (Fig. draw OC perpendicular to AB.
through a point taken outside the circumference. which intersect in 0. the radius of the inscribed circle and In drawing the bisectors of the exterior angles of a triangle (Fig. through a point in the 954. B. 687). from the point of intersection of these bisectors drop a perpenlA m B Fig. To inscribe a circle in a given triangle ABC. passing through the given . 171 and the perpendiculars erected at the middle points sect in the center of the circle. 1st. found and their determined in the same manner as that of the inscribed tangent to a circle: First. 173 Fig. draw in the circle bisectors AO and BO of two angles A and B of the triangle (946). not in a straight line (680). erect perpen the circle fulfills middle points E and F. 65). will inter In the same manner the center and the radius of an arc of a may be determined. 174 dicular is OC to one of the sides AB of the triangle and OC. Draw a radii:is Om (Fig. diciilars at their Draw AB and BC. the center (622. described with as a center and a radius equal to AO the conditions (946). C. Draw a circumference. To find the center of a circle draw two chords AB and BC.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY 952. 341 Describe a circle passing through three given points A. MA< Fig. The above construction furnishes a means of circumscribing a circle about a given triangle ABC (688). 953. 173). Second. 170 Fig. the centers of three escribed circles are radii are circle.
draw radii through the circle C points of contact and prolong them to the circumference of the and B. 175) equally distant from k_ Af the point A drawing a straight line DE through A parallel to BC. a and AT' are the two tangents which satisfy the condithen AT tions. if certain angle with a given straight line. Remark. not zero. Drawing the radii OT and OT'. and CB. ^'^' — draw a diameter perpendicular to the given line. the angle line. therefore AT 955. Draw a If tangent to a circle making a is. is zero. circle common to two About the center C of describe a the larger concentric having a radius equal to the difference of the radii of the draw the two tangents two given circles. we have a special case of (2d). being inscribed in a semicircle (684). 944). is to be perpendicular to given line.^_J_^^. is a line making the required angle with the given parallel to this line as in (1st). draw then draw two tangents 3d. through the point C'T and C'K to the constructed circle. and and AT' are tangents to the circle (1st). on OA as 2d.. the angles OTA and OT'A are right angles. and Fig. 1st. where the given angle is a right angle. we have the the tangent . since they are perpendicular to the radii CA. Join the given point A to the center (Fig. 174). g and the perpendiculars erected at the exiij tremities of this diameter will satisfy the C "* given conditions (954). C'A'. the internal tangents given circle A are obtained (696). When the two circles are externally tangent. drawing AA' parallel to C'T and BB' parallel to C'K. the center of which is not known. we have the two common tangents. Through a given point in an arc of a circle. If line. the . 177 is constructed according to the same method as the above. diameter describe a circle cutting the given circle in T and T'. draw a tangent to the arc. circles Draw a tangent C and C. C'B'. If the given angle 2d. required tangent. Fin. If CT is taken equal to CA + C'A'. the perpendicular AB erected to this radius at the point m is the required tangent (675. 957.d two points B and C (Fig. that the tangent is parallel to the given P B '^ L^. 956.342 GEOMETRY point m.
the external tangents are parallel to the line of centers CC. When the circles intersect. Q'C^ as diameters. the two circles are equal. C'A'. and there are the circles are internally tangent. the tangents circle . Kg. are no internal two external remain. If 343 two internal tangents coincide and become one. and perpendicular to the extremities of the diameters which are pertheir point pendicular to the line of centers When CC . OC. their point of intersection 0' to the distance 958. 179 segment capable of containing a given angle. but the i. drawing the line Draw two same radii parallel direction. draw AO perpendicular to AC and DO perpendicular to AB at On its middle point (946). of intersection is at infinity. centers in 0. deter mines two points of contact of the four tangents. Another construetion for drawing a common tangent to two circles. 178 OC. Each of the circles described as Kg. and the tangents OA' and OB' to one of the circles are tangent to the other. 177 and in the and C'E'. At the point A form the angle BAC equal to the given angle (936). drawn to the points of contact of the same tangent. intersecting the line of. there is is only one solution. CE EE". to one which pass through r the point 0' are also tan gent to the other. construct a Pig. equal between centers. with the point as center. are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the tangent. and that the the common exterior tangent at the point of contact of circles. such as CA. As to the internal is tangents. The radius C'E" being opposite in direction from the one CE parallel to it. there tangents. and OA for .PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY only three solutions of the problem. O'C. a given straight line AB. through the points E and E' draw EE'. The radii.
344 radius. erect the perpendicular bisec MC of 10. circle in / (708). the center of the required circle. which fulfills is the conditions of the problem. Placing two pins in the points 959. of two rules hinged to Fig. and draw I. 181 equal to the radius of the circle 0. Draw and determine the mean proportional PM between PA PM. or to describe an arc of a passing through three given points . which B is (952). B. C is tangent to XY and to the CO = CI circle 0. M. the instrument is slid around. 182 a given straight line xy. GEOMETRY and the segment AMB is the required is segment. made an instrument is used. The circumference passes also through a point A'. and PB (970). with its sides pressing against the pins. is The center of the circle found to be on the bisector of the angle S. formed by the two given lines. since any angle equal to M inscribed in this angle circle segment clearly BAC (684). and to a straight line XY. of the centers equals sum CP + PI of the radii (681). tangent AB Fig. since the distance the 960. and has two solutions. Draw a xy tangent to the circle tangent two given straight lines. circle Describe a circle tangent to a given 0. and passing through a given point A. Draw a circle through two points to A. describe a circle. which meets PC The circle in C. one preceding. 180 gether and carrying a pencil at the joint A and B. to construct In practice. symmetrical to A. to PF = PA X PB. Having 961. Thus the problem is and 0'. a segment capable of containing a given AMB. the given angle. B. and spreading the instrument to correspond to the given angle AMB. Fig. and draw 10. take PI = a circle passing through the three points A. At take tor P PI erect a perpendicular PC XY. and in doing this the arc is described by the pencil in the vertex of the angle AMB.in a given to point P. M. similar to the .B A.
: triangles. and the fourth proportional BP MN Fig. inside of the given lines CD and EF. Solution 1. Draw a circle tangent to two given straight lines. and BK. BSI. as ^ ^ . tangent a given Kg. and drawing BK. The problem has four solutions: two in which the circum ference is externally tangent. E E'F'.<^' ^^""c^ tained by drawing the parallels CD'. then (708) BP and from the similar .^'"'^ and two others where it is internally tangent. Suppose the problem solved. 184 and to a given straight line MN. in Fig. we have : BA BI = BC BS.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY 345 962. At a distance T'T" equal to the radius of the given circle 0. and to a given circumference 0. /is also the center of the required circle. and thus determine the center / of the circle tangent to CD' and E'F' and passing through the point (961). draw parallels to the lines CD and EF. BA. 185 to these three lines (969). the extremes give BPXBK = BAX BS. These two proportions having the same means. : BCA. and IT its radius. and BP = BAX BK BS Thus drawing a perpendicular to through the center 0. 184. CD and EF. circle. give a second point is P in the circumfer ence of the required that of article (960).BI = BC BK. BS. Draw a circle to through a given circle point K. The problem therefore brought to . ' 963. which are ob.
The tangent PF' gives a therefore C second solution. and the circles are tanPF is also tangent to gent to each other at that point. passing a A (952). and the given circle in any two point D Fig. Draw a circle through to to < given points A. and brings the problem to the so lution in article (960).346 GEOMETRY 2. Solution to the point K and to Supposing the problem solved. B. and which cuts AF in a second point G. mine the center of symFig. F'. and tangent to two given Detercircles B and C. B. 965. Draw a circle througl cuttinj the two points A and B. Draw a circle through a given point A. we have (707): . give: From these two proportions. AB :AT = AQ: AS. and PB. 964. triangles. and joining the point of contact Q. then F is the point o: with the required circle C. Draw the chords AB. the circle passing through the three points A. then. and AP' = AB X AS AK a relation which determines a second point P' in the circum ference of the required circle. which is con structed by passing a circle through the three points A. circle . and draw AF. AP' XAK=ABX AS. ED and prolong them until they meet aFrom P draw a tangent PF to th( P circle C (954). 186 and E. K'. and tangent given circle C. and the two similar right AST and AQB. pass a circle through //'.F {%2) contact of the circle Since (708): C PF' = PEX PD PE X PD = PA X PF' = PA X PB. of the two circles B and C.B. AP' :AT = AQ: AK. at F. 187 metry F.
making any convenient with AB. point F and the points line. to Divide a straight line AB: First. Second. the line AB is divided into parts proportional to these numbers.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY 347 through A. G. bers. G. The center of this third circle is that of the required is described with a radius equal to Oa = Ob = Oc. of contact E of and D are on the same straight being circle three centers symmetry 966. is to divide a straight line into equal parts and draw perpendiculars to the line through these points . which PROPORTIONAL LINES — SIMILAR POLYGONS 967. and tangent to one of the given circles B or C. describe two circles. RQ = p/j /i ! / i F. ^ y Fig. ^Q^ by the same method as If . The it is tangent to the other and fulfills all the conditions. on AX lay off AR = E. and through the points R and Q draw parallels to PB. circle. and QP = G. into equal parts (301). / 1 ' \ \ E ^ dJw'b /! F G such a maimer ' ' II AD 2d. 3d. Draw a tangent to three given circles. the lengths laid off on AX are all equal. F. 189 to represent unity. join PB. into parts proportional given numbers. 1st. (698). . Having chosen the length which is and having taken AR. into parts proportional to given lines E. From the points A and C as centers and with R' — R and R" — R as radii. Through one of the extremities of A 5 draw an indefinite ^ straight line y A angle AX. proportional to the given num. A convenient method of dividing a number of lines into any number of equal parts. AB is divided into equal parts (946). Third. in (1st). describe a third circle passing through B and tangent to the first two auxiliary circles (965). then they divide the line AB in that.
d' C —B f be decreased as near oneseventh of as the operator can judge. then the opening must outside in f. 4' d Fig. we have AD = = AB. 1. Let us now sup) pose that the seventh C. so the opening must be increased as near oneseventh of point falls CB as the operator can judge. 7 for example.. trial Remark parts. = 4 X the line may be reduced to may be divided. and then each of these into 7. To obtain any 3 fraction of the length of a line. The dividers are set to into a certain what one judges to be oneseventh the length of the given line AB and the distance stepped off on the line. This method of and error is used above all in dividing arcs or circumferences into any number of equal Remark first 2. 190 the line divided into seven equal parts.348 of division. . 190 number of equal parts. such as 28 into 4 parts. cutting the parallel whose number corresponds to the number of equal parts which it is desired to divide the given line into. taking AR = 3 times and AP arbitrary length.345678 Fig. 191). 191 BC etc. several factors. perpenand d'. three or four give a result which Taking ac equal to the dicular to ac. opening of the dividers. ^for ex ample. When the number of divisions 7. In practice. divide the line into 7 equal parts and take 3 of them. the length ab may be considered = BC and as oneseventh AB (Fig. = 7 times some In Fig. first near enough exact. is In Fig. Suppose C is the last point of division which shows that the opening of the dividers was too small. the method of trial and error is most often used. and ac' equal to the second. 189. 968. With a is little practice. then taking cd and joining d c'd' = BC. to divide a straight line AB AB Q12. until the seventh step of the dividers coincides with the extremity trials will B of the line. then parallel GEOMETRY with a compass take some point on the first and describe an arc of a radius equal to the given line.
Fig. be required to construct a figure similar to another in a ratio of 7:3. 194 Fig. Find the fourth proportional X of three given lines E. 193 = with 7 times any convenient length from the point A as center. . and lay off the chord . OC. describe an arc be. G (328) (Fig. F. AB as radius. The lengths . The angle of reductioTf. dimensions on AE . and OA' being taken according to the ratio of symmetry. and in this same manner all the dimensions are found. as center. 194). OA .PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY When it is 349 lines desired to construct a great bear a constant ratio to a certain as is the case number of number of given which when a figure is to such be enlarged.. describe the arc BC. 969. placing any of its dimensions AB between the and 7.. and drawing OB. . BC = the point From 3 times the length which is  of AB. draw AC. and a radius Ab equal to one of the di A mensions of the figure to be reduced. the parallel be to BC. that is. AC is the homologous dimension of the similar parallels figure. . The chord of this arc. A'C. may be used to solve the same problem. to reduce a figure in a ratio of 7 3. For example. is the homologous dimension of Ab.AB = 3:7. then. the method of lines. be solved by the theorem (694) of a which meet in a point and are cut by may also number two of straight lines lines parallel AE. A'E'. . laying off the different the segments A'B'. Thus we have (693) be: This problem Ab = BC . are respectively the homologous dimensions of the A'B' first figure: OA OA' = AB : : = AC A'C : . take AB Let it : EFG B G I! E Fig. 190 will be found convenient.
qc_ OA E^G X AB CD°^ F'' Instead of taking the lines one after the other.350 GEOMETRY straight lines On two each other. and describing a semicircle on A'B' as a diameter. Thus E. they may all be laid off from 0. lines E Find a mean proportional and F (305) (Fig.BC = Ab : be. making a certain angle with AB = F. 192). OA'. lay off AB = E a diameter describe a semicircle. or E :X = X :F and X^ = EXF. take OA = and draw a parallel we have (693): OY and OZ. join A and C. BD to the line AC. OC: OA:OB = 0C The fourth proportional may also : OD. on AC as and the perpendicular KB = X. Ab: AB The three given lines . a straight line xy. OB. X . we have : (706): AB KB = KB :BC. B F Csr Fig. and BC = F. Taking A'B' = E and A'C = F. and OC = G. he of the three lines is the fourth proportional AB. be obtained by means of D EE X A . between two given straight 970. we have A'K' = (706). figure (193) also gives the fourth proportional A'B' of the OA. AB: OA OA' = AB : : A'B'. Thus OD is the fourth proportional of the three lines OA. and erecting the perpendicular C'K'. 195 A the angle of reduction (Fig. then CD = X. BC. X On Thus.(Z. 195).
describe a circle. 196). Construction to the fourth three^sides Make angle 5' of . A'B'. given as the homologous side of a side of a polygon ABODE. 35I Divide a straight line of the extremities AB of into extreme and mean ratio (692) (Fig. On a side A'B'. Construction 2. The construction of the equal angles and the fourth proportional may be avoided. similar to ABC. and so on. the first triangle A'B'C. parallel to the homologous sides of the given polygon (948). CD. At one dicular A the given line erect a perpen AO =~2~'' ^^°^ *^® P°^^* ^ ^s center. Thus. by dividing the poly gon into triangles and constructing the similar triangles in succession by drawing lines parallel to the sides of the original ones. with the triangles. = BG the we have point (708) BC and . construct a second polygon. and so on until the polygon A'B'C'D'E' is completed (702). and B'C and A'C respectively parallel to BC and AC.AB = AB BG. or with a pair of reducing compasses. the polygon may be constructed by drawing its sides. AB : = BG' : AG'.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY 971. Thus. radius. take B'C equal proportional the AB. : (SC . The fourth proportionals may be obtained very rapidly by the methods shown in Figs. 192 and 193. 1. 972. . angle B'C'D' to the BC (969) make = BCD. with OA as draw BO. = 5 (936). : AB = {AB : BG) : : BG. similar to first AB the (695). drawing A'B' parallel to AB. (349) BG' AB = BG' AG' BG'. A'B'.AB) that or is. (345) which was to be proved. take CD' equal of fourth proportional the three sides AB. is completed. and in a like manner triangle ACD is constructed. Having the lengths of the sides. and taking BG' G' satisfies the conditions of the problem.
E'.352 GEOMETRY 3. as to polygon. laying off a seventh FD on AB'. Construction 4. and at the point where this line cuts the diagonal AC. Sometimes it is desired to trace a polygon which has been surveyed. CD = 2 EB + FD = 6 FD + FD = AB = CD + EB = 7 FD + 3 FD = Therefore the ratio is: 7 10 FD. reference to one side A'B'. the arcs corresponding to the same radius. D'. CD into it is 198).' I I FD is the greatest common measure. D'. on EB. by locating the points C. parallel CD. Divide correct to at least oneseventh. 973. twice plus FD < EB. and the ratio of these arcs will be the same as that of the angles. Find the greatest common measure of two given commensurable straight lines AB and CD (213). I ^ I . foimd . Apply the rule in (102) to determine ^^ the greatest common divisor of two num^^ ^ ^ S ID bers. FD. having Find the ratio of two commensurable angles. which in this case is once plus the remainder EB < CD. then the remainder FD. The principle in Fig. of two commensurable arcs. the preceding construc tions give a polygon equal to the given polygon. lay off A'B' . with Take A'B' as the common base. the vertices of the triangles which form the and C. and so on luitil the polygon is completed. for example. Thus the shorter line CD is laid '^' off on the longer as many times as possible. 1 1 . may be found. through the point B' draw a line B'C parallel to BC. CD (Fig. and since it is exactly contained in EB. EB = 3 FD. 71 may be advantageously employed to construct a polygon similar to a given polygon. seven equal parts (967). Remark 2. AB ^ 10 ' CD~ 7 the In the same manner the ratio same radius. Draw 974. EB is now laid off on CD. . draw a line CD'. E'. Construction Starting at A on AB. Supposing A'B' = AB. Find the ratio of two straight lines AB'. Remark 1.
and re peating the operations which were performed in dividing the circle into eight parts. starting from the diameter parallel to AK and then IF. then. 4. it is often more convenient to make the subdivisions ence by trial and error with the dividers. but the following method with the triangle is much more expeditive. 975. apply the of another triangle against the side. 2" equal parts. THE DIVISION OF CIRCLES INTO EQUAL PARTS REGULAR POLYGONS Divide a circumference into 2. 8 . after having divided the circumference into 4 or 8 equal parts. holding it fast. rest the first triangle. thus dividing the circumference into four equal parts.. Having chosen a 45° triangle for the draw the diameter second diameter. slide it clear leg of the circle. the circumference will be divided into sixteen equal parts. its hypotenuse against its legs diameters EF draw the and GH. placing a rule or another triangle against the first.. the circumference Avill be divided into thirtytwo equal parts. . and CD perpendicular to AB. In practice. Divide a right angle A or its corresponding arc BC into three equal parts. as described in article (946). This may be done Draw a diameter AB with the triangle. thus dividing the circumference into eight equal parts. This division is indicated on the arc CG. AB' ^"^ 11 CD<T of these ratios satisfy the condition. Drawing the diameter IK parallel to the chord AF.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY contained 10 times plus a remainder sequently we have: it is 353 that BB' < FD' con ^5' m>T Both arcs or angles 10 . Repeating the operation twice. In the same manner the circumferis divided into 2" equal parts. which make an angle and with of 45° with the others. 976. In the same manner the nearest value of the ratio of two may be found (973).
the angle A into three equal parts. The circumference being by taking every other one. Divide a circumference into six equal This is done by inscribing the radius six times in succession. it is Divide a circumference into 6 equal parts with a 60° triangle. 200 to onethird of a is indeed divided the arc BC. and operating on each as was done with AB in the preceding demonstration. For same reason CAE is equal right angle. is is also The trisection of an angle possible when the angle is a right angle (1017). and C as centers. reversing the triangle and giving it the position shown by the dotted lines. 977. and the angle BAC into three equal parts. and AB = AC for radius. 978. which completes the division Drawing two diameters of the circumference into 6 equal parts. CD. Draw two diameters AB. and therefore the angle BAD the is equal to onethird of a right angle. perpendicular to each other. and from the extremities of these diameters with the radius of the circle describe arcs which divide each quadrant into three equal parts (976). the vertices of the inscribed hexagon form the points of division required (744). the diameter Fig. where a circumference is to be divided into a . the circumference will be divided into 12 equal parts. In practice. and consequently the entire A circumference into 12 equal parts. divided into six equal parts. the angle The triangle ACD DAC is equal to twothirds of a right angle. /\ Draw the first diameter with the hypotenuse of the triangle. Divide a circumference into 12 equal parts. as Fig. then draw the diameter CD by placing the triangle in the position shown by the dash lines. divided into 3 equal parts. which cut the arc BC in the required and drawing AD and AE. parts.354 GEOMETRY the points From B describe arcs of a circle points of division. these hnes divide being equilateral. perpendicular to each other (975). 202 EF is drawn.
and joining the extremof these diameters. Divide a circumference into 5 equal parts. problem. by trial and error with a pair of dividers (967).divide the circumference into the same great. the dividers should be set by the protractor as near the correct value as possible. then. Its center is made to and arcs equal to 360 di vided by the required number of divisions are laid off. with the dividers. is reversing the triangle. or 6. of CB as center and the distance using ED as DF as a radius. Draw the diameters AC ities and perpendicular to each other. from the middle point E. . The fifth of a circumference being exactly 72°. be used advantageously. 944). it of equal parts. the inscribed square ABCD is obtained of the 45° triangle (975) permits of a rapid solution BD (740. describe side. Draw a diameter AB and a radius CD perpendicular to the diameter (944). which number it is a multiple of 3 or convenient. can be drawn along the other leg. the other diameter drawn. The use of this triangle. 981. ^'s. 4. then. In practice. the protractor may coincide with the center of the circle. a protractor may also be used to good advantage. dividers preferable of trial to use the and the method and error. after having divided 979. The it is the circumference into 5 equal parts. then. may be employed to divide a circumference into any number of equal parts (967). with a is rule. and if the deci of the quotient is equal to ^ . to make the subdivisions. When mal part the number of parts divides 360 exactly. one diameter Resting one leg of the triangle against another may be drawn along the hypotenuse. number of equal parts. into 3 or 6 parts. ^ . an arc and draw the chord Dis inscribe a regular pentavertices will then divide gon in the circle. these points are joined to the center and.203 980. Inscribe a square in a given circle. This method of divisions is particularly advantageous where the number For the first trial in the method trial and error. The sides AD. ^ of a degree. BC. The method of trial and error. using the 45° . but if the number is a multiple of 3. it is used only for the subdivision.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY number is 355 6.
then the circumference of fi this circle should pass through vertices B. given. joining these points of division to the adjacent is obtained. AC. Inscribe a regular octagon in a given circle. the figure is constructed as in the preceding problem. sliding on another triangle. in A is given. C. connect every other vertex. DG. 984. the sides be drawn with the triangle. bisect the arcs subtended by the If and connect these points to the extremities of the chords. then. the four sides AE. Having a polygon inscribed in a circle. in general. divide each of A BCD in the circle the arcs subtended by (946). a square would have been obtained. EG. square. . Draw a regular octagon Describe a circle with when one side any radius OA. is may also and commencing at this chord. to inscribe another of half the number of sides. the second can be slid draw the sides AB by and DC. these sides into two equal parts and. A regular octagon may be inscribed in a circle without insides Operating as in (981) with circumference may be divided into 8 equal parts. this circle inscribe a regular octagon (983). Construct a square whose side is 982. BF. or simply one side AB of this octagon. Remark. the four other sides EB. D. * . FC. starting at the chord AF. . GC. to inscribe a polygon of double the number of sides. From the above it may be deduced that. are drawn. the / (^M>1 it not necessary to draw them. lower the first parallel to itself. AH. HD. are drawn. then. the intersection >S> and OA as a radius. joining every other vertex. the 45° triangle. 'B Having inscribed a square (981). 983. With the first triangle draw a straight line AB equal to the given side. The proof is made by describing a circle. the octagon vertices of the AEBFCGDH an octagon had been inscribed in the circle. BD. which is indicated by the 4 diameters HF.356 GEOMETRY up to triangle as a gtdde. although scribing a square. then with a 45° triangle. with G of the diagonals as a center. having a regular polygon inscribed in a circle. noting J^t^ that the side AE is parallel to the chord HB.
/ 1^ / \q //''r"~N ^ Erecting a perpendicular the side CO at the middle of is AB of the octagon which to be con \y'' structed. we . CD = CB DO = DA.AOB = = ^ ABCDEF (978) (Fig. "2" Z. describe a circle. parallel to secting OA in a. and con/[ tinue as in the preceding example. resting the short AD of the 60° triangle against the first. these six chords will form the B _ D P . 985.. after having drawn the straight OA and OB. draw IL AB side A of the octagon. take and the point '^' is the center of a circle which may be circumscribed about the octagon in question. but it may may be be greatly simlines some polygons. Thus for an octagon. 357 taken on the prolongation of one of the parallel to OA. . /A ^jL A i/' A hexagon may be inscribed ^ with a 60° triangle in the Fig. AC + B easily 45° = 135° (653). This construction applies to geometrically inscribed in a plified for regular polygons which circle. Laying the radius of the given circle off successively as chord. the diameters FB and parallel are drawn.~/V ^y^" '\ / six sides of a regular inscribed W — ' s2S^^ '^\l/ ^B ^s207 rl'^'X '^ h^^^g"^ 207). OB. . then with another triangle slide this one side to itself until it is below the figure. joining the extremities of these diameters. . is and the octagon ahcd all inscribed in this circle the one required. then draw La . which is then Angle ODA = DCA + DAC = 90° constructed (983).PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY through the point radii I. making an angle of 45°. and. take OA = OB. Inscribe a regular hexagon in a given circle.208 same manner that an octagon was in scribed with a 45° triangle (983). From as a center. /'" through a point / draw IL parallel to AB. then. and equal to the given OB and interand with Oa as a radius._„ ZAOC = therefore 180° 2 45° 135° = 45°. Draw the diameter FC with one triangle.
noting that each diameter is two sides of the hexagon. equilateral triangle. 987.Tin J" (662). To construct a regular hexagon on a given straight line AB as a from the extremities A. with the points C and F as centers. but. as centers. Construct a regular hexagon whose side is given (Fig. If perpendiculars are dropped from the vertices of an triangle equilateral upon any diameter scribed circle (Fig. Describe a circle with the given side for a radius. parallel to &86. thus obtaining the points D and E. 207) is obtained. ACE (Fig. and inscribe a regular hexagon. with a radius equal describe the arijs BF and AC. Operate as in (940) and make each side equal to the given side. thus the side. it is Drawing the radius CO at C. then DECBAF are the vertices of the required hexagon. to AB. 671). and drawing IK perpendicular to DE. The 60° triangle may also be used for constructing an equilateral triangle. . Construct an equilateral triangle Having inscribed a hexagon or an gons of 989. the sum DE AF + BG of is of the circum the two perpen diculars on one side of the diameter equal to the perpendicular CH on the other side. describe two other arcs. 12. The rhombus ALBO gives 01= ^ OC = 75lOK zoid . since the nil • triangles COH are similar. . and the same radius AB. we have IK = ^ AFGB we have: and But in the trape IK = AWi. the 60° angle being equal to the angle of the required triangle. . sides may be successively inscribed indicated in (951). which fulfills the conditions of the problem (985). Inscribe first a hexagon and join every other vertex. point of perpendicular to the middle AB (621. 209). polyas 48.358 GEOMETRY have the required hexagon. It is thus that hexagonal boltheads and nuts are constructed. 24. . 208). B. when one side is given. the sides may be drawn in directly with the triangles without drawing the diameters. therefore AF + BG = CH. Inscribe an equilateral triangle in a given circle. triangle 988. which intersect in the center of the circle circumscribed about the hexagon.
PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY 990. 30° therefore 2 : ZAOB = 30° = 360° 12 991. regular polygon of 30 sides (632). the side of the decagon. and take DO = DB = AB. OB. because equal to the longer segment of the radius ratio. a regular decagon. . point of the given Erect a perpendicular side CO at the middle arc AB. C B Fig. a a regular pentagon. and it is AD = AC mean is the side of the required deca gon. AB in OG of the radius OB. OA re divided in extreme and Laying off the chord is AD around the circumference. we have: OB :0G = 0G: which shows that the side GB. from ^4 as a center. 210 side of a decagon. the angle at the center Drawing the bisector AG of the angle A. OA = OB and AB = AG = OG. we have (704): OA:OG = AB Since : GB..36°. on OB as a diameter describe a draw AO'.. Fourth. 1st. a regular pentadecagon. Inscribe in a given circle ¥ivst.150° ZAOC ">6 + 60° = 150° (653) (Fig. perpendicular to one another. with AB as a radius. the point is the center about the required dodecagon. Third. Angle 90° of the circle circumscribed ODA = DCA + DAC = 180° . AB being ^=10 . 359 Construct a dodecagon whose side AB is given (632). Second. r\ '/ A To determine the circle. i '^. divided is equal to the longer segment extreme and mean ratio (971). the qmred decagon obtained. 210). draw two radii OA. describe an DB.
the two right triangles and AEF are similar. the chord is — — l5 which subtends this dif ference the side of a regular pentadecagon. 214). . be prolonged to difference E (Fig. GEOMETRY Joining every other vertex of the regular inscribed decais gon. is side cir and laying it off cumference of the the re quired pentadecagon 4th. describe an arc through B. Having the aroimd the circle. thus it is seen that AB is equal to the longer segment of a radius AE divided in extreme and mean ABD ratio. 975). Inscribe a polygon of any number of sides in a circle. To construct a regular decagon on a given side AB. and a radius equal to AE. the center of the circle which may be C B 9\F circum Fig. at B erect another perpendicular BD = BC. obtained. vide the circumference into as many parts as the polygon has sides. being tangents drawn from the point F to the same arc. EF is half oi AE. the arc DC may side. then DE is the required sides of 3d. Drawing EF perpendicular to AE. 214 scribed about the decagon (Fig. from F as a center and a radius FE. since FE = FB. describe an arc ^rlL intersecting the perpendicular bisector of AB in 0. 213 seen that the side of a regular scribed polygon of 30 sides is in the chord which subtends the arc equal to the difference of the arcs subtended by the sides of the regular inscribed pentagon and hexagon. BD being the half of AB. 212). If it desired to obtain the side of the pentagon directly. Having ^   ^ k' '^ '' Fig. erect a perpendicular CO at the middle point of AB. and join the points of division (967. 213). and from the point A as center. a regular inscribed pentagon is obtained (Fig. which will give the required polygon. and 0^. \ \E take DE = DB. 212 Fig. furthermore. The between the arcs subtended by the a regular inscribed hexagon and decagon being equal to of the circumference. Di992.360 2d.
In general. and from the vertices A. 3d. The equilateral triangle. these tangents are parallel to the sides of the polygon. number of parts and draw the Inscribe a regular octagon in a given square ABCD. 205. 219 Fig. it being necessary only to divide the circumference into the required tangents. of the square. as was used a regular polygon of any number of sides. 116 Cover a plane surface with regular polygons. whose angle = 2X4 4 —^— = ^ of a right angle (Fig. equal to 4 right angles or 360 angle is any regular polygon whose of times in 4 right angles contained a whole number may be used to cover lowing may be used: a plane surface (652). 218). 994. The square. 220 1st. and form the polygon A'B'C . whose angle = ^ = ^ of a right angle (Fig. . 218 Fig. rrTiC ^! C. . Fig. the same in Fig. Therefore the fol i Fig. and radii equal to OA. . describe arcs which determine the 8 vertices of the octagon on the sides 995. D. Circumscribe a regular polygon about a given scribe the required polygon in the given circle. Draw D^— the diagonals of the square. whose angle The regular hexagon. circle. the circumscribed polygon is constructed in the same manner as the inscribed. 993. = of a 4 right angle (Fig. 217). 219). draw tangents to the middle points of the arcs subtended by the sides of the inscribed polygon.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY 3'o construct 361 method octagon. The sum of the consecutive adjacent angles which may be formed about a point in a plane being (618). which was required. 217 i>^ti Fig. the construction of the regular In may always be pursued. as centers. 2d.
angles. which will cover the sur AREAS OF POLYGONS AND CIRCLES 996.X 2 + face (Fig. Whether the polygon be convex (Fig.362 GEOMETRY of The angle right angle. Ordinarily the polygon is divided and right trapezoids by drawing a diagonal and dropping perpendiculars from the vertices upon this diagonal. a regular octagon. The polygon all is divided into all the diagonals through one vertex. find the area of each triangle (718). To change any polygon ABODE to an equivalent polygon having one less side. or by joining a point taken within the polygon to the vertices. 220). 1 4 right angles. being equal to 2X6 —— 3 = ^ of a is not contained a whole number of times in 4 right and consequently an octagon can not be used. and the sum of these results will give the area of the polygon. 997. triangles Find the area by drawing of any polygon. into right triangles \ . but combining an octagon and a square in such a manner that two angles of the octagons and one of the square have the same vertex. we have .
and. and connecting A and side C (684).PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY the given squares.2 Pig. 732): x:a = If the DA:DC or 7? ratio m n had : = 01 . sum b. and lay off DE = d &s chord. c. EF parallel to CA. a square which bears a given ratio side x of n to a given square a?. on AC as a diameter. drawx. being the sides of the given squares. drawing in the = a from B. at C draw CD = c perpendicular to CB. on BD as a diameter.a" DF = From (352. or difference of d. and join and B. Find the k. the required side k c is determined. Having the AC.DC^ = AB :BC = m:n. on DC take DE = a. AC. and from describe of 363 6 as a radius. and /i. 224 = a^ + &2 + 0=*  (f Draw two perpendiculars AB. draw prolonged beyond ing C if it is necessary. and an arc. Construct a sqware equivalent the a. cutting AC in C. The successive right triangles give (730. DA and DC. 699. 998): = a" + b\ = BC^ + (? = BD'' . at the point B erect a perpendicular BD to the line Kg. B as a center. describe a semicircle n c'^v 226 . we have . any number of squares. example.d^ BE" W BC^ a^ + + b^ b^ + + c"". the square m : Take AB = m and BC = n. is constructed as in article 982. thus determining the side x the required square. 999. equal to a. the square to is con D^ E structed as in article (982). Let k be the side of the equivalent square. c"  d^. . 3:5 for and BC = 5 times some length taken as unity. b. describe a semicircumference. joining E and B. Having the side 1000. take AS = 3 times been that of two numbers. join D and B. AC. From the rightangled triangle ABC (730): AC" = BC" The same semicircle  IF = b^  a\ chord BA result would have been obtained by describing a on the side BC = 6 as diameter. then.
Taking the longer side. to to a given polygon P. 969). In order that the perimeters of the polygons have the ratio n. find the side x of logous side to x'^ a^ = n (1000). such that a.364 GEOMETRY 3 Construct a square which is a fractional part of a given square. on this side the polygon to a and h of the similar P is constructed similar to p and p' (972) and is equivalent to their sum. and on a. and each other. at on AB as diameter. m : a being one of the sides of the polygon P. — and =. that 5 3 is is.a? (349) these two proportions having three equal terms. to their differ Construct a right triangle ABC (Fig. similar to a them and equivalent. take E erect a perpenis dicular EF to AB. 2d. the squares are to each other as to 5. make the areas bear Construct a polygon p. AF' = AE =3 AB^ AB 5 which is • Two similar polygons p and p' being given. and (p x^ P : + p') = p a^. we must have x a = m n (703. and we have P = p + p'. which the side of the required square (Fig. the equare. Let r be the fraction. and draw the chord AF. the 1st. for the same reasons as in the first case we would have P = p' — p. 223). Instead of operating as above. construct third polygon P. describe a semicircle 3 AE = ^AB (967). 1002. homologous side polygon F. similar to P (972). sum. as the hypotenuse of the right triangle (Fig. to their ence. a" : p:p' = ¥. : m m : : : In order that a circle of a radius x. 2d.01. 702 ro2^ AE AF = AB X AB 10. . a and h. and then the hypotenuse will be equal to x. : : {a^ + b^) = p . of the polygons p and p'. From (726). 226). with its legs equal to two homologous 224) sides. x^ = a^ + ¥. b. and constructing P on the leg AC = x. Having (732) AF' = AB X AE. : n. as a homoconstruct a polygon p. bear a ratio m : n to a circle . similar a given ratio. \st.
On AB as a diameter. describe a semicircle. a given line AB. erect a perpendicular AC. then drawing DE parallel  ^ EF and perpendicular to AB.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY of given radius a. and ^ sum equal to a given line AB. at one extremity A. difference of whose dimensions is equal to . Construct a rectangle equivalent to a given square. we must have to x a = m : n. From this article and (997). 721): and altitude 3? = hXh or oi? = hX% which shows that x is the mean proportional between the base and altitude in the first case and between the base and half the altitude in the second case (970). The fourth proportional x. equivaa given rectangle whose dimensions are a and b. draw the perpendicular and CD equal to the side c r5(^ the given square. c : From a. describe a circle. and h and h the base of the given figure. a — b : x. the two segments A C ^' FB j AF BF are the dimensions of the required (706) rectangle. is the 1004. and it is seen that of all the rectangles of the same perimeter the square is the maxithe mum (584). From EF^ The problem is or (? ^ AF X BF. we have (718. Remark. c only possible when < ^ AB . equal to the side c of the given square. we have is c X x to = b X (339) 1005. according as the figure is a parallelogram or a triangle. Construct a square equivalent a given parallelogram or x being the side of the square. 365 we must have x' : a^ = m : n. lent to Construct a rectangle on a given straight line c. of the three lines c. second dimension of the required rectangle (969). a method for constructing a square equivalent to any given polygon may be deduced. to bear the same ratio. and : for the cir cumferences 1003. a. the Construct a rectangle equivalent of whose dimensions a given square. Then article (999) gives the means of constructing of a square equivalent to any number of polygons combined in addition or subtraction. b. triangle. On of AB as a diameter. 1006.
0 = c:CE. From (708): CD . 1009. 699). but they are not contained a whole number such had been the case. of Hippocrates. CNP. The area of the parallelogram MNPQ is equal ABCD. 1008. OPQ. is equivalent to the area irAB of a whose diameter is equal to the chord AC of the external circle tangent to the interior circle. AQM. the ONP.366 GEOMETRY of the required rectangle are and drawing CO. This to onehalf that of the quadrilateral follows from the fact that the four triangles. OMN. 730. the area of the be of a right is two shaded lunes equal to that. c. ^ ) of the triangle. same base and equal The lunes Describing semicircles on the three sides. the dimensions CD and Ci. 753) be we have from va'' 2 2 ^(&^ which a') = ~be measured of times in of There are other portions of a the entire circle. if circle may exactly. are respectively equivalent to the BMN. b. . four triangles. The area S of the ring included between the two concentric circles of radii circle OA and OB. the determination the quadrature of a circle could have been easily solved (1017).. OQM. a. A BCD: the four sides are the vertices of a MNPQ (640. having altitudes. triangle as diameters. c\ CDXCE = In any quadrilateral The middle points of parallelogram 2d. be S^ ABC less the area of the semicircle described on (718. DPQ. 231 and the triangle the diameter a. is Noting that the area of the lunes areas of the equal to the sum b of the two semicircles described on the diameters and c Pig.
the diameter AB = D . at the point D erect a perpendicular on OA and prolong it to the semicircumference described on OA as a diameter. parts 1010. From = nd + nd' + ird" = ir {d + d' + d") = irD. d'.DA = 3 2 (967). which the to the diameters d". This is also true for semicircles. the circles sum have s of the circumferences of the d.irOW = TT (OT . d" equal d'. we have. . and mak OA into a certain of equal parts same construction for each point of division that has just been will made for the point D. 3 for example. the perimeter of each being the circle equivalent to the is circumference of whose diameter to :^ D (1010). then the circle of diameter D is divided into the same number 3 of equal parts. 749) : B:2 = In dividing ing the 0D:AD = 0B. and the perpena concentric be the radius of the required circle. so that the area of the internal circle be to that of the ring as 3 2. is constant and equal is circumference of the circle (752): whose diameter S D. certain Dividing the diameter AB = D into a number of equal parts. d. 233.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY From (730. the circle of radius OA be divided into the same number of equivalent by the concentric Dividing circles. To divide a circle of radius OA by a concentric circle in such a manner that they bear a certain ratio to each other. oi a circle into any number of parts. divide OA so that OD . circle of this it follows that in order to divide radius OA into two equivalent parts by of 45° AC. 753): 367 S = From ttOI' . TriS". AB' = number ttOB" tAB. then OB is the radius of the into will : : OB AC ternal circle. or unequal. upon which as diameters semicircles are described. 1011. as shown in Fig. From (732. and the area equal that of the circle of diameter D.OW) = a circle. making an angle dicular draw the chord with the radius OA. Thus. for example.
we have: O 2 «'Exj'(W5xl'(?)' From (Fig. and 238) the 60° triangle is used. we have from (753): 2 ^=2Xin3)+2X4^^2X4n#) ttDVI 7J_ 4 Al8 2d. As to the dodecahedron. less a semicircle of diameter C5 = 1 1 . after having constructed the pentagon P on the length given as one side. 236. they Fig. 235 Fig. 236 For (Figs. 233) it is ^/4_ n_ 4 1 U gj" 3 ^ 4 ' seen that: REGULAR POLYHEDRONS AND SPHERES shown below are the developments of five show clearly enough how these developments are drawn when a side of the polyhedron is given. 1012.D. Noting that S is equal to a semicircle of diameter AC = — o . 234. the sides of this polygon are .D.368 GEOMETRY 1st. (S' /DV 11 11/2 7)\2 4 1 2 _ A^ 18/ ~ i 3 — 4 ^ being equal to twice the remainder obtained in sub tracting a semicircle of diameter AC = from a semicircle o of diameter ylD = . The figures regular polyhedrons. plus a semicircle of diameter AB = D. 234 Kg.
same radius is as the and in this circle by drawing parallels to the sides in the first half of the development. 238 prolong ab and take cd of the = ab. D. D'. It is seen that the same construction may be used to find the poles of the circumference or an arc of a great circle. which is the required great Kg. Two points. from these points as A with any convenient radius. D".PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY prolonged and a 369 circle drawn through the points of intersection. the sphere (952). on the surface of a sphere being given. A. B. D. is constructed. or rather as poles. the construction 1013. completed. with a radius equal to the chord of a quadrant (852. and from this point as a pole with the same radius describe a circle. in two arcs which intersect . From the points A and B as poles. that its circumscribed circle will be equal to the great circle of the sphere. 240 circle. on cd as a chord describe a circle first. they lie in the circumference of a great circle whose plane is perpendicular to the middle of AB. and L" being equally distant from the points A and B. D'. and B. 916). D" (940). on the surface of the sphere. For the second half Fig. 1014. Take two points. D' with another radius determine a third point. describe two points. and its radius will be equal to that of centers. describe two arcs which intersect in the point C. A sphere being given. 239 tances between the three points. and it follows that if a triangle whose sides are equal to the disKg. D. find its radius. . and by drawing parallels to the sides of the pentagon P onehalf of the development is determined. describe a great circle through the points.
whose plane it is perpendicular to the line AB at its middle point. small circle 1016. 1017. from the point describe P a as pole. is eq^aidistant contains the points D. GEOMETRY Describe a small circle passing through three points. 0. that is. draw a great circle perpendicular to the BD. with a radius equal to OA. and through the points D.370 1015. A. taken on of circumference or arc of another great circle From as pole. and which may be solved with a rule and a compass (935). 242 the pole of BD.C. Through a point A. is When the point A Fig. since center. In the determined whose plane is permiddle point. 213 the vertex as center.B. taken on the surface a sphere. There are three problems which appear to belong to elementary geometry. They are: 1st. with the same radius. a semicircle is de scribed. on the edge of a rule or a piece of paper CD is laid off equal to the radius OA. and whose same manner a great pendicular to circle is from the points A and B (768). this circle intersects the BC first at its and the extremities P and P' are the poles from which as centers the required in the line PP'. on the surface of the sphere. BD. D. then the respectively rule is so manipulated that the points C and D fall upon the . but one solution. D'. D'. of may be described. any great circle which passes through A satisfies the conditions. D'. BD or outside of and the chord a quadrant as radius (1013). By the following construction an angle C is obtained equal to a third of a given angle AOB. From Fig. the division of an angle or an arc into three equal parts (976). since the method of trial line and error is used to determine the CDB. The trisection of an angle. the point A. two points. A Operating as in (1013). which will pass through the point A. a great circle is described. describe an arc of a great circle cutting the given circle in P. equidistant from and B are determined. but the problem is not solved but in all other cases there is geometrically. gf great circle.
and the angle C will be equal to ^ of the angle o AOB. Duplication of a cube. Draw a diameter AB.PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY line 371 line AC aad the semicircumference DBA. draw CDB. exterior angle AOB = B + C (653). Since the (635). while the will pass CD ex tended through B. when 1 this is the case. r/ie quadrature of and a circle. and the chord BD . 2d. BDEF. describe an arc which cuts the tangent in C. and B = BDO BDO = C + COD = 2 C. which consists in finding the side The solution is of a cube which is double that of a given cube. . obtained by calculation. take OG = ^ oi the radius 6 from the point G as a center and a radius equal to twice the diameter AB. we have Z AOB = 3 Z C. join A and C. OA is the side of the required square 3d. and a tangent BC. which consists in constructing a square which has the same area as a given circle (1008). The following method gives the solution correct to one decimal unit of the fifth order.
Two directions. and these are is To designated in the calculation by the usual signs + and . down as negative.not sufficient for the determination of a point to know its distance from a certain point the distance is in a given line. When the line on which the distances are measured is a straight line. it follows that it is . perpendicular to each other being given. but the direction in which taken must also be known.PAET IV TRIGONOMETEY PLANE TRIGONOMETRY 1018. xx' and yy'. The distance of any point on the axis to the origin is called . according 1020. Any polygon being composed of triangles. The means of fixing the position of a point on a line. it agreed to consider the distances measured in one direction as positive. as it is it is generally designated in measured by + x or one direction or the opposite' — a. Since from a certain point in a given line the same distance may be measured in two directions (599). it is called an axis.(449). simplify the expressions and facilitate the calculations. the position of any point in the plane of these two 372 .. and in the opposite direction as negative. The special object of trigonometry is to furnish methods for the calculation of the sides) unknown parts of a triangle (angles and when enough is given to determine them (938 to 942). DETERMINATION OF A POINT 1019. it follows that the more general purpose of trigonometry is to calculate the unknown parts of any polygon which is sufficiently determined. The fixed point line are the abscissa. Generally the lines drawn from left to right and from down to up are considered positive. and those from right to left and up to of a line from which all distances on the measured is called the origin.
it is seen that the abscissa of a point the distance of the point from the yaxis. The point upon two rectangular lines are known. and U these projections being determined by their — q distance from the origin taken on the axes xx' M and yy' (1019). For M. erecting the perpendiculars pM pendiculars contains the point. 245 The axes are called coordinate axes. is positive or negative.axis. The axis xx' is called the xaxis. p and q. drawn in the same plane. since Oq = Mp. intersection. the ordinate of a The ordinate is desigthe distance of the point from the a. / SE' iF^ U^'" Fig.DETERMINATION OP A POINT directions is determined straight lines xx' 373 on the and yy' are when the projections known (715). on the Hnes xx' and and qM. according as is the point at the right or the left of the yaxis. being determined when its projections. and the yaxis are called ordinates. which is designated by x.axis those on are called abscissas. according as it is measured on Ox or Ox'. that is. The common origin of the two axes xx' and yy' is taken at their intersection 0. is located above or below the a. therefore a point in a plane is determined when the abscissas of its projections upon two rectangular axes. Op of the projection p is also the abscissa of the Since Op = Mq. The abscissa. according as the pomt nated by y. The axis yy' is called the yaxis. Thus a point is determined by nates X and y (450). The point is abscissa M. of a point of the point p and q being the projections yij'. X = + Op . are known. The distances measured on the a. each of these pertherefore it must be at their M. and is positive or negative. the The abscissa and ordinate of a point are the coordinates of the algebraic values of its coordi point.axis. point is In a like manner.
yy'.axis. and c being the projections of a point on the three planes xOy.' and yy'. x + f. its respective projections. M and zz'. and consequently q. on the yaxis. it lies on the point lies both. yy' the yaxis. known (763). The distance same 1021. 790). xOz. c. is. and zz'. . Mq oblique to the axes aia. Each known. the right triangle OMf gives (730): ing . The three rectangular axes. are determined when the points p.374 TRIGONOMETRY X When on the = 0. q. a. OM' = gives the sidered. each perpendicular are other two.. which are the intersections of the planes. xx' are Remark 2. to the axes yy'. determined by the rectangular axes xx'. holds likewise when the axes make any angle with which remain parallel each other. and s are known. q. s. a. if at each is is of these points a perpendicular to the corresponding plane erected. Remaric 1. and yOz. yy'. being determined by their the point M abscissas with reference to the origin therefore determined (1019). xx'. that at the origin. b. p. a point M is when the abscissas of its projections on three rectangular axes are known. they will all three clearly determined meet in the point M.. the position of any point in space is determined when its projecto the on three planes. on the axes. . xx'. In the case where the axes are rectangular. it q and S. . . of the projections. on two axes are follows that these three projections. when y = 0. but then the lines Mp. a. yy'. . which is nothing other than the projections of the point upon the three axes. That which has been said of the rectangular axes xx' and yy'. M' M" . it lies and when both x and y are equal to 0. . and zz' the zaxis. xx' being the xaxis. are likewise called coordinate axes. p and p and M. The three points. being deterniined when *S. of any other point. b. . and zz' (715. joinand M. from the origin relation with the coordinates of the point con Means of fixing the position of In the same manner as a point in a plane projections on a point in space. Thus a point by its projections on the three planes. is determined by its two straight rectangular axes drawn tions in the plane (1020).
upon Thus x at the be positive or negative. to the planes of projection remain parallel to the axes. Mb. y. if j/ = or 2 = 0. a. tremities. Since X. = y = 2 = 0. the point is in the plane yOz. the point lies one of the axes. Oq. The distance being the diagonal of a parallelopiped whose edges are the coordinates of the point. and Os = Ma. The projections. Oq = Mb. its Thus a point is determined by coordinates (1020). instead of being orthogonal projections. of the projections of the point on the axes. Oy' . a. located about DETERMINATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE 1022. . 375 are called the The abscissas Op. on the axes. lie according as the projections of the point upon the axes and Oz. and we have. Mc. b. The position of a straight line and therefore by the coordinates is fixed by that of its ex~ of its extremities (1021). p. the point When two of the coordinates are equal to zero. according as the point above or below the plane xOy. Oy. When the point = 0. and Oz the 2ordinate. q. = 0. z will M is lies in front of or behind the plane xOz. on on the 2axis. in case the axes are rectangular. all three axes. Os. M Op is the ^/ordinate. be positive or negative. will These coordinates are positive or negative. thus.DETERMINATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE The three planes determined by these axes coordinate planes. the Remark OM M parallelopiped is rectangular. are then oblique projections. except that the perpendiculars Ma. on the coordinate planes. Op = Mc. to the origin from the point 2. y will be positive or negative. according as the point M lies right or left of the plane yOz. for x = y If a. c. are called the coordinates of the point M. Op is the abscissa x. or those. 2 of the coordinates and a point are equal to the distances of this from the coordinate planes. and must be at is Remark 1. 'the parts Ox. the point is on the origin. That which has been said of planes or axes which are perpendicular to each other applies as well when they are inclined to each other. is respectively in the plane xOz or xOy. s. 2/^ Oiir = x^ + + z\ is (835) This relation exists no matter where the point the origin. according as the point and finally. and Oz'. or upon Ox'.
when it coincides with Oy. 3d. where the straight line is in the same plane as the axes. It remains to fix the direction and sign of the line. Second. one extremity. the direction of this line will be determined when the angle uOx.axis this angle is to be taken because it is easily seen that two equal angles may be drawn with Ox as one side. The position of one extremity of a straight line is deter1st. consider the most simple case. then order of extremities consider as positive all the angles described by the straight in the direction indicated line Ox in turning about the point all by the arrow AB.axis.376 TRIGONOMETRY straight line A may also be defined by the conditions which deter mine: First. its direction and sign with reference to these axes will be known. No matter what the position of the line with reference to the axes is. namely. a conventional system analogous to that in (1019) for fixing the position of a point has been adopted. Third. gard to the sign. that of xy for example (1021). its direction. and sign with reference to a system of and passing through the known extremity are known. direction first This last part of the question is therefore reduced to the determination of what direction is necessary to fix the and sign of a straight line with reference to a system of coordinate axes whose origin is at one extremity of the given line (598. without re2d. by the ratio of it and the linear unit (713). At first. is known. its length. and as negative the opposite direction AC. and it is indicated upon which side of the a. 599). then the values between 0° and 90° in turning from Ox to Oy. when its axes parallel to the of the given line 1023. its sign is indicated by the and u. it makes a positive angle of 90° . In order to dispense with the necessity of designating whether an angle is to be measured from one side or the other of Ox. mined by the algebraic values ity. which the line makes with the part Ox of a. the angles described in turning in The it positive angle all takes is zero when Ou coincides with Ox. of the coordinates of this extrem The length of a straight line is determined. Thus it has been agreed to Let Ou be its the straight line.
y. the line OM M tity it is OM OM = r is always positive since the distance of the point 0. because. both in direction and sign. If Ou had revolved in the negative direction. designate same straight line. and vice versa. From follows that the direction of the line determined when the algebraic values of two of the constant ratios between x. and x = Mq. arcs are also positive . of course. all it would have It a). Remark. extremities at the origin 0. As the line Ou describes angles about the point 0. and is M from in the this it the origin measured positive direction along the generatrix Ou is of the angle uOx. 90° to 377 In turning from Oy to Ox' it takes all the values from 180°.. Six different ratios or trigonometric expressions or functions may be formed with the quantities x. the values from 270° to 360°. and r. these ratios give the corresponding values of x and y (516). and according as these angles are positive or negative. POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE In the case where the straight line Ou has one of its is determined when the algebraic values of the coordinates y = Mp. that is. and on Ou matter what the position of may be. TRIGONOMETRIC EXPRESSIONS — THEIR USE FOR THE EXPRESSION OF THE VALUE OF ANY ANGLE OR ARC. it is. . described all the values from 180° to 270°.TRIGONOMETRIC EXPRESSIONS with Ox. assumed that the arc is preceded by its sign + or — according to the conventions adopted. + + + (720 the + a). of its other extremity are known (1020). etc. (360° all should be noted that angles +  a. the points in the line describe arcs corresponding to these angles (667).  (360   (720 a). Thus an angle is determined when its corresponding arc is Icnown. y. and r are known.. the and negative. assuming any value of r. from Ox' to Oy' from Oy' to Ox all all the values from 360° up. y. no The ratios between the quantities x. no matter what the <s' = r may be. The quanvalue 1024. the negative angles just as the a). are constant. etc. it has the positive. and from Ox on.
is the cosine of the angle and arc Its sign is the same as that of x. have sin ^ Mp ==— y r i . As is shown r in Fie. the two similar OAT. the reciprocal of the cosine. r . which is also designated by a. X 1025.. is . Drawing the tangent 3d. give (700. . the tangent of the angle as and arc a. and of the It has the same sign as are AM. Other forms of these functions. ratio of the ordinate to the abscissa. of the same sign. the cosine and I a the sine of a are respectively equal to the sine and cosine of the com plement of the angle a. Cos a = X r Ot) =— i . is the sine of the angle uOx = a. 248). triangles AT (Fig. It is positive or negative according as x like or unlike signs. is — . i tana = . Trigonometric We u. 1st. Mp to the radius of the arc AB passing through the point M. is — X . r ratio of the radius r to half ' Mp of the chord which subtends the arc corresponding to double the angle 2d. cosa = ^ V . called the cotangent of the angle and arc tangent.378 r TRIGONOMETRY ratio of the ordinate . 248. x r CSC a — y V ) sec a = — X T » cot a = — y lines. is secant of the angle and arc a. u. the ordinate y (1020). the reciprocal of the tangent. of the same sign. y and x have called the co the reciprocal of the sine. OpM. Op to the radius. ratio of the abscissa u. called the X secant of the angle and arc a. 1024): AT = y = p X ^ tan a. It is positive or negative according the same or opposite signs. consequently are written: it and y have has the same sign as the The above functions sin a = = V r . ..
drawn from r. From an angle hence this formula and the cosecant. its name secant. measured on the second side of the angle and included between the center and the tangent. the two similar triangles OBS and OqM give: until it meets BS = r y X = cot a. to the radius is why the expression  called tangent.TRIGONOMETRIC EXPRESSIONS Thus the tangent of 379 an angle a is also represented by the ratio of the origin to the positive or negative tangent the arc described with the radius AT. Drawing the tangent BS from the point B Ou. gets its name cotangent. it is seen that the cosecant of its nothing other than the secant of complement. which shows that the cotangent of an angle ratio of the tangent is represented by the BS to the radius. and its name We have therefore: . This gives the function 5th. 248 show that a cotangent of an its complement. 4th. This is it where 6th. r y is Thus portion the cosecant of an angle represented by the ratio of that OS is of the secant to the radius. r. A of and prolonged This is meet the other side of the angle a. The same similar triangles OAT sec a. and the radius r. and OpM give: OT —= r X r = The secant the secant is therefore represented by the ratio of that portion of OT. From the two similar triangles OBS and OqM: OS = r = —  CSC a. angle is nothing other than the tangent of This formula and the Fig. figure.
cos a = r '^ = — = . therefore: sin a = + r ri' . vers sin equal to Ap. 1026. to + oo . + oo to 1 . —XX =—V V r 4 . and y are and y from to r. ' tan u. it is very easy to determine the signs of these 1027. while x is negative and varies from to — r. a. For = the coversed sine. is a. and varies from '>. — oo oo . and varies from + oo to 0. between + 90° and + 180°. since they are not frequently used. positive. esc a = — y . and 90°. . + 1 to . is the coversed sine of the angle and arc u. Signs of trigonometric functions. and varies from to + . and are called trigonometric lines. = r —— r is the versed sine of the angle and arc a. will There are still two trigonometric functions which we simply define. the versed sine. Since the only variables which enter in the trigonometric functions of (1024) are the coordinates X and y. 1 to + oo cot a = \ — y . y is positive and varies from r to 0. therefore (1024) and varies from and varies from and varies from and varies from and varies from to 1020). . For r = 1. and varies from and varies from 1 to — to 1 r . covers sin is equal to Bq. For the values of u. what the value of a may be (487. a.. variables no matter For varies the values of a between 0° from r to 0. x sin a + 1 + 1 to .380 TRIGONOMETRY last values of the trigonometric functions are represented These by lines. = —i r r r 1.
are the same as those an angle of 30°. and x also negative and varies from — r to . etc. these values and signs are repeated and so on. For values angles (360° of of u greater than 360°. 1 to — oo . y is negative to r. oo to 0. . For the values and varies from to between + 270° and + 360°. sec a — = XX' and varies from and varies from 1 to a> cot u y of u. y is negative — r to 0. therefore sm 1 = — r r ~ =—^ r . . X r . — 1 . to + oo : = = = V T = y . y y sec u. cos a X — r and varies from S + tan a esc a — + r x =— = and varies from and varies from — — 1 oo to . and varies from and varies from oo to — — 1 ' = — X . while x is positive and varies from + r. and varies from and varies from and varies from and varies from to — to 1 : ' cos a = — =  X = X . thus. therefore: sin a = = = = = — r H  =—^ r . X r . — — + oo to — — 1 y T . to oo. and varies from to — 1 1 to .. and varies from rr + oo to + cot u. the trigonometric functions of the + 30).TRIGONOMETRIC EXPRESSIONS sec u. = _I_ y = X y X . (360° 2 + 30). and varies from to — oo. y For the values and varies from of a between + 180° is and + 270°. — = — y = r = XX X V . = H — y . r tan a CSC a —XX — =+ y  ^ T y . 381 cot u.
having the absolute value. we would have the same values as for the positive angles from 360° to 270°. functions for the different values of the angle or the arc 1/ V m sine and esc cos and sec Fig. the sign may be prefixed which belongs to the given angle according to the table (1027) or the figure 249. follows that in forming the table (1071) of the all values of the trigonometric functions of the positive angles included between 0° and 90°.57358 of the angle of 35°. 248 it is By seen that for any negative angle — the a (1023). the trigonometric functions have the same values and same signs as if for the positive angle 360 — a. 249 tan and cot 1028. Noting that Ou makes an angle of 215 = + 215°. Any 1029. indicates the signs of the trigonometric o. From this it follows that a table of the values for the negative angles were the same as in the one given above. and prefixing the minus sign before this absolute value which corresponds to the angle 215°.382 TRIGONOMETRY inspection of Fig. 248). constructed. for — 180 = 35° with Ox'] look in the table (1071) for the sine 0. since for a given value + /S of the sine there are two . we would have but in an inverse order. If it is desired to have the sine of the angle uOx example.57358. It should be noted that the absolute values of the co ordinates y and x. this acute angle being From this it always considered as positive. and therefore. for the angles from 0° to — 90°. The figure (249) below. values of all it will contain also the absolute the angles greater than 90°. those of the trigonometric functions of any angle uOx (1024). angle being given. are equal to those of the acute angle which the line Ou makes with Ox or its prolongation Ox' (Fig. we have: sin 215° = 0. A single trigonometric function does not determine the angle a. the algebraic values of its trigono metric functions may be determined. Thus.
inclined to the vertical meaning that the face by an angle whose tangent of is numbers.TRIGONOMETRIC EXPRESSIONS angles a 180° 383 and 180° + a and 360° —  u. In the same manner there are two values of the angle for one value and sign of the cosine. an angle is determined when the value and sign of its sine and the sign of its cosine are given. directly opposed to one another ing the angles a and 180° + a with the line Ox. its sine or cosine. but will be when.and lines = — a. the value and sign of its cosine and the sign of its sine must be known. in a given distance. while its supplement 180° — a corresponds to a negative cosine. metric functions. batter of a wall is said to be so and so many feet number of feet in height. and tangent. the sign of the sine or cosine is known. equal to the ratio of the given : a grade of 3%= r^ =tan a =0. is which is the same thing. of a road is the height which the road rises from the horizontal Thus. besides the tangent. known. The grade batter of a wall is 1 10.. equations which may be satisfied two is Ou and Ou". In masonry the per a certain the wall is Designation of an angle by the words batter and grade. but it besides its tangent the sign of one of its coordinates x or and makThus an angle becomes determined y. and Thus the angle is not determined. + t t being the value of the tangent of the angle t = . there corresponds. t If the given tangent were — we would have — by the lines — = t — + = — —  X and  > which values are satisfied Ou' and Ou'".03 is expressed by the tangent . t. X opposed to each other and making the angles 90° + a. Since an acute angle a corresponds to a positive cosine. For instance. this is shown in Fig. and for sin ^ =— >S there are two angles a. In general. 1030. for each of the two other functions. the angle determined if the sign of one of the other two is known. we have by the ^ . when or. it is generally expressed in per cent. sine. if the the tangent of the angle is 0.1. for each algebraic value of the principal trigonodirectly 270° + a with Ox. and in order to determine an angle. It follows then that having is the value of any one of the trigonometric functions. two equal values opposite in sign. not determined by its tangent. 249. cosine.
and at the same time these same values are the cosines of the angles (complements of the above) whose decrees are written at the bottom and minutes in the last column at the right.0. the sine. the cosine. it offers no difficulties that have not been explained above. For instance. but in any case the slope is generally so small that there is little difference between the tangent and the sine. For example. the functions of any angles may be found (1028). In practice. even if it should be. the cotangent.57358. the numbers in the second column are sines of the angle whose number of degrees is read at the top and minutes at the left in the first column.384 of the angle TRIGONOMETRY the distance which the surface of the road makes with the horiis taken on the surface of the road. then reading from the bottom the functions of the angles from 45° to 90° are found. the tangent. General Rule. which gives the required value. of the cosine of an angle of 125° 0. the tangent. and therefore the tables contain only these values.57358 (1027). use is scarcely ever made of functions other than the sine. Reading from the top. The tables are so arranged that each absolute value may be read as a function of an angle and its complement. this ratio is then the sine of the slope angle a. the cosecant and the secant of its complement. If 0° to 45° are all that are necessary to determine those of all the angles. the secant and the cosecant of an acute angle are respectively equal to the cosine. look for the cosine of 90°  70° = 20° in the table (1043). is The absolute value . having a table containing the values of the trigonometric functions of the angles from 0° to 90°. it is rarely required to find the functions of angles greater than two right angles. . Noting that the sine.125° = 55° (1071) and the sine of 90°.55° = 35° its algebraic value is . it is seen that the functions of the angles from zontal. find the value corresponding to the supplement of the angle and prefix the sign corresponding to the given angle (1027). 1032. When the value of a trigonometric function of an angle between 90° and 180° is to be determined. but. the sine of one angle is the cosine of its complement. 1031. and cotangent. if it is desired to have the sine of 70°. We have seen how. Referring to the table (1071). cosine. the cosine of 180° . Trigonometric tables. In practice. the functions of all the angles expressed in minutes up to 45° are given. tangent. the cotangent.
are known. plane Oux. ^8. which shows that. r 1034. and Oz be respectively dicular to in the <*. and. Assume that one extremity lies of the line Ou at the origin of the coordinate system. (1021) X^ therefore that is.•+ ^ +^= /3 1^ cos^ a h cos^ + cos^ y = 1. and therefore the line r r is determined. the algebraic ratios ) } and . be determined ^^^' M = situated in the line r and z of a point at any distance + OM This position > —> will. We have: a. knowing the cosines of the angles which the line makes with the coordinate axes.2 + 2/2 + 22 2^ = OM' = 1' r^. the axes Ox. . signs r determined by the signs of and because always positive. p. have just seen how. Let us now examine the case where the straight line lies outside of We these planes. The z. be determined when the ratios of the ratios are r is and . Mp being the perpen Ox (770). y.TRIGONOMETRIC EXPRESSIONS 1033. by means of the trigonometric functions. Ov 7^ = X = cos OM r Likewise in the planes ft a. (a) which shows that the sum of the squares of the cosines of the angles which a straight line makes with the rectangular axes of a system of coordinates is eqvnl to one. Let the angles which the line Oy. The position of the line when the coordinates x. r therefore. . Op is the we have: abscissa x of the point M.are known. the position of a Hne in the plane of the coordinates is fixed. ^^ from the origin (1021). Ou makes with and y. (1024) uOy and uOz we have: cos r = B and r ^ = cos y. 385 Determination of the position of a straight line in space. r x. will y.
now if the sign of the cosine of the angle which the line makes with the third axis is known. . line is the generatrix. and evident that may be used as a unit in measuring arcs and tt. but that the algebraic values of the cosines of two of the angles and the sign of the third cosine being given. Remark 2. the formula (o) becomes. the quantity it = 1. The cosine of an angle which a straight line makes with an axis determines the surface of a cone of revolution of which the straight determine two lines. it is determined which of the intersections is the required line. (1020) r 1035. This relation shows that the cosines of the angles which a line makes with the three axes of a rectangular coordinate system cannot be arbitrarily chosen. the intersections of two conical surmaking an acute and the other an obtuse angle with the third axis. according as TT TT TT TT = "180TT (^) 2 IT O'TT 6' 5' V 45° 3' 2' is "3"' "' ~2 . the third cosine and the position of the line may be determined by means of the equation (a). The cosines which the straight line makes with two axes of the coordinate system faces of revolution. being to 180°. one line namely. cos^ a + cos^ /8 = •"• 1.386 TRIGONOMETRY Remark 1. the same arc expressed in degrees 30° 36° respectively: 60° 90° 120° 180° 270° 360°. (a) if a is expressed in degrees. angles. Remark 3. 2 T. its value x in function is ^ Thus. . If the line is situated in the plane of two of the axes. of IT = a 180 7r . and thus the position of the line is fixed. An this arc a being expressed as a function of in degrees is the value x of same arc X Conversely. expressed it is The circumference of a circle whose radius corresponds by 2 tt (752).
the algebraic value of p'p" + 22. p"p' is — 22 feet. the values of x' and x" both being negative. /^' '^'' j ^^ 251 and that 1037. the algebraic value of M'M" is + 30 feet.x" p'p" If =+  (x')] =( (a.[+ x" x"  {x')\ {x')\ = + =  {x" (x" + + x'). the preceding formulas would give: p'p" and p"p' = + [+ = . But when the line is referred to a given axis or system of axes.')] x" + x'). These expressions apply equally in the cases where x' and x" have like or unlike signs. x').' or M"M' being 30 feet. feet. In the same way the absolute value of the projection p'p" or q 4= p"p' of M'M" of on the axis Ox being 22 is / / feet. abscissa of the point M'. 387 A straight line having two directions (599). either of be taken as positive. Having Op" = x" = x'. the opposite being negative. the sign of each direction tion of the axis (1019). = {x" F x'). according as the length was taken in the positive or negative direction. . (426) x' were negative and x" positive.PROJECTION OF STRAIGHT LINES PROJECTION OF STRAIGHT LINES 1036. the absolute length of the line M'M" M" X. is When its a straight line considered independently. and that of M"M' is — 30. Thus. the length of a finite line will take the + or — sign.x" p"p' ={. we have: of the other axes [. the same as that for upon an axis and the same direc To make this clear.). which is the case when M' and M" lie at the left of the yz plane. abscissa of the point M". and Op' it follows that p'p" =+ (x"  x'). its sign is determined by its position with reference to these directions axes. may The is direction of the projection of a straight line indicated by the order of the letters of is two of its points. jrig. and p"p' = (x"  x'. The algebraic expression of the projection of a straight line upon an axis. Analogous expressions are obtained for the projections on each Oy and Oz.
or them. This formula is the same an given parallel to in (1020). these projections would be the coordinates of the point M". for example.x". taking the length of M'M" equal to u. TRIGONOMETRY Relation between a straight line and its projections (1040). Fig. CD = x" . V? = (x"  x'Y + {y"  y'y. Adding all the projections. the projection of the broken line on the axis. In case one of the projections is zero. we have (458): Projection of ACDE = x^ x' . the line were in the two planes yx and xz. furthermore. equal to the projec tion of the line AE. 1039. and the preceding formula would become. upon the same axis (1040). which is the same as in (1037). it would coincide with the axis x or be parallel to it. through the point M' (Fig. DE=x'^x".388 1038.x'". and reducing. the formula of (1021) u^ may {y" be applied thus: = {x"  x'Y +  y'Y + {z"  i'f. which joins the extremities of the broken line. that is. 252 x' being the abscissa of the point A. the projections of M'M" on these axes would be respectively equal to the projections on the first. when the If line is parallel to the xy plane. v? = (x" — x'Y or u = {x" — x'). which is the case when is situated in one of the coordinate planes or parallel to the preceding formula becomes. E. and x^ that of x" that of the points B and D. The algebraic sum of the projections of the several por tions of a broken line is ACDE on any axis. while the projections on the other two axes would be zero. 281) axes parallel to the first system are drawn. the line it. If If the axes are rectangular. we have successively (1037): Projection of AB = x" — x' BC = x'". Then its true length would be projected upon the xaxis. x'" that of C.
M' by Py. the projections M'p and by Px and M!q the line on the axes and noting that these projections are the coordinates of the point M": . expressed trigonometric functions (1037). Projection of a straight line. or. at re the origin of the axes. From presenting the length of of M'M" by u. in terms of 1st. any line.PROJECTION OF STRAIGHT LINES which is 389 nothing other than the projection of the straight line AE joining the extremities of the hne ACDE. any line. Remark. in general. Considering a curved line as a broken line whose segments are infinitely small (601). and. its upon an axis. in the plane xy. y' 1040. Let a straight line with its M'M" be situated extremity (1024). in general. it follows that the above statement applies also to curves.
a" . and parallels comprehended between parare equal. 4th. 252). and designating the positive angles which AC. The perpendiculars — M"N. . We have said (3d) that the projections M'N and p'p" were equal to each other.. M'p' and M"p" drawn to the axes being in the' planes which pass through M'M" per pendicular to the parallel axes..390 TRIGONOMETRY upon the axis is equal to the absolute length of the line multiplied by the cosine of the positive angle included between the positive side of the axis and the line(1019. since these planes cut the axes in M'. Remark. Proof. . making AC = u'. we have M'N = p'p". . N. allels CD = CD . Projection of . u" . p' and p". we have: . . For a broken hne ACDE (Fig. make with Ox (3d) by a'. 1023). .
2_^2_ + r^ cos^ a = + cos^ a == 1 and cos a . likewise the cosine of an angle a^. Substituting these values of x and y in the equation y2 we obtain or r^ sin^ a sin^ a + a. „ . tan a . . 2d.RELATIONS BETWEEN TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 391 makes with Ox. angle or arc From 1st. . = V X = sin a = sin a r cos a cos a from which sma . To determine the projection of a straight line or a series of straight lines on an axis. which between 180° and 270°. the calculations may be facilitated by taking the cosine of the smaller angle which the line makes with the axis Ox. Relations between the trigonometric functions of the same a. AC FORMULAS EXPRESSING THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 1041. from which sin a = ± \/l r — cos^ a = ± Vl — sin^ a. is algebraically equal to that of the Ues obtuse angle 360 — Oj. (1024): sin a = r J from which y = X r r sin a . and cosa= j from which x = r cos a. (1020) r'. which is the smaller of the two angles which the line forms with thq axis Ox.
392 TRIGONOMETRY from which 4 Vl .sin^ a or cot a sm a = or cos a .
tan a = cot a'.and it follows that the tan — X . From 4th. and r being the radius OM. — a) = — CSC a. the above we may deduce CSC ( — a) a) sec (— ( cot 1043. 3d). is. Thus. tan a Also (1041.are always equal and of unlike signs. those of y are equal and of unlike signs. . we have for angle a (1041): Oq OT y = r sin a.or cos ( of the same sign consequently . the cosines will and — a) = COS a. and Op or x = r cos a. for the positive angle the same values of x and y give: y = r cos a' and x = r sin a'. On the contrary. Since the values of x are equal and of the same sign. = tan a or tan a tan a'= 1. two equal angles of unlike signs have equal tangents also of unlike signs. sin a cos a Sin a' that is (1041. a'. 393 For X. Relations between the trigonometric functions of two com plementary angles or arcs. = sec a. Thus. Dividing.RELATIONS BETWEEN TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 2d. Let a = uOx and a' = S/^ uOy. two values. y and x being the coordinates of the point M. X . gents . equal and X both be . = — cot a. while 3d. and r. two equal angles of like signs have the same cosines. that whose sum a ^ q + a' = 90°. 2d). cancelling Putting these two values of x and y equal to each other. and X tan ( — a) = — tan a. we have: sin a = cos a' and cos a cos a' = sin a'.
when their algebraic sum by considering a' as negative we have I^et the same case as the one preceding (1043). the sines. cotangents of the other. The a angles being measured in the positive direction from Ox.. angles. and tangents 255 (1031). the angle MOM' = . 1044. M'Ox = and a'. of one are respectively equal to the cosines. the angles a and a' being complementary. the smaller of the two u. Relations between the trigonometric functions of two angles whose difference a — a' = 90°. cosines. Since two angles are complementary is equal to a right angle.394 TRIGONOMETRY Thus. or arcs. sines. and This is easily verified with the aid of Fig. MOx = the larger.
M may be.25882. y' sin b. then POy = This relation exists no matter what value b this angle may have. cos = . = y'Ox. POy = and sin (1044) The angle PbO = b (629). and a (1044) equal to x'Ox or cos then sin b. sin 75° then.96593. 165° = 0. and trigonometric \ . MOm = a. and tangent of an angle The a' relation  a' = 90° becomes 165°  a' = 90°. it being obtuse. and X being that of OPM on Ox.RELATIONS BETWEEN TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Example. we have = 0. {a + b).OQ = point nates X. POy.' F= sin & X = x' cosb + — y' cos b. cos PbO = cos b. (1043) regardless of the values of a is and sin&.0. y. yi = 0. and then MO A and \^ OXQ ^/""A' = (a ^'e^! Investigating the relations which exist between the coordinates MQ = Y. of 165°? 395 What a is the sine. and those OP = x' M with reference to the two systems of rectangular Coordiand x'y'.96593. and the cot 75° tan 165° 1045. Y= x' cos we POy + X= The angle Mcx right angle is x' cos b + y' cos PbO.26795.25882. and cos we have again: b. MP = y' of the same Y being the projection of find (1040) y' cos 0PM on Oy. . and = 165°  90° = = 75°. X. and in the equations of PbO X and Y: a. cos 75° 0. From sin 165° the table (1071). Let mOA = + 6). because. Mcx. Substituting these values of the cosines of Mcx. The angle POy the complement of the angle cos b. the difference between and a right angle is the angle POy. b. between functions of two angles or arcs a those of their and b and A ^ sum b. the difference between which b. Mcx = — This relation exists no matter what the position of that is.26795. cosine. Relations =the 0.
sin (a — — 6) _ sin a cos b — cos a sin b . given in the formulas (1) and gives a and making {a + b) = — b). which = {a' (1) (2) . cosine.. cos a cos b Cancelling r.x (1041) cos Substituting this value in equation (4). 6) = cos a . + b).„„> • cos a cos 6 b.. Retaining the same value of b. b. cos (a + 6) = ^ + 6) sin a cos 6 r + cos a sin 6 . Putting a' = a and reducing the equation (2) (511): (2) of the preceding article.. a'. sin (a = sin a cos b — cos a sin b. r sin (a r cos (a + + b) &) = = r cos a sin b »" r sin r sin a cos a sin 6. . ' cos b cos 6 6) that is. tan (a 1046. + . cos (a — . ..396 Since (1041): TRIGONOMETRY F= y' r sin (a + 6). we have: sin a' = sin (a' — b) cos 6 + cos (a' — b) sin b. . X= x' r cos (a r cos a. . sin (a . sin (a — 7 . . 4 sin (a — . 4th): cos 6 . — + . (3) ^ Substituting this value in equation (1). &) = 1 tan a + tan b —^ a^ r tan tan o • (3) ^ ' The trigonometric functions of the difference {a — b) of two angles a and b expressed in terms of the functions of the two angles.. sin^6"\ = b) cos 6 V \ = + . . = r sin a. cos /. — sin ^—r a sin 6 (1041) ^ ' Dividing both terms by cos a cos for the sine divided and substituting the tangent by the . .. sin b r • b) cos b cos 6 . / . = + — + — the preceding equations become. cos 6/ sin a cos a sin & . . . . sin (a cos (a . (!) cos a cos & a sin ^ (2) tan {a + b)= . cos a' = cos (a' — b) cos b — sin (a' — 6) sin b.. . + + b) b) = = sin a cos 6 cos a sin sin 6. cos 6 (4) ' ^ From (509. .n.. sin^6 cos = cos^fe sin^b = 1 . b.
(a) that is.RELATIONS BETWEEN TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 397 Substituting this value of sin (a cos (a — b) in equation b. tan {a + . 2 cos' a — 1. (1) From cos' a 1 — 1 sin' a. cos (a + b). cos (a (1041). sin' a : elim inated cos 2 a . • Dividing both terms by cos a cos tan (a 1047. cos (a — — b) ^r o) = sin a cos b cos a b. — cos a sin b — —r cos o + sm a sm o j— . cos 2 a If. From formula (&). Substituting this value in equation (1).s b) = ^ tan 2 a = 2 tan a —5— . — 6) •= cos a cos 6 + sin a sin Dividing one by the o) other. . (c) 1048. tan (a — = sin (a . 1 1 a cos ^ a. — .2 a. o Relations between the trigonometric functions of an angle a and those of one of twice its value . . Relations between the trigonometric functions of an angle its a and those of another of half value ^ Substituting a for 2 a and . sin 2 a = = 2 sin a cos a. (6') 3d. = — 2 sin' a. sin {a + b) = 6) sin 2 a = sin a cos a + cos a sin a. + = cos 2 a = cos' a — sin^ a. Formula (a) gives: sin a = = 2 _ sm ^ . cos o 1 — 2 sin'  a. 6) — tan = —— a tan 1 + tan a tan — 1)  . • . . is (b) instead of eliminating cos' a from equation (1).a for a in the formulas of the pre ceding article: 1st. (3). = . 2d. . Making b = a in the values given for sin (a + b). and tan (a + b) (1045) 1st.
r a Transposing.398 TRIGONOMETRY (571). cos' a — 3 cos a.1 2 1 — = cos. cos 2 a. Also from (1041): . and 3d. (2). we have: in sin 3 a cos 3 a = = 3 sin a 4 — 4 sin' a. (&). those of a. tan a + tan 2 a tan 3 a = 1 — tan a tan 2 a sin 3 a ffl = = sin a cos 2 a Substituting the values of sin 2 formulas (a). To obtain the trigonometric functions of 3 a in terms of put 6 = 2 a in the formulas (1)..a ± \/ii V 1 Vl + r i /I — cos a cos a 1049. = ± y cos a 2d. cos 3 cos a cos 2a — sin a sin 2 a. 2 Solving. 3ino and .a tan a = 1 — tan^ . and (3) of (1045). and (c) (1047). tan J a 2 = tan a ^ ± v/^ + V tan^ a tana = 2 1 = r^" (" 1 ± Vl tan a +tan^a). and tan 2 a given and simplifying. a.. Formula (b') gives: cos a = 2 cos^ ^ a ^ — 1. . I + cos a Formula (c) becomes: 2 tan . cos a i . siri. (1) (2) . tan^ ~ a 2 + tan a tan ^a=\. which gives + cos a sin 2 a.
a and those of a to. = — 3 —tan a^— j tan^ a . other. b. b. etc. „ 399 . tan a = 3 tan is^ 1 ~ ^^^^ z ^ — 3 tan^ . (1). Other relations three times an 1052. sin (a sin {a cos (a cos {a + + — — b) b) 6) b) + sin — sin + cos — cos (a (a {a {a — — + + 6) b) b) b) = = = = 2 sin a cos 2 cos a sin b. 1st. in the formulas of (1045). (2). 1046). 2 cos a cos 2 sin a sin These formulas 2d. between the trigonometric expressions. which are frequently used in practice. cosine. which is equal to and the sine. By addition and subtraction of the values of the sine and cosine of (a + b) and (a — b) (1045.(p + q) cos g (P — ?)' ~ ?)' sin — sin 5 2 cos 2 (p + q) sin o (P . we have sin p + p sin g = = 2 sin . 1 3 tair a (3) By making of b = 3 a.„.a o COS'' — — 4 sin^ o a. then b = Aa. COS a 4: a O 3 cos ^ O o a. and tangent of the latter. may be used to transform the product of two trig onometric expressions to a sum or difference. Putting {a + b) = p and = (a ^ — b) = q) q in the pi.eceding formulas..: may be obtained.a O These formulas express the relations which exist between the sine. the relations which exist between the trigonometric functions of any multiple 1051. the formulas and (3) of (1049) give: sin a = = 3 sin . Changing a a. we obtain: b. cosine. from which (520) a (p + and b =  (p — q). and tangent of an angle.RELATIONS BETWEEN TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS tan 3 o 1050.
g) / tan(pg) 1 sin p cosp + . .1 sin ^ + . 1 . . 1 7c cot 1 . * .(p . cos .(p 2 — g) _ tan ^ (P 2 ^ . \ cot7r(p+g)cot(pg). 1 S)? . cos p = cot ^ 1 t. o cos ^ (p cos o — = . 2 (p — . + + tan H (P 2^^ — ih ^" g) sm p — sm cos g cos g — = .(p '2 (p + g) = tan H (P + ^' 2 ^ ^ 1 . q). • sin g sin p — _ cos . I sin 2 (P ^ . = . + . sum From or difference to a product. . by division.1 2^^ = ^ . q) sin p ^ + sm . . g) ^ cos p = . . A .(p 2 sin 5 2 (p 1. 2 (p ^ + g).(p 2 5  1 . change a 3d.400 TRIGONOMETRY cos p + cos 2 = = 2 cos .(p + q) sin. sin 2 (P g) + cosg— . . cos p cos g cosp = cos. ^ — q) ^ . these last formulas.half their difference. 1. ^ 3) Sin p — Sin a ^ ^— cosp + coso = 2 \ • = . . . noting that '^ = cos A tanA = 4T= cot A 5) cos (1041) ^ ' sm p + sm .(p + q) cos ^ (P ~ 3)' — g). > ^ 2^^^ ^ From the formula it is seen that the sum of the sines of two angles is to their difference as the tangent of half the sum of these angles is to . 2 . + ^' ?) + ?)sin(p ^' . . A .(p These formulas are frequently used in logarithmic calculations. . sin o + . to cos g' — cos p 2 sin .(p + g) cos (p — g) 2^^ ^' ^' sm^Cp +g)sin (pg) first — . 2^'^ . . cosg = cos .
. cos cos a cos b — . sin a cos a ± sin b = sin a cos b ± sin b cos a = sin (a ± b) r r> .RELATIONS BETWEEN TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 4th. sums. _.&) = 2 sin ^45° + ^^] sin ^45° + ^^\ + a) = '\/2sin(45° Bina + cosa=2sin 45° sin (45° + a). 2sin(a — 6)sin(a + 6) coso 7~ = 2 2 . and differences are given below: tan a ± tan b = .— . tan a = V2sin(45°±a) ^ • cos a. ^^ cos a cos b seca+seco= .1 1 cos a cos r = cosa+coso .\ \ 1 . cos^ a + cos^ b— I = cos (a + b) cos (a — b). 11 1. 2 cos^ ^45° . T 2cos(« + 6)cos(a — 2 2 ) cos a cos o cos a cos o seca— seco= . sinacos6=sinasin(90°6)=2sin^45°^]sin/'45°^V sin a — cos a = — 2 sin (45° — a) sin 45° = — V2 sin (45° — a) sin^ a — sin^ b = sin (a + b) sin (a — &). cos a 11 r= 1 1 coso — cosa J.sin a = 1  cos (90° a) 2 sin^ (45° 2sin^ cos a I I ' \f\ + cos a tan2 ^ a > a 2 cos^„ 2sm2 V—— Vl+sma J . = '(«i) / / o„_2/. cos a cos cos a cos o j sin a + cos 6 = sin a + sin (90° . 2 1 ± . . 1 + sina = 1 + cos (90°  a) = = 2 .^o 2cos2f45° f a\ = 'tan 45°\ . 401 Some other convenient transformations of products.
sin a . 1. 2 + 2^^°2 ^ . tables were described in article (1032). cos a .•!. When an angle less creased.. now be shown how they are calculated. or Mp is half the (649) u. we have: tan a + tan h + tan c = tan a. Sin^2 +^^"2 . b . sin u. Op = cos and AT = tan *. COt^ b + . < sm a (2) cos a respectively: From the inequalities (1) and we have sm a > 1 and sin TT —< u. the ratio of the arc. 760) ^OAX a<^OA X and a < tan a or (1041) a (2). cot. > sin a and a < tan a. tan c c. we have: 0AM being less than that tano. It will The trigonometric 1st.a . we have (1025) Mp = a Since the sin as great as a.• + sin + sin c = + . Letting a equal the length of the arc AM.402 TRIGONOMETRY \h For a = 180°. (718. ^ 4cos <* ^r Ji cos . 2 CALCULATION OF THE TRIGONOMETRIC TABLES 1053. u. chord subtended by an arc twice we have > sm a. tan + c = IT b.t cot ^ cot) . than 90° is dewhich measures the angle. a . cot . to the sine diminishes and approaches one as a limit (186).cos > ^ Ji ^ COt^ .c = . Supposing or OM r = a. (1) Furthermore. the surface of the sector of the triangle OAT. c ^'"^ 2 ^^"^ ^ .
lies and consequently has is less now be shown that the difference between the length than onefourth of the cube of the a of the arc and the sine arc a. cos a may also be considered as having 2d. 2 sin . is .1  «. which shows that the ratio between 1 and cos 3d. It will u. ' it follows that —. a. (1041) we deduce: tan a < 1 and tan a > cos a.11 > a = cosa. . always greater than cos 1 for its limit. sm or a > > > a cos^ r a a a.. cos a . decreases and a approaches 1 as a smaller than limit. ' sm a which a limit. 1 for From a the inequalities < tan a and a > sin u or a > tan a cos a. sin a (1 — sin^ a • a) or sm a — sin'' .a cos  (1058) and cancelling the common factor  a.. as a decreases. Multiplying this inequality sin a by the equation a.CALCULATION OF TRIGONOMETRIC TABLES which shows that cluded between 1 403 the ratio of the length of the arc to the sine is in and the quantity always greater than 1. Since. From the inequality (1st) 1 ''A" COS a 1 we have: sin^a . .
Multiplying this inequality by (sinia<laj=sin^ 2"<4' and cancelling the common factor sin^  o.9999999988248.. a — sm a < r • 4 Example. f V) V) cos (a + = = sin a cos & cos a cos 6 + — cos a sin & sin /i na>i> a sin & the sines and cosines of all the angles from 0° to 45° The tangent and cotangent obtained from the formulas sin a of each of these angles may be found. we may sin 10" write: = 0.a. Determine the error for an angle where a is the length of the arc. and ^= 4 Therefore 0.\ (1041) tan a . of 10" in taking The radius being the arc corresponding to 180° ^r is = •• IT = 10 3. in taking the arc for the sine.0000484813681. cos 10" and the following for mulas. sin 10" = a. (1041) With the help sin (a of sin 10". the error than about threetenths of a decimal unit of the thirteenth order. = VI . = 0.1415926 . (751) and the length of an arc corresponding to 10" is (758) 3.000048481368110. 1. . . = cos a sm a .404 TRIGONOMETRY a and — sin a < a sin^ .sin^ 10". .000000000000032 • Thus is less for an angle of 10". = cos a J and cot a . With the same degree of accuracy we may write: cos 10" cos 10" 4th. may be /in..1415926 X 180 X 60 X 60 = 0.
the method of interpolation as used in the logarithmic tables may be resorted to. For the sake of simplicity in that which follows. B. In case it is desired to work with smaller angles. The trigonometric functions of the angles from 0° to those from 45° to 90°. and c. In any right triangle. B. 405 45° give (1043). and c = a sin C. each leg is equal to 1055. in any right triangle. any angle It is evident that this method of calculating the trigonometric functions is long and fatiguing. c may be considered as projections of a upon the we have C & = <x cos C. tively near the middle of these sides. and cos 5 = sin C (1043). equal to the hypotenuse multiplied by the cosine of the adjacent angle or the sine of the . each opposite angle. having the trigonometric functions for the angles to 90°. but since late tables. the Since b and legs.PRINCIPLES USED IN SOLVING TRIANGLES 5th. they can be determined for larger. hypotenuse multiplied by the cosine of the adjacent angle. b. and c = a cos B. and C written at the vertices and the sides respec opposed to these angles by the letters a. as was shown in (1031) and Finally. it has been simplified by proceeding in another manner. written In the case of a right triangle the right angle is designated by A and the hypotenuse by a. than In practice. leg is Thus. therefore no angles smaller than 1' are given in the tables (1071). (1040) b The angles cos B C = sin and C being complementary. up from what was said in (1028). PRINCIPLES USED IN SOLVING TRIANGLES 1054. the angles of the letters triangles will be represented by the A. ^ and therefore 6 = a sin B. Remark. this simpler it is not our purpose to calcu method will not be given. the engineer scarcely ever deals with angles smaller 1'. Theorem 1.
and: CD From the triangle =^ b sin A. . and CD = a sin B. Dropping a perpendicular tex C on the side c : CD from the ver 1st. each leg is equal to the other multi plied first leg or by the tangent of the angle opposite the by the cotangent of the adjacent angle.4 : sin B = a : b. give: 6 = a sin B. cos b c B B c tan B. Fig. (1041) from which = ^ tan B B we and Since tan 6 tan C. i Theorem of the 2. and c = a cos B. Putting these two equal to each other: sin . In any plane to triangle. B = cot C. from the right triangles ADC c between the verand BDC we have: CD = b sin A. Thus. and tan b C = c cot (1043). (340) In case the perpendicular falls on the side c extended. and 2d. in any right triangle. have: = c cot C. the \ the sines angles are each other as ^ opposite sides. In case this perpendicular falls upon tices A and B.4 CD a equal to each other.406 TRIGONOMETRY The two equations sin c Corollary. = sin sin B. and = b cot 5. BDC. sin A : 5 = a : b. 261 and since the angles CAD and A are supplementary they have the same sine (1028). in the triangle ADC: CD = b sin CAD. (1065) Putting these two values of & sin . CD = a sin B. 1056.
we would have respectively it sin B C : sin C = b c : c. Figs. or and in Fig.PRINCIPLES USED IN SOLVING TRIANGLES 3d. 291): a" Thus. sin A sin 5 = a : : b. instead of drawing the perpendicular from the vertex C. namely sin A sin B sin C 1057. If. and we have or 6 directly (1st): CD and noting that sin = a sin 5 A = 1. + 2cX AD. These three equations prove that which was to be demonstrated. had been drawn from A or B. we have. the sum of the squares of the the square of one side is other two. less twice their arigle. according as the angle opposite the side obtuse or acute. in any triangle. Thus. 407 In case the D should coincide with A. the square of one side sides equal to the of the other is sum upon of the squares of the other two plus or minus twice the product of one of these two and the projection first it. 260 and 261 give respectively: a" a2 = W + = 62 + (? c2 2cy. the triangle would be a right triangle. 291 AD = A b cos AD = — (1028). 290). equal to Theorem 3. 6 sin and A = a sin B. In any triarigle. It was demonstrated geometry (734) that. product times the cosine of the included (Fig. AD. and sin : sin A = : a. . AD = b cos A. for example (1) = W + & 2bc in is cos A. DAC. being the supplement of DAC These values of AD substituted in the formulas (2) and (3) reduce them to the same general form (1). (2) (3) In the right triangle ADC (Fig. 6 cos A.
A. given. 6 90° c B. two sides of a triangle The algebraic sum upon the third side equal to the third side (1062). 260 and 261. The following relation often simplifies the calculations: A + B + C= 1060. is to find . the acute angles are complementary. To say that a triangle is a right triangle determines one triangle of its angles. three three following equations between the unknowns may be deduced in a general way from unknowns and the knowns (1057). which is may be used (1058) a b c = = = b cos a cos a cos C+ C + B + c cos B. 2ab cos C. = a sin B. The hypotenuse a and one of the acute angles B being given. The (516). therefore two other parts determine the (Fig. equivalent to the above. — 2 ac cos B. side sides.408 TRIGONOMETRY the angle When A is a right angle. and we have. 259) (1059). Thus. but at least one of these parts must be a three angles do not determine a triangle (1018). angles or the remaining three parts. To solve a triangle having three of its six parts. Theorem 4. C = Furthermore. its cosine is zero. and = a cos B. (1055) . c = a cos B + b cos A. find the angle C and the two sides b and c. c cos b cos A. a? }? From = = e = b^ €? a^ + + c^ (? \W — 2 be cos A. The triangle being a right triangle. and this general formula becomes (730): a' = b^ + c\ of the projections of is 1058. in Figs. Three parts determine the triangle. Case 1 . SOLUTION OF RIGHT TRIANGLES 1059. 180°. The also following system.
cor&llary). also cot C= tan B= • c Having found B. Case 3. find C. or and c cos C= sin 5 =• a the angles B The sides and C.B. b being given.B. c . a. and c. and C. C = From the relation b 90°  B. From the relation b = V{a + = asm B. The hypotenuse a and the side b being given. find the hypotenuse and Since b = c tan B. 90° . C= 90°  B. b = a sin B. 409 The side b and the angle B being given. reduce to the form. — smB = ^• = b tan C.OT c b cot B= tanB c.SOLUTION OF RIGHT TRIANGLES Case 2. Then and = \^V + &. from the relation b = a sin B. then. (729) sm B = Having found B. c ^ = Va^  b\ If c is to be calculated by logarithms. c b){a  b). tan B= c . The triangle being a right triangle (730). = asinS (1055): b a= Also from (1055. a C= Case 4. b smB or directly. find B. C = 90° . a But this last method leads to longer calculations than the first. .
8900780 = 7763. In any triangle. and sin A sin C = a : c.8".8900780 c C = sin A = log c = 0..8318212 1. sin sm A —C 7 or log b log c = = log a log a B — C — log sin A. the sides and the area C = calculation of b: 180°  (A + B) = 50° 18' 24.9995538 5= A = =  log sin 1..410 TRIGONOMETRY SOLUTION OF PLANE TRIANGLES 1061.log sin A = log c = log a 3.4" = b 87° 24' 11.1720615 4. Case 1.(A + B). calculation of c: = log sin C = . Let a S.8861953  log 3. transposing. sum of the three angles being equal to two C = From 180° .8279385 log a log sin = 3. the theorem (1056).8318212 1. and the third angle C. c =a —.8" be given.1720615 3. sin b T> sm A —B + + and log sin log sin .log sin A = log b = log a log sin 3. 260) are given.24 yds.8279385 log b 4. to find the other two sides b and c. the sines of the angles of a triangle are proportional to the opposite sides.44 yds. . One side a and two angles A and B of the tri angle ABC (Fig. a : b. log a log sin = 3.9995538 (1032) 0. .079. + = log sin B+ C — log 2 — log sin A. log sin A The area of the triangle can be calculated from the formula: a' sin B si n C log sin or log <S = 2 log a Example.0034365 b = 5 = .8861953 1. and B c and 6789.8318212 1. A = 42° 17' 23. the right angles.8318212 1.86 yds. sin A : sin B = = a . to calculate the angle C.0034365 = 10.
10. Case 2.6636424 1. A opposite one of them being given.9995538 r. 15. Thus.i sin A . which left nothing but quantities to be added. and those which were to be subtracted were preceded by the sign — minus. sin B= 6 sin a vb.3010300= I + 1  0. 461). In the same manner. and J.328300 followed in the logarithmic calculations. (a) . yds. (1056) . Thus. find : B.6989700 0. the true logarithms were written down. observing the rule of subtraction (29). 3.log sin A = log ^ = log 2 sq. such is log sin A.0. The value of logarithms whose signs have been changed is obtained according to the rule of (403) relating to the complement of a number. write zero in the result and add the next column. having log 2 we have  log 2= 0. they are added they belong to loga rithms preceded by the — . less 5. 1.4204230 = .1720615 7. .3010300 = = 0.1720615. write 3 in the result and continue thus. the successive figures of the logarithms which were to be subtracted were subtracted from the partial sxmis of the figures of the logarithms which were to be added.8861953 2 log a log sin log sin = B = C = 7. Applying the rule in (33.6636424 1.8279385 = 0. or. which 1+2 + + 5 = 11. Thus. in the calculation of S. For the characteristics which are negative.log 2 = — log sin A = 2 log a log sin 7. 2d). by the sign sign — . having log sin A = 1. the rules for the addition and subtraction of algebraic quantities were followed (460. the sign of each logarithm to be subtracted was changed. 1062.8279385.3010300 1.9995538 1. In the second method. 12 and 3.3010300..8279385 logS= 7. log gives S was obtained by 3 saying 4 and 1 to 8.6989700.SOLUTION OF PLANE TRIANGLES calculation of S: 411 = B = log sin C = .  0. Two sides to a and h and an angle c. less 8.4204230 S = Two methods were In the first 26. and C (947). sm B = A . we have log sin A = 1 .8861953 1. they are subtracted if they belong to logsin arithms not preceded sin C. such are log if B and log On the contrary. We have.
TRIGONOMETRY .412 then having C.
SOLUTION OF PLANE TRIANGLES When triangle 413 a = CD = b sin A. = Va^ + sin b^  2 ab cos . C given. or c c = = 6 cos h cos A ±\/a^ — 6^ 4. and B. sin one is eliminated by writing (349) (sin A (a and sin B. A = (A then 2d. 3d) tan 1{A+B): i (A tan^ (A S)  B) =  {a +b) . and therefore. whose value is: tan Putting .t^ cos^ A. c and the included We have. if a < CD or a < 6 sin A. + = ^ (180 C) = m° being known. b (1041) 1063. then having half the sum m° and half . — 2h cos A X c = a^ — Z)2 (1057) V. to Having two sides a and find c. In this proportion there are two unknowns.(a  h). the arc BB' would have no common with AB. this proportion contains only one unknown.{A \{AB)= ^ tan^ (A + B). it from which c^ = + c2 _ 2 6c cos A. (572) A ±Va? — V sin^ A. Commencing by determining A : A : sin B = b. A. is tangent to AB at the ABC and AB'C coincide with the right point ADC. the arc BB' point D.{A — B). and there would be no solution. or substituting an equal ratio for the first member' (1052. C (1057) (1056) c being known. and there is but one solution. 5 = sin 180 + a C). A + sin B) : (sin A — sin B) = {a + b) : — b). namely. — B) =n°. Case 3. tan . angle 1st. If. the two triangles Finally. instead of commencing by determining the angles had been desired to first determine the side c a? B and C.
729) from which siniA = This formula stitutions : + v/(^ 6  c) (ra 6+ c) 4 6c may be simplified by making the following subo + 6 + c = 2p. to deter Writing = b'^ + c^ .2bc ( cos ^2 • A. a more convenient formula than (a) can be used (1061). (1065) Case 4. 2 6c g^ 2 6c (g  (6  c)^ +6 c) (g 6+ c) ' 26^ 26^ (728. 1st) Substituting the value of cos given in (a). 2 sm^ ~A 2 . „ . cos A = ^2 C' ^r _ 2 be Similar formulas will give B and C. . a^ a. B. 1 = ~ . (1048. (1057) (a) ' ^ we have. which in any case should be used as a check. which is developed as follows: 2 sin^i A= A 1  cos A. mine the three angles The three sides A. and c being given. C = 180  (A + B).414 TRIGONOMETRY the difference n° of the angles A and B. is to be preferred The area is given by the formula: 5="^. b^ 1 + c^a^ = a^¥c' + 2bc — r. Having found A = m° + n° and B = m ~ A and B (1056). and C. 1064. n°. or having determined A and B. h. c = asinC sin A where logarithms are to be used This solution (1061). . If logarithms are to be used. from (520).
In the same manner. _ sinl5=v/(p 2 ' g) (p  c) J and ^ sm . devel by proceeding in the same manner. A and tan  A mav be A=y1 sin^ iA (1041) Substituting the value given in (6) for sin . and a — b+c = 2{p — which gives  A being necessarily an acute angle. 4 /p (P — a) From (1041.SOLUTION OF PLANE TRIANGLES then 415 b). a + b — c = 2(p — c). as is its value is determined by its sine. C= 180°. .(4 + B). and 1 . since: cos ^ 7. 2d): sm 1^ "'"^^^ JiV  &) tan^l2 = ^ (P ^^  c) # V _ 4 /(P  &) (p"^^ be Analogous formulas may be obtained for the angles B is and C. In the same manner the values of cos found. simplifying.C = • 1 2 (P V/(P — a)^r^.— V ao 4 ^^^ fc) • As proof we may write. 1 A (p cosA = J\ V/l^^^  6) (p  c) 1^^^ ^ or reducing to the same denominator. likewise that of the angle A. The area may be calculated from the formula which oped in (3d) of the next article.A.
416 1065. (1048) substituting from (1087) for sin^ A and cos ^ A. ' \ A Substituting b sin A (S (1078) for D Pig. 1067. ^CD.A cos . measure the base DE.ft.200) (275  180) (275  170) = 14. Find the height CD of a building. or rather the sides and angles of these triangles. 2d. = 200 ft. we have „ 3d. S= V27.. triangle may be expressed in terms of two angle. 266 B = be sin 4 2 W . EXAMPLES 1066. which shows that the area of a triangle is equal to of any two sides and the sine of the included angle. or one side and two angles or three Letting S represent ^ = ^ the area of the triangle. b = ft.A. sides sides. and 170 ft.. (718) \a. TRIGONOMETRY The area of a and the included 1st. b) S For a == Vp 180 (p — a) (p c — = (p — c).4 sin 2sinC Having sin B_ ~ c^ sin A sin B B)' 2 sin {A + A= 2 sin . _ c^ sin .5 (275 . S —^ in the preceding expression (1056). b) sin a) ip A = 2 y ^ iP bV (pc) then substituting this value of sin A in equation (a). making it .. the base of which is accessible. which is level. In trigonometry all problems are reduced to the determination of triangles.343 sq. On the groimd. half the product Writing h = c sin —.
the point A can be determined measured. and let the height of the instrument be BE = AD = 1. Or. This done. C ODD DDD \V c.693 yds. and we have: If ZBC (la) AC = 1068. the angle measured. d cot ZBC. ^^ Fig. CD = In case the ground + 1. and measuring and A'BC give: 1^' = or. then we have the same as in the first case. and h = d cot zBC + to a.693 X = 0. the problem is reduced to determining the side 6 of a right triangle ABC. 267 \J Jb Fig. making CD = h. 266 BE is driven.893 yds. and AD C is not level.EXAMPLES All about equal to the height of the building so as to avoid two small angles.2 yards. from (1055.2 9. AC^ABXJ^. ^' AB = h ^^^ d. let DE = c == 10 yards. = AT" dX^ + (1) is one has an instrument for measuring angles. Lay off a base AB = 100 for example. place the instrument at E and measure the angle B. To find the distance AC from the point A j'ards. when the side c and the angle B are known. the two similar triangles C B ABC and C. corollary) 6 = c tan 5 = 10 X tan 41°= 10 8. a stake of known Then at D' in line with D and E a second stake is held so that A'C and is in line with A'B. X \ •\. which is 41°. and a. an inaccessible but visible point C. then measure the .86929 = 8. no Solution height 2. BE = a.. At the extremity E of the base.
First. sin 5 = c 180 : f 42°) = 73°.(65° b. In this case the angle B= 43° all that can be measured Gal directly in the triangle ABC. of b = c sin 100 X 0. is which is inaccessible. The problem is now determining the side b of an oblique triangle when one side the two adjacent angles A and B are known (1061). reduced to c and C = then 180°  {A + B C B) = sin C : .956 To determine the height of a building or mountain.418 angles TRIGONOMETRY A = 65° and B = 42°. the base sin 0.669 70 yds. and this is not sufficient for the 5fr s' . and 1069.
AC = AB sin.829 . ' ^ and 2d. C. — .37° = 29°. Determination of CC. 270 CC may be found example . sin ABC .„. then AC. ABC. ABC . and  BAC = 4th. the base 66°.46X0. .. are in the 66° .^. — 100X0. then measuring angle CAC. plane. therefore the " off Fig. the angle measured dire tly. Determination of the angle CAC. the required is obtained. . for Determination of AC.p = 100X0:9986 = . ^r—^^ 120.87462 =72. and ACB =  (66° sin + 37°) : = Then we have: : ACB sin ABC = AB ftk^tti AC.46 sm ACB 0. In the triangle ACC cos CC = or y/^C' + AC"" 2X ACX ACX CAC.EXAMPLES 419 AB = height d BB' sin sin AB'B BAB' Substituting this value of d in formula (1067.9744 (a) ' ^ and ABC Determination of = 87°. B. AC Determine the distances AC and between the point A and each of the inaccessible points C and the C". .88 yds. When the four points A. CC' = V^6r76' + i20:46'2X 61. If these four points are same plane. 1070. ^n 61.6018 = — 0. ACB sin ABC = AB AC. n. according to the method in article (1068).^ yds. 76X120. 1st. then the angle 180° Lay 77°.„ AC = AB .„„ . la).76 yds. 180° Measure the angles BAC = 37° ACB = In triangle  (37° + 87°) = 56°.^p = sm ACB . BAC = and AB = 100 yards. we have two sides AC and AC and included angle. sin : : and 3d. the side in the triangle CAC. from (1063). Find the distance between two inaccessible points C and C. is C same we have CAC = BAC not in the (1063). ABC = 37°.
for each minute. Table of the natural values of the trigonometric functions from 0° to 90°. each angle in the last vertical column is the supplement respectively of the angle in the same horizontal row in the first vertical column.. (1) and (2) give C From (1056). C + C 180°^. 270). thus... // logarithms are used in the solution. 16° 51' + 163° 9' = 180°. With logarithms the formula Distance (6). and the sides opposite these angles by the a. the equations and C (520). CC 2d). c' sin A . c' and C being calculated as was demonstrated above. ~2~= 2 ' . and c'. c' is calculated from the formula (a).420 TRIGONOMETRY might also have been determined by the method in (1063. the following method is used. mentary. and C".  A ""^ 2 4 _ tan 45 — tan ~ 1 + tan 45° tan <^^^^' . of the angles Starting at the tops of the pages. noting that tan that tan 45° C + ^ C —= r' cot^ (1043). and consequently (1055). AP =c'sinC. In the triangle ACC. (^^ then from (1063. A = 1. 1 *^^ ^^ = ^T7' ^ ~^' = C C c~ A "^^ 2 = 4> ^ c c . sin ACP = sin ACC or sin C. from (1046). and making — = c c' tan ^.. 1071. c. letters letters Let the angles of the triangle ACC be designated by the A. tan tan (45°  <^) cot 4 • (2) Having measured the angle A. C. . and a from AP from an accessible point A to an inaccessible straight Since the angles ACP and ACC are suppleline CC (Fig. 2d).
Since supplementary angles have the same functions. = 1. subtract an angle which is given in the table. the radius were 6 the length of the arc in feet would be a given if it is X 2. it follows that the table contains the functions of the angles from 0° to 180° for each degree.14160.4.7123889 S 4. each angle in column is the supplement of the corresponding 73° 52' angle in the last column.16442 feet. From the table the tangent is 0. thus obtaining = tan (352° 46' is  180°) = .41132 feet. With the aid of the table. is Remark. tan 172° 46'.5707963 TT Thus the length of the arc corresponding to the angle 66° 43' + 6 90° If = 156° 43' is 1. tan 352° 46' 180°.12692.71240.4 is found to be 22° 55' 6". 180° or 270°. and according to (1027) the tan 352° 46' preceded by the sign tan 352° 46' — so we have.73522 = 16. . the sign of the fimctions may be obtained from (1027) or Fig.16442. + 1. corresponding to the complement 66° 43' of 23° 17' is According as an angle is greater than an angle in the table by 90°. =  0.40056 corresponds to 22° 56'. which corresponds to 22° 55'. Thus. thus.73522. Thus. and the arc 1.EXAMPLES Likewise. desired to find an arc equal to 2 ^^ or of the radius. its length is obtained by adding respectively: iir S 1. For angles between 180° and 360°. I = 4. an arc which fraction of the radius or diameter may 4 rr be found. 421 the first vertical commencing at the bottoms of the pages. then by interpolation the angle which corresponds to the arc 0.57080. The number 0. 7r= 3. is the nearest value.1415926 S 3. + 106° 8' = 180°.39997.40637. The to the angles table also contains the lengths of the arcs which correspond from 0° to 90° when the radius r = 1.12692. in the sixth column under arc. find the number which is nearest to 0.57080 = 2. The next arc 0. Thus the arc corresponding to the angle 23° 17' is 0. 249.
41208 47. Sup.04617 32.73026 32.10388 20362 51598 51307 51016 50725 50434 50143 49852 49561 49271 48980 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 03491 03782 04072 04363 99994 99993 99992 99990 99989 99988 99986 99985 99984 99981 99979 99978 99976 99974 03491 03782 04072 04363 67597 67306 67015 66724 66433 66142 65861 65660 65269 64979 20662 20942 21233 21524 21816 22106 22396 22687 22978 23269 23560 23851 24141 24432 24723 99787 99781 99774 99768 99762 20666 20947 21238 21529 21820 22111 22402 22693 22984 23275 23566 23857 24148 24439 24730 48.0 0.91579 41.76861 37.6 25022 25313 25604 25896 26186 0.08534 46.36777 27926 28216 28507 28798 29089 29380 29671 29961 30252 30543 30834 31125 31416 31707 31998 32289 32579 32870 33161 33462 33743 34034 34325 34616 34907 COM. 32283 32674 32864 33156 33446 33737 34027 34318 34609 34899 16289 16680 16871 17162 60 17452 61.95993 30.9322 171.36619 33.64851 19780 20070 99799 20074 49.41158 30.63625 37053 36762 36472 36181 35890 OF ARC.2900 29.96546 39.3213 122.9710 343.0 1.70869 18617 18907 99821 18910 62.80056 36.4992 09018 09308 09599 09890 10181 10472 10763 11053 11344 40 11635 41 11926 42 12217 43 12508 44 12799 45 13090 46 47 48 49 50 52 53 54 55 56 67 58 59 99945 99942 99939 99936 99932 10472 10763 11064 11346 11636 11926 12217 12508 12799 13090 13381 13672 13963 14254 14544 61779 61488 61197 60906 60615 60324 60033 59743 59452 59161 68870 68579 58288 67997 67706 57415 57125 56834 66643 66252 55961 55670 66379 65088 64797 54507 54216 53926 63634 63343 26468 26768 27049 27340 27631 99650 99642 99634 99626 99618 99610 99602 99594 99585 99577 99668 99560 99551 99642 99634 99526 99516 99507 99497 99488 99479 99469 99460 99460 99441 99431 99421 99411 99401 99391 26477 26768 27059 27350 27641 26471 26762 27053 27343 27634 44326 44036 43744 43453 43162 42871 42580 42289 41998 41708 27922 28212 28603 28794 29086 29375 29666 29957 30248 30538 30829 31120 31411 31701 31992 27932 28224 28516 28806 29097 29388 29679 29970 30262 30653 30844 31135 31426 31717 32009 32300 32591 32882 33173 33465 33756 34047 34338 34629 34921 35.17760 20653 20944 21235 21526 21817 22108 22398 22689 22980 23271 23562 23853 24144 24435 24725 25016 25307 26598 26889 26180 0.8436 81.91741 40.9 48689 48398 48107 47816 47525 47234 46943 46653 46362 46071 45780 45489 45198 44907 44616 1.0 31 09017 99959 09018 09308 09S99 09890 10181 99957 99954 99951 99948 09309 09600 09891 10181 10472 10763 11054 11345 11636 11927 12218 12509 12800 13091 13382 13673 13964 14256 14546 15127 15418 15709 16000 16291 16582 16873 17164 17455 110.96408 42.2691 149.4633 88.52839 31.6151 70.2187 190.35789 36.06611 43.6567 62.0 0.02730 33.5074 132.1709 101.44886 45.7740 118.66133 17453 17744 18035 18326 53343 53052 52761 52470 52179 61889 4 01164 99999 01164 S 01454 99999 01454 6 01745 7 02036 869.41059 40.05677 38.5402 114.2371 137. 178° = 10680' OF ARC.43346 41. I AKC.56266 36.0 25014 25305 25595 25886 26177 0.42129 32.50812 42. 0.3829 60.2669 68.9398 83.2612 57.2186 127.71511 34.0 1.9 07563 07854 08146 08436 08727 0. 1° Sup.9153 00873 69924 17462 17743 18034 18325 99848 99843 99837 99832 17455 17746 18037 18328 57.68331 30.1390 71.7292 73.0 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 04654 04945 05236 05527 05818 06109 06400 06690 06981 07272 07563 07854 08145 08436 08727 0.4777 264.50589 39.4363 01164 69633 687.7467 00291 70505 1718.1633 68.0 0.9434 78.5 00000 00291 2 00582 3 00873 1 00000 00000 00000 00000 0.5489 01454 69342 572.61774 38.1817 214.1436 85.4265 104.44162 54.0 1.82052 31.4408 245.88230 41417 41126 40835 40544 40253 39962 39671 39380 39090 38799 38508 38217 37926 37635 37344 13380 13671 13962 14253 14544 15126 16416 16707 15998 51 14835 99890 14836 14835 16126 15417 16708 15999 16290 16581 16872 17162 17453 COM.3068 59.88211 18908 19197 99816 19201 52.87709 28.62450 29.24158 30.9842 180. 90° OP ABC.11810 31.14462 29.0 04664 04945 05236 05527 05818 06109 06400 06690 06981 07272 07663 07864 08145 08436 08727 0.4650 143.1263 76.1060 429.6 99971 99969 99967 99964 99962 0.63860 44.422 0° TRIGONOMETRY Sup.9672 491.9086 90.43128 36.4019 66.69351 33.6620 229.9 00000 00291 00582 00873 Infinity 00000 70796 3437.8732 00682 70215 1146.8920 107.9 0.8854 01746 02036 8 02327 99997 0232' 9 02618 99997 02618 10 02909 99996 02909 11 03200 99995 03200 01745 02036 02327 02618 02909 03200 03491 03782 04072 04363 69061 68760 68469 68178 67887 18616 99827 18619 63. 99929 99926 99922 99918 99914 99910 99906 99902 99898 99894 99886 99881 99877 99872 99867 99862 99858 99853 99848 34.7176 381.1055 64.95600 36.3900 74.5 0.35069 55.43584 39.0 99766 99749 99742 99736 99729 99722 99716 99708 99701 99694 99687 99680 99672 99666 99657 0. = 5400' 9° = 5340' Sup.7501 67.37111 29.06955 34.5214 286.8470 79.12200 28.81573 20071 20361 99793 20365 49.5886 64688 64397 64106 63816 63524 63233 62942 62661 62361 62070 1.8580 63.0 0.7737 312.30316 19490 19779 99804 19783 50.4896 92.0 04654 04945 06236 06527 05818 06109 06400 06690 06981 07272 163 7002 156. 179° = 0' = lOTW COM.2179 95.73960 47.28996 56.22614 44.1069 98.82935 45.8576 202.08067 19199 19488 99810 19492 51. 91° = 5460' 88° = 5280/ .18846 37.
34315 17.33685 21.56911 20.17081 18.08114 19600 19309 19018 18727 18436 67297 67589 67881 68173 68465 68758 69050 69342 69636 69927 14.5 56983 57274 57564 57854 58146 58435 58726 59016 59306 59597 59887 60178 60468 60768 61049 0.84498 37234 33563 9 37516 99296 37542 26.60478 61377 61668 61959 62250 62541 62832 63123 63414 63706 63995 64286 64577 64868 65159 65450 65741 66032 66323 66613 66904 67195 67486 67777 68068 68359 68650 68941 69231 69622 69813 COM.0 1.79344 17.90376 22.71851 24.94597 20.07498 17. = 5520' 87° — 5'2SXr Sup.97022 19.58740 16.34986 52360 52651 52942 53233 53523 53814 54105 54396 54687 54978 66269 55560 65851 56141 56432 56723 57014 57305 57696 57887 58178 68469 68759 69050 69341 69632 59923 60214 60505 60796 61087 0.0 0.60563 21.27217 61747 16.46447 18.5 0.42828 16.11900 62210 98063 62331 16.74961 16.85459 19.64183 34979 31817 15 39258 99229 39290 25.02171 21.69322 20.19522 61629 61920 98081 62039 16.0 18436 18146 17855 17564 17173 16982 16691 16400 16109 15818 15528 15237 14946 14655 14364 14073 14 38969 99240 38999 25. 177° = 10620' COM.07976 24.66556 18.48227 14.9 0.85961 14.46381 15.54383 14.36070 14.02632 23.56447 18.43138 17. 3° == 180' = 10560' COM.85928 23.0 31 43910 99036 43952 22.60201 22.74834 63661 97972 63791 16.45410 22.36554 18. 0.16398 98205 98188 98170 98163 98136 0.88125 21.37178 23.29592 19.88631 17.32636 15.74029 19.66811 16.60745 16. 0.89783 24.47040 26872 26581 26290 26000 25709 25418 25127 24836 24545 24254 23963 23672 23382 23091 22800 61339 98U7 61455 16.76775 18.53205 23.9 0.08720 '49742 21054 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 98690 98675 98660 98645 98629 19.0 0.12224 16.39428 15.61056 17.9 0.20495 21.40513 19. 21.98978 14.36751 24.0 0.75189 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 45363 45654 45944 46235 46525 46816 47106 47397 47688 47978 99023 44244 99010 44535 98997 44827 98984 45118 98971 45410 98957 45701 98944 45993 98931 46284 98917 46576 98904 46867 98890 47159 98876 47450 98862 47742 98848 48033 98834 48325 98820 48617 98806 48908 98792 49200 98778 49491 98749 98734 98719 98705 50075 50366 50658 50950 51241 51533 51824 52116 52408 43924 44215 44506 44797 45088 45379 45669 45960 46251 46542 22. 92° OF ARC.04348 62500 98045 62623 15.67623 63952 97953 64083 16.91502 16.0 26 27 28 29 30 42457 42748 43038 43329 43619 44201 44491 44782 45072 23.43160 37815 32981 11 38097 99274 38125 26.97552 18.52052 17.20555 19.03074 38397 32399 13 38678 99252 38707 25. 93° =: 5580' 86° = 5160' .0 98375 67076 67368 98342 67660 98325 57952 98308 58243 98291 98274 98267 98240 98223 58535 68827 69119 59411 59703 59995 60287 60579 60871 61163 0.26766 18.83482 38688 32108 52336 52026 52917 53207 53498 53788 54079 54369 54660 54950 55241 55531 55822 56112 56402 56693 98629 98614 98599 98584 98568 98552 98537 98521 98505 98489 98473 98457 98441 98425 98408 98392 52408 52699 52991 53283 53575 53866 54158 54460 54742 55033 55325 55617 55909 56201 56492 56784 19.87107 18.16934 17.0 0.93723 27.05656 36942 33854 8 37225 99307 37251 26.89454 63081 98008 63207 15.81883 46833 47124 47415 47706 47997 48287 48578 48869 49160 49451 50033 50324 50615 50905 51196 51487 51778 52069 52360 COM. Sup.08372 16.69454 39561 39852 40143 40433 40724 31236 30945 30654 30363 30072 29781 29490 29199 28908 28618 28327 28036 27745 27454 27163 1.79537 14.32531 20.73168 14.18793 19.44649 20.EXAMPLES 423 Sup.63625 28.08114 18.99896 16.60592 09419 09128 08837 08546 08255 07964 07674 07383 07092 06801 06510 06219 05928 05637 05346 05056 04765 04474 04183 03892 03601 03310 03019 02728 02438 48269 48559 48850 49140 49431 50012 50302 50593 50883 51174 51464 51755 52045 52336 20.26436 25.26581 17.70153 17.62730 22509 22218 21927 21636 21345 20764 20473 20182 19891 51 49721 98763 49783 20.5 2 3 i 5 34899 35190 35481 35772 36062 36353 99391 99381 99370 99360 99350 99339 34921 35212 35503 35795 36086 36377 28.05768 22.0 13782 13491 13200 12910 12619 12328 12037 11746 11455 11164 10873 10582 10292 10001 09710 1.27149 36652 34144 7 36934 99318 36960 27.96867 62791 98027 62915 15. 64242 64532 64823 65113 65403 65693 65984 66274 66564 66854 67146 67435 67725 68015 68306 68596 69176 69466 69757 97934 97916 97897 97878 97859 97840 97821 97801 97782 97763 97743 97724 97704 97684 97664 97644 97624 97604 97584 97564 64375 64667 64959 65251 65543 65836 66128 66420 66712 67004 15. OF ARC.48985 34907 35197 35488 35779 36070 36361 35890 35599 35308 35017 34726 34435 6 36644 99328 36668 27.0 1 OF ARC.66853 14.6 99159 99147 99135 99123 99111 99098 99086 99073 99061 99048 41038 41330 41621 41912 42204 42495 42787 43078 43370 43661 41015 41306 41597 41888 42179 42470 42761 43051 43342 43633 0.21367 23.05572 14.71174 27.9 0.53398 15.82110 63371 97990 63499 16.25705 15.0 1.63669 37525 33272 10 37806 99285 37834 26.51558 19. 176° zW Sup.30810 22.42123 14.07466 20.16642 27.30067 02147 01856 01565 01274 00983 OF ARC.54176 24.18935 16.19571 24.74257 21.39940 28.83191 16.45170 39270 31526 39550 39841 40132 40422 20 40713 21 41004 22 41294 23 41585 24 41876 25 42166 16 17 18 19 99218 99206 99194 99183 99171 39873 40164 40456 40747 39581 25.22964 38106 32690 12 38388 99263 38416 26.98015 17.92442 14.
89405 13.09542 11.19879 96284 74512 96575 74221 96866 73931 97157 73640 97448 73349 97738 73058 80489 80779 81069 81359 81649 42 81938 37 38 39 40 41 96755 96732 96708 96685 96661 96637 80751 81044 81336 81629 81922 82215 12.35397 87848 82948 96118 88368 11.12006 82321 88475 99609 96027 00107 9.70621 78540 0.54609 11.78206 13.61361 94830 75967 9547995408 10.95286 10. 9.19688 13.87388 01576 9.32245 10.50980 13.46847 11.84956 77667 12.0 0.82617 82903 83194 83485 83776 84067 84368 51 84547 96419 84851 11.47422 79994 90802 36 80199 96779 80468 12.1 9.0 1.0 71559 71849 72140 72431 72722 73013 73304 73595 73886 74176 74467 74768 76049 76340 76631 99238 98947 98656 98365 98074 97783 97493 97202 96911 96620 13. OF ARC. 174° = 10440' OF ARC.88292 10.05943 11.43005 87266 83530 96169 87782 11.5 ARC.9 0.93101 00988 9.56791 9.84829 10.40387 13.4 27 28 29 So 77299 77589 77879 78169 78459 0.99235 11.51994 79703 91093 35 79909 96802 80166 12.26025 10.73217 9.31630 88139 82657 4 70917 97482 71096 14.424 4° TRIGONOMETRY Sup.99616 12.9 0.70441 9.9 0.1 43 82228 96613 82508 12.70460 54 85417 96345 85730 11.89806 77376 12.0 0.29957 13.24171 88721 82075 11.58529 11. 95° = 6700' 84° = 6040' .56339 13.67186 73238 73528 73818 74 108 74399 74689 74979 75269 20 76559 21 22 23 24 25 261 7S849 76139 76429 76719 77009 97314 97293 97272 97250 97229 97207 97185 97163 97141 97119 97097 97075 67053 97030 97008 96985 96963 96940 96917 0.42883 80286 90511 96135 96425 96714 97004 97293 97583 96368 96583 95340 96876 95312 97170 95284 97463 95256 97757 95227198051 10.9.75363 78249 12.61184 10.78817 9.67680 9.90211 01282 9.64106 9.74569 10.98815 10.20478 11.16324 80576 80867 81158 81449 81740 82030 90220 89929 89639 89348 89057 88766 97872 98162 98451 98741 99030 99320 95199 98345 10.12354 69813 70104 70395 70686 00983 00692 00401 00110 1.1 44 82518 96589 82801 12.16809 11.61741 13.00786 71268 99529 6 71497 7 71788 8 72078 9 72368 10 72668 12 13 14 15 16 17 IS 19 9609388661 11.9 73435 73728 74020 74313 74606 74898 75190 75483 76775 76068 76360 76653 76946 77238 77531 77824 78116 78409 78702 0.14613 13.54615 89012 89303 89594 89884 90176 90466 90757 91048 91339 91630 91921 92212 92502 92793 93084 81785 81494 81203 80912 80621 80330 80039 79748 79457 79167 78876 78585 78294 78003 77712 77421 77130 76839 76649 76258 93375 93666 93957 94248 94639 95507 95115 10.65913 78831 91966 32 79039 96871 79287 12. B° = 300' Sup.57890 10.62205 9.4 89766 70047 70337 70627 97564 97544 97523 97603 69927 70219 70511 70804 14.20672 12.78533 62 84837 96395 85144 11.66449 55 85707 96320 86023 11.16833 98029 72767 95170.56600 79412 91384 34 79619 96825 79873 12.13805 98320 72476 95142 98932 10.24803 13.84482 01870 9. 0.10795 98611 72185 9611399226 10.95037 11.22943 10.25051 12.29126 10.81641 02164 .59490 9. 87893 87602 87311 87021 86730 86439 86148 85857 85566 85275 84984 84693 84403 84112 83821 83530 00188 00477 00767 01056 01346 01635 01924 02216 02503 02792 03082 03371 03660 03950 04259 04528 94968 94939 94910 94881 94861 94822 00695 9.4 87166 87446 87735 88025 88316 88605 88894 89184 89474 89763 90053 90343 90633 90922 91212 91602 96195 87489 11.44911 95411 75385 95424 95995 10.61239 79122 91675 33 79329 96848 79580 12.77967 10.0 0.61436 OF ATiC.4 31 78749 96894 78994 12.35152 13.95072 13.29461 12.0 96067 88954 9604l'89248 96015 89541 95989 89834 95963 90127 95937 90421 95911 90714 95884 91007 95858 91300 96831 91694 96805 91887 91791 96778 92181 92081 96751 92474 92371 9572592767 92660 95698 93061 92950 95671 93354 93239 95644 93647 93529 96616 93941 93819 95589 94234 94108 9556294528 94398 95534 94821 94687 94977 95267 95566 96846 0.48126 95120 75676 9545295702 10.0 1. 175= = 240' = 10500' COM.72674 13.0 0.33903 12.0 1.0 0.64499 10.64935 00356 00647 00938 01229 01620 01811 70440 70149 69858 69367 69276 68985 68695 68404 68113 67822 67531 67240 66949 66658 66367 66077 66 67 58 69 60 86997 86286 86576 86866 87156 96295 96270 96242 96220 96195 86316 86609 86902 87196 87489 11.07719 82612 88184 45 46 47 48 49 60 99899 94998 00401 0.98931 99775 71022 0.13164 11.90868 11.62476 84648 84939 85230 86621 85812 86103 86394 86685 86976 87266 COM.04828 99193 71603 95055 99813 10.02367 10.38377 12.67835 10.74478 53 85127 96370 85437 11. 94'= = 5040' 85° = 5100' Sup.50715 11.18209 14.39189 87657 83239 9614488075 11.83783 13.86728 11.80142 77968 12.43005 94792 02458 94762 02752 94733 03046 94703 03340 94673 03634 94643 03928 94613 04222 94582 04516 94552 04810 94622 06104 02102 02393 02684 02974 03265 03566 03847 04138 04429 04720 COM.01871 99484 71313 0.71191 10.41716 96702 75094 95396 96289 10.24113 14. Sup.81387 10. 0.94692 96329 96038 95747 95456 95166 94875 94584 94293 94002 93711 93420 93129 92838 92547 92257 1.91778 10.0 75922 76213 76504 76794 77085 12.30067 14.98638 10.35383 10.38640 96993 74803 0.27889 88430 82366 1 97441 97420 97399 97378 97367 71681 71973 72266 72558 72850 13.96007 00066 70731 82808 83098 83388 83678 83968 84258 96566 96641 96517 96493 96468 96444 83094 83386 83679 83972 84265 84558 12.04577 12.06546 70977 99820 S 71207 97461 71388 14.76009 9.45662 11 72948 97336 73143 13.0 11.09576 13.07803 98902 71894 95084199619 10.03462 11.
EXAMPLES 6° 425 Sup. 176° = lOSSC 7° = 420' = 10320' . 172° = sec Sup.
426 TRIGONOMETRY v= .
EXAMPLES 10° 427 .
428 12": TRIGONOMETRY .
EXAMPLES 14° 429 .
430 16° TRIGONOMETRY .
160° = 1080' Sup.EXAMPLES 18° 431 Sup. 161° — 9660' 19° ^nw = 9600' .
432 20° TRIGONOMETRY .
157° = 9420' 23° = 1380' = 9360' Sup. 112° = 6720' 67° = 4020' Sup.EXAMPLES 22° 433 Sup. 113° = 6780' 66° = 3960' . 156° = 1320' Sup.
154° = 9240* .434 24° TRIGONOMETRY Slip. = 1440' 156° = 9300' 26° = IBOO' Sup.
EXAMPLES 26° . 117° = 7020' 62° = 3720' . 163° = 9180' 27° = leW = 9120' Sup./si Sup.U6° = 6960' 63° = 3780' Sup. 182° 435 = ISM" Sup.
436 28° TRIGONOMETRY .
EXAMPLES 30° 437 .
438 82° TRIGONOMETRY .
EXAMPLES 84° 439 .
143° = 8580' 37* = 2220' Sup. 142° = 8520' .440 36° TRIGONOMETRY 2160' = Sup.
141° = 8460' 39° = Sup.EXAMPLES 38° 441 2340' = 2280* Sup. 140° = 8400' .
16192 1.7 6471 6929 1.6 0.13828 1.11387 3158 3921 6827 4392 9830 1.15861 1. TRIGONOMETRY 2400* 8340' Sup.13361 4910 4881 4862 4823 4794 4765 4736 4707 4678 4648 O.7 0.17638 0463 6626 1.15443 1.6 0.14632 1733 5521 5492 5463 5434 60 59 58 57 6405 5376 5347 5317 5288 6259 6230 5201 5172 6143 6114 5086 66 55 54 S3 62 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 7 4435 6473 4258 1.18964 9813 9842 9871 9900 7266 7237 7208 7179 60 69 58 57 56 55 54 53 62 51 6606 6628 5650 6672 4108 1.17986 18 4679 6267 4806 1. 139° COM.13295 2318 27 6197 4953 8317 1.7 0.18264 0191 14 4590 6342 4606 1.11682 3071 4008 6762 4461 9672 1.18194 0220 16 4612 6323 4666 1.14767 1676 6716 5375 7184 1.15511 1. 130° = 7800' 49° = 2940' = 7860' ilC^iSWf .8 0.17777 21 7063 7034 7005 6976 6946 6917 6888 6859 6830 50 49 48 47 46 45 6769 6337 7287 6781 5318 7338 9 6803 5299 7389 10 5825 5280 7441 11 6847 5261 7492 12 5869 5241 7543 13 5891 5222 7596 14 6913 5203 7646 15 5935 5184 7698 16 17 18 19 20 21 1.11648 3042 4038 6740 4470 9620 1.17916 19 4701 6248 4856 1.7 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 28 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 32 33 34 35 4967 4989 6011 6033 5055 6022 6003 6984 5965 6946 5458 6509 5559 5609 6660 36 6077 5927 5710 37 6099 5908 5761 38 5122 5889 5811 39 5144 5870 6862 40 5166 6851 5912 41 0715 6365 0744 6336 0773 6306 0802 6277 0831 6248 1.17846 20 4723 6229 4906 1.15716 1.13096 2402 30 6262 4896 8473 1. 0.14162 1.15037 1568 5521 COM. ARC.12667 2636 38 6436 4741 8888 1.14095 1.17708 0424 6656 1.8 0.18404 0133 12 4546 6380 4607 1.12106 1.11191 3246 3834 1.6 0.18544 0075 10 4501 6417 4407 1.8 0.14430 1. Sup.13162 2373 29 6240 4915 8421 1.17085 1.14902 1617 6414 7082 1.8 0.13961 1.12435 2693 40 6480 4703 8992 1.11778 1.15987 1.14296 1.17223 1.17569 0482 6697 1.17600 0511 6668 1.16124 1. Sup.16466 0948 6132 1.14970 1688 6433 7031 1.15240 1471 6608 6827 1.8 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 26 6175 4973 8265 1.12897 2489 33 6327 4838 8628 1.13561 1. 0.14363 1.16329 1.12369 2722 41 4619 4690 4561 4632 4503 4474 4445 4416 4387 4353 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 5188 5210 6232 5254 6276 5832 5813 5794 5776 6766 6738 6719 5699 6680 6661 5642 6623 5604 5685 6666 6963 6014 6064 6115 6166 6216 6267 6318 6368 6419 1006 6074 1035 6045 1064 6016 1093 5987 1122 6957 1151 5928 1180 5899 1209 6870 1238 5841 1268 6812 5298 5320 5342 5364 5386 1.8 0279 6801 0308 6772 0337 6743 0366 6714 0395 6685 1.18125 0249 16 4635 6304 4706 1.19105 1.15579 1.18764 9988 7092 0.11321 3187 3892 1.11256 3217 3863 6848 4373 6870 4353 9935 1.16603 0889 6190 1.5011 8162 25 6153 4992 8214 1.17016 1.18894 9929 7150 4158 1. OF arc! 60 6913 4314 0040 1.11909 1.442 40° .18474 0104 11 4524 6398 4457 1.14699 1704 5738 6356 7236 1.13428 1.11126 3275 6891 4334 0.11844 1.19035 1.11975 1.15037 1658 6462 6980 1.13894 1.6 1 OP ARC.13228 2344 28 6218 4934 8369 1.18614 0046 g 4479 6436 4357 1.11714 2751 4328 2780 4299 2809 4270 2838 4241 2867 4212 6610 6632 6653 6675 60 6697 52 53 54 55 56 67 58 69 2897 2926 2955 2984 3013 4183 4154 4125 4096 4067 14 13 12 11 10 5408 5430 5462 6474 55 5496 6470 6521 6672 6623 6674 1297 5783 1326 6764 1355 5725 1384 5696 1413 6667 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 56 5518 5547 57 6640 5528 58 5562 5609 59 5584 6490 6726 1.15647 1.16398 0977 6103 1.18684 0017 8 4457 6455 4307 1.16741 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 5956 6978 6000 6022 6044 5165 6146 6126 5107 6088 7749 7801 7862 7904 7955 2024 2053 2082 2111 2140 2169 2198 2227 2267 2286 5056 5027 4997 4968 4939 44 43 42 41 40 5069 8007 22 6088 5050 8059 23 6109 5030 8110 24 6131 .12831 2518 34 6349 4818 8680 1.11061 3304 COM.14229 1.8 2 3 4 5 6 4279 6604 4301 6686 4323 6567 4346 6548 4368 6530 4390 6511 4412 6492 3910 3960 4009 4059 1.14834 1646 6694 5395 7133 1.12963 2460 32 6306 4857 8576 1.13627 1.7 0569 0599 0628 0657 0686 0.11517 3100 3979 6783 4431 9726 1. OF ARC.17430 0540 6639 1.16672 0860 6219 1.12601 2664 39 6458 4722 8940 1. 3778 TAN.14028 1.14566 1.14498 1.18334 0162 13 4568 6361 4566 1.17292 1.15104 1529 6550 2 1 6718 4490 9567 1.15376 14 13 12 11 10 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 51 6501 6523 6545 6566 6588 4683 4664 4644 4625 4606 4586 4567 4648 4528 4609 9046 9097 9149 9201 9253 9306 9358 9410 9463 9516 1.12303 1.16535 0918 6161 1.19175 1.15308 1442 6637 6776 1.16878 1.16066 31 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 6284 4876 8524 1.e 6116 6097 6078 6069 6041 0.16919 1.12238 1. 138° = COM.17164 1.7 0.18824 9959 7121 4208 1.16947 1.17361 1.13029 2431 0.7 0. = 41° = 2460" Sup.16261 1.16809 1.9 9 8 7 6 6 4 3 2 1 60 5606 5471 6929 1.12041 1.18056 17 4657 6286 4756 1.11452 3129 3950 6805 4412 9777 1.12765 2547 36 6371 4799 8732 1.15172 1500 5579 6878 1.13761 1.12172 1. 131° OF Iakc.15783 1.13494 1.12699 2677 36 6393 4780 8784 1.13694 1762 1791 1820 1849 1878 1908 1937 1966 1995 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 4746 6210 4768 6192 4790 6173 4812 6164 4834 6135 4956 5006 6067 5107 5157 5207 5267 6307 6368 5408 0.12633 2606 37 6414 4760 8836 1.g 37 36 35 4856 4878 4901 4923 4946 o.7 6610 6481 6462 6423 6394 0.
EXAMPLES 42° 443 .
444 44° TRIGONOMETRY 2640' = ' Sup. 136° = 8100' .
that " 2 Example 1. of the cubic radicals and two imaginary roots. such that the area of surface is equal to the area of the two zones of one base. and 2 y its altitude.y\ = (1022) (2) . which are de termined by the cylinder. = Vi2^ . Solution. = R{R . x' R' and X + f.SOLUTION OF THE IRREDUCIBLE CASE 445 APPLICATION OF THE EQUATION OF THE THIRD DEGREE AND THE TRIGONOMETRIC SOLUTION OF THE IRREDUCIBLE CASE 1072. the quantity 4 ^ 27 ^ ' the equation has only one real root of a sign opposite to that of its last term q. Then the lateral surface of the cylinder equals 4 irxy and the surface of each zone 2 irR {R — y). Cohtinuing from the point where we from the general equation x^ left off in (592) + px + q = 0. Let R be the radius of the sphere. (1) X. Case If 1. Calculate the radius and altitude of a cylinder its lateral inscribed in a sphere. Ba. x the radius of the cylinder. the three roots of the equation are: xi= A + B (real).y). The following and y\ relation exists between the three quantities R. and the equation 4:irxy of the problem is or xy = 4:TrR{R — y). Designating the values by A and B. I is. X2= Aa + Ba? X« (2) (3) = Aa? + (imaginary). One real and two imaginary roots. a is one of the two imaginary cube roots of one.
w =^ in . Transposing. .* 2/ = wg (4) After the substitution the equation (3) becomes: ». this equation becomes: f + f + yl = The term (3) may be eliminated by substituting. + ^^i=0. to eliminate the denominators. _^.5) Finally.446 Dividing (1) by (2). write tion (5). equa which then becomes: (6) . + Rf + Rhj .R^iRyy _ R^Ry) . y'  m= Q.^^^ ^. 0. y . TRIGONOMETRY Then men. Taking R = y'' \.
quantity 4 + 27 ~ "' the equation has two equal roots of the same sign as the inq. they are given by the equations (2) and (3) (see Case 1.8451.5436. The equation oi?Zx + gives the following values: 2 = 0. page 445). Three real roots of which two are equal.0872. of the The absolute value of the last root is double that two equal ones. the preceding solution would give the radius of the cylinder as: X = 0. dependent term q. and the altitude as: 2y = Case If the 2. Remark. and y = ^^ = is 0. and one root of sign opposite to that of The roots are. z 447 = 2.8451 R.^ 3g_ p " 3 _2_ .5436' = 0. The altitude of the cylinder then 2y = The equation X 1. = V722 _ f = Vi _ 0. Example.3g 2p . The other two roots of the equation (6) are imaginary.0872 R. Remark. = — (single root). 1.631.= 3X2 6 2 X 3 = +1. 3.. (2) will give the radius of the cylinder.SOLUTION OF THE IRREDUCIBLE CASE Solving. 2p Xi (equal roots). . If the radius of the sphere were R.
If the last +2V'^(l20°y ^ = two roots are equal. vZl+v'FIv'lv/?^If the sum of ~r + ^ <0. the value p cos <^ of x appears under the form of the sum two imaginary quantities.p2 cos <t> sin=' <^. which sign is . quantity 4 + 27 ^ "' the equation has three real roots. (1) the general value of x (592). the angle <t>' is found + <^ and has the same cosine with the This angle ^' should replace <^ in the values of the three a supplement of roots. we have = 1/ — i^ and = —^ Then the values of the three roots are: Xi = 2Vp cos = 2 s/p ) Xj cos (60° I) x. but the value of x is composed of the sum of two imaginary quantities.= Remark. we have: 0°.448 TRIGONOMETRY 3. which are calculated by trigonometric formulas. NoTE. of the irreducible case of the equation The equation of the o(? 3d degree being reduced to the form + is fx + q == 0. If the cos <^ = jr^ 2 p is negative. Writing . The trigonometric solution of the third degree. as will be shown below. Case If the The irreducible case. Three real roots.= I p and ^ + ^ = . .
3".7". 6655462) 2^ " logcos<^= 20.3010300 0. and the for mulas given above are to be applied. the example reduces to the irreducible case.128 .3327731 4> ^=76° 33' 53" <t> The value supplement of cos <t>'. being negative. Thus.7". 449 Solve the equation 0)5 + + 5 a.5686362 10 log 2 c' log p 9.  ^ = 25° 31' 17. log 2 log \/p = = 0. we have: _ + _ = ____< o. OALCni/ATION OF p CALCtTLATIOlSr OF ij> log 125 c' log 27 = =  2. 3^ px q 0.3661969 or logp =0. Comparing with the general form.1109243 1. + + 1 = = 0. Calculation of xi Calculation of the three roots. 120° ^ = 85° 31' 17.SOLUTION OF THE IRREDUCIBLE CASE Example 1.6989700 8. = 103° 26' 7" then 60° ^=34° 28' 42.0000000 9.3280604 = + 2.6672269 1 log P l^n aa^^Aao\ =h(0. ^' must be replaced by its that is.0969100 log c' 1 = = = 0.0000000 = 1.9161061 log cos^= log Xi from which ajj = 0.
3045147 0.330: =2. = = 2.331 2/ Xj xs Proof of for for = .128 Xj =y = + =+ = 0.128 Xj Xj Xj = 2.0031 0.0018 We are assured that in taking X.3010300 Vp = 0.2. it is quite necessary their values in to prove that the roots are correct by substituting 1 the given equation x^ or in x^ — 5 X 5 X + + 1 = = 0.202 2.0010 0.) = log xs Xs = = Note. Proof of Xi = 2.3010300 a/p= 0. give two values preceded by unlike signs for the sum y of the terms of the equation.2016: xa = 0.0036 0.9554101 Xj)  from which x^ = 0. ^20° .00499 Proof of for for =.330 = 0. Calculation op log 2 log log cos  0.0007 y y 0.330 x. and making sure that two consecutive values which ) differ by for example.1109245 j\ = 1. y.330 x^ = 0.3673646 = —2.201 these values are correct to 0. The calculations being so laborious.450 TRIGONOMETRY Calculation of x^ log 2 log log cos ^60°log ( = 0.128: xi for for = 2.1109245 2.8925602 1.129 =y= + y 0.201 Xs = 2.2.001. .2016 .
(2) Equation (1) becomes: 2/^  3 2/  1 = 0.2 = 0. is (931): v = l. (1) To eliminate the term x^ take (see note (*) page 446) x = y+^^y+\. (3) Comparing with the equation. Let R be the radius of the sphere. andcos ^ and ^ o = y^ = —^ ' then = 60° = 20°. Thus we have the irreducible case The equation (3) has three real Writing p the thirddegree equa roots. Taking R = \. . The three roots are: 2/i = 2V/3 cos^j 2/2 = 2^p cos^60°j. then the volume is hemisphere 2 ^ ttE'.R^ is If the altitude of the spherical segment : designated by x (931. and that of the spherical segment with one base. 451 Divide a hemisphere into two equivalent parts parallel to the base. Remark) v^lTX^ (SR x) =l^R\ ay'  3 Rx" + + E= 1 = 0. which should be equal to onehalf the volume of the hemisphere. = y—= <^ 1. it is seen that ^ + ^ < 0. of the 2. 4 27 of tion.SOLUTION OF THE IRREDUCIBLE CASE Example by a plane Solution. x'  3 a.
solution which applies to the case in hand. . 1/1 2/2 ys =+ == 1. 0.^ being greater than the radius R= 1. ^2=1+2/2=33 0. 0. cannot be used as a solution. = 1 + 2/3=+ The first value x.452 TRIGONOMETRY 2/8= 2Vp cos(l20°V Substituting the numerical values. then substituting in equation (2) ^1 = 1+2/1 = 2.34729. ' is the 1 Remark. The third value x^ being less than R = 1 and positive. The second x^ being negative must also be rejected.6527.55208.8793. 1.6527 R.8793. If the radius of the sphere were R. the altitude of the required segment will be Xi = 0.55208.
Theorem. These angles measure the dihedral angles of the trihedral angle corresponding to the spherical triangle. a trihedral angle corresponding to the spherical triangle. is less which are treated in trigo nometry. A. side of the spherical triangles. or trirectangular. 360°. C. C. A spherical triangle is circles drawn on the sphere. increased by the product 4fi3 . Formula containing the three sides and an angle. R being the and n the number of degrees in the side of the triangle. Supplejnentary polar spherical triangles. 1077. c. determined by three axes T)f greai. If Each 1074. The sum lies the three sides is less than the circumference. than a semicircumference. triangle. b. ISC?" a spherical triangle each side In General geometrical properties of spherical triangles. first Two tri angles are supplementary when the sides of the are sup plements of the angles of the second. birectangular. radius of the sphere. GENERAL FORMULAS 1078. B. of a great circle. The angles A.SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY Properties of spherical triangles. The sum or of the three angles. the faces of which are measured by the sides of the spherical triangle. is smaller than the sum of the of other two sides and greater than their difference. The of the cosines of any the other two cosine of side a is equal to the product sides. A spherical triangle may be rectangular. 1075. the vertices are connected to the center of the sphere. between two and six right angles. of the The measurement angles of a spherical of the triangle. tangents drawn to the of a spherical triangle are measured by sides a. is formed. Lengths of the sides of a spherical triangle. we have: TrRn """ 1076. 1073. and conversely. B.
of the Theorem. the hypotenuse. Thus. Thus we have: sin A = — cos B cos C + sin 5 C cos a. sin c cot b sin a cot & sin c cot c sin a cot c sin 6 = = = = = = cos b cos cos c cos cos a cos C + C cot A. 1081. a. cot A. cos c cos cos a cos cos b cos B+ C + . Formulas containing two angle included by them and an angle opposite one cot a sin & cot <2 of them. We have. 1082. RIGHT SPHERICAL TRIANGLES In all cases that follow. = = sin a sin B.A + B + 4 + B C sin sin sin sin cot B. and and C are the oblique angles of the spherical triangle. sin a sin C.454 of the sines of these TRIGONOMETRY two sides multiplied by the cosine of their included angle. cos and one side. 4 B A cot C. = cos b cos 1083. cot B. A is the right angle. We sin sin have. The sine of each side is equal to the sine of the hypotenuse multiplied by the sine of the opposite angle. have. of each side is equal to the tangent 1084. The tangent hypotenuse multiplied by the cosine of the adjacent angle. are to Theorem. is Formula containing the three angles the inverse of the preceding formula. cos a = cos h cos c + sin & sin c cos A. tan b tan c = = tan a cos C. sin sin A_ a sin B_ sin C the sin b sin c sides. Theorem. cos a We c. This 1079. Theorem. . The cosine of the hypotenuse is equal to B the product of the cosines of the two sides. cot C. 1080. sin b sin c We have. tan a cos B. The sines of the sides of a spherical triangle each other as the sines of the opposite angles.
cos cos B= C = cos b sin C. The cosine equal to cosine of the opposite side times the sine of the other oblique angle. we obtain. A = 90°. is. We have. cos c sin B. that tan  c =+Y tan ^{a + b) tan ^ (a — 6) > . The tangent have. Unknown. 455 Theorem. b B. The following formulas may also be used: Remark.SOLUTION OF RIGHT SPHERICAL TRIANGLES 1085. c. SOLUTION OF RIGHT SPHERICAL TRIANGLES six cases to These triangles have but one right angle. Substituting in the formulas. Given. of each side is equal to the sine to of the other side multiplied by the tangent of the angle opposite the first side. both are acute or obtuse. the hypotenuse must be included between the given side and its supplement. In order that the problem be possible. j > sin B= r. Case 1. tan b • tan a The angle B and the side b are of the same species. There are be considered. ^ . cos a sin b tan b = = = cos b cos c. . 1087. sin a sin B. of each oblique angle is Theorem. tan a cos C. cos c = cos a cos . the c = = sin c tan B. sin 6 tan C. Solve a right spherical triangle when the hypotenuse a and the side b are given. a. Another solution. C. sin b : sin a • > cos C= _. We tan 6 tan 1086.
o tan B .456 TRIGONOMETRY tan^ (a+ tan (45° 6) ' + i b) = ± " tan 1 — jr £1 (a — 6) tan jr 2 C=+ Solve V/^—(a + 6) TTR V sm t sm (g 7  b) • 1088. sm . Case 2. b. a.c. tan 6 1089. The angle C may be deduced from cos a = cot B cot C (3) Transposing. (2) c (3) ^ tanC = ^. is. (1) (2) tan a cos B. C. sm 6 . Given.A = From the formulas 90°. sin 6 tan c = = sin a sin B. c. The problem is always possible and has only one solution. Unknown. C. both acute or obtuse. a right spherical triangle having the hypotenuse a and one angle Given. and then 6 is determined from the equation Remark. 90°. Unknowk. b. tan b . B B. It may be commenced by determining c and C from (2) and (3). Solve a right spherical triangle when two sides and the right angle are given. given. ^ cot ~ C= cos a cot 5 that The side b and the angle B are of the same species.„. (1) . = sin c tan B. The following formulas give: cos a = = cos & cos c. a.A = B. Case 3.
and are calculated from one of the following: tan c tan b 1090. must be taken with a minus sign. „ cosJB 7 • cos o The following may also be used: tani(S + 6) . GiTEH. UNKNOWir. and the two others (2) and (3) with plus signs. tan a cos C. Given. possible. a. Solve a right spherical opposite are given.c) = tan (45° ±v/ii?I (2) + ic) = ± ^cot^iB + b)cot^iBb).. B. — If 6 and in this case the radical (1) sign. a = sin b —. must be taken with a plus (3) with minus signs. — . a. then B< 90°. b + 5. when a side and the angle B UintNOWN. 457 always (2) The problem has only one solution and is and The angles S and C may be determined by the formulas (3). +.. give: . If B and same kind: both are acute or 6 > 90°. ) sin C = tan b .SOLUTION OF RIGHT SPHERICAL TRIANGLES Remark. then B> 90°.A = 90°.C. triangle Case 4. obtuse.. Case Solve a right spherical triangle when one side and the adjacent angle C • is given. c. . b = = tan a cos B. 6 are of the (3) Remark.. b. tan 5 .B. 90°. b.A = The following formulas sin C. c. and the two others (2) and and in this case the radical (1) < 90°. tan(45°+L) = ± ^ / sj ? (1) ^ ' tani(56) tan(45°. sin 5 p. Sm C = . 1091.
458 TRIGONOMETRY following formulas give: cos The B= cos h sin C. lie In order that the problem be possible. and then B calculated from the following: tan h = = cot B cot C. tan ^ 6 = + y tan = + y/tan (^^ + 45°) tan (^^^ 45°). Solve a right spherical triangle when the oblique angles are given. and is B ~ —~ C between  — — must ft ^ 45° and + 45°. The problem is always possible and has but one solution. two A = From 90°. (3) may be determined cos a first. (1) tan 6 tan a and c c = sin 6 tan C. . tan i c (^^ + 45°) tan (^^ T) 45°) \ • Remabk. b. J cos(BTC) cos {B j~ —^ — C) . There but one solution. C. B. Case 6. First There are six cases. The following formulas may be used: 1 . c. C cos c = cosC sinB also Another solution. SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE SPHERICAL TRIANGLES 1093. sin c tan 5. the following formulas: cos a cos B cos B b = cot sin = cot C. Solve a spherical and second case. Given. . TJNKNO'wif. triangle when the three sides or three angles are given. a. between 45° and 135°.r tan 2 a =+y Y . 1092.
b'. B'. Case 2. 459 Let the sides a. V. But the following formulas may be used. B'. b. and C" of the supplementary triangle. and the whole sum less than 360°. V = a + b 2 + c ' and the radical should be taken with the sign + Remark. c'. B. de termine the angles A'. a'. C. The triangle is then solved. and it follows that the sides a'. and c be given. and with the sides and c'.'^ V sm p sm (p — c) 2 In these formulas  (3) ^ ' we have. Each side should be less than the sum of the two others. then the sides of the triangle in question are a b c = = = 180° 180° 180°  A'. (2). C". of the supplementary triangle are a' b' c' = = = 180° 180° 180° (3)  A.SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE SPHERICAL TRIANGLES Case 1. B. and C are given. From the following formulas: ^^ i^^^sg^^Wc^^ 2 V sm p sm SIR (p — (1) a) 2 V p sm [p — b) ^ ' tanAc = v/ '"^~'^t^^". which give the three sides directly: sin A sin (4— ^AJ sm (5lA)sin(ciA) sin AsinIB — ^^j sm (AlA)sin(ciA) . The three angles A. The formulas (1).
A + B + C ~ A lies 180° = A. The sum of the three angles should he between two case. c. between Remark. A. GiTEN. and 180°.5) = sin = cot^ (2) 2 (a + &) oos^(AB) tan^ J (a + 6) = — J ^j tanc. 3. The Case solution of these two problems is given by the formulas of Napier. B. following formulas. known cos as Napier's analogies. formulas A is tween the sum the spherical excess of the angles . TJNKNOVra. (3) cos^(A + B) sm^(AB) tan^ J (a — b) = sin tan^c ^{A + B) J W . Third and fourth Solve a spherical triangle when two sides and the included angle or one side and the adjacent angles are given. and 360°. a. b. c.460 TRIGONOMETRY sin ^^'"(^^^) 2 sin (AiA)sin(5iA) In the preceding the difference be These radicals are taken with the sign +. and 1094. will be ^(ab) = tan i (A + B) = cot^ C (1) COS (a +6) sm ^(ah) tan i (A . Thus. six right angles. that is. The used. Two sides and the included angle given.
B. and (4) give a + b and a — b. C = — cos'A cos J5 + sin A sin B cos c. Given. we have cos c = cos a cos (b ^^ — <t>) • ^ cos <p Case 4. in (1) or (2) give C. a. C. from which A and A ~ B sub stituted in (3) or (4) give Or may be determined directly from cos c = = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C. Sj— B cot <^). Substituting 7 for tan <^. B. Case Two sides and A. Unknown. cos Let then cos : tan B cos c = (cos cot sin 4>. . Solve a spherical triangle when two and 5. Unknown. in the (5) which is easily solved by logarithms when written form: cos c cos a (cos 6 + sin 6 tan a cos C). A. c. b. C=— cos A <^. the angle opposite one of them or two angles and the side opposite one of them is given. C. Substituting —rfor cot cos we have: {(p cos 1095. — B) sm _ — cos 4 • sin : (B '. a. c. One side and the two adjacent angles given. of A— A +B B. — <^) • <l> sin <l> i^i/</i and sixth case. Let tan = tan a cos C. the angle opposite one of them given. cos C = — cos A (cos B — sin S tan B cos c). The values c. and consequently The quantities a + b and a — b substituted Thus. sides O _ _ — — A • sin : . C may or also be calculated directly. Given.SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE SPHERICAL TRIANGLES The formulas and (1) 461 and (2) give A+B and B c can be deduced. then cos c = cos a (cos 6 + sin 6 tan <^). The formulas the sides a and (3) b. b.
Remark. is It may be shown that the area of a spherical triangle propor . This condition may be used to determine whether the two supplementary values of the angle B. the values C and c are necessarily positive. All these conditions together may be used to determine impossible. 5. C.b). The measure of the surface of a spherical triangle. The values c and C are obtained from (2) and (3) of case 5. can be accepted. A. then ^ C and i c are less than 90°. . or if it is 1096. the sin less B and The values B and b are given by the sines. B.462 TRIGONOMETRY sin sin Write B _smb A sin a C '^^ from which the value of B is determined. them given. _ sin sin sin a 5 A ' from which b the relations is deduced. b. c. Two angles Given. The values c. and the side opposite one of Unknowit. Because of this. therefore. (3) Case 6. given by the equation (2). since C and c are less than 180°. and the corresponding tangents are positive.b) + B) J (2) sini(4 tan J c = sini(AB) tan ^ (a . sin b must be positive since the angles b and B are than 180°. The formulas (2) and (4) of article (1094) give: ^ sin are 2 2 (a + fc) j cot2C= sin (a tan (A 5). Moreover. if there is one or two solutions. determined by the Napier formulas (see page 460 (1094)). The solution is the same as in case sin 6 Thus. in formulas (2) and (3) the differences A — B and a — b must have like signs (see case 5). a.
180°. becomes: 2 which is — of the area of the sphere. a + b s +c= ?• . itself in the trirectangular triangle. Example.of the surface is.A = y — a) tan ^(p — b) tan 5 (P the ~ <^) A being determined. Z. C. be 120 2 The area of the spherical triangle will ^ = ^^185. That R the radius of the sphere.SOLUTION OF OBLIQUE SPHERICAL TRIANGLES tional to its spherical excess. 463 when is the area of the surface of a of the sphere. is trirectangular triangle.= 3^The area of the spherical excess a spherical triangle in terms of by the formula tan ^ p tan ^(p its sides. which A = A + B + and formula (1) C 180° = 3 rt. we have {A. A = 300° . T the area of any triangle. and A being the spherical excess. Z 2 irR^ 1 is In this relation jr ^ of the surface of the sphere: This formula proves gives. then • Let A + B + C = 300°. being the angles of the triangle) £^ =A+B+CirR^ 1 rt. •NT Note.180° = 120°. calculate the area as in preceding example. which . taken as the unit of area. ^ 2 rt. ^= 1 rt. Calculate tan . B.
or. To this end the angles 6 radii OA and OB make with the vertical are measured.464 TRIGONOMETRY PROBLEMS IN SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY Problem upon the 1. Reduce an angle to the horizontal. 104. opposite one of the sides or the face AOB = c. projection of an angle horizontal. and the angle AOB = c is measured. if from a point of an instrument is directed toward the points A and B. the three sides of a spherical triangle are given to determine the angle AGB = C. it remains to determine the projection AGB and a which the on the horizontal. which is the same thing. From the formula (see case 1. article 765) the axis Thus. find the formed by two straight lines in space in space (Fig. that is. Oblique Spherical Triangles): tanic = Let . Now the three faces of a trihedron OABG having as vertex are known.
94150525 1. 30° 13' 41". longitodb. sides 465 This distance is the side of a spherical triangle. and the two sides which include this angle are complements of the latitudes of the two places. East Latitude. If two meridians are passed through these places. The dihedral angle between the two meridians is measured by the difference in longitude. a 6 = = 90° 90°  48° 50' 49" 59° 56' 19" = = 41° 9' 11".PROBLEMS IN SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY places.97457370 19°24'53.7") b. the portions of these meridians between these points and the pole are two sides of a spherical triangle. C= 27° 59' 36".94596178 C= <A </) = = 1.7" (7° 25' 49. NOETH 59° 46' 19" 48° 50' 49" St. Petersburg. Referring to case 3 and case 4 of spherical triangles (1094). two and the included angle of which are known. CaiiOulatioit op the Auxiliary Angle ^ log tan a log cos log tan =1. cos c = cos a • cos (b cos<p — 6) T tan <^ = tan a • cos C. Petersburg Paris .9963378 log cos ^= c= 10. and C the included angle at the pole or the difference of the longitudes. provided they are in the same hemisphere as are Paris and St. the third side of which is the required distance.10146724 10 log cos c = 1. cities.87676866 ]  <!>)= .88746703 37° 39' 30.^= log cos a log cos (b c' Calculation of the Distance C = 1. 27° 59' 36" 0° c the required distance between the Let a and b be the distances from the above places to the pole.4" . . .
 60° = 30°. 90° _ =p6= .4".: Taking a quadrant as 6250 miles we 90^ c ~ 6250 X ' 324000 or 69893. and 90° = = 69893. the octahedron.4 6250 X X = 1348 miles.^lc=\/^^^^^^^^. „_» ^^^2^=V(ihr607^3^^^30^=*"^^^' and Cube. 60°. The polyhedral angle of a tetrahedron is a tri hedral angle. 1„ /(sin 30°)' sin 30° . There are only five regular polyhedrons (903): the tetrahedron. = a a + b + c = 60 X 3 „„„ 2 ^^=90.466 TRIGONOMETRY distance in miles. then triangles (1093). the three sides of which are each equal to ^ of a right angle is to be solved. Octahedron. This is the first case in the solution of spherical angle. of a cube is 90°.6". the dodecahedron. Tetrahedron. AITGLES FORMED BY THE FACES OF REGULAR POLYHEDRONS Problem 3. the cube. C= The dihedral angle This problem 70°31'43. (1) a = b = c= 60°. V 2 sm a sm b we have p p Formula (1) gives . 324000". may be solved by spherical trigo nometry. by dividing one of the polyhedral angles formed by four . reduce the side c to secondsc To obtain the thus. have. Let C be the required dihedral using the formula . the three equal faces of which are measured by the angle of an equilateral triangle. and the icosahedron. Therefore a spherical 2 triangle.
=^—=162. C = 108° 28' 1.6". Therefore. dodecahedron is angles 108° of a regular pentagon. It is readily seen that one of the dihedral angles an icosahedron belong to a trihedral angle of which the three faces are known two faces are formed by two equilateral triangles. A much simpler method and C one of as follows: a being the edge of the octahedron.1 ™ ^ V/ 2 sin 108° (sin 54°)^ (sin 108°)^ + b + c 108X3 _ ~ sin 54° . The 108°.r'=3i/sin(pa)sin(p6) 2 V a=^b = a sin a sin b We have c= 108°. and the third face is formed by a diagonal plane. considering one of the two pyramids with a square base. the three faces of Thus the dihedral angle of a obtained by solving a spherical triangle whose three equal sides are each measured by 108°. ^ and c = . three faces of the trihedron are known.108° = 54°. we have.FACES OF REGULAR POLYHEDRONS equilateral triangles into is 467 two trihedrons. which determines an isosceles triangle whose angle at the vertex is equal to of : the interior angle of a regular pentagon. . of this polyhedron is a which are measured by the The polyhedral angle trihedral angle. 2 P= pa = pb= 162° . 1 h^ = ~ V2. sin 108°' = sin (180°  108°) = sin 72^. which compose the octagon. The first case of spherical triangles (1093) gives: sin . (7= 116° 33' 54". a = 6 = I rt. the dihedral angles. sin C 2 = !" sm 72 „o ' and Icosahedron. tanC= which gives Dodecahedron.
B is less than A the ratio of B to A is less log X = log than unity. . If we consider x = A — B.log \ A). we may Putting write r A = = tan'' a. ' B is greater than A we may B= . A r tan . = log A + 2 log cos a.468 TRIGONOMETRY in article (21) The formula may (p be used. we have and .8"p transforming algebraic 54°. X considering = A ± B = A + B. for and trigonometric expressions into such a form that they may be solved by logarithms. sm ^ G a / sin — sin g) sin (p — = b) V c p sin 6 (^) + _ b + = 60° + 60° + 108° P p 114° 2 2 a From formula (A) 1097. and if A — 2 log COS a. tan^a) o = a(i + ^^) COS^a/ • /cos'' + sin^ a\ / _ A COS^ a \ COS^ a 2d. write a. Formulas 1. Example Let 1st. log tan a  1 (log B . x = Ail + _ ~ .& = 114 . and we may write successively: r A = Sin'' a. he given.60 = C = 138° 11' 22. ' x== log x If A (I — sin^ a) = ^ cos^ a.
FACES OF REGULAR POLYHEDRONS
and therefore
x
^
469
=A
{I
 t&na) = a(i \
?ELl\
cos a/
o) '
x=A
.
(cos a
—
sin a) ^
=
A
cos a
cos a
r .„„ [sin (90 "
^


sin a]. •
Taking the formiilas (1052)
sin
p
—
sin g
=
2 cos  (p
+
q) sin
5 (p
—
q),
putting
p = QO
^(P
—a
+
3)
and q
=
a,
then
=
45°,
i(p3) = 45°a,
X
This formula
is
=
cos a
2 cos 45° sin (45° ^
 o).
'
logarithmic.
Example
2.
Having given
X
=
tan a
±
tan
b,
(1)
we may write
sin
a
,
sin 6
sin a cos 6
± cos a sin b
'
I I
cos a
or
cos b
cos a cos b
sin (o
^^
x
=
± &) ^.
cos
cos a
(2) ^
'^
]
Example
3.
or
X
5 ± cot 4, tan A =t tan B = 1 ± 1 tan B tan A tan A tan B
a;
=

cot
(1)
,
=,
^NT
1
.o. A tan B tan /... R
,
(tan^^tan5).
,
(2)
Now
,
X
tan A
=fc
D tan B
,
= smA ± sm5 ^, cos A cos ii
3
or
tan
_ ^ A ± tan B =
.
,
sin
A cos B ± sin = cos A = S cos A cos B
^
,
——
cos
sin (A \
± B)
cos
'
A
•
B
.
Therefore from (2)
we may
sin
write
_
tan
1
(A
± 5) _
cos
sin
A
tan
B
cos
A
B~
(A
cos
sin
A cqsB A sin B
sin
•
(A
± B)
cos
cos
A
•
5
± S)
sm A sm 5
This formula
is
logarithmic
470
TRlGONOMHTkY
4.
a;
Example
=
"^2
+
sin a,
(i)
or
'
sin
= ^(' + %°)'
,
(2)
XXPutting
T.
— a=
j=r
tan^
,
,
(b
=
sin'6
~
V2
Therefore formula (2) becomes:
cos^<i,
f 3^ ^ '
.=
V2(l
+
tan^.^)
=
^('Stl+^)^j2_
\
cos^^ 4>
/
cos^
</>
Formula (1) is therefore replaced by a logarithmic formula. The auxiliary angle <^ is calculated from the following formula
deduced from
(3)
log tan
4>
= =
, 1
7^
(log sin
a
— log "^2).
(1)
Example
5.
X
or
esc a
1
+ sec &,
x= sm a x=
(1052)
1
cos o
r
=
6)
cos &
—.
+ sin a
a cos o
r,
sm
or
sin (90
^^^
—
sin a cos o
+ —
sin
a
(2) '
^
From
we have
p
sin
+ sin 2 =
2 sin ^ (p
+
p,
q) cos
k (P
— ?)•
Putting
90
6=
a
=
q,
we have
r{V
+^ =
s
45°
^
a
1 2(Pe) =
,
.
_o 45
.
+
2~'
b
and equation
(2)
becomes
2 sin
(45°^)
cos
(45°^)
sin a cos b
which
may
be calculated by logarithms.
PART V
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
1098.
The purpose
of analytic geometry is the
study of geo
metrical figures
by means
of algebraic analysis.
This branch of mathematics was invented by Descartes, who found that the properties of geometrical figures could be studied
by algebraic methods; he
braic calculations.
also
found graphic solutions for alge
The
latter are the
more
useful to the engineer.
is
Analytic geometry, like elementary geometry,
divided into
two parts (610): plane geometry and
solid geometry.
DETERMINATION OF A LINE
1099.
We
have seen that the position of a point in a plane or
in space is fixed
when
its
coordinates are
In order that a line be determined,
dinates of its points.
it suffices
known (1020, 1021). to know the coor
When
the same algebraic relation exists between the coordi
nates of each of the points of the line, as
many
points
may
be
determined as one wishes, and therefore, by plotting the points which are thus obtained, the line may be drawn. Thus, if the relation between the coordinates of a plane curve
are known, by assuming any value for one coordinate the corresponding value of the other is found from the given relation which determines a point on the curve (504). Suppose that the relation y = 3 x + 2 exists between the
coordinates, then
ii
x
=
i,
y
=
3
x 4
+
2
=
14.
is
Giving X a
new
value, another corresponding value of y
found,
and
so on.
When the curve is not a plane curve, since only one coordinate may be chosen arbitrarily, the two others can only be determined
when there
are
two equations
(516).
471
472
1100.
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
Polar Coordinates.
plane
MOx, when
the angle
with the axis Ox, and the
A point M is also determined in a MOx = a, which the line OM makes distance OM = p, called radius vector,
from the pole are given. The two quantities a and p are called polar coordinates. When the same algebraic relation exists between the
case,
polar
coordinates of each of the points of a line, as in the preceding
any number
of points
may
be determined, and consequently,
position of a point
the line drawn.
1101.
Focal coordinates.
The
M
is
also
fixed in a plane,
when the
distances
from the point to the two fixed points F The points F and F' are called foci, and the distances p and p' are called radium vectors or focal coordinates. These same coordi
M
MF
=
p and MF' = p' and F' are known.
,
M
^7"
F\
./*
Pig. 271
rig. 272
Kg.
273
nates, p
and
p',
determine a point
M'
in
the same plane and
and an equation between p and p', considering them as variables, determines a line made up of two parts symmetrical to each other with resymmetrical to
to the axis FF',
M with respect
FF'
also
spect to the axis
(504).
A
point
M
is
determined in a plane by the distances
p',
MF
—
p and
MP =
also
called radius vectors, to the fixed
and the fixed line Oy, which are respectively called the As in the preceding case, the two absolute focus and the directrix. and M', lengths of the radius vectors determine two points,
point
F
M
symmetrical to each other with respect to the axis Ox, drawn through the focus F perpendicular to the directrix Oy. Thus an
equation between the two radius vectors, p and p', considered as variables, determines a line symmetrical with respect to the axis
Ox.
Curves are determined by the relations between their coordinates with respect to two axes (1099), or by those between their polar coordinates (1100) or by those between their
1102.
focal coordinates (1101).
HOMOGENEITY
The study
of the curves
473
all this clear.
most often used in practice will make The equation which expresses the relations beis
tween the coordinates of a curve
called the equation of the curve.
HOMOGENEITY
1103.
A polynomial is said
same degree.
to be homogeneous
when
term
all its
terms
are of the
of
The degree
m
of each
is
the degree
homogeneity of the polynomial (455, 457).
In general,
we say that a function (504) is homogeneous and of when in multiplying each of the letters which appear in the expression by a constant k raised to the power of that particular letter, the function is multiplied by k'" (478). Such are:
the degree m,
a?
+
2ab,
ah —  ^rj^c,
c
a
+
a
y/ab
a
'
+
c
a^
—
—
b^'
which the degree is respectively 2, 1, 0, and 2. monomial is always an homogeneous function of a degree equal to that of the monomial. If, in a function, letters appear which represent numerical coefficients, these letters are neglected in forming the degree of the homogeneity of the function. Thus, n being a numerical
of
A
coefficient,
first
the following function
a^
is
homogeneous and
of the
degree:
+ (y + nx^) "^ab — {ny + xY
The transcendental
functions, sin, cos,
e",
....,
log, of
u,
homogeneous
also
functions of the degree 0, such as
in
which
is
an ho
mogeneous fimction of the degree coefficients. Such are:
ab
siii
0,
are considered as numerical
1
,611.2 '
Va2
a
a^ \W
I
2
log
—r

a^
h^
)
e
— ss
e'
{b
In multiplying each letter of a fimction of the degree o by k, the value of the function is not changed, and therefore k may be omitted; which, however, could not be done
the function were not 0.
if
the degree of
Thus the following function
a V6
f
is
homogeneous and of the degree ^
b
Vc sin a
b
a
+
474
1104.
follows
1st.
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
From
the above and the operations on polynomials
it
tions of the
That the sum or difference of two homogeneous funcsame degree is an homogeneous function of the same
first
degree as the
2d.
(460, 461).
That the product of several homogeneous functions of any degree is an homogeneous function of a degree equal to the
sum
of the degrees of the given functions (477).
3d.
function
That the quotient obtained in dividing one homogeneous by another is an homogeneous function of a degree equal
to the degree of the first less that of the second (494).
4th. That a power of an homogeneous function is an homogeneous function of a degree equal to the degree of the given function multiplied by the degree of the power (2d).
That the root of an homogeneous function is an homo5th. geneous function of a degree equal to the degree of the given function divided by the index of the root (4th).
1105. An equation is said to be homogeneous when its two members are homogeneous and of the same degree, or when one of its members is zero and the other is homogeneous (1103).
From
1st.
this definition it follows
That an homogeneous equation remains homogeneous when all the letters which it contains are multiplied by the same factor k, with an exponent equal to that of each letter (1103). That an homogeneous equation between two concrete quan2d. tities of the same kind (12) other quantities being considered
independent of the unit used to express these quantities. In changing the unit, all the concrete quantities are multiplied by the same factor whole or fractional. Conversely, if a whole algebraic equation the only case which need be considered (447) between concrete quantities of the same
as coefficients (1103)
is
—
—
—
'
—
kind exists, no matter what units are used, the equation is homogeneous, or comes from the addition of several homogeneous
equations of different degrees (1108).
1106.
Any
algebraic equation
is
may
be transformed to one
in
which one of the members
quantity (447). If the equation
its
is
zero,
and the other a whole
rational
homogeneous and
literal factors,
of the degree m, each of
literal co
terms contain
m
not including the
eflicients (1103).
HOMOGENEITY
Thus
in general
475
an equation
/ (a,
may
be written in the form of the
0.
function
b,x,y,....)=
In geometry, lengths are the only concrete quantities which have to be considered, because areas and volumes depend upon the linear dimensions.
1107.
To express algebraically a relation between several lengths, they must first be reduced to the same units, which are generally
arbitrarily chosen (1109).
1108.
All equations in
unit
is
indeterminate.
This
geometry are homogeneous when the is of the greatest importance in
analytic geometry: it serves as a
means
of proof during the course
memorizing the formulas; it analogies between the expressions, and may suggest establishes methods of calculation which are more simple and elegant. Remark 1. When several homogeneous equations are combined by addition or subtraction, they should be of the same
of the calculations; it aids one in
degree; because
if
they are not, the resulting equation, although
exact, will not be
homogeneous; and such a combination,
of
in
a
wellconducted analysis, should be avoided.
homogeneity is applicable to all remembering that areas are the products of two lengths, and volumes the products of three lengths, therefore, according as a letter A or F represents an area or a volume, it must be considered as being of the second or third degree. Thus, h, h', b, h', expressing lengths, A and A' areas, and V and volumes, the two following formulas are
2.
Remark
The theorem
the equations of geometry; but in
V
homogeneovis
AA' = hhh')Q)
h'),
VV' = \{hh'){A{A' + VJZ^).
unknown
is
In general, according as the
or a volume, the expression
of a
which
obtained
problem is an area is homogeneous
and
of the
second or third degree.
Thus we have,
A =
1109.
ah ov
V =
ahc.
In
all
which has been
said, the unit
has been taken as
arbitrary. This hypothesis should hold for the solution of all geometrical problems; because, otherwise, if, for example, a certain length
was taken
as unit, although
homogeneous equations
could be obtained they would not appear to be so.
476
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
circle is:
Thus, taking an arbitrary unit, the area of a
A=
If,
irr'.
on the contrary, we take the radius equal to one, we have A'
=
TT
X
P=
is
TT,
equation in which the
first
member
of the second degree, and
the second apparently of the degree
0,
because
its
ir is
an abstract
number.
for
1,
In order to give the equation
is
usual homogeneous
aspect, the radius
and we have
r^
expressed in arbitrary units; r is substituted in the second member. Thus,
A'r^ or
A=
nr^.
is:
Taking the radius as unity, the volume of a sphere
F'
=4 3.X13 =
4 ..
instead of
Substituting an arbitrary unit for the radius, which gives r 1, the preceding equation becomes:
Y'j3
Qp
V=
4 ~
o
tit'.
Half the major axis of an
area of the ellipse
is:
ellipse
being taken as unity, the
A'
=
TT
X
1
X
&'.
(1162)
Substituting an arbitrary unit,
lengths to this
a, for 1,
and comparing
all
the
same arbitrary
A'
a?
unit,
TT
we
have,,
ah',
=
X a X
A
== irab.
THE GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTION OF ALGEBRAIC FORMULAS
1110. From the law of homogeneity it follows that any homogeneous algebraic expression of the first degree, in which the
an expression of a length always be determined geometrically, that is, with the aid of a rule and compass: First, when the expression is rational (447) Second, when, being irrational, it contains only radicals whose index is 2 or a power of 2.
different letters represent lengths, is
X (1108,
Remark
2),
and
this length
may
;
1111.
Construction of rational expressions.
To
construct,
x
=
a
+
h
—
c
+
d
—
e.
CONSTRUCTION OF ALGEBRAIC FORMULAS
commencing at the point
477
take
OA =
If
a,
distance
AB = 6, BC =  OF is value of
d,
on an indefinite straight CE =  c, and EF =
line,

c.
The
x (Fig. 274).
we have
ab
construct the fourth proportional to the three lines, a,
(969).
b,
and
m
„
For
X
=
abed
mnp
x'
Construct the fourth proportional
hnes,
= OX' =
— m
to the three
= OA, and b = OB; then the fourth proporx^ c = cihc to the three lines, n = ON, x'= tional x" = OX" = mn n OX', and c = OC; finally, construct the fourth proportional,
a
m = OM,
— —
X
_ = Ox=
x"d
=
abed
p
mnp
)
to the three lines,
p = OP, x" = OX", and d = OD. The construction of the fourth proportionals in the preceding
•E
T^ A
Fig. 274
^
B
G
r
X'
A
C
Fig. 275
lay off alternately on one
OP and 0T>, and then the other, AO = a, OB = b, OC = c,OD = d, OM = m,ON = n, and OP = p; draw BM, CN, and DP, and AX', X'X", and X"x parallel respectively to the
example.
After having drawn the indefinite lines
first;
then Ox is the required length The expressions
x.
x
=
a' aa —=—
mm
I
X
a^ = —;=
aaa
m'
mm
>
etc.,
being the same as the above, except that the several factors are
equal, x
is
found in the same way by constructing the fourth
proportionals.
478
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
construction
follows
X being expressed by a fraction whose terms are polynomials, the is reduced to that given above by operating as
a^b
Let
+
4a^bc
5 ab^

¥c
the value of x in the
k being an arbitrary length,
we may put
4a^bc\
form
(a»b
X
=
5a^_Pc k' ¥
which
one less than the degree of the terms each of the resulting monomial fractions may ba constructed from the preceding rule, and A, B, M, being the
of k being
it divides,
The exponent
N
lengths found,
we have,
k{A+B)
^
MN
=
ka — m
Determining
A + B =
a,
and
x
M — N = m, we have,
k, a,
and
is
X,
being the fourth proportional of the lengths
and m,
constructed as shown above.
Remark.
article, if
In the preceding problems, as in those of the next
the given quantities instead of being lines were num
bers, taking a length as unity the given
numbers could be
rep
by lengths which, being submitted to the constructions indicated by the formula, would give a length, which, expressed
resented
in the chosen units,
would be the required
result.
Thus, for example,
3X7
Taking the lengths a, b, m, equal respectively to 3, 7, and 5 times some chosen unit, and constructing the 4th proportional,
X
=
ab — m
the length x expressed on the given units would be,
X
= 3X7 —?
CONSTRUCTION OF ALGEBRAIC FORMULAS
1112.
of
479
Construction of irrational expressions.
1 (1110), if
Since the degree
is
homogeneity should be
the radical
of the
second
degree, the quantity placed luider the radical should be
homogene
ous and of the second degree; thus, when this quantity is fractional the degree of the numerator is two units greater than that of the
denominator,
lines
x
= Vab
7,
is
a
mean
proportional
between the
a and For X =
b ( 970).
V5X
taking a length as unity (1111, Remark),
a and 6 being the lengths equal respectively to 5 and 7 times this unit, the mean proportional x = \/ab expressed in terms of
the
chosen unit
is
VS
X
7.
For x
= VS,
noting that
Vs
= V5 X 1, we have the same case X = Va^ + ¥ is the hypotenuse
of
as the preceding.
of a right triangle, the sides
which are a and
X
b (703).
for its
is one of the sides of a right triangle, having a hypotenuse and b for its second side (702); this is also a mean proportional VajS between the two lines,
= Vd' — ¥
a
X
+
a^,
b
is
and
(3
=
a
—
b.
(729)
=
a\/2, or a^
=
2
the hypotenuse of a right isosceles
triangle,
p
= = Vab, we
X a = —r, \/2
one leg of which is a (Fig. 276). Vab + &. After having constructed a
have,
mean
proportional
X X
=
v'jP'
+
&.
from which
a;^
d^ = —
,
is
the chord
AB
and
which subtends
2
is
a quadrant whose diameter
a (706).
x^
X
=
2a —;=.
Squaring,
we have
=
—
3
4:0?
j
3? a^
— =
4:
J
which
\/3
3
shows that the problem reduces to finding the side x a square
480
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
ameter describe a semicircle; on CB parallel to MN, we have AB
AN
=
a"
take
AC =
:
a,
and drawing
x.
From
(1000),
(732)
AB
X
.a
a
=
AM AN
:
or
AW
:
=
IW
AN^ = 4:3.
=
—^!
V2
and
— = )
x^
2
would
also
be solved by the preceding
construction.
If
the quantity under the radical
.
is
a fraction, as
5b^if
/a=
+ a¥ 
choosing an arbitrary length
k,
as in article (1111),
we
have.
X
=
a'
b^c
line a,
The quantity written within the parentheses is reduced and the denominator to a line m; such that
to a
m
(1111),
y
m
which shows that the construction of the 4th proportional u =
—
4,
and the mean proportional x
If
=
y/ku
(970), will give the
2^
required construction.
the index of the root were
=
the quantity imder the radical would be homogeneous and of the 4th degree.
Let
"""V
^
x,
^/U^ZH. +
a'
bc
To construct
write
a^
be
k
This formula
case.
^J
may be
reduced as was the one in the preceding
X
= \/^ = sJkJk = y m ^ y m
Vfc Vfc^ =• s/ki'
CONSTRUCTION OF ALGEBRAIC FORMULAS
which shows that the 4th proportional of w
proportional v
proportional x
structed.
Finally,
481
=
— m
,
the
mean
=
\Jku,
and the mean
=Vkv
must be con
x
may
be expressed by
a quantity, one part of which is rational and the other part irrational
;
such as
482
This
is
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
the
first
value of x;
it
is
positive,
and
is
laid off in
the positive direction
AY from
the origin A.
y
The second value X being
of
^AO,
it is
negative, and
is
laid off
from
A
in the
negative direction AX.
The equation
(a)
becomes:
a
x=
 a±^5a^ = 2
±
2
ay/5
a
= 2(±^^5l).
,
,
The two values of x represented by this expression are evidently the same as those represented by the expression (a), and are obtained by dividing a in the extreme and mean ratio.
THE GENERAL CONSTRUCTION OF CURVES REPRESENTED BY
EQUATIONS.
1113.
given,
if
An
equation between two variables, x and y, being these variables are considered as coordinates, each pair
of real values of x
and y which
satisfies
the equation determines
limits,
a point; varying
the equation
of y,
is
a;
in a continuous
ordinarily satisfied
manner between certain by real and continuous
is,
values
line, is
and then a continuous
series of points, that
a
obtained.
Thus, in general, an equation between two coordinates
represents a line (1099).
1114.
To determine
points of a curve, the values of x are
ordinarily taken in arithmetical progression (357), and the corre
when
is
sponding values of y calculated from the equation. Above all, the function is a whole algebraic function (447, 504), it
wise to take this precaution, because, in order to shorten the computations, the differences between the successive values of
be used in getting new values. For example, let it be required to construct the equation y = an? + &, a form which is met with in equations relative to the determination of the curve taken by the cables in suspension bridges. Suppose we have
y
may
a
=
0.1
and
b
=
1,
then
j/
=
0.1
ar*
t
1,
the first differences are 0.2..9 5 3. last first difference gives the first next following and each difference added to the immediately preceding value of y gives the next following value of y.. 0.2. and x = 2. 0. Empiric functions.1 1st differences 0.5.5 0.. and so on. differences. 3d. . . and first the constant second difference is This second difference added to the difference. D'D = CC. C. and y = 1. degree. . Having the constant difference. .2 0. BP.2 0. tion of the equation y be constructed..7 0. . Drawing the parallels AF and BG to the axis Ox. we have the representa = aj? + h. 0. may be calculated.9 4 2.6 0. = 0. D.. fourth.6 1. 1116. third. the three equidistant ordinates. y = 1.CURVES REPRESENTED BY EQUATIONS 483 the following table shows that in giving successively to x the the values obtained for y are such that in values 1.2 of x 0.3 7 5.CG = CG To construct the P Q R Fig.. the two first differences.9 8.4 3 1. 1. 1115.1 and 0. 2d differences . In practice it happens daily that . taking sucrespectively y = 1..5. the constant differences are respectively the second. we have the second difference....5 1. and all ordinates following. which are obtained by calculating from the ordinates. abscissas x.1 6 4.. AO.1 . ordinates?/ . taking their ences first differences. we have 0. and prolonging AB.. BH and CG. 4th.. fourth. . = 1. first . CC = CG . 1 2 1. ordinate DR. of the 2d. Instead of calculating all the ordinates in constructing first the curve y = ax? + h.. and the same manner the next ordinate ES. . for y. 4.1. the second differ between the cessively a. .2 1.2 0. In prolong BC to D'.. X differences are equal. .3 0. CQ. etc. . may the points A. 3. the process is reversed as was done in the above example until the value of the next ordinate is obtained. Thus. 0..1 0.4. .3. equation.2 0. 281 BH. are determined. 5. and taking their successive 3.4. .2 0. and take is constant. 7.. thus it is seen that by simple successive additions. The negative values would give the same values is According as the function etc. and then joining by a curve. B. the values of the first differences and then the values of the ordinates are ob tained. 2. differences. .1.3.
without any algebraic equation to represent the law which governs these variables. fourth. which may be represented by a. curve. that the angle line makes with CD or the axis Ox. or the + EP = CE X tan BCD + EPthat ME + EP = y. that is CE = x. this line it From any pendicular point Fig. it may be used to find any intermediate points that ordinates. called slope. any anomaly which breaks the continuity of the curve indicates an error in the observations or a peculiarity in the may phenomena observed. ME Noting. EP to the two members we have. intersects = y and OP = x of Through the point C where the axis Oy. first. scissas In this case.484 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY observation or experiments furnish a series of corresponding values of two variables. of this equation. AB be situated in the plane of the rectangular axis Ox and Oy. STRAIGHT LINE 1117. BCD. this curve will represent with sufficient accuracy the law which governs these variables. draw CD parallel to we have (1055). it if it closely resembles some known be expressed by an equation or formula known as empiric. tangent. Such a curve furnishes a picture of the observed phenomena. is also constant. The general equation of is a straight line with reference to a rectangular coordinate system y Let any straight y line = ax + b. 282 point M on drop a per MP to the axis Ox. were not directly observed. obtained. taking the values of one of the variables for aband the corresponding values of the other variable for if and drawing a smooth curve through the points thus the points are near enough together. third. In the right triangle CME ME = CE Adding X tan BCD. determines the the coordinates M. which the and therefore its an angular coefficient. that EP = OC also constant and may be . MP AB the axis Ox. is constant. second.
y  y' = a{x  x'). . called the ordinate at the origin. y' = ax' + b. y'). In the case where a = and 6 = 0. When the straight line AB 6 passes th r nxLgh_the origin 0. Remark tion 1. the angle BCD is then the tan : BCD = a (1027). any equation of the first degree between two variables is the equation of a straight line. If the line were parallel to the yaxis or coincided with it. Substituting this value of b in the general equation. origin. = 0. and b = y' — ax'. b.axis. y = ax + b. no longer the ordinate at the 5. The equation of a straight line whose slope is given y'. the preceding equation takes the form y = ax + b. the coordinates of which are x' and For the point {x'. and took into account the different signs which enter into the equation. straight lines are called lines of the first degree. seen that the equation of a straight line is Conversely. we would have wherein b is X = b and a. and passes through a point. is This why 1118. Remark zero. but the abscissa at the origin. Remark 4. which is the equation of a straight line. we have. Thus. since it was established for any point in the line. and the equation be comes y = Remark becomes 3. its equation would be obtained by interchanging y and x in the last two equations given above. the equation which indicates that the line coincides with the a.STRAIGHT LINE represented 485 by b. When AB is parallel to Ox. and the equa becomes y = = ax. 2. the ordinate at the origin OC = = 0. we have. Remark of the first It is degree (510).
if we have equation becomes: If is X x" — — 0. making . having a system of unknowns tion will to solve. being given by their equa by solving the system of two equations with x and y as the unknowns.'. the values obtained are the coordinates of the points of intersection of the lines. we have the equation point y'). on the a. straight or curved. Two straight lines perpendicular to each other. y'). which gives y" — Eliminating a by division.a'b — a'. x" = the y__ q If ^P or^ p p y I _i for instance. y — y' y" — y' one of the points is. (x'. 1121. b J = ab' a . that x' = p. The intersection of two straight lines given by their equa Any two tions. tions. 0. which cease to be indeterminate variables. is at the origin. lines. the coordinates of each point of intersec be a solution of the system (580). y' = o (^" — ^') we have. y"). x'). a straight line passing through two given a being the unknown slope of the line. of a straight y" = x" = 0.axis. for the point {x'. Une through the origin to a Thus. if the two lines represented two equations involving two by the equa tions are constructed. 1117) is = b' a — a' and y . y — y' _ X — x' — y' — x' y y' _ X x' 1120.486 1119. points ANALYTIC GEOMETRY The equation y'. y' = and the other on the and y" = q. • Conversely. and x" of . we have y' (1118). q if one of the points (a. Thus the point x of intersection of two hues (520. ocf x' yaxis. y — = a{x — This equation should be satisfied by putting y = y" and x = x".
circle MA In the right triangle CDM (730): MD MD = yq. When E p = r. r. (572) Such is the general equation of the circle in rectangular co ordinates. the tangents of these angles give the relation in article (1044). = y and OA = x. no matter what the we always have p = an equation which is satisfied is by any point at the origin in the circumfer ence of a circle whose center and whose radius 1123. p = OM + and make a value of a. . x^ + p^ and CD and replacing MD' y^ from which y + x' — 2 qy — 2 px + q' + p' = r^. = and r constant.axis. which remain constant. is the origin and EC the a. we have q and the general equation becomes = and or + x' — 2rx + r' = r'. CIRCLE. be any point in the circumference of a Let M whose center is C and whose radius is r. see that. — 2 px. = 2rx — x' and y = ± V2 rx — y^ x'. 1122.CIRCLE two angles with the which it follows that aa' a. with respect a system of rectangular coordinates (1099). or Ml? = CD' = Adding the equations of y' y' MD x'^ (728) + q^2qy. — 2qy = r^ — + 2px q^ p\ = q ± Vg^ + r' — x' + 2 px — q^ — pi'. The definition of a circle if (665) may be expressed in polar coordinates. we put (1100).axis 48? is whose difference equal to 90°. the coordinates of the center. to is r. or CD = xp. General equation of a circle. Thus. + CD" by or r'. from = 1 or aa' + 1 = 0. we r. the coordinates of Let the point M. and CB = q and OB = p.
and the equation becomes if + x^ = r^ and 2/ = ± Vr^ — 7?. this line is oblique and greater outside of than the OM. perpendicular to the radii (684). common with the circle. are tangent to the circle (1124). two values of y correspond to each value of x\ which is as it should be. If the center of the circle is at we have g' = and p = 0. perpendicular to the tangent and consequently to the at to pig. being inscribed in a semicircle and MT'. it suffices connect this point 1126. Proof. therefore the radius is OM. which and Since is a radius. 1125. to the center. we have and T'M as the TM required tangents. C on this line. to draw a normal a certain point in the circumference. and the lines OT and OT' at their extremities. therefore any straight line greater than OM. It suffices to prove that ^^T^ the point M in AB has only that is. Draw MO. tangent to the circle. (620). all its points except situated outside of the circle. other than M. M are OC is AB AB is is the required tangent at the point M (954). It is seen that in each of the three cases which we have just examined. Drawing the radii OT and OT'. drawn to the point of contact.4$§ ANALYTIC GEOMETRY the origin. which indicates that the curve is symmetrical with respect to the a. and the perpendicular the required the extremity of this radius tangent. each of the angles and OT'M is a right angle. that any point outside of the circle. Uraw a tangent to a circle at a point circumference. OTM MT . 285 circumference (678). Proof. Thus. Furthermore.4J5 at the radius OM. to Draw a tangent a circle through a point M taken outside of the circle (954). therefore the point C is circle. On this line as a diameter describe a circumference which cuts the given circumference in the points T and T'. M is taken on the Draw .axis. in the last two cases the values of y are equal and opposite in sign. since the equation of the circle is of the second degree. then connecting these points with M. is Drawing OC. 1124.
an arc arc. the sums of their radius vectors are each equal to the constant 2 a (1127).A'F' or OF = OF'. 489 The ellipse is a curve such that the sum of the distances of F'. which is the perpendicular bisector of the major axis. and B' of the axes are the vertices 1129. is The passes through the ellipse. Having we also have. and consequently equal to each other. of the elhpse. is the minor axis of the ellipse. and the constant sum by 2 a.MLLIPSB ELLIPSE 1127. an arc of one one such that erected at its extremities the normals form an angle degree. which foci.AF = OA' . F constant quantity. 1128. . and for the same reason FF' from both members. ellipse is defined It is seen that by its equation in focal coordinates (1101). a portion of an ellipse is and the straight line which joins the extremities of the ellipse. The vertices A and A' are part of the ellipse. a diameter of the ellipse. in general. is a any point an M to MF + MF'. The extremities A. The foci are equally distant: 2d. therefore AF + AF' Subtracting or 2AF + FF' = A'F' + A'F or 2 A'F' + F'F. B. 1st. and two fixed points. Any chord which passes through the center A'. The point axes is of intersection of the two is the center of the ellipse. OA . we have. p + p' = 2 a. we have 2 AF = 2 A'F'. on any curve. OF = OF'. 1st. the major axis of the The chord BB'. is As in the case of a circle (666). with each other of one chord AA'. AF = A'F' and AF' = A'F. a chord. in the curve Designating the radius vectors of the points variables p by the and p'. From the center. foci. On an degree is and. and AF = A'F'. AF' = A'F. From the vertices. OA = OA' and AF = A'F'. 2d.
AF + 1131. the distance axes are taken as the coordinates (1099.490 1130. Let 2 a = AA'. p^ Substituting these values in the formulas for p'2 and p'^. (727) other. MPF' and MPF. the major axis. we have. a 4 ex 2 ex = —— • a Adding this equation to p' + p=2a. = if + x^ \ c^ + 2 ex and p^ — y^ + = x^ + c^ — 2 ex. or or TF^ = c^ + 2cx. + ex p) (p'  p) 4:cx.OP = +  X. from which p — = P +P = ^— 2. AF + Replacing AF' = 2 a. 3? = y. Putting this value of p" and the value in (a) equal to each and eliminating the denominator a^. and therefore = —=. 2 o. p'2 we have — p2 p or (p' 4: . 1128). . we have. A'F = an 2 a = AA'. AF' by its equal A'F. (a) Subtracting these two equations. and 2 between the foci. from which p' we obtain 2 p' = 2 ex a p'^ h = ex a ha. the The equation of ellipse when c major and minor FF'. Since the point A is part of the elHpse. MF' Since or p'2 = MF + PF'^ MP c c and or p" = + FF + PF.+ a' a^ + 2 ex. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY The constant sum 2 a of the radius vectors is equal to the major axis. We always have 2 In the right triangles = a> 2 c or a> MF^ c. we have respectively. aY + aV + aV + 2 a^cx = cV + a* + 2 o?cx. and PF'= OF' + 0P = PF = 0F . x. (727) (728) TF =& \3? 2cx.
In the case where a = h = r the equation of the elUpse becomes 2/2 ^ J. we have for ay + 5V = a'V 2/ or ^+^= 1. the circle ellipse.2^ which is nothing other than the equation of a is circle (1123). 1132. in the equation of the ellipse (1131). (571) which shows that for every value of x there are two equal values of y opposite in sign. Thus. 1134. These lines are equal since they cut off equal distances from the foot of the perpendicular BO (620) Furthermore. the = OF = P = a" c. it will be seen that for every value of y there are two equal values of x opposite in sign.2 = a? {a?  c^). if the semiminor axis gives (730): OB is right triangle BOF c^  Thus. represented Having BF by b. in a special case of the which the semiaxes are equal r. 491 ay + the equation of the curve (a^  c2) a. we have.ELLIPSE Canceling the term 2 a?cx and grouping the terms. the constant quantity h is the semirminor axis. of y. and consequently the curve is also symmetrical about the 2/axis (1138). = ±Va2a:2. and BF = a. are each equal to the semimajor axis a. to the radius Therefore the properties lines of the ellipse are also those of the circle. representing the constant {a? : — c=) by W (1133). or BF + 1133.2 _ y. BF' 2BF = 2a a. The distance FF' = 2 c between the foci is called the . The straight BF and BF'. and consequently the curve is symmetrical In expressing the value of x in terms with respect to the xaxis. Remabk. which join the extremities of the minor axis to the foci.
with the semimajor axis for radius. 1136. The axes A A' and BB' of an ellipse being given. 1130). it will BB' in the points AO = a as radius. Designating this eccentricity by we have. described. The foci and one of the axes of an ellipse being given to find the other axis (Fig. have. 1st. axis. we have. the point C being on the ellipse. . the point C being on the CF + CM' + M'F' = 2 a. e. !• at the limit the ellipse is a circle. and at the limit 1 the curve flattened to a straight line joining the vertices and the 1135. which are the extremities of the If the minor axis to find the major axis. A A' and is if being the major axis. and F and F' the foci (1128). The ellipse is the geometrical locus of all the points the sum of whose radius vectors major axis 2 a (609. 1st. is equal to the M being a point situated outside Fig. the perpendicular bisector axis. 287). minor axis (1132). BB' and the foci F and F' are given. 287). + MC + CF' or MF + MF' > 2 a. Replacing CF by the greater quantity MC + MF. ellipse. Drawing CF. we have CF + CF' = 2 a. describe an arc which cuts AA' in the points F and F'. 1137. B and B'. c c —=a a of the focal distance to the major axis is called the eccentricity of the ellipse. which are the foci of the ellipse (1132). we have. MF 2d. =^^/^ The is eccentricity of the ellipse lies always between and foci. the distance BF = a. Becatise M'F + M'F' < 2 a. we of the ellipse. BB' cut of AA' coincides with the minor from one of the foci F as center and an arc 2d. to find From one of the extremities B of the minor the foci (Fig. lay off to the right and left of the point on FF'. The point M' being situated within the ellipse. drawing CF. 288 we have MF + MF' > 2 a.492 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY and the ratio ti 2 focal distance.
MPF and M'PF. Corollary. . therefore they are equal and symmetrical. The major and minor axis both divide the ellipse into two equal and symmetrical parts. symmetrical to with respect to the 2d. and may also be proved as follows: Having OP = OP' as quantities each equal to QM = QM". if From this it' follows. The point M". and drawing MF. in the quadrilateral MFM'F'. and M'F'. = it follows that FP' = F'P and FP = F'P'. CF + CM' by a smaller quantity M'F. and OF = OF'. This follows from the equation of the curve (1131). M' is on the ellipse (1137). the figure is a parallelogram (660). This follows directly from the equation. M'F. furthermore. minor axis BB'. being a point on the ellipse. The converse statements of the above are also true. prolong making M'O = MO. M"P'F. it follows that turned about the axis AA'. also divided into the diameters into two equal parts. MF'. MO M'F + M'F' = MF + MF' = 2 a. give MF = M"F'. corresponding symmetrical point M' with respect to the major axis AA' (836) is M also on the ellipse. The center of the ellipse divides all ellipse. give MF' = M"F. is also on the ellipse. its 1st. and we have. the diagonals cutting each other in two equal parts. M"P'F'. the two equal right triangles MPF'. and the two other equal triangles MPF. and the ellipse two equal and symmetrical parts by the minor axis. the two equal right triangles. and since M"P'. M'F + M'F' = and the point MF + MF' = 2 a. giving MF' = M'F'. 1139. that the part of the ellipse AMA' be would come into coincidence with the part AM' A'. 1138. The point ing M being on the ellipse. we have.ELLIPSE Replacing 493 have. to M'. we M'F + M'F' <2a. it M MP M"F + M"F' = MF' + therefore M" is on is MF the = 2a.
494 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY M' is Therefore the point on the ellipse (1137). the part OB will coincide with the part OB'. seen that all on the part MBM' fall upon the curve M'B'M. the point B will coincide with it is being any point. From the equation of the ellipse (1131). 1140. The point OB = B OB'. other than the major and minor axes. and considering any diameter BB'. „2 r AP X A'P which shows that the ratio of the square of an ordinate to the prod uct of the corresponding segments of the major axis is equal to the B . therefore any diameter divides the ellipse into two equal parts. Any diameter MM'. we may deduce. since the angle BOM M = B'OM'. y a' 3^ or {a r + x) ^' (a) (729) (a — x) a' or noting that a + x = A'P and a — x 62 a' = AP. divides the ellipse into two equal parts hut not symmetrical with respect to that diameter (837). that for any point M. and since the point B'. the points 1141. after the change. and MM' is a diameter divided into two equal parts at the point 0. Bringing the part it MBM' upon the part M'B'M by turning about as a center until coincides with M' and M' with M.
¥ X Describing a circle on the major axis as diameter. the same properties are found for the the corresponding segments of the minor axis: x" a^ 3? x'^ abscissas and BQX BQ' B'Q B'Q' BQ X B'Q 1142. diameter.. MQ 1143. which has AA' for its axes. diverse interesting consequences relative supplementary chords. From the equation of the elHpse. may be deduced (11 2). W a^ y h Y^ Y a ^ ' Describing a circle upon the minor axis. to the circumscribed parallelograms. and BB' = 26 its a circle aba'V having 2 a for Q. and to the area of the elhpse. thus. Substituting in equation (a) of the preceding article. the same relation is found to hold. we have. and drawing any corresponding ordinates the elUpse MP = we y and CP = Y of and of this circle (Fig. The right Y a triangle OPC gives = CP'' ' OCf UP if or a"  x^ = T'. 292). and by the same process of reasoning. X a . and from the equation (6) that any circle of the diameter 2 h may consider any ellipse having 2 a he considered as being the projection on its plane of different ellipses having a common minor axis 2 b. From the equation (a) of the preceding article. as being a projection of a circle of the diameter 2 a upon the plane of the ellipse. and its plane making an angle whose cosine is . with the plane of the ellipse. Proof. Thus the elUpse ABA'B'. . to the conjugate diameters.. we may and 2 h for its axes. From to the these relations. is the projection of = 2a . have.ELLIPSE Thus the squares of the ordinates are to 495 each other as the prod ucts of the corresponding segments of the major axis.
and each all two equal parts chords parallel to the other. which of conjugate diameters. the projection equal to the surface of the circle multiplied by cos 6. and each one divides parts. circle is ce. and representing the different points by the same the chords letters.496 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ellipse its aa' being parallel to the plane of the projected upon AA'. are parallel to these chords. are also perpendicular to each other. the RSTU. NN'. surface multiof the entire plied Each of the elements mp of a circle having its by cos for its projection. middle points i and h all of these chords. written as capitals. the diameters mm'. Projecting these lines which have just been discussed upon the plane of the ellipse. the diameters divides into are called supplementary MM'. which the same point C in the curve and end chords. n. which are perpendicular to each other (684). the sides of which are parallel to the conjugate diameters MM' and NN' passing through the points of contact. nn'. form a circumscribed square rstu. which are parallel to the other. but also of the projection of any plane surface. is property gives them the name the projection of the square rstu a circumscribed parallelogram finally. a it follows that axis M is is part of an ellipse whose major AA' and minor BB' = 66"' cos ^ = a"^ X. at the extremities of the same diameter DE. wl. into two equal Moreover. the tangents m. which pass through the Drawing any diameter de and the two chords cd and of the circle. n' the chords. This is not only true of the projection of a circle. start from CD and CE. and for any point jection of the perpendicular mp to aa' is The diameter is true length m the pro MP = from which axis is mp. cOkS = mp x . . moreover.
295) is known.ELLIPSE 497 square rstu being constant. gate. line eter. its preceding one. . to determine: center. 1146. 1144. 1st. the straight EE' which joins the middle points of these chords is a diamthe middle point of which is the center of the ellipse.. the diameter NN' parallel to is BA' is the conju gate of MM' (1143). second. major and minor axes. axes. its An ellipse being given. drawing the through the middle point D of the chord CC. its foci. drawing a chord AB parallel to MM' through its extremity A and Draw a chord MM' CC (Fig. 1145. describe a circle with a radius sufficiently long to cut the ellipse in four points . then the line which 2d. . the foci are determined as in~ article the center of (1136). joins allel From E and G and the line which joins G and E' are respectively parto the 3d. the area of the circumscribed parallelogram RSTU is also constant and equal to 4 a^ cos 6 = 4 a^  = 4a6. in an ellipse. This construction more simple than the first. divides all the chords NN'. draw a line through the middle points of . find its conju diameter NN' joining B to A'. any diameter MM' which divides a chord AA' into two equal parts. and these axes may be drawn. and. To determine allel an arc of an ellipse. Drawing two parallel chords CC and DD'. third. Thus. A diameter parallel to MM'. the center 0. same manner. 294) being given. inscribe two par chords in the arc. Having the axes. we have the conjugate diameter of MM'. When the major axis of the ellipse (Fig. BB' . in the the other. and the two diameters MM' and NN' of the elHpse are said to be conjugate diameters when each divides into two equal parts the chords parallel to parallel to the first.
intersection of the two is bisectors will give the center of the circle In case the arc it long enough. erecting a perpendicular to this axis at the center. we have. I F . and F and F' the foci. and. 292). then this line having the direction of a diameter will pass through the center. Thus. being the major axis of an ellipse. the major or minor axis be drawn. MP OD or CP OC It is j. 1147. these parallels meet at a point on the ellipse. and repeating the • first construction. From article (1142) an easy method of constructing cm ellipse by points may be deduced. 1148. the ellipse. = may be constructed as evident that as many such points and when enough have been determined and connected by a smooth curve we have an ellipse (1099). Now by drawing in two new chords parallel to each other.498 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY these chords. drawing any radius OC and through the points C and D drawing parallels to the axes. desired. Describing circles on the axes as diameters (Fig. the second axis is obtained. so that the GEE' can cut may two points G and E ov G and £". in M MP being parallel to OP. AA' Another method by points (1147).
we have. and EG = OB = b the semiminor axis. The point G follows the curve of an ellipse because. the point E would have been determined. moving the rule in such a way that the point E remains constantly upon AA\ and C upon BB'. an arc had been described. 1150. such that CG = OA = a the semimajor axis. from which CE = a — b. which may be fastened at any two points. and G. making EG = b. then drawing CE and prolonging it to G.Va^  x\ from the point C as center. demonand permit the construction of an ellipse by a con two slots or guides assembled in the form of a cross (Fig. the point G upon the ellipse would have been found. on the edge of a thin rule. The same method may be used on paper by substituting a pencil for the sharp stick (1137). Construction of an ellipse with a rule (Fig. This method is used for constructing the intrados and extrados of arches which have the form of an ellipse. 299). GC 2/ Va^  ' a (1131) = . F FM If the cord is held taut. hold the cord taut with a pointed M. . The slide E carries a pivoted foot. E. and walk around making a mark in the soil with the and F'. and we have an ellipse. which is fixed and It consists of tinued motion. CE = a — & for radius. GP^GE GH and If y °^ ^b x' . making the length of the cord + MF' AA'. 300) so that they may be made to coincide with the axes AA' and BB' of the ellipse. Marking three points C. which fits in the slot AA' and G a point or pencil which traces the curve when the rod is moved. G will follow the curve of the ellipse whose major and minor axes are respectively AA' and BB'. the sum of the radius vectors FM and F'M is always constant and equal to the major axis AA'. a rod CD carrying two slides E and G.ELLIPSE of 499 a cord at equal to the major axis stick at stick. The ellipticcompasses are conof a circle structed according to the principle strated in the preceding article. At the extremity of the rod is another pivoted foot. 1151. drawing CH parallel to OA.
500 slides in the slot ANALrtlC CfSOMETRY BB'. Joining M'F. and we have M'F' we have M'F + M'C or 2 a. 302 Draw so that the radius vectors MF' and MF. . is the tangent at the point M. formed each radiu vector with the prolongation of the other. one of the C or £ may be left off. from the point any other point M on M' CF' tangent to the that taken on TP lies outside the ellipse. of The middle point Therefore feet if CE this point is joined to the center describes a circle about the center 0. and placed the instrument so that ellipse. that CG = OA and EG = Having fixed the slides in such a manner OB. and TP 1. is prolonging the latter MC = MF'. the guides coincide with the axes of the traced an ellipse is by turning the rod CD. Moving the rule so that C follows the 1152. major axis and ellipse. the perpendicular Proof. TP dropped that is. The triangle F'MC being isosceles. Proof. or = M'C. the point G will describe an GP EQ 1153. GC GE y °'' V^ (1131) a? Draw a tangent to an ellipse through a point M taken on Fig. by Remark The tangent TP bisects the angles. and the perpendicular ellipse. draw CF'. M'F'. E the minor axis. the curve. the triangle MCF' being isosceles. we may take GC = 6 and GE = a (Fig. 301). and M'C. In the triangle FCM'. by a link. the straight line is perpendicular to CF' at its MP M' middle point. Instead of spacing the points on the rule in such a manner as was done in article (1150). M'F + M'F' > CF or MF + MF' is therefore the point situated outside the eUipse (1137).
the angle of incidence formed with the tangent is equal Prolonging to FF'. as diameter. where the ellipse is constructed by points. the projection NQ of on FF' is called a subnormal. its tangent may be drawn. M M MN pendicular to the tangent Proof. which shows that the described on the axis AA'. radiate 1155. per Remark ellipse. do not This is a great advantage require that the ellipse be constructed. (Fig. 303 construction and the center of the ellipse. 946). then. 715). of the foci and the geometrical locus of the on the tangents (609. that is. . and those which follow. 302). and we have circle OP = ^ = is . TM (678. and we have PMF' = TMF. The same is true of rays of heat or light which from one focus of an elliptical mirror. the straight a (699) line OP FF' and CF'. passes through the point P. 1154. MT being the tangent to the ellipse point at the M. and in this manner the curve is blocked out. and projecting the point on FF'. making it possible to draw it in with a lesser number of points. Because of this reciprocal action of each focus they are called conjugate foci. and so on. projections P. we obtain PMN = NMT. because. drawn in article according to the (1153). then the bisector Join by the two radius vectors is normal to the ellipse. in the triangle bisects FF'C. as soon as a point is found. their halves are equal. and F'M are drawn from any Since. will pass through the first focus. after touching the cushion the second time.ELLIPSE 501 MP an bisects the angle F'MC at the vertex and also its vertical angle FMC. except that in (1159). therefore MN is perpendicular to TM (614). Fig. when radius vectors point M. it follows that on an elliptic billiard table. a ball shot from one focus to any point on the cushion will pass through the other focus. The angles CMF' and C'MF being equal. since F'MN = NMF. adding these two equations. Draw a normal to an ellipse at a point of the angle formed to the foci. The preceding method for drawing a tangent to 2. P' . MN M MN FM to the angle of reflection (950).
then CF' which the circumference of the principal circle in P. describe a circle on A A' as \C/ Fig. describe an arc which determines the point G. in order to draw a tangent ellipse at the point M (Fig. will cut draw the radius P. is and the one described with the major axis FC = AA' to for radius. and another having F as center and AA' for its radius. from one of the foci as centers. to To draw a tangent the focus F' draw an ellipse parallel to a given straight line CD. described on the major axis circle AA' as diameter is often called the principal circle of the ellipse. From an that which was said above. 1157. 303). Describe a circle from the focus i^ as a center. To draw a tangent to an ellipse making any given angle with a given line. this definition a From The method of constructing the ellipse by may be deduced (1147 to 1152).502 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY AA' = that all for a radius. From F'G perpendicular to CD. FC passing through M. Draw a tangent to an ellipse through a point outside of the ellipse. the required tangent is now obtained by drawing other focus F with a radius FG = a parallel to CD through M. we have the point of contact M. or a perpendicular to F'G through M. 304 Fig. the required tangent. drawing FG. with then drawing any radius FC we have ellipse 2 o MC = MF'. M taken . 305 diameter. its Therefore an may be defined as a curve such points are equally distant from the circumference of a circle (670) and a points fixed point within the circle. and joining M to we have 1156. called the directrix circle. from the 2 a (1131). draw a tangent parallel to a line which makes the required angle with the given line (955).
1126)... M point of meeting of the tangent to the circle at m with the diamT'^ eter an'. major axis. In the right triangle ONT. 306) that same major axis AA'. 293) that the point of meeting of the tanwith the gent to the ellipse at axis AA' is the projection of the 1158. where a plane perpendicular to the major axis cuts the ellipses and the circle. it follows (Fig. with the major axis of the ellipse as radius. since From NF' + NF = CF. the tangent drawn to this circle at the point where it cuts ON and the tangent M TM meet in the same point on the prolongation of the minor lie axis BB\ In this case the two points of contact in the same . that the tangents drawn through M. it should be on the axis xx'. N. Proof.ELLIPSE From the point 503 and with the distance from the an arc. tangent to the ellipse at the point (1153). and as center. which determines the point T where the tangent to the ellipse at the point meets the prolongation of the major axis AA'. we have (705). When which the tangent is to be drawn is outside of the ellipse. these lines are tangent to the ellipse at N its and N'. M M to the nearest focus F' as radius. Describing a circle on the minor axis BB'. MN'. N Noting (Fig. and the circle which has this major axis as its diamall eUipses having the eter. from point focus F. it is MF' = MC. andOr = ^. we have NF' = NC. the other describe a second arc. describe drawing MN. the line MN is perpendicular to CF' at therefore middle point (621). OP:ON = ON:OT. meet in the same point T on a prolongation of the major an axis. . which cuts the first in the points C and C" draw CF and C'F. and bisects the angle F'NC. This property reduces the difficulty of drawing a tangent to ellipse to the point through that of drawing one to a circle (1124. which determine the points N and N'. have the following property: the points namely.
These two methods taken together give the points where the tangents to the ellipse meet the two axes. but to construct EG than the conjugate diameter of MM'. two ellipses are similar. and through ^ '^f^^EziIi:::^^ the points C and D draw two others CE re parallel to MD spectively. when proportional. which is still another method of determining the direction of MT. The surfaces of two similar ellipses are to each other as the (s : squares of their axes s' = a^ : a'^). portions of similar ellipses whose perimeters are formed homologous lines are also similar. which may be used to verify the correctness of the construction of the ellipse. as the case with the circle. Through the point M draw two and T)G chords MC and MD. the ellipse.504 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY From this follows plane perpendicular to the minor axis BB'. The parallel is Remark. 1160. is if the case for two similar polygons (695) or circles (749. the ratio of their axes is equal to the ratio of any homologous linear dimensions straight or curved. since we have of Two c:a = 1161. considering the ellipse or arc to be made up of a series of . Two ellipses are said to be similar is. for drawing a tangent to an ellipse at the point M. As 750). . and in general as the squares of any homologous linear dimensions. a method. then the parallel \ y^i ^ U X/ . 1159. and their surfaces are to each other as the surfaces of the ellipses.. MT it is easier is therefore parallel to the conjugate diameter of MM' (1141). c':a' (1134).^ / drawn through gent. Similar ellipses have the same eccentricity e. but. M'T to EG or MT is also tangent to Thus. tangents drawn their axes are at the extremities of the diameter of an ellipse are parallel (1143). analogous to the preceding one. ^v '/'~~^^2^^^') ^v^^_j^^^^^^$>^ ^'e. M MC MT to EG is the required tan V. The length of an ellipse or an arc of an ellipse is not given exactly by any elementary geometrical construction (951). Another method of drawing a tangent to an ellipse at a point taken on the curve. 307 EG Drawing the diameter MM' the chord and all parallel to it are bisected. that when a : a' = & : 6' (1131).
ELLIPSE
very short straight
lines (1111).
505
equal to the
lines,
the length
is
sum
of these
being the length of a semiellipse, whose major and minor axes are respectively a and &, we have,
I
'"«[' (i 'Jin
KH^fK^ «)"]
(»)
I
which
e is
the eccentricity of the ellipse (1134):
«=^\/^=#=£¥^When
is
a
=
6
=
r,
we have
e
=
^^
0,
and therefore
=
irr;
which
as
e
it
should be, since the semiellipse becomes a semicircle (752).
being put in the form
e is
y
—^
,
with the aid of
letting
o
logarithms, the value of
resent the
easily
computed; and
o);
rep
sum
1,
of the quantities within the parentheses,
Z
we
have,
=
=
I
Tra (1
—

taking a
=
l
7T
(1
0).
This gives the value of
with sufficient approximation, and
is
used in calculating the values in the fourth column of the
fol
lowing table.
Multiplying these tabular values by a expressed
in feet or inches,
we obtain
I
in feet or inches.
Taking the axes of the
X being the abscissa
point
ellipse as coordinate
axes (Fig. 292),
M on
9,
MQ = OP,
=
and y the ordinate
MP,
of
any
the curve, and calling the angle corresponding to
CO A,
we have,
COS
 and sin 5 = t or w
=
& sin
6.
For the point
M,
the value of the subnormal (1154)
s
is:
=— cos
a
0.
The slope
of the
the angle which the normal
normal with reference to the a;axis, designating makes with the axis as a (1030), is:
tan a
=
y s
b = — sin 6 = W a — COSP
 tan
,
a
b
„
o.
a
It
is
useful to
know
this slope in constructing elliptical arches
(1150).
the curve
Example. Having a = 15 ft., and 6 = 10 ft., for a point whose abscissa is a; = 11.49060 ft., we have.
in
506
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
.
COS e
=
——— =
11.49060
15
^naa^^ 0.76604.
this
From
cos 6
is
the table, the value of sin 6 which corresponds to
sin 6
=
0.64279.
Therefore, we have y = IQ x 0.64279 = 6.4279 ft. In this manner any number of points may be determined and the curve
drawn.
The subnormal
is
s
=
^X
15
is
0.76604
=
5.10693,
and
the slope of the
normal
tan a
=
^ X 0.83910 = 1.25865.
=
51° 32'.
Having tan
If
a,
the table (1071) gives a
the ratio 
=
cos 6 were not contained in the following table
the table (1071) could be used.
ft., I
Having a
=
15
ft.,
and
6
=
10
may
be obtained as follows:
Putting °
=
a
6
is
cos e
=
^ = 0.66667. 15
ellipse,
The angle
angle
constant for a given
and
is
equal to the
COA (Fig. 292), wherein OP = OB = When a = 1 we have b = cos 0. This is
of the table.
b (1143).
indicated in the secof the perimeter of
ond column Taking a
=
I,
the table gives the length
interpolation (755):
I
the semiellipse
by
2.64768
 0.01823 n Smo ~ n SahI = 264768  00343 = 2.64425. 0.66913 — 0.65606
we
have,
Z
Therefore, in feet,
=
15 X 2.64425
b,
=
39.66375
ft.
Remark.
If,
instead of
the semifocal distance
c (1134)
had been given, we would have,
c
Va^
V
a
a
Vl V

a^
^=
Vl
I
cos^fl
=
sinft
Then the table would when a = 1.
give the value of
corresponding to sin S
ELLIPSE
507
is
Designating the radius of curvature at the point whose abscissa X, by p, we have,
^=ri'
or,
'
putting
'^
a
=
sin a or
a
=
cos
a,
and a
X — a
cos B,
a sin^
we have,
/8
sin a
x',
Designating the abscissa of the center of curvature by
c'x^
we have,
a*
Table for the construction of the ellipse by points, for the deter
mination of the normal at any of these points and the calculation
of the semiperimeter.
CB
508
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
ellipses,
Table of the perimeters, of
equal
to
whose minor axes 2
b are all
100.
is
This second table
less
rigorous in the decimal part, but
directly.
gives the required results
Major Axis.
more
ELLIPSE
of a circle
509
whose diameter
is
2 a,
the angle between the plane of the circle
upon the plane of the ellipse; and that of the ellipse
being 6 and cos ^
eUipse
is,
=
 (1143), the area S of the surface of the
S=
wherein S'
is
S' cos 6
tra?

=
{Tab),
the area of the
ft.,
circle.
For a
=
3
and
6
=
b
2
ft.,
we
X 2
have,
S =
Thus we have S
circle
:
3.1416 X 3
=
is
18.85 sq.
ft.
S'
=
:
a.
Therefore the surface of an ellipse
the radius of which
is
equivalent to that that
irr^
of a
a
mean
proportional between the semib,
is, r^
major axis a and the semiminor axis
=
a6 (753, 970).
When
the two foci of the ellipse approach each other until
all
they coincide, the radius vectors of
the semimajor axis which
ellipse is
its
is
points
equal to the semiminor axis.
become equal to The
then a
circle
having a
=
b
=
r for area.
radius,
and therefore
wr^ for its
(See Part VI.)
1163. That portion of an ellipse included between two parallel chords is a segment. The area of a segment included between
two
chords
axis.
parallel
to
either the
major or
Fig. 308
minor
1st.
Describe a circle on the major axis
AA'
as diameter; then, after having determined the area S' of the circular segment C'D'E'F' (760), the area of the segment of the ellipse CDEF is found from the pro
portion
S
from which
:S'
=
b:a,
a
•
S = S'X
Proof.
Since the entire ellipse
may be
considered as being the
projection of a circle (1162),
of
we may
also consider the
segment
circle,
an
ellipse as
being the projection of the segment of a
and we have,
S=
S' cos
9= S'
~
510
2d.
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
The chords Gil and IK, which bound the segment,
major
axis, describing
being
axis
parallel to the
a
circle
on the minor
is
BB' as diameter, the area by the proportion
of the
segment
of the ellipse
given
GHIK
When
at
its
or
S
:
G'H'I'K' or 
=
a
:
&,
and
S^S'r
extremities, the
the parallel chords are perpendicular to the minor axis segment becomes the ellipse, and that of
b,
the circle a circle of radius
and we
still
have the
ratio
S
1164.
.S'
=
a:b.
is
The
ellipsoid of revolution
a solid generated by the
revolution of an ellipse about one of
1165.
its axes.
The surface
of
an
ellipsoid is
tary algebraic expression.
It
may
not given by any elemenbe computed by considering
made up of short straight lines, which generate cylinders, frustums, and cones of revolution; measuring all these lateral surfaces (906, 912, 908), and summing them, we have the approximate area of the ellipsoid. (See
the generating ellipse as being
(1355) integral calculus.)
1166.
The volume
of
an
ellipsoid.
When
the ellipsoid has three
unequal axes, that
of diameter 2
b,
is,
when
a plane
a,
drawn through the
does not determine a
center
circle
perpendicular to the major axis 2
as in the ellipsoid of revolution, but an ellipse
c for its axes, its
having 2
b
and 2
volume
is,
F =  Trabc
o
For an ellipsoid of revolution, according as the ellipse upon its major or minor axis, it suffices to make c = 6 or in the preceding formula, and we have respectively,
turns
c
=
a
V=
When
we have,
a
^7ra¥ or
F=
is,
^^a'b.
(See Part VI.)
is
=
b
=
r,
that
when
the generating ellipse
a
circle,
7=
which
is
1^3,
is
as
it
should be, since the ellipsoid
a sphere of radius
r (924).
HYPERBOLA
HYPERBOLA
1167.
309),
of
511
The hyperbola
its
is
an open curve
of
two branches
(Fig.
such that the difference
MF' —
MF between
the distances
each of
points from two fixed points, called the foci
F
and
F', is constant.
It is seen that, like the ellipse (1127), the
hyperbola
is
defined
by
its
equation in focal
coordinates
(1101);
designating the
radius vectors of each point
constant difference
by 2
a,
by the we have,
variables p
and
p'
and the
p'
—p=
2a.
foci F,F',
1168.
of the
The
straight line
is
which passes through the
hyperbola
the principal axis (Fig. 309).
of the principal axis, intercepted
The segment AA'
cin^ve, is
by the
eaUed the transverse axis.
The points A and A' are the vertices of the hyperbola. The perpendicular bisector of AA' is called the conjugate axis. 1169. The distances of the foci to the nearer vertices are equal, and therefore so are the distances from the foci to the center:
AF =
Proof.
A'F'
and
FO =
F'O.
The
or
vertices
A
and A' being on the hyperbola, we have,
or
AF'AF
AA' + A'F'AF = A'FA'F'
A'A+AFA'F'.
Canceling the quantity
AA' common
same
to
both members of the equation, and transposing the like quantities to the
of the equation,
side
we
have,
2 A'F'
= 2AFotAF =
A'F';
adding the quantity
of this equation,
AA' to both members we have A'F = AF', which
foci to
Fig. 309
shows that the distances from the
the farther vertices are equal.
to
A'O, we have also FO = F'O. The constant difference 2 a of the radius the transverse axis AA'. The point A being on the hyperbola, we have,
Since
1170.
AO =
vectors is equal
AF' 
AF or AA' +
A'F'
 AF
==
2 a;
512
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
from which, noting that A'F'
= AF (1169), AA' = 2 a.
1171.
The equation
of the hyperbola, taking the axes of the curve
as coord/mate axes (1168).
Let
a
AA' = 2a and FF' =
F'P = x +
p'2
2
c.
We
x
always have 2 a
<
2 c or
<
c.
Since
c
and
FP =
—
p'
c,
the right triangles
MPF'
(o)
and
MPF
give respectively (730):
=
y^
+
x'
(x
+
cy and
=
y^
+
(a;
+
cf;
developing (727, 728) and simplifying,
p'^
~
p^
=
y'
+
+
c'
+
2cx
—
y^
—
x^
—
c'
2cx
=
i ox;
that
is
(729),
(p'
+ =
P) (p'
P
P)
=
2a
a,
4
ex,
J and
,
p
+
,
4 ex
P
p
—
4 ex = —— =
2
ca;
a
;
and, since
p'adding these two equations,
P=
2
we
^
\
have,
p'
2, = p'
and
therefore,
z ex
a
p'2
2 a or
ex =—+ a
a,
=
^+
+
«=>
+
2 ex.
Putting this value of
p'^
equal to that in equation
a^,
(a),
and ehm
inating the denominator
cfy^
+
o^a^
+
(^c^
2 c^cx
=
c^y?
+
o*
+
2 a^cx.
Canceling 2 a^cx, and transposing,
ay + x2(a='  (?) =
sarily negative,
a^a^
(a^
 c^).
—
c^),
Representing the constant quantity
which
is
neces
by — W
(1186),
we have
xi^
for the equation of the
hyperbola,
d^y"^
—
Vx^
= —
x^
^
€?}? ox jT
= —
1,
and
?/
=±
Va;2

a^.
(571)
HYPERBOLA
From
this
513
equation
it
follows that, like the ellipse (1131, 1138),
the hyperbola is divided into two equal and symmetrical parts by each of its axes (839). This equation shows furthermore that X cannot be less than a, and, according as x varies from ± a to
.
to y varies from branches. two infinite 1172. The distance 2 c
±
(XI
,
±
oo
.
Thus the curve
between the
is
composed
of
= FF'
foci is called
the
focal distance,
and
is
the ratio e of the focal distance to the trans
verse axis 2 a
called the eccentricity (1134).
Thus we have,
e
=
c
a
=
1173.
From
the equation of the hyperbola (1171),
we
find for
any point
M (Fig. 309)
7?
—
or
(^
r
{x
+ a)
(a;
— o)
a
(1141)
a^
±,
Noting that
a;
+
a
= ± A'P
and x
—
=
AP,
A'P X
uct of
AP
a^
This shows that the ratio of the square of an ordinate to the prodthe corresponding segments of the principal axis is equal
square of the conjugate axis
is therefore constant.
to the
to the ratio of the
square of the
transverse axis,
and
For another point we would have,
y'^
P
a^'
A'P'X AP'~
therefore,
—
=;
A'P X AP A'P'X AP''
Thus, the squares of the ordinates of two points are to each other as the products of
the
corresponding segments of the principal
Fig. 310
axis.
1174.
The hyperbola
is the
geometrical
locus of the points the difference of
the transverse axis
whose radius vectors
is
equal to
2 a of the curve (1137). 1st. The point being situated between the two branches of the hyperbola, we have MF' < 2 a.
M
MF
514
Proof.
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
Drawing CF', the point
C
is
on the hyperbola; and we
have,
Having
CF'
 CF = 2a.  MC (637), replacing > MF'
CF'
CF' by
2
this
smaller quantity,
MF' ~
2d.
MC
 CF
or
MF' 
MF <
a.
The point M' not being between the two branches hyperbola, we have, M'F'  M'F > 2 a.
Proof.
of the
Drawing CF, the point
C
is
on the hyperbola,
CF' replacing the quantity
CF =
2 a;
CF by the smaller quantity M'F
or
— M'C,
we
have,
CF'  M'F + M'C
CoROLLAEY.
true.
M'F'  M'F > 2
of the
a.
The converse statements
above are
line
also
1175.
The parts
OM, OM',
and
of
the
same
straight
MM',
included between the center
equal.
the branches of the hyperbola, are
Drawing
point
N
is
perpendicular to Ox, and taldng PN = PM, the on the hyperbola (1171). Drawing NQ perpendicular to Oy, and prolonging it until it meets MO at
MP
the point M'; since
NM'
OQ
is
parallel to
PO
and
this
PN = PM,
have
we have
MO
is
= OM'.
is
From
MN, we on the hyperbola, as is also its symmetrical point M'; therefore the point M', which gives OM' = OM, is situated on the hyperbola,
equation, and since
parallel to
QM' = QN,
and
N
j^g 311
From
this it is seen that the point
may
be
considered as the center of the hyperbola, and
straight lines, such as
MM',
as diameters.
Straight lines which pass through the center and do not cut
the hyperbola are called infinite diameters.
Since any diameter cannot cut the hyperbola in more than
two
points, it cannot cut one of the branches in
more than one
point,
and a chord
1176.
When
one of the branches does not meet the other. the center is Joined to the middle i of a chord,
in
HYPERBOLA
the diameter BB', which coincides with this line, bisects
all
515
chords
to the
EG, GH,
etc., parallel
to
CD.
The
middle
(1144).
infinite
e of
diameter
IK
which connects the center
all
the chord GC, bisects
chords
HD
parallel to
GC
As was the case with the ellipse, the two diameters BB' and IK, each of which bisects the chords parallel to the other, are
called conjugate diameters.
Having a diameter of an hyperbola given, its conjugate is found same way as is that of the ellipse (1145, 1189). 1177. An hyperbola or an arc of an hyperbola being given, to find its center and its axes, operate as with an ellipse (1146). 1178. To trace an hyperbola by points. F and F' being the foci of an hyperbola, and A and A' the vertices, with F and F' as centers and A'M as radius, which
in the
Fig. 312
Fig. 313
may vary from AF
to oo
,
describe arcs; then with the
same
centers
F
with a radius equal to Am, describe arcs cutting each of the first in the points CD, which belong to one branch of the
and
F',
hyperbola, and
Proof.
CD', which belong
points
to the other branch.
Any of "these = AA' = 2a (1167).
points
gives
CF'— CF = A'm —
Am
Varying the position of m on the prolongation of AF, as many may be determined as are desired, and the smooth curve drawn through these points form the two branches of the hyperbola.
1179. To trace an hyperbola by a continuous motion. Let (Fig. 313) F'E be a rule with a small hole at one end placed in line with one edge, and EDF be a string fastened at the other Taking the length of this string EDF end of this same edge. such that EF'  (ED + DF) = AA' = 2 a, fastening the ex
516
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
tremity F' with a pivot at one focus and the end of the string p at the other focus, and turning the rule while' holding the string
taut with a pencil
Proof.
D
pressed tightly against the edge of the rule
is
a branch of an hyperbola
traced.
For any position
D
of the pencil,
a.
DF'
DF =
EF'  {ED + DF) = AA' = 2
is
The other branch
of the hyperbola
traced in the same manner.
tangent
to
1180.
To draw a
through a point
M taken on
an hyperbola
the curve (1153).
Draw
take
the radius vectors
MF, MF';
MC =
pendicular
M on CF,
is,
MF, draw CF, and the perMT, dropped from the point
the required tangent; that
line, gives
is
that
any point M', other than M,
or 2
taken on this
M'F'  M'F < AA'
Fig. 314
a.
(1174)
Proof.
MT
being perpendicular to
CF
at
its
middle point, the triangle
MCF is
an
isosceles triangle,
and we have,
F'C
But
+ CM'  M'F = F'C = MF' F'C + CM' > M'F';
MF
=
2a.
therefore
M'F'  M'F <2a.
Remark.
1181.
parallel
The
triangle
MCF
being isosceles,
it is
seen that
the tangent bisects the angle included by the radius vectors.
in the ellipse (1159), the tangent to the hyperbola is the conjugate of the diameter drawn through the to
As
point of contact (1176); which gives a second method for drawing
a tangent
1182.
to an hyperbola. To draw a normal
to
an hyperbola through a
point
M
(Fig. 314).
of the angle formed by the radius and the prolongation of the other radius vector, Reasoning as in (1154), is the normal to the curve at the point M. it may be proved that is perpendicular to MT at M. 1183. Two hyperbolas, and in general two curves, are said to be homofocal when they have the same foci.
The
bisector
MN
FMC
vector
MF
MC
MN
HYPERBOLA
An
ellipse
517
cut each other
and an hyperbola, which are homofocal,
at right angles.
is both tangent to the As bisector of the angle FMC, and normal to the hyperbola, and, as bisector of the is both normal to the ellipse and tangent to angle FMF', and are perpendicular to each other hyperbola, and the
MT
ellipse
MN
MN
MT
whether we consider the ellipse (1154) or the hyperbola (1182). The method of determining the point T has been given (1158).
1184.
Hyperbolic
mirrors
(1154).
A
ray
of
light
or
heat
emanating from the focus
strikes
i^ of
a hyperbolic mirror (Fig. 315)
and is reflected in the direction and any point As is seen, all the reflected to come from the focus F'. appears rays, instead of meeting at the same point, as in the elliptical mirror, appear to come from the same point F', which is a virtual focus and not a conjugate focus. The space in front of the mirror in the angle DF'D' receives both the direct rays, from the source at F and those reflected by
M
MC
Fig. 315
Fig. 316
the mirror.
Thus
it is
seen that
when a
large area
is
to be lighted,
a hyperbolic mirror should 1185.
be used.
What was
said in article (1155) concerning the ellipse
holds good for the hyperbola.
MT
ing to the construction of article (1180),
being the tangent drawn to the hyperbola at M, accordthe center of the and
hyperbola, in the triangle
FF'C
the straight Une
OP
bisecting
FC
P,
and FF'
we have OP =
—^
F'C
=
a
which shows that the
described upon AA' as diameter passes through the point and that it is the geometrical locus of the projections P, P', of the foci upon the tangents (1155) (Fig. 316). The circle described from one of the foci F' as center, with
circle
518
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
2 a as radius, has the property that
AA' =
F'C
is
when any
its
radius
prolonged to the hyperbola
MC = MF.
Therefore, an
points are
fixed point
hyperbola
may
be defined as a curve such that all of
equally distant from the circumference of a circle
outside of that circle.
and a
From
this definition a
method may be deduced
points,
for the construc
tion of the hyperbola
but it is quite complicated. The circle described on 4 A' as a diameter is called the principal circle of the hyperbola, and that described from one of the foci as center with the transverse axis AA' as radius is called the
directrix circle.
to draw a tangent to an hyperbola at the point M, describe a circle on AA' as diameter, and another with F' as a center with A A' for a radius; draw F'M, then CF, which will intersect the cir
by
From
that which has been said, in order
cumference of the principal
circle at
and connecting
1186.
M to
P,
P we
have the
required tangent.
Asymptotes.
The branches of
infinity,
the hyperbola extend to
and
the diameters increase to a
maximum
angle with the principal axis, at which angle they extend from + oo to — oo
The two infinite diameters which meet the hyperbola at infinity They are tangent to the branches are called the asymptotes. When the point of contact at infinity. (Fig. 316) moves
Kg.
317
'
(1175).
M
along the curve, the point the point
P
describes the principal circle and
C
the directrix
circle,
whose center
is
at the focus
F' (1185). Since the straight lines
the angles
OP and F'C are always parallel (1185), OPF and F'CF are always equal; and if one of the angles OPF becomes a right angle, the other F'CF also becomes a right angle, and FC is tangent to the principal circle and also
to the directrix circle.
pendicular to
FC
at
its
Then (Fig. 317) the tangent permiddle point and the radius OP are in
is
MP
the same straight line; and since the point of contact
intersection of the
at the
two
parallels
OP
and F'C, which
is
at infinity,
the line
OM
is
Therefore,
to
an asymptote. trace an asymptote, connect the center to the
HYPERBOLA
point of contact
519
P
of the tangent to the principal circle
drawn
through F.
The other tangent FP' drawn
to
the principal
circle gives the other asymptote ON', and the tangents drawn from F' to the same circle determine the asymptotes ON, OM', of the second branch of the hyperbola; but, since the figure is symmetrical, the asymptotes of the second branch are prolonga
tions of those
of
the
first.
Therefore the hyperbola has two
asymptotes.
AA' at A and A', and completing a whose vertices are on the asymptotes, the two right common and the triangles OPF OAI having an acute angle side OP = OA, being radii of the same circle, are equal, and 01 = OF = c. Therefore, to trace the asymptotes, from one of the vertices A' as center, with OF as radius, describe an arc which cuts the transverse axis in B and B' draw the rectangle / I'l"!'" on AA' and BB', and the diagonals of this rectangle are the asymptotes; they may be traced without constructing the rectangle / 77"/'", by simply drawing parallels to A'B and to AB
Erecting perpendiculars to
rectangle
;
through the center 0.
In the right triangle A' OB
—
a'
=
6^
(1171).
This
is
we have why BB' =
OF =
2 6
is
A^  A^ = &
taken as the length
of the conjugate axis.
1187.
An hyperbola
a square,
is
equilateral
perpendicular to each other.
317)
is
when the asymptotes are Then the rectangle / ITT" (Fig.
b are equal.
to
and the two axes 2 a and 2
be con
1188.
jugate
Two
hyperbolas are said
when, having the same asymptotes and equal focal distances, FF' = ff', the transverse axis of one is the conjugate axis
of the other.
said,
From
that which has been
the points F,
circle,
c.
same
OF =
are on an arc of the and radius is whose center is The transverse axis AA' = 2 a
I, f,
and the conjugate axis BB' = 2 6 of the hyperbola FF' are respectively the conjugate axis 2 b' and the transverse axis 2 a' of the
conjugate hyperbola
a'2
jf'.
rig. 318
We
_
a^
have,
=
&2
=
c^
and
is
b'^
=
a'
=
c^

b\
When one
of the hyperbolas
equilateral (1187), its conjugate
S20
is also.
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
We
a'
have,
= ¥ =
a"
=
h'\
/.'2
_ =
c^
2
_ =
2
a^"
=
2
62
thus the two hyperbolas are identical.
1189.
When
to
the asymptotes are traced (1186),
to
draw
the
conjugate
allel
a given diameter
LU
(1176), through L,
draw
a parin
LD
to the farther asymptote;
E; take
bisects
EG =
EL, and GO
is
is
it cuts the other asymptote the required conjugate diameter.
This construction
conjugate diameters.
all lines
the parallels to
based upon the fact that each asymptote the other which are included between two
Thus, the asymptote
it it
MM'
bisects
GL
and
parallel to
and included between the conjugate diamalso
eters
LU
and GG';
bisects all parallels
AB'
,
A'B',
.
.
.,
included between the other two conjugate diameters AA', BE'.
1190.
To draw a tangent
the point
to
an hyperbola through a
point
M
exterior to the hyperbola (1157).
From
tance
M
as center, with a radius equal to the dis
MF
to the nearer focus, describe an arc; from the other
Pig. 319
Fig. 320
Kg.
321
focus F', with a radius 2 a
cuts the
first in
the two points
the perpendiculars
the points
MT,
AA', describe another arc which C and C'; draw FC and FC, and to the MT', dropped from the point
=
M
middle points of these chords, are tangents to the hyperbola
at
T and
T'.
The points of contact T and T' may be obtained directly, by drawing F'C and F'C' and prolonging these lines imtil they cut the hyperbola; because, if it was desired to draw a tangent at the point T where F'C meets the hyperbola, we would lay off TF on TF', thus determining the point C; then T would be on the hyperbola, and we would have TF'  TF = 2a = CF'; we
HYPERBOLA
•
521
would then draw FC, and the perpendicular dropped from the This point T to the middle of FC would be the tangent (1180). perpendicular coinciding with that which was drawn through M, the latter is also tangent to the hyperbola at the point T. In the same way it may be shown that MT' is tangent at T'. 1191. Taking the asymptotes Ox' and Oy' of the hyperbola as coordinate axes, the equation of the curve becomes (1171,
1186),
^Y =
or oblique,
4
'
which shows that the product of the coordinates, perpendicular
MQ =
is
x'
parallelogram
OFMQ
is y'
= y' is constant, and that the and formed by the coordinates of any point and
,
MF
the asymptotes
also
constant,
6,
since, designating
the angle
included by the asymptotes by
is x', its
the base of this parallelogram
of its surface
is
altitude
sin 6
and the area
S=
When
that
is,
x'y'
sm
=
— — sm
.
6.
4
the hyperbola
is
equilateral,
=
90° and sin
=
1;
OFMQ
becomes a rectangle
(Fig. 321),
&=
x'y'
=
—^
•
1192. The area of an hyperbola. Making the constant quantity
x'y'
= ^1±^ = m\
included by the arc
(1191)
the area
A
of the figure
MM'F'F
MM'
the
asymptote and the two ordinates
y'
and y"
L. —r
x'
=
is
A =
wherein
408,
x'
m^
x"
>
sin
=
OF, x"
=
OF', and L.
is
Napierian logarithm (407,
When
and 1796). the hyperbola
equilateral (1187),
we have
sin
=
1,
and therefore,
x"
x'
522
If
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
we take
m
as unity,
^=
and
in the case
a;'
L.
^, x'
is
bola, since
=
where the point 1 and x' = y',
M
at the vertex
A
of the hyper
x'y'
=
x".
m?
=
\,
and
A =
hyperbolic logarithms.
Lo
This property of the Napierian logarithms gives them the name,
According as an hyperbola revolves about its conjugate it generates an unparted hyperboloid or a biparted hyperboloid.
1193.
axis or its transverse axis (1168),
PAfeABOLA
1194.
A
parabola
is
an openbranched curve
(Fig. 322),
all
points of which are equally distant from a fixed point or
fociis
F, and a fixed straight line or directrix OD. The parabola, like the ellipse and hyperbola,
is
defined in focal
coordinates (1127, 1167).
Designating
the
radius vectors of different
points on the curve
by the
P
variables p and /,
we
have,
=
P'.
Two
Kg.
322
parabolas having the same focus are
direc
said to be confocal (1183).
trix
1195. The perpendicular Fx to the drawn through the focus is the axis of the parabola. The point A, where the axis cuts the curve; is the vertex
of the
parabola.
Twice the constant distance
directrix
is
FO
between the focus and the
it is
called the parameter of the parabola;
represented
by 2 p, and determines the parabola. The vertex, being part of the curve, and we have,
bisects the distance FO,
OA = AF = lp.
1196.
the
The chord BB' drawn through axis is called the latus rectum and
the focus perpendicular to
is
equal
to
the parameter
2 p.
From
the definition of a parabola and the fact that parallels
PARABOLA
523
comprehended between parallels are equal, we have FB = FB' = 0F = p and BB' = 2 p. 1197. The equation of the parabola referred to coordinate axes,
when one coincides with
the vertex
the axis
Ax and
the other passes through
A
parallel to the directrix of the curve
OD.
In the right triangle
MFP (730), p^=MF + FP'=y' + (x~l pj;
(x
also,
+ ipj;
Putting these two values of
y^
p^
equal to each other,
+
3?
+
^p^
—
=
px
—
x"
+
gp'
+
px.
Simplifjdng,
we have the equation
2/'
of the curve,
2 px,
and
(571)
y
=±
x,
V2
px.
in sign, therefore
For every value of x there are two equal values of y opposite the curve is symmetrical about its xaxis.
y^
Solving the equation for
2p
the curve
being necessarily positive (537), x is always positive, and is situated entirely on one side of the yaxis. When X varies from to oc,y varies from to ± oo consequently
y'
;
the curve has one branch extending to infinity on both the
+
y
is
and the
1198.
—
y side of the
left side.
xaxis.
If
p
is
negative, the curve
open on the
other as the
The squares
of the ordinates of the parabola are to each
corresponding abscissas (1141, 1173).
From
the equation of the parabola (1197),
y^
=
2 px
and
y"
•
=
2 px'
and
1199.
^
2/"
=x'
From
the equation
2/^
=
2 px,
we
have,
^=2p, X
524
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
ratio of the square of
is
which shows that the
corresponding abscissa
2 p.
an ordinate to the
constant and equal to the parameter
For X
= ^j we
have
to
y^
=
p^
or y
=^ p.
Thus
the
ordinate
which corresponds
focus 1200.
distant
1st.
the focus is equal to
the
distance from the
to the directrix
(1196).
from
The parabola is the geometrical locus of the points equally the focus and the directrix (1137, 1174). The point being outside the parabola, we have MQ
M
< MF.
Proof.
Prolonging
QM, and drawing CF, we
have,
CF replacing
CM
or
< MF;
CF by
its
equal CQ,
CQ 2d.
CM
MQ
< MF.
we have M'Q > M'F;
The point M' being
inside the curve,
because, having
M'C + CF > M'F,
replacing
CF by
CQ,
M'C + CQ
Corollary.
true.
or
M'Q > M'F.
of 1st
The converse statements
and 2d
are both
1201. The axis of the parabola divides the curve into two and symmetrical parts. C being any point in the curve (Fig.
equal
323),
'^'^
'^
drawing the perpendicular CP to Ox, and taking PB = PC, the point B symmetrical to C is on the parabola. Proof. Drawing BF, we have CF = BF (621); furthermore, since CF = CQ and CQ = BQ', we have BF = BQ'; which cannot be unless the point B is on the curve (1200); therefore the two parts of the curve are symmetrical with respect to the axis and equal
This was proved in article (1197). 1202. The ellipse being the geometrical locus of the points, such as M, which are equally distant from the focus F and the
each to each (839).
PARABOLA
directrix
circle
525
whose center is at the other focus F' (1155), and the focus F remaining fixed, according as the vertex A', the focus F', and the center <a move farther away the ellipse becomes flatter and the directrix circle becomes larger.. When the vertex, the focus, and the center reach infinity, the directrix circle becomes a straight line OD and the elUpse becomes a parabola EAE', the points of which are equally distant
the vertex
A
from the focus
F
and the
directrix
OD.
an
fixed
Thus the parabola may ellipse when one focus and
and
of
vertex
be considered as being the limit of vertex
remain
and
the other focus
approach
infinity.
parabola may also be considered as the limit an hyperbola when one focus and vertex remain fixed while the other vertex approaches infinity.
It is seen that a
1203.
ellipse,
The parabola being considered
all
as a special case of the diameters m.eet in the center; but since the center
Fig. 324
is
at infinity
1204.
on the
axis, all the
diameters are parallel to the axis.
all
As
in the ellipse
and the hyperbola (1144, 1176), any
chords
diameter BB', which bisects a chord CC, also bisects EE' parallel to CC (1207, 1214). The axis, which is a diameter, bisects the chords
are perpendicular to it (1201).
EG
which
1205.
From
the equation y^
=
2 px (1197),
is
it
follows that
any
semichord
EE
perpendicular to the axis
a
mean
proportional
between
2 p
its
distance from the vertex
AE
and the parameter
to
=
2
OF =
the chord drawn through the focus perpendicular
the axis (1196).
Thus we have,
AE :EE=EE:2p.
526
ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
this it follows that in order to obtain the parameter 2 » perpendicular to the axis, draw erect
From
draw a semichord
the perpendicular
right triangle
EH
AE
EI
to
AE
at E,
and we have
HI =
2v.
The
AEI
(Fig. 325) gives (705),
AH EH ^ EH
:
:
HI.
its axis, its focus,
1206.
directrix.
A
parabola being given, trace
and
its
Drawing two
parallel chords
BB' which
joins their
middle points
is
and
(Fig. 325), the line a diameter of the parabola parallel to the axis (1203). The midis
CC
and EE'
of the chord EG lies on the axis, which is obtained by drawing a parallel to BB' through H. The parameter 2 p = HI is
dle point
H
obtained by the construction given
in article
(1205); and laying off a quarter of the par
ameter on the axis at the right and left of the vertex, the focus F is foimd, and the
point
1207.
Fig. 326
determines the directrix
to each other
(1203),
OD
(1214).
All diameters of the parabola being
parallel
any one
of
them BB' has no conjugate
direction of the parallel chords
(1176); but the
which are bisected by BB' may
of this diameter.
be considered as being the conjugate direction A diameter BB' being given, to find
its
conjugate direction, connect
'
point
C
of the
curve, prolong
B to any CB so
to
that
BD = BC,
CE
draw
DE
parallel
BB', and
Proof.
has the required direction.
Having
(699).
BD =
BC, we have
parallel
IE = IC
1208.
CC and EE' being two
chords bisected
by the diameter BB',
the chords EC and E'C meet at the rig. 327 same point X in BB' (694). This being true no matter what the distance between CC and EE' may be, it must be true for tangents drawn at the extremities of the same chord EE', and, in general, at the extremities of any chord
parallel to EE'.
GH = HE' = GE' ^= "' EF.HE' GE. and therefore EK KX EK + KX L K^' GH = GEEF = FG'. 328 But the second members these proportions are equal. Thus we have. to the chord drawn between the points of contact E and E' of the two tangents to the parabola is bisected at its point of contact.GH. GE = GE'. Any one of three tangents EX. respectively (699). and at this point the chord is an element of the curve and coincides with the tangent KK' at this point. 1209. and JE' are bisected at the points G. (345) From this proportion we have or EX XE' EK XK' KX K'E' XK' + K'E' .PARABOLA 527 The chords parallel to EE' become shorter as they approach B. which is also parallel Since BK = BK'. ^'' k^ HC we have =HE'. I.HC = CE. and therefore we have. . since. and KK'. K'. X. GH = from which GE' . E^ the chords of contact EE'. to a para bola divides the other two into inversely proportional segments. EJ. In the triangles EGX and XK^ K'E' E'GX. EK ZX XK' or XK' ~ K'E' (324). EK _EF[ KX ~ FG GH HE' of Pig. it is seen that the tangent KK' parallel to EE'. E'X. EE = FC. KX " K'E' Drawing parallels to the axis EK XK' through the points K. and L. is This property of the tangent only a special case of the more general property given below.
328). E'X (Fig. and A. of the line joining the intersection any two tangents to the middle point is G of the chord of con tacts of these tangents. the others determine XK' ~ K'N' ~ N'E' Proof. which gives AF = OF. vim/' XE XK' ~ XN' ~ XE' EK__EN__ £T Subtracting from the terms of each ratio the terms of the preceding ratio does not change the value of the ratios (349).^w _ EX . NN'. all of them are. X XB = B BG. and we have. If EK KN NX one of the tangents is bisected. parallel to EE'. erecting a perpendicular CC to the axis at the point B taken at the right of the vertex A. Ox the axis. XK' ~ K'N' " N'E' Remark. E'X. Those two proportions having a common ^^^"^ we have. No matter of how many drawn to a parabola. and we have. F being the focus. 1211. Thus we have. and with the focus as center. EK XK' and EX XE' I. part of the parabola. EK KN NX Considering successively the tangents KK'. as cutting those EX. XK = K'E'. EX. To trace a parabola by points. upon any two them •proportional segments. KX ~ WW' = W'' and Thus. the middle point of EK ^ K'E' XK' ratio. OD the directrix. KK' __ giving EK XK' K'E'' it is KX and if the tangent . ana EN XN' ^^. we have (1209). the vertex. tangents are 1210. . is drawn through B.528 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY Any tangent Remark.
then the parameter ^V = OA(1206). and is BO half the height of the beam. each of the points equally distant from the directrix and and is therefore part of the parabola (1200). AO _ the axis. From it the point B drop a perpendicular to the axis and prolong beyond so that OB' = OB. both From an arc. EGH being a triangle. This method is used in calculating the form of beams of uniform resistance. motion (Fig. the focus and and the parabola may be traced y'^ directrix are determined as in (1211). In practice the geometrical construction is shown in (Fig. 329). 330) often used.PARABOLA and the distance points Proof. such as walkingbeam of an engine. the lower part is drawn on the in the same manner. etc. In this tained as manner is as many points may be ob and when connected by a smooth curve we have a parabola. the point C will trace the upper part of a parabola. and ECF a string of a length equal to is EH. it cuts which are on the parabola. describe of C and C. To trace a parabola by a continuous desired. Reversing the with the directrix triangle. or. having CF = EH. one end of which slid fastened at the point if E and the other end at the focus F. choosing different values of x. Let A be the vertex. the corresponding values of y may be cal culated from the equation = 2 px. 330 because. 1212. position of . divide BO and AO into the same . Kg. focus. and the string held taut by pressing a pencilpoint C against the edge of the triangle. is the triangle along a straight edge which coincides OD. 529 OB as radius. Any C is parabola (1200). have EC + CF = CH Another method of con struction by points. OB' (1199) Having the parameter. we 1213. CC is in two the construction.
^4%. AT and BT being two lines to be connected by a parabola tangent to these lines at the points C and D. and prolonging these lines until they cut the parallel to the axis which has the corresponding 1'.530 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY of equal parts. 331. . number curve 2'. of the Repeating this operation for the part OB'. on AO. ' B'3' =b+ y. or 3'. the construction 3 Proof. through the points of division on BO draw parallels to the axis. or. From = 3 being parallel to S'C. or aV — ay^ = ab" — Vx. divide CT and DT used in surveying. noting that d'B or —=b—y m b m = by : 5 gives a (b — y) ^ . 3. 2. and which is .{ax) . : B'3'. whose parameter of constructing a parabola is is — • A method on a large scale. . J. "' the above proportion be written. often shown in Fig. /I. the point of intersection is on the parabola. we have 3 : (699). the equation of the parabola. then joining B' to the points of division 1. four for number example. and 3'C = B'O b. Representing OA by 3'C a and OB by 3==. the lower part may be drawn. N Putting the product of the means equal to the product extremes (729). = b:(b+y). may B'0==b. mm and B 3' = — . m = ax. ^ of the ^ = & (a  x).
this From we have a method for drawing a chord through (1204. M'F is outside the curve. Since the triangle MFQ 2. and QMT = TFM being base angles of an isosceles Remark triangle. Draw FQ.PARABOLA into the 531 same number of equal parts. 332 prp and is bisected at the point B. axis of Remark 4. and therefore M'Q' < M'F. that is.^^ MT. The triangle MFQ being isosceles. any point M'. To draw a tangent to a parabola taken on the curve (1153. is parallel to the tangent MT. to FQ. MT is the perpendicular bisector of FQ. the chord CD. is isosceles. taken on tangent. Proof. which passes through F and B. and draw a curve tangent to AC at C. 331 (1200). connect the points whose numbers correspond. This curve is the required parabola. M'Q' < Fig. and to the lines 11. and 33. M MT. Taking MB = MQ = MF = FT. and the perpendicular MT. which to method for drawing a tangent a parabola (1208). it follows that we also have AT = AP. lay off draw a tangent from the focus ^ pj^ ^^^ (Jj. 332). 22. Remark 3. Kg. being alternate interior angles. is the dropped from the point Thus. through a point This same M 1180) (Fig. 1214. Remark 1. 1207). Having drawn the diameter MB. The at triangle MTF being isosceles. and the . it follows that the tangent MT bisects the angle FMQ The angle and the radius vectors. Drawing through the extremity of this diameter a parallel to gives a third it will be tangent to the curve. to it follows that in order the point M. Having FT = FM = MQ = OP. from which it follows that M'Q = M'F. to BD at D. method may be used to construct an arc of a parawhich is normal to two lines CE and bola DF at two given points C and D. but M'Q > M'Q' (620). and AO = AF. F which is bisected by a given diameter MB the chord. QMT = MTF.
s Putting these two values of 2 sx equal to each other. This furnishes an easy method of drawing a normal or a tangent to the parabola at any given point M. and TP = 2 x. The bisector of FMB. and. A (1155. which is included by one radius vector and the prolongation of the other. Tliis is a Remark Having AO = AF. 1185). This property is utilized in is eartrumpets. as M (1197). we have FP = OT. A to the axis AN is of the parabola passes the perpendicular erected at through the middle point of FQ (699). This being true. the subnormal the semiparameter is constant and equal to p = OF. 333). where the tangent is cuts the line FQ. 1216. the parabola. parallel to the axis. y^ PN by s s. is normal to the curve at the point the angle MN be proved that is perpendicular to the tangent was done in article (1154). that at the point it. The sound which enters the trumpet reflected to the focus.532 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY MT. megaphone. To draw a normal to the parabola. eartrumpet. determines the directrix. Representing the subnormal gives (705). we have AP = AT = x. Parabolic mirror. the end being removed. the focus is brought inside the ear (Fig. 332) emanated from the are reflected along lines lel to MB. Having FT = OP (1214. may MN MT. Thus. is. 2/^ = 2 px. is and the perpendicular bisector determines the focus F at the intersection of this line with the of this line with the second method for determining the focus and directrix of a parabola (1206). the triangle of its base isosceles. and we have It M. bolic In a parafocus mirror. and since AF = AO. as per (1206). the point is on the curve. all etc. rays FAI (Fig. = 2 px. All rays paral to the axis which strike the mirror from outside are reflected the focus. and the point Q at the intersection same diameter MB 5. Rkmaek 2). the right triangle TMN = s X TP = if x2x. drawing the tangent MTF axis. then = p. for the parabola. which perpendicular to therefore the geometrical the per locus of the projection of the focus on the tangents pendicular erected at the vertex 1215. .
. from the point M. and with MF as radius. from the focus perpendicular to CD. then the perpendiculars to these lines. may be determined without constructing the parabola. To draw a tangent to a parabola parallel to a given straight rig. tangent and point of contact focus. draw FQ same course as for the elHpse (1156). are tangents to the parabola the points T and T'. the triangle this MDF this perpendicular also passes through the middle point of FD. a parabola through a point out FQ M side the curve. when the axis. because then the perpendicular 1219. 334 line CD (Fig. because. and the per pendicular bisector of FQ is the required tangent. 334) so that they have a focus F in common. draw FD and FD'. The problem is impossible when CD is parallel to the axis. 1218. 333 Fig. 332). cables The on suspension bridges have a curvature which is very nearly parabolic. 1217.PARABOLA 633 The megaphone is sometimes made by combining an ellipsoid and a paraboloid (Fig. 335 dropped from this point to the middle point of FD (1214). and in practice may be taken as such. To obtain the point It is seen that the of contact. but perpendicular would coincide with that which was drawn being isosceles. From M as center. which are given to the axis directly by drawing parallels through If D and D'. follow the Thus. T. a perpendicular would a tangent to the curve was to be drawn at the point be Pig. dropped from the point at M. and directrix are given. draw its QM parallel to the axis. The path of a projectile would be a parabola were it not for the resistance of the air which modifies the curve. the mouth being placed at the other focus F' of the ellipse. To draw a tangent the point to meets the directrix at infinity. describe an arc which cuts the directrix in the points D and D'.
Noting that the segment BIKD. there is no method in elementary geometry by which the length of an arc of a parabola can be accurately determined. AC.534 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 1220. included between the vertex and the chord BD perpendicular to the axis. MT parallel to M ID being the point of contact of the tangent (1214. surface ABE =  surface ACBE = ^AC X BC. is The segment whose base perpendicular to the axis simply a special case of the general theorem. is the difference between two segments AILK and ABCD.ACX From this. thus have.336). which has the same base ID and the same altitude MP as the segment. 336 surface ABCD =  AC X BC. Remark 3). surface BIKD = :^AL 2 X IK ACXBD {AL XIKACX BD). As was the case with the ellipse and hyperbola. included between the two chords BD. surface AIQD = is MP X ID. the surface of the segments AIQD we 2 is ^ of the surface of the rectangle IDT'T. IK. we have. or surface ABC = t. The surface of a parabolic segment ABCD. is equal to is  2 of the rectangle EDBG. 1221. The solid generated by the revolution of a parabola about its axis is called a paraboloid. (1329) Mg. . thus we have BD. 1222. perpendicular to the axis. whose is altitude BD and whose base (Fig.
TT s= 772 . IR=^ From the above proportion. Since. of the paraboloid equal to the lateral surface cylinder having for its diameter and IV for its g altitude. s may also be expressed in terms of x. draw SR. the right ILR gives. y^ = X 2 px (1197). thus we have (753. and 1340). then take = IR. the axis (Fig. the base the rotation of the parabolic AIL IL being per . This expression permits the calculation of s without any geometrical construction when the values of p and y are known. 906.771 o y. (1205). and IS = 3 AF = ^p. 535 The surface of the paraboloid generated by the rotation of an arc AI upon Take LR = 2 AF. ttZp'. from which we have. representing AL by x. 336). lU IS :IR The surface of a right s = lU IR or is IR : IV. and draw UV parallel to SR. less ^ of the surface of a circle having AF for its radius. thus: s = 'r\/2px + fX 4: + 3 2 V   2 3 'rp' 1224. The volume segment of a paraboloid generated by about the axis. 4 p') 3p Since substituting these values in the formula (a). and IS = SAF.PARABOLA 1223. (a) Representing the ordinate IL by 3 since we have LR = 2 triangle AF = p. Tv = ^J^^ IS t±^ _ ^iy' + 3 oP AF' = ^.
V =— a q = a = ^ a^ • < v^ 0. The parabola may also be considered as the limit of the hj'per1225. 2d. = 0. the distance between one vertex and focus remaining constant (1202). equation obtained. parabola. y^ = 2px + and or g o ^ qx'. wherem According as 5 1st. Making AL = x and 2 AF = V = Replacing x^ by ^(1197). 336). Repre V = TT AL^ 2 AF. TTX^p. = 2—x = 2 — x\ 5 a. > 0. 3d. Changing the origin to the vertex at the ing a. of the hyperbola and of the parabola. . hyperbola. Placing the origin at the vertex of the ellipse. its A when bola. for its radius is equal to that of a right its altitude.536 pendicular to the ANALYTIC GEOMETRY axis (Fig. 4p CURVES OF THE SECOND DEGREE. p (1195). the equation becomes. and thus chang1st is to a: — a in the general equation (1131). OR CONIC SECTIONS parabola may be considered as the limit of an ellipse major axis approaches infinity. left. these three curves are represented by the general equation.2 ellipse. cylin der having AL senting the volume by i> and 2 AF for (907 and 1340). y^ — ^x^. 2/^ = 2 — x.
When the plane is parallel to only one element. the section a circle (843). the general equation of the hyperbola (1171) becomes equation 2d. prolonging F'M to C. 1197). 1171. hyperbola. on the directrix circle described the focus F' as center (1155). if a point M of the making / given line MM' is MC = FM. and that a straight line cannot cut them in more than two points (648). degree curves i hyperbola. hyperbola. + a. it cannot cut the lateral surface except along an element (842). F and F' being the is foci of the ellipse. equations of the second degree involving two variables represent these curves. and thus changing a. or parabola. to a. Since the plane which determines the parabola or hyperbola is parallel to one or two elements. it cuts only one nappe. The ellipse. one of the branches an hyperbola when the plane is parallel to two is on one nappe and the other branch on the other nappe of the cone. the point C on the curve. since a cylinder may be considered as a cone whose vertex is at infinity. Any ellipse or parabola may be laid out upon the lateral surface of a given cone of revolution. and parabola are called secondbecause the equations of these curves are of the all second degree (1131. the cone. The ellipse. This follows from the determination of the points common to a given straight line and an ellipse. and therefore to the axis. The same is true of the hyperbola when the angle between the asymptotes is less than the Because of angle between the opposite elements of the cone. The section is these properties. is The section and is if an ellipse is if the plane cuts the elements of the plane perpendicular to the axis. elements of the cone. changing the origin to the vertex at the right. The curve of intersection of any secant plane with a second degree. and 1227. and the section is a parabola. curves.CURVES OF SECOND DEGREE 537 In a like manner. 1st. All planes which cut the elements of a cylinder of revolution determine an ellipse. the name the conic sections is often given to curves of the parabola are convex the second degree. 1226. and therefore determines no curve. unless the all right cone of revolution (841) is of the plane passes through the vertex. 1228. which is as it should be. that is. and determining the point from sym .
the directrix The line E is outside MM' is a first case. determine the point / symmetrical to F / with respect to MM'. E. and through their point of intersection E draw the tangents EC and EC to the directrix circle. circle. For the hyperbola the same course is followed. upon. draw the chords fF and //'. according as the point of. and does not meet the ellipse in the third. and from the intersection E of Ff and //' draw a tangent EC to the directrix circle. which its MM' in M. then con . one. then draw CF'. a tangent in the second. 338 F and cuts symmetrical /. describe a circle passing through F and and cutting the directrix circle in two points / and /'. The second tangent circle EC drawn through E to the directrix determines in the same way a second point M' common to the straight line MM' and the ellipse. or none. it is seen that is the center of a circle tangent to the directrix circle and passing F MM' M and /. Thus. or inside of. there are two. from the focus F' as center describe the for secant in the directrix circle (1185). Thus. the line CF' cuts MM' in / through the two points passing through F and F the required point M. the construction. Then (964) describing a circle and cutting the directrix circle in any two points / and /'. 337 Fig. draw an arbitrary drop a circle through Kg.538 metrical to ANALYTIC GEOMETRY with respect to (836). 2d. describe the directrix perpendicular from F upon MM'. Since evidently there are as many common points as there are tangents to the directrix circle which pass through the point circle. to find the point M. if from the point of intersection E of Ff and //' a tangent to the directrix circle is drawn and the point of contact C connected to the focus F'.
MM' mon with the point the hyperbola. draw cut and erect its perpendicular bisector which will MM' is in the point M equally F and and to therefore on the parabola. distant MM' LEMNISCATE. off M When MM' focus F. and M'. common and the curve. or within the directrix circle. 3d. is ovWf = EF x Ef. STROPHOID. and consequently perpen dicular to the directrix. Kig. there is but one point in common. The tangent EC to this circle gives EC'' = EF x Ef = then EC = EC.LEMNISCATE. and MM' does not meet the curve. they nevertheless deserve to be mentioned. draw take FE perpendicular to MM'. C being the intersection of distant from MM' with OD. CISSOID. / coincides with the are obtained by erecting the perC and C pendicular FE When MM' FC to is MM' and taking EC = EC = parallel to the axis EF. of LIMACON no great practical Although these four curves are import. CISSOID. . and the to perpendicular ing through drawn through C OD determines the point M. and MM' is tangent to the curve. For the parabola. upon. W. these lines cut the given line in the required points As in the preceding case. is OD being the directrix. Thus the same mean proportional laid above and below E determines the two points and M'. M is the only point C or OD. also the center of a circle tangent to OD at C and pass F and /. because any other point is unequally from F and OD. has two. one. since it is not on the perpendicular bisector of FC. the point M F is with respect to on the curve. or no points comaccording as M E is outside. If the point / is on OD. STROPHOID. there is no point in common. LIMACON necting the points of contact 539 C and C to the focus F'. through F and /. M may mined without drawing the Thus. and if / is on the other side of OD. taking if / sym metrical to the focus MM'. 339 EC a mean proportional between EF M' and Ef. the points passes through the focus. M the center of a circle tangent to OD and passing be detercircle (960). 1229.
the equation of the coordinates dinates is focal and in rectangular coor respectively (1102). Designating the constant OA by the variable angle DAx and the variable distance AM or AN by p. the two points M . the COx by p.. ^^i±^^^and2/=±xv/^^\ a — X cos a The curve is symmetrical with respect to Ax. the equation of the curve in polar coordinates and rectangular coordinates respectively. (1111) the circle at the extremity of this diameter being given. and the variable rectangular coor distance in OM by is the equation of the curve polar coordinates and respectively. and from the point off D at its intersection with Oy lay DM = DN = DO. OM = CD. the locus of the points M by is and u. OA by a. M Designating the y Kg. dinates P = a sin^ a cos li and y V a — The curve has two symmetrical branches with respect to OA. laying off on any secant OC. 340 F 2 a. g^i A right angle its sides yOx and a A on one of being given. AB for its asymptote. a. and is included between Oy and AB. draw any line AD through A.540 1st. fixed point pjg. such that the the radius product vectors MF is x MF' of equal to the square of half the focal distance FF'. N is the strophoid. \ pp' = a? 2d. and MF constant FF' by and MF' by curve p and in p'.{o? diameter OA and a tangent to and y" aF). the Designating variable angle diameter a. the locus of the positions of the point M is the cissoid of Diodes. When the and N moving line occupies the position Ax. which passes through 0. having 3d. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY The lemniscate is the locus oi the points M. A circle of = a V4 r* + a^ .
541 When the ordinate N is is Skt A and the point M at infinity. the perpendicular Ax asymptote to the two branches of the curve. form angles of 45° with Ox. Since beyond the position AD' we have AD" < the point N" below Ax. lay off on this secant a constant disfrom The locus of the points tance DN = DM. then the point N is at A. a.. Designating the constant the diameter DM = DN by a. The perpendicuand lar to . and one of the two branches starts The line AD turning comes into the position AD'. symmetrical with respect shows a special case where' a < b. Fig. CISSOID. AB A by b. 344 Ax we have BC = from BE = a. C and AD' the other from E. AM Fig. Through a point A on the circumferdraw any secant AD. STROPHOID. starting D. For the posi . BE to seen that in taking OB = OA. and the variable distances p. LIMACON coincide in 0. The tangents to the curve at are therefore perpendicular to each other. the variable angle DAx by and of the VL. 342 AN by being the origin. the equation respectively. M and N is the limagon of Pascal. OD becomes ± and since oo. When The curve to Ax. and tangent to the curve. which gives AD' is = is a.Ax erected at A is also tangent to the curve. 343 Fig. 343 AD coincides with . ence of a circle.LEMNISCATE. the point it is DM = DN. 4th. (y^ curve in polar coordinates and rectis angular coordinates p = b cosa is ± a and + x^  bxY = a' {y^ + x^).vM' Fig.
The distance between any two consecutive the radius vector p. a is the variable angle which the radius vector makes with the axis Ox. The spiral of Archimedes in the is a plane curve. = aa + b.. Designating the coordinates by p and p a. a is the constant coefficient expressing the augmentation of p corresponding to the augmentation of a of one unit. to the point in the is the distance from the pole & is thus b axis Ox where the generating point starts. li a = 0. b In Fig. resents the distance which the generating point travels away . therefore = 0. these arcs are CMjN'" and the point symmetrical to the first two with respect to Ax. the equation becomes p = b cos u. is measured on It rep constant. Each arc of the curve described is by the point during spires. a varying also from 0° to 90° in the direction BD^. the point the arc EN AN'" M N that of the circle AB. traced by a point which moves about a fixed point any two radius vectors are make with the initial line Ox. THE SPIRAL ARCHIMEDES 1230. and therefore meet and form a smooth. a constant which expresses the value of p when a = 0. and the equation of the curve is. BL. 1231. one revolution about the pole. and is called the pitch. continuous curve. Note. we have AM'" 0° to 90° in the direction The angle a varying from M generates the arc CMM'" and the point and these two arcs form half of the curve. which is N = AN'" = a.542 tion ANALYTIC GEOMETRY M"'N"' perpendicular to Ax. of a degree for example. in such a manner that same ratio as the angles they Thus the spiral is defined by its equation in polar coordinates (1100). wherein jo is the variable distance of the generating point from the pole or the radius vector. called a spire. the point describes the arc the arc EN^AM'". 344 the point starts from the pole.
For the spiral of Archimedes. that off that the gen erating point starts from the pole 0. = aX360 the a=gQ(Fig. etc. etc. the distance 2. Any of these points B gives. for a = 360°. and we represent the pitch by p. Thus. and laying off on radius 1 the distance 1. on radius 2. on radius 3. prolong the radius vectors. the motion of the generating point line M is composed of two components: one along a straight is OM.THE SPIRAL ARCHIMEDES from or toward the pole for each corresponding to 1°. whose motion and has two components. describe 8. from the point a circle. 345). is the diagonal of a parallelogram whose sides have the same directions as the two components of the motion are equal to the distances passed through along the lines of these motions in the process of generation. MD MC OM . with the pitch OA on Ox. (1230) and lay upon each one. lay into a certain as center. is. p 1232. if 543 spire.. That the tangent The following construction is based upon the general principle: to any curve generated by a point. then completing the parallelogram MDTC. To draw a tangent to the spiral at a point taken on trace the second spire. of and divide it into the same number. off To the pitch OA . assuming b = 0. starting from the first spire. the pole. To construct spiral of Archimedes 344). 8 for example. Thus. M the curve (Fig. Proof. or we have. equal parts. the other along a circle whose radius OM. that is. divide OA number of equal parts. Starting from MO the length equal to the pitch p of the and on the perpendicular lay off a length MC equal to the circumference 2 ir x of the circle whose radius is OM. the distance radii to these points of division. Drawing the the spiral. on 1 lay off OA from 1 on 2 lay off OA from 2. A p = ^xa=aa. which in this case is M. 0B:0A = BOA or : 360. and OB = O ~X BOA. along the perpendicular MC to the radius OM. 1233. lay off on spiral. Ox from being the axis. all the points thus determined lie upon 3. OA as radius.
: : : : 1234. 344) is equal to onethird of the product of the surface gf the circle whose radius is the radius vector OB = p and the ratio of this radius to the pitch OA = p. To draw a normal to the spiral at the point M (Fig. and we have the following proportion: or OM MC = MB MC. equal to the arc Laying the length MC MB MO. point M the re quired normal. Thus. Making p 1 = p in equation (a). I'^V' . = 3r 3 p first Subtracting the area of the spires. the described with off the radius on MC. . the diagonal MT' is also is. and perpendicular Fig.1. The surface of a segment of a spiral OBB'O included by the radius vector OB and the arc BB'O subtended by it (Fig. tangent to the curve. we have (753) 1235. s being the surface. irp^ (a) From the first is this it follows that the area of the surface included spire is equal to onethird the surface of the circle by whose radius the pitch OA = p. the diagonal MT is tangent to the curve at the point M. 1 ^ /^^2 OS 1 p .XOB x^=3VX=3^. 345). («) Trp^ The surface whose radius equation (a). and completing parallelogram MOT'C. of the first two spires is is ^ O of the area of the circle the pitch p. that coincides with MT' MT. spire from that of the two we have the area of the second spire.544 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY p and 2 t x a rectangle.8 '^P'_8 . 345 the to MN erected is MT at the. Putting p = 2p in the general s =. draw the tangent MT. 8. and has OM for its sides. OM arc MB = p 2ir x OM.
with b = (Fig. Volutes. to obtain the surface of the spiral 545 S included between two radius vectors OB = p and OB' = p'. a second one traced' with b = for example vN \ Vb\ X/^ . (1232). take the difference between the segments which terminate at these radius vectors. thus: 1236.THE SPIRAL ARCHIMEDES Finally. if Having traced the is first spiral 1.
. B"C" evolute = of . B'. 2. 3. belong to the involute. 2.. being different successive . and take as centers for the successive arcs the points which lie nearest the first centers 1. (See its equation. to The second spiral is traced in the same manner.) of the radius 1239. 4. since their centers are on the same line passing throvigh the point of contact.. describe a series of arcs: AF from the point 1 as center. generated by the point the point C changes continually in C to the point of contact distance CA. Divide into four equal parts each of the three equal parts of 1. . . 2. but the angle is so small that the effect not tangent not bad. the tangent. but starting from A'. of division as indicated in 2. 1270. making AA' equal to onefourth of AZ. thus. The involute of any curve is the curve CC'C'C" . The construction of the involute the origin. meets the involute... That done. . number the points 346 and 347. C'. is called the CC'C" . laid off. . B'C. . RADIUS OF CURVATURE 1237. which join the middle points of the opposite sides of the square. . 11.. . EVOLUTE. 12. . .... and Figs. B"C" = arc B"C . . . The point is C. The construction of an involute by means . may be considered . 3. B'C. 6. into 6 equal parts. 348). . B"C we have B'C = The curve CB'B" . IK from the point 5. upon which the tangent rolls. The last arc RS is is the eye. until RS from the point 12 has been described which terminates at the circumference of the eye. 347). .. 4. the points C. The successive arcs meet each other on a common tangent. and 4 (Fig. if at different points B'. When the points C. B" . where the evolute by points (Fig. 3.546 vertical ANALYTIC GEOMETRY and in line with AA'. .. curvature. B'C = C" of . 1238. of a circle C being the origin.. etc.. ... divide each of the lines. B'B" . 12. GH from the point 3 HI from the point 4. tangents are drawn. on the circumference of the circle. are very close together (Fig. B" . curve. . the arcs CB'. 348). and lengths . INVOLUTE. B"C" positions of . .. draw the lines 1. FG from the point 2 as center. whose point of contact such a manner that the distance from of a tangent is constantly equal to the traveled through by the point of contact along the . arc B'C. 3.
To draw a normal and a tangent to an involute. Drawing a tangent to the evolute at any point N. All tangents to the evolute are normals to the involute. this curve may be taken as the evolute of CM. B"C" = arc its = B"B' + B'C. Suppose a thread to be wound upon the curve CB'" (Fig. we have the required tangent. CYCLOID 1243. and vice versa. and the normals to drawn through these points being tangent to the evolute whose (1241). A curve CM being given find its evolute (Fig. C . . the point C an fine. etc. be considered as being made up of a series of arcs of circles. if the thread is unwound and kept will describe taut by pulling the pencil at C. If instead of the line rolling upon the circle as in the generation of the involute of a circle (1237). may the centers and radii of which are determined.. 348). . C" . angles with each other when the evolute is a circle. vertices are the intersections of the consecutive normals. on CM. since the radius of curvaHowever. Taking B'B" = B"B"' = the radii of curvature make . . to the involute and the Furthermore. instrument in common use by which the radius of curvature can center method is often used in practice. CM . and equal to 1241. inscribing a curve in the polygon CB'B" . in volute of the curve passing through the axis of the thread. the circle rolls upon . the tangent normal NO to the evolute. and a pencil be uniformly varied. 348). From circle this it follows having B' for and B'C for its radius for the same reason. To trace an involute by continuous motion. this tangent is normal to the involute. equal 1240. both drawn at the extremities of the same radius of curvature. and CC" is the arc of a circle having B" B"C Thus the involute for its center and B"C" for its radius. to this Then drawing a perpendicular normal AIN at the point M. This method is not very acceptable. be considered as the arc of a . MT MT to 1242. which is very near to the evolute curve It when the thread is very may be it if noted that any other point on the thread describes a second involute everywhere equally distant from the is first.CYCLOID as straight lines. point fastened at the end C.. are parallel. . aiid 547 that CC may we have B'C = B'C. this .. the evolute a circle. although there is no ture is different for every point. Take a series of points C.
_ AA' = _ = .. draw parallels to Through these points of division of the circle of the base AA'. d being the diameter of the we have. which are numbered as indicated in the figure. line The AA'. 752). consecutive contacts of the A included between two and ^' of a certain point A.1416 X d= Y^ 22 \d d = AA' 3. is the base described cycloid ABA' circle. meet the parallels to the base are on the cycloid. and is equal to the diameter d. . 3. the cycloid. 8 for example. 1". Considering any one of contact is in the points 1". 3" . 348 represents cycloid ABA' de scribed by the point of A Fig.1416 22' AA'. and through the points of division 1. . these parallels . . .1416 ~22 = y. each point of the circumference of the scribes a curve known as a cycloid between each consecutive contact with the line. 2.. the diameter perpendicular to AA' and the generatrix A occupies the 1' same position with reference to the diameter as the point since this condition with reference to A is 4 in the figure. by the point A. A to the different points of division 1. This base is equal to the circumference of the generating circle. AA' = ird.548 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY circle de the line AA'. consequently we have (751. . 3 . divide the base and the generating circle into the same number of equal parts. B__^^^^^ ^ Fig. . 1 3' is when the point at 1. describe circle of diameter d. is fulfilled by 1". . The perpendicular B 4 at the middle of the base is the axis of the cycloid.. Proof. point A Draw a The construction by points of on the circumference of a circle a line A A' equal to the base the cycloid generated by the of diameter ird of d (Fig. this point on the cycloid. 349). . = 3. which of these points. 3 drawn from the base draw parallels to the chords A 1'. tangent to A A' at A. 349 during one turn the circle on 1244. Kd ^A'= 1245. 2. 2". A A'. . _*^^_^ . A 2' .
349) will ABA'. and roll the plate without sliding along the edge of a rule which coincides with the base describe the required cycloid 1247. Then the point A (Fig.'J. and diopping a perpendicular OP upon AA'. The perpendicular Z"T to 33" erected at 3" is tangent to the cycloid. consequently.as radius. it suffices to de termine the point of contact of the generating circle to the point and the base corresponding M. To trace a cycloid by a contiyiuous motion. generating point A of the cycloid occupies 3. to the radius of the generating circle a parallel locus circle. the center of the circle at a distance from M equal to the radius of the generating circle ^d. is EE' At a distance equal to draw the base AA'. at a point M. is also normal to the curve. it follows that in order to draw a normal and therefore a tangent to a cycloid. it is the the of the center of generating When the generating point is A at M. the element 3" of the curve may be circle considered as coinciding with an clement of an arc of a its with center at 3 and its radius 33".CYCLOID If the 549 base A A' of the cycloid d. consequently the 33". To draw a normal and a tangent to a cycloid. or an arc of a cycloid. 349). describing an arc of a circle. being normal to the arc of the circle. from the point it M as center. and points outside of the circle a curtate 1246. the point P is the . diameter of the generating circle thus: had been given instead of the d would have been determined d^^^lAA'. In the movement of the circle. the point of contact being any position 3" (Fig. the point ence describes a cycloid all ABA'. cycloid. IT J. From that which has been said. all the center A upon the circumferO a parallel to AA'. in cuts the parallel a point 0. with EE' . which is the required center. When the AA'. Take a cir cular plate with a pencil point fastened on the circumference. 'prolate points between the center and the circumference a or inflected cycloid.
its ANALYTIC GEOMETRY Then the line MP is M. will reach another point of it in a shorter time than it could by called any other path. instead on a straight line as in (1243). length. 350) double that portion of the normal MP included between the curve and its base. The evolute of a semicycloid AB (Fig. and the perpendicular MT the normal to the cycloid is the tangent. that is. 349) is a semicycloid equal to AB. no matter from which point it may start. at the point 1248. force of gravity. we have. that is. 351 rolls on a circle C. . assuming that will always reach the lowest point in the same time. a curve ABA' called an epicycloid. I being the 1249. The length of a cycloid is equal to four times its axis or diameter d of the generating circle (1244). any point A on the circumference of describes between the two consecutive points of contact A and A'. impelled solely by the it down no there is friction. EPICYCLOID 1252. we have (753). traced on the under side of the base. Thus. that is is. a curve such that a body starting from any point. The surface S included by circle. a curve such that a body under the influence of gravity. The cycloid being reversed. d being the diameter of the circle.550 point of contact. Fig. rolling a tautochrone. from which it follows that the evolute may be traced by points. In its normal position the cycloid is also a brachystochrone. Drawing normals is to the different points of the cycloid evolute obtained (1242). of rolling If the generating circle 0. 1251. from which it follows that the semicycloid AB is also equal to its involute (1237). and its base is three times that of the generating Thus. Z = 4d the cycloid 1250. of curvature at The radius is any point M of the cycloid (Fig. It is sometimes the curve of quickest descent.
each of the points of 1253. 3' . and we have Thus (1244). describes a curve called an hypocycloid. the vertex of the anal B where the axis cuts the curve is 1254. divide the base A A' and the circumference of into the same number of equal parts. and describing the circle C at A. describing arcs. The arc AA' of the circle C included between the two points of contact A and A' is the base of the epicycloid.. 2. " rf '"" d 7 —d and = = ^r^ A A'. trace an epicycloid by points. 54 ~ AA' = irdS The point curve. and and any point outside the A describes a prolate epi circle describes a curtate epicycloid (1245). . This method is ogous to that for the cycloid in (1245). describe the arcs concentric with AA'. C and cir being circular plates. 8 for example. To draw a normal and a tangent an epicycloid (Fig. rolling the plate upon the to plate C. . . 3 of AA' as centers with . these arcs cut 1". the distances from the center C to the points of division on the circle as radii.. the concentric arcs in points If 2". . . The straight middle of B4 = d. This base is equal to the circumference line ird of the generating circle 0. the base AA' had been given instead of the diameter we would have. CB. on the epicycloid. drawn through the center C and the the base. to the points of divi sion 1'. 1255. To trace an epicycloid by a continuous motion. numFrom the point C as center. 351. with bered as shown in Fig..EPICYCLOID When the circle rolls 551 on the inside of the circumference C. AA' = Thus. . of the circle 0. and A a point of a pencil fixed in the cumference of 0. is the axis of the epicycloid. d. and from the points of division 1. taking the base of diameter d. tangent radii equal respectively to the distances 3" A . 351). 1256. Any point situated between cycloid. the point C describes an epicycloid. 2'. To ird. to the circle .
and 2 2 = r = r.from M. is curve. Z 2rd + d!' ^. when the straight line. consequently. which joins any point 3" of the curve to the corresponding point of contact 3. Describing an arc ^^' EE' concentric to the ^^ base AA' of the epicycloid and at a distance EE' from AA' equal is to the radius  of the generating circle 0. the center of the circle arc from at a distance as a center. Then to MD the normal to the MB at M the tangent. this arc cuts EE' at the center to corresponding M. For the hypo cycloid the sign above equation. describing an with — as radius. (Fig. thus: of — would be changed in the = For d 2 a : . Length of the epicycloid. and 2 _ 4 4'. CA + AO.552 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY For the same reason as in (1247) the Hne 33". The perpendicular 3'T to this normal is tangent to the epicycloid. making CA = r and A 4' equal to A Hh 2d:and=— . it suffices to find the point of contact corresponding to this point M. and joining is and C the point of contact D is obtained. we have 5 = ?". From this it follows that in order to draw a normal and therefore a tangent to an epicycloid or an arc of an epicycloid at any given point M. thus. The length  of the semi epicycloid AB d. the first ratio of the preceding . Remark. circle When C becomes a infinity. In this case each point on the of the circle C. and circumference of the hypocycloid is moves along a diameter a diameter of the the radius r is circle C. that is. 351) is a fourth proportional to the three lengths CA. we have. circle. the locus of the center of the generating When is ilf the gen erating point A is at M. and the perpendicular MT 1257. is normal to the curve at 3". .
we have. which the generating point advances in the direction parallel to the axis That is. which corresponds to one complete is revolution of the generating point called a spire. OA for each revolution about the cylinder (Fig. 353). As in the preceding article.S and S = 4 r For the hypocycloid. of the curve That portion 1260. is r. we have.(Br + d) = —4 . BK. the epicycloid has become a cycloid (1250). . . For rf = r. 3. Remark. and the surface — of the generating circle (753).EN = arc B'C : arc B'E'. . the epicycloid has become a included by an epicycloid 3 The base total surface ABA' and its AA' (Fig. lateral surface of a cylinder. ^d? 8 „ ^ = ^ and S = . it From . the direction of the axis while revolving at a constant speed advances an equal amount for each revoluThe pitch is this amount. and therefore and we have cycloid (1249). = 2dorZ = S 4d. thus. CM . the first ratio of the preceding proportion becomes equal to and we have. 1258. the plan of a circle 0' and the elevation a rectangle with the axis OA. when = oo. we have S = ^ is that is. The helix is a curve generated by a point which moves advancing uniformly in upon the about tion it. 351).HELIX proportion becomes equal to 1 553 also the second. the definition (1259) follows that the curve BCDE which is being a helix traced on a right cylinder. a fourth proportional to the three quantities: the radius ir(P CA = CA +2AOor3r + rf. it about the axis. dividing the consequents by 1. HELIX 1259. 3 „ 7rd2. C and E being any two points on the helix. in this case the area of the hypocycloid equal to that of the semicircle C r (1257). r . . that is. r : (3 r — d) = —r : S and S = nf'.
and the corresponding value B'C CM EN : a : y 1 X. 353). and the other the development of the base of the cylinder. 3 etc. one side of which the pitch BK. 1261. . C. 0. and the surface of the cylinder were developed. instead of the helix on a cylinder. To draw a tangent to an helix at the point P' (Fig.. each the hypotenuse of a is right triangle. D. HO through the points of division B'. divide BK successive lines. . any ordinate etc. 12 . D' .. each spire would develop as a straight line of equation y = CM.. the base of the cylinder being the horizontal projection of the helix. D. the points B. of the lines drawn through tracing the points of division of the circumference of the base of the cylinder. Draw and passing through the point P. at the foot P' of this line draw a tangent P'T' to the the line parallel to the axis PP' base of the cylinder. etc. being the pitch. we have. and y ax. meet the projections IM. From ments this it follows that the develop of th6 different spires are equal parallel lines. 353). and lajang off from the base on these . B'D'. ^ BK. indicates which that if is the equation of a straight line (1117). 353. of the circumference the cylinder. IM. C. BK of the base of and the base of the cylinder into the same number of equal parts. taking it equal to the development of the arc . ing X is which y is. etc. and designating the variable arc B'E' by x by y. 1262. xBK. etc.554 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY quantity being a unit arc. B'E'. which belong to the vertical projection of the helix. representing the corresponding constant by a.. in or EN. When.. and the correspondthe development of B'C. DO. on the points C. its projections are traced as indicated in Fig. Drawing the lines BK. the perpendiculars drawn to the axis OA of the cylinder through the points of division of the pitch BK. etc. To draw an helix (Fig.BK. HO. which are obtained belong to the helix.. or ax.. 8 for example.
therefore the diagonal coincides with T'P. these three lines become the sides of a right triangle. the tangent to is the diagonal of a parallelogram. MISCELLANEOUS CURVES 1265. . which in this case a rectangle. When the cylinder is developed. X T'P' by p. Proof. the are of the circle B'P'. 1st. it is possible that geometrical processes tangents and normals may be by rigorous drawn to it. and the perpendicu dropped from P to the base. It is projected on the horizontal as a radius O'P'. pp. the cylinder is one of revolution and we have (752). 1263. P'T' is the horizontal projection of the tangent. To draw a tangent and a normal through a point taken M on any curve RMS. if designating the pitch of radius r. joining the point T' to required tangent. the line TP the verat the projection of the tangent. 1264. we have 2 (718). and on the ver tical as a perpendicular PR to the axis OA. But when this is not possible. the line T'P is the the point is P According to the principle in (1233). The length L of an arc BP of an helix is equal to the hypotenuse of a right triangle whose sides are the distance from the point P to the base of the cylinder and the development P'T' of the arc P'B'. and we have (730).MISCELLANEOUS CURVES P'B'. and taking is the vertical projection tical T of the point T'. approximate methods must be used. The normal at a point P on the helix is the perpendicular dropped from the point P to the axis of the cylinder. L= Vp^ + 4 ttV^ and S = pTrr. S== For a spire. vertical projection The TP is tangent to the point It is P vertical projection BCFP of the helix. having the altitude of P above the base and PT' for its sides. to be noted that any tangent coincides with the curve when the latter is developed. 555 the point P. L = s/pp^ + rp'\ This same triangle being the surface S included by the arc BCP lar of the helix. A curve being given. Proof.
draw the tangent MT. at . . the aid of a rule.. and tracing the . which gives the required auxiliary curve B"Mb".556 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY B"Mb". it the curves. . then draw a smooth curve through the points thus obtained on the secants. to each side of the given curve RMS. TA' from the point T. erecting perpendic opposite directions equal in length to the respective ab. as follows: First construct an auxiliary curve point M from the draw secants . because this tangent may be considered as a secant drawn through the point of intersection of = AB. A' a' ulars in . this arc will cut the auxiliary curve B"Mb" at the point T. 355 from the point an arc is described. . M MT MN MT M quired normal.. To draw a tangent to any curve RMS from a point T ex terior to the curve. To draw a normal to any curve RMS at the point M. since evidently there is some secant for which the chord Ma^^ starting . 354 Fig. 2d.). . toward the inside of the curve on one side of the point and away from the curve on the other. . chords {AB = Aa = A'B' = a'b' = A'a' . . which is on the required tangent.. . and the point T on the tangent giving is seen that T must lie on the curve B"Mb". This curve passes through the point M. and the perpendicular is the reto at is equal to the constant AB. if M as center. with the constant AB as radius. lay off on the secants the equal lengths AB. . A'B' ah. Furthermore. drawing the secants TA. . may be traced with sufficient accuracy with But since the actual point of contact is uncertain. The tangent MT. a'b' having care to lay off these lengths . Fig. from the curve. the extremities of the chords Aa.
at the extrem of each of the chords Aa. . Therefore 1266. AI. which may be considered as trapezoids. since the chord to this arc B"Mb". . A'a' parallel to If it is . . The area S of AI and its projection ai upon Dividing AI into parts AB. the length of To obtain any curve . A'B' = a'V = A'a' . BC 1287. . NM. this instead of radiating from curve cuts the given curve at the point of contact chords Aa. with draw the tangent (948) and then determine the by means of an auxiliary curve B"Mh".. A'a' . . From ities the point N as center. then the curve B"Mh" drawn through the ex. divide it into parts AB. BC so . we can also draw a normal making any given angle with a given line. MN the required normal. . 357 lines.. and the length of the line is the approximate length of AI. . To draw a normal point to the curve from a N outside of the curve. the surface Alia is divided into elements abBA. . . bcCB . and dravsdng the perpendiculars Bd.). furthermore.. as center there its is Among is the arcs described from N one which tact is tangent to the curve. draw a tangent parallel to a given line.. and therefore point of con at the foot of the normal. T may The be drawn M. A'a' .. point of contact Being able to draw a tangent parallel to a given line or making desired to the triangles M a given angle with a given line (955). . the straight line at (1039). small that they may be considered as straight Fig. with the aid of the com passes lay off these parts on a straight line curve . erect perpendiculars in opposite directions and equal to the respective chords {AB = ah = Aa. . and we have (723). describe a . 356 tremities of these perpendiculars cuts the given curve at the foot of the required normal Proof. Cc :. .MISCELLANEOUS CURVES curve 557 B"Mb" through the extremities of these perpendiculars. so small that they may be considered as straight lines. the plane surface Alia included by any plane (1111). Fig. . MT. it is on the curve and the perpendicular reduce is to a single point M. series of arcs Aa..
2 n 2 n 2 we have. the ordinates at those points are put equal to and the above formulas used. we have. + 2/„_2)]. and plus P^''^ • • • • ' S = §^[2/0 + 2/8+ 4 (2/1 + 2/8 + 2/6 + 2/7) + 2 (2/2 + 2/4 + 2/6)] Remark. sum of the odd ordinates {y^ + 2/s + ?/b + y«\}i times the sum of the even ordinates {y^ + 2/4 + 2/6 + 'Vni)For n = 8. + y. draw a line through the middle and find the area on each side of the line. This formula gives the area of a plane curve Alia (Fig. n Simplifying. + ^y simple and easy to apply. seen that the approximate value of the area to ' S of the curve is equal E between two consecutive the ^ product of a third of the distance ' ^ — 3 ordinates. ab = be E =— parts. H = = ab . aA + bB . .. cC = 2/2 . Thomas Simpson has shown that the area S approximately by the following expression: of the curve is given W 3 jj^[2/o + + 4 (2/1 + 2/8+ 2/6+ 2/» • • • +2/ni) +2 (J/2+2/4 + 2/6+ . bB = j/i. Thomas Simpson's formula. In case one or both extremities of the curve fall upon the base line ai. 1268. h be ^ bB + cC ^—^ I (a) Let ai = E. If the curve is closed. . s= which is §{^ + y. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY . .. The number n of divisions of ai being even. Substituting these expressions in the equation (a). . 357) more accurately than the preceding one. which assumes the projection ai to be divided into il n equal and aA = y„.558 o n S = abBA + t ^ r> bcCB 7. .1 . 4 times the 2 the sum (?/„ + j/„) of the two extreme ordinates. = i'„ be the different ordinates of the curve. it is E — being the distance between two consecutive ordinates. This may be done in one single . + y.
It may be assumed without appreciable error that the arc ABC of the curve (Fig. B. and having its B C IC Vo y. Derivation of the preceding formula. 357) coincides passing through the three points A.MISCELLANEOUS CURVES operation 559 ing ordinates of the by taking the ordinates as the sums of the correspondtwo parts of the curve and using the above formulas. . with the arc of a parabola and C.
and ye. + 2/nl) + I (2/0 + 2/n)  4 (2/1 + 2/nl) • This formula.. . Derivation of the formula Join the ex tremities A and nearest vertices as indicated in the figure. derived the lowing formula for the area S included by a curve 1269. in which n area is an even number. then join every other one The sum s of the areas of the trapeis zoids abBA.3 (2/»2 + 4 2/„_. all these partial areas. .(2/0 + J/n) 4 2 (2/1 + 2/nl) + 2 (2/5 + 2/5 + • • • + 2/«8)J. . bdDB . Si Si 3 (2/2 + 42/8 + 2/4). of Poncelet. The formula of Poncelet gives results oftentimes more accurate than that of Simpson. 3 (2/4 +4 + 2/6 2/6) • .) + 2 be S (2/nl + 2/n). are respectively. fol Poncelet. thus formed. yn2 and 2/„. following a different method.560 ANALYTIC GEOMETRY of the area included . shows that the S is about equal to the product of the distance E — • • • between two 2/»i) "/ ^^« consecutive ordinates.. + by y^. and has the advantage that all the even ordinates ex2/0 cept and j/re do not enter ^ ^ y^ into consideration. . 5= — I 2 (2/1 + 2/8 + . s = S ^ (2/0 + 2/1) 4 8 (2/1 + 2/3) + • • • + 8 (2/„_s + 2/„_. .. wherein E = S I ab — or. less a quarter of the sum {y^ + j/ni) '^^ ordinates of the second and the next to the last ordinates. fgGF. and twice the sum (2/1 + 2/s + odd ordinates plus a qunrter of the sum (2/0 + 2/») ^/ at the extremities. replacing  8 tt— and sim E we have the formula for 8 as given above. Vi. The portions and Si between the ordinates w™ 2/4. s = . Summing plifying. G to the B and F.. .
POLAR COORDINATE SYSTEM adding and subtracting in the parenthesis the quantity ^ (2/1 561 + J/»»i). on the mean and ordi <^^ = 2 s' (2/1 + 2/ni) di = ^ 1 (2/0 + y„). gives the re S with an s' error 1 limit — 2 s 4 8 [(2/1 + 2/»i)  (2/0 + 2/")]. . to will give. Tine. . — = 8(dk — 1 di) = ^8 it X is ik. Drawing the chords AG and BF. polar equation of a straight line.. = 28 (2/1 + j/s + s 2/6 + • • • 2/»i) The mean of these two areas and s'. we have. one of which is smaller and the other larger than the required area S. sum of the areas of the trapezoids acC'A'. . thus formed. having to apply the formula.. we • have. is If the dis designated by p. and calling S' the . an easy matter. Thus. determine the maximum error which this formula A NOTE ON THE POLAR COORDINATE SYSTEM 1270. D . 8 E =— n • This expression being a quired area mean between whose upper s and is s'. give an approximate value of the latter.1) +2 (2/1 + 2/8 + 1/5 + • + 2/nl) • Now drawing tangents through the extremities B. and which nate. —s ^ therefore. Thus. 1st.. 2' S= s + s' = ^ r 2(2/i+2/8+ 1 1 "I •+yni)+ ^{yo+Vn) ^{yi+yn~i)\ In the above. the co5rtance from the line to the pole . is ordinarily much below this limit. and the slope of the line with reference to the polar axis by o. oi the odd ordinates. S = 8 2 ^2/0 + J/n)  2 (2/1 + 2/. ceE'C" s' .
and are plotted below the axis. we have. as in Fig. and •*./3 and of and those any point M on the p2 circumference by p and circle j8 <o. taking OA as axis. we have in the preceding equation (1) ^ = R and a = 0. <» ANALYTIC GEOMETRY of any point of this line have the following rela P —= p sin (<i) — a). 4th). = a = constant. if the center is not at the pole.562 dinates p and tion. positive values for the radius vector are obtained. = 6 cos 0).• from which. designating the radius as R. the equation of the R ((0 is. In the equation (2). and if Ax is the polar axis. + ^_2 cos . 343 (1229). which gives the semicircle below the . which determine the semicircle above the polar axis AB. (1) If the pole is placed on the circumference in A. p = i? Putting 2 p 2 R cos = & = AB. for any value of the Therefore io we have. to. the coordinates of the center are designated by. as in Fig. the equation (1) becomes indeterminate. If p = : sm —^ — (o) a) n) ' ^ the line passes through the pole. If the center of the taken as pole. by varying <o from 0° to 90°. (2) Thus we find that which was indicated in the remark concern ing the limagon of Pascal (1229. circle is The polar equation of a circle. 283 (1223). the values of cos w are negative.a) p  72'' = 0. p If =R= constant. ''=0' but then the variable radius vector. 2d. «> becomes constant a. 90° to 180°. r. and the equation reduces to. and then by varying o from axis. we have p = and m = o.
(See 1339. is. u>. Note. and 2 is c the focal distance. 310. the equation is deduced from equation (1) by putting 13 = R. ical table for giving approximate values of the sines of angles. S= that is. the three curves have the common equation. . Fig. for the ellipse and hyperbola. 290. If 563 Another polar equation of the circle. 1 + > e cos e CO wherein p =— a 52 = a g . The polar equation and the parabola.) Logarithmic spiral is represented by the equation. <a log p = ko) its or = A ". and a = 90°. 322. hyperbola. If. /J < > = 1 for the ellipse. The general equation for development k'p. parabola). eUipse. a 5th. 244 (1017). the circle p = 2 R sin (1). it is proportional to the radius vector (see 1339 for its application). rectification of the spiral of Archimedes. 1 Spiral of Archimedes (see 1230) p is represented by the equation. is tangent to the polar axis at the pole B. a chord such as BD = p is the measure of the sine of the angle BBC = 4th. a and b are the semiaxes of the ellipse and hyperbola. which gives. of the ellipse. Fig. = a<i> \ b. The ratio  gives the relations.POLAR COORDINATE SYSTEM 3d. the focus is at the right as the pole and in the parabola the focus is taken taken as pole (Fig. This property may be used for constructing a graphthe hyperbola. as in Fig. ^ ' 1 for the hyperbola. for the parabola. From this it follows that taking the diameter AB = b = 1.
The general equa tion of all the parabolic spirals p™ = ko)". /3'"<o"a" = k = constant. 7th. p= from which. p' = k<o*. is proportional to the square of the angular (See 1338. . Example. is.) Parabolic spirals of different degrees.564 6th. = The radius vector values. Hyperbolic spiral is represented by the equation. its rectification and its application. 8th. etc. The p simplest has the following equakey'. The general equation of the hyperbolic spirals is. p' = fcto'. tion: ANALYTIC GEOMETRY Parabolic spiral. ' k — a<a pu = — a k = constant.
the for y= ± + r. y these = ax (1) through the origin (1117). this and a constant calculation. X may be varied from — oo to +oo and y will also vary from — 00 to +00 and giving x a determinate value the preceding equation gives the value of y.PART YI ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS INTRODUCTION 1271. and = ± r. x For x = values from — r to + r (538). the of a straight line passing . and that a is a constant. this is expressed when each variable is said to be a function of the other. is one that retains the same value throughout the The nature of the problem to be solved indicates which are variables and which constants. corresponding value of x is obtained. (2) y = — x^ (3) with its center at the origin. . Explicit function. A variable is a quantity which takes successively different values. it is also seen that all x and y are variables and r a constant. thus y varies also from — From an equation between two variables y and x. Here 0. Variable. y = 0. Knowing the law according to which a quantity varies. and each of may be determined. It is seen immediately that x and y are variables. X may r to be given r. or of a circle y^ + x' rt = Vr^ r^. by giving any value to one of these variables the corresponding value of the other may be deduced. Given the equation. or giving a determinate value to y. Im plicit function. Function. quantity particular values may be made to take different values. 565 . Given the equation. Constant. such as (1) and (2) for example.
name are function more particularly the arbi and that of independent variable to x. 1272. when an exists between any is number which of variables x. each variable is an implicit is an explicit function of x in equation function of the others. No matter what the the equation is nature of the variable quantities which enter in the algebraic expression may be. 0. an equation involving several variables is if is solved with respect to one of these variables. Given the equation y — I = ax + b. as in equation (3) for to example. and an implicit function of x in equation (2). to which trary values given in order to deduce the corresponding algebraic relation z. the implicit function becomes an explicit function.. a curve. When function. b the ordinate OC at the origin. and z. a function of its three di and z. and a and As we have seen (1117). and its dimensions by x. x for example. y = b. we have (887). and taking y = ax + M belongs also to the line. and a is is For x = OC = b. . values of the function or dependent variable. when this expression contains only two variables. and signifies that dependent upon the variables y and z. y By solving (3). is this is the equation of a straight line AB. an algebraic expression obtained may be represented by ^ = f{y. y. y. solving the equation for one of these variables. „. and X is is pronounced. variable the equation is solved for applies y. Representing the volume of a rectangular parallelopiped by V. y. y. Graphic representation of functions. to M^^^ A >f^" '^' Example 1. the slope. x is a function of y and z. this variable called an explicit not solved. whose coordinates represent the two variables a given scale. making x = OP. In general. the point C on the straight b. ggj in b the constants. the equation. V = mensions xyz or V = is f (x. the y. line and taking AB. 2). can be constructed (1113). the point which x and y are the variables.566 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS if However. z) the volume of the parallelopiped X. J.
is an equation of parabolic curve of the . Example 3. which is then determined. and may be b indefinitely prolonged. two dimensions. that that this S will contain the unit of surface as many times as the ordinate contains the unit of length. 4. Any area ordinate of this line represents the area is S of this rectangle is. x'. which is constructed by assuming different values for x and calculating the corresponding values (1). of y.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS which is 567 then determined by the points C and M. From equation a and putting  = 2 p. y = aoi?. we have a second point on the line. whose altitude the corresponding abscissa. in which a is a constant. 2py = The quantity p and T is the distance from the focus to the directrix. and erecting an ordinate equal to bh. Example 2. is the distance from the vertex of the parabola to the directrix. then (716). focus and the Remark. equation is one of a straight line passing through the origin. The law of falling bodies. this Supposing the base b constant and the altitude h variable. this is the equation of a parabola (1197). y = az^. The fimction. is of the Example same form as (1). S be the area of a rectangle. Taldng an abscissa equal to a value of h. Let and h its S = bh. (1) y and x being variables and a a constant.
. line passing scissas. points. These divers examples show that the value of any function may be represented by the ordinates of a curve. a being a constant. V = axyz. and z. which contain different powers of the independent variable. the abscissas of which represent the values of the independent variable. giving differ ent values to x and solving for The curve which represents the following equation may be constructed in the same way: being the volume of a sphere (920). y ax' y = ax'^. x' = — ax^ + bx — c and y = x^ + ax^ + x^ — hx^ — ex — d. many \mits of volume as the ordinate contained units The y functions. Thus. A variable quantity may be a function of several other variables. are known. any curve referred of the simultaneous variation of to two axes represents the law two variables x and y. of a straight line and that of a parabola. Example 5. which are the equation respectively. ordinate of the curve would express the volume of the sphere whose radius is the abscissa R. xyz then = x'. may also be represented by curves constructed by points (580). the values of x' being the ab we had we put xz^ y = axz^. If. the sphere would V Any contain as of length. Conversely. ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS which can be constructed by y. according as = = x' or or xz^ = x'^. of y Such a function may be plotted when the values which correspond to different values of x. we would have. for example.668 third degree. If and the values of V are represented by the ordinates of a straight through the origin. that is. V = ax'.
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 1273. be given y = ax + b. of functions. y' = a(x + ay = of the function ax'' + 2 aax + ao?. The increment y' is y = y 2 aax + aa? and a. according as a decreases. The ratio y is not independent of as in the first example. (2) y'= a{x subtracting (1) + b. the smaller. that Let an equation of the first degree. X becoming (x+a).  y = aa a. involving is. functions. + a) by a quantity and we have. but. term oa becomes smaller and and it is evident that a may become so small that the term aa may be neglected in comparison to the term 2 ax. or M'Q = M'Q a X PP'. 569 The variation 1. an equation of a straight line. dividing both members by y'  y which shows that the ratio of the increment y' — y oi the function y to that of the incre ment a of the variable x. = MP becomes y' = M'P'. and at the limit we have. = 2ax + aa. . y^^iy^2ax. 362 y = ax". from y' (2). is in dependent of these increments. 2. Increasing and decreasing Example two (1272). Given the Fig. and designating the tion new value of the func by y'. (1) is If the independent variable x the function y = OP increased PP' = a. variables. Example function.
570 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS 1/ — u Thus the ratio is v ~ has a determinate limit 2 ax. in the same way a small increment y — y' oi y is designated by Ay. 362 represents an increasing function. and Ax decrease and become infinitely small. . and may be considered as a fraction of a. Fig. In example 2 of the precedthe limit of the ratio of the increments of y and x is. Derivw Object of differential calculus. 363 a decreasing function. live. and Fig. and dy f= 2ax which shows that an infinitely small — 2 axdx. is called the differential coefficient. considered as being infinitely small. designated by Ax. is When it is the increment a of the abscissa or variable x small. the by dx and dy. A differential quantity. Differential coefficient. Thus. y' y ^^y a Ax When Hmit is At/ represented ing article. all This property general for algebraic relations involving two variables. In the preceding example the inverse ratio. or it is the derivative of the function y with respect to the variable x. increases or decreases according as y Thus.. pro nounced delta X. is then the function. increment dy of the function or ordinate y is expressed algebraically by the product of the infinitely small increment dx of the variable abscissa x and the variable coefficient 2 ax. dx dy is 1 2 ax a. The same function can be 1274. alternately increasing and decreasing. are called the differentials of y and x. the derivative of x with respect to y. A fimction y = f {x) is increasing or decreasing when x increases. The quantities dy and dx. equal to the differential coefficient. The ratio f is called the derivative of y with respect to x. The coefficient 2 ax by which the differential dx is multiplied to obtain the differential dy.
no matter numbers. If the derivative of x with respect to y had been taken. It is seen that the difference how smaU.DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS and y the variable. The of the of chief purpose of differential calculus is the determination law which governs the increments of a function and those the variable upon which it depends.). with the differential of a quantity.). that is. with respect to the variable which indicates that the derivative of the function y is taken x. Ordinarily the derivative ^ is 571 designated by 2/' or /'(a. the value of the ratio rr dx 1275. C Geometric interpretation of the derivative of a function. I The difference y' =^' = /'(. It is seen that in going from M M . whose equation y = f{x). the differential of the fimction y dy 2 axdx. which must be made in conby assuming different values of X and calculating the corresponding values of y. we would have. Let us consider the points and M' of the curve C whose coordinates are to M'. be any curve referred to two rectangular coordinate is. in between two quantities. f(x) represents the calculations structing the curve by points. between two quantities must not be confused Thus. may be expressed dy cannot. having — y = = 1 aax is + ax^. but a derivative dv p has a perfectly determinate value. and may be expressed in numbers. respectively y^x and y'x'. thus. ! = / = «. while the differential The differential of a gebraic expression or quantity must be considered as an alsymbol resulting from a calculation.). Let axes.
a.if and if the point M' approaches y M indefinitely. the the angle •*. which is the ordinate increases by the positive or negative according as the function is increasing (Fig. that the increments . ratio _ ' is the tangent of which is included by MM' and the is. Drawing the secant MM'.572 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS amount M'Q. and the ratio of the simultaneous incre ments of the ordinates and abscissas is. M'Q PP' y' X' — y X . 364) or decreasing (Fig.axis. 365).
Ay = mx'''Ax + ^ ^^ ~ Ax. we have ^ y' or y' = 5 x*. terms which contain Ax as a factor become negligible when the Ax and Ay are infinitely small.. Case where the exponent of x t is a fraction. Dividing both members bj' ^=mx^+ Ax '^^'^^h^Ax + 12 Ay ^ Ax . and the same exponent less one m— 1 for an exponent. . Thus. we have = x" = 1. which shows that the value of the ratio contains one term mx"~* independent of the increment Ax. x. dy = mx'^~^dx. contain Ax as a factor. t/« = x". but that all the others Since Ax may be taken infinitely small. Given the func tion y in = xi> Raising both members which p and q are whole positive numbers."^ (Ax)^ + . = x. multiplied by the differential dx of the variable 2d. to the q power. we have (555).DERIVATIVES OF FUNDAMENTAL FUNCTIONS y 573 + Ay = {x + Ax)'"= 3f+ maf^Ax + ^^'"~^' x""'' (Axf + • • • (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). for y and for i/ = a?. ^^ a. which shows that the differential dy of the function y is equal to the derivative of y with respect to x.. and we have as a Umit. (553) From the equation (3). . lim^or Ax or (1274) y' to ^ = mx'"S dx = mx'm ' (3) ^ = /'(x) — j/ which shows that it obtain the derivative y' of the junction = x"* suffices to take the variable x with its exponent m for coefficient.
""' 2/'~^ dy dx _ Having a. qy^~Hy Transposing. = p q px^^^dx. a.574 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS differential of Taking the each member (1st).^"' = — and 2/'~' =— > (555) we have .
that is. thus: dy or dx~"' 1277. (3) y y or + ^y 2/' = x""  (x + Axy.„aj"^ (5) Thus the variable x tive is is rule given in 1st applies when the exponent of the negative. The is relation (5) shows that the deriva negative. y' we have. 1 1 + Axy.mi =_ ^3. and /= ^ = — y^mx"^\ (4) Since the equation (1) gives y^ = —^> by replacing y^ by its value in (4). (2) . a negative increment of the function.». Making the increments infinitely small and approaching the yAy is negligible. = — mx~'^~^dx. The differential is deduced from (5). = ^=  L^a. dy fax 1 —=2/ maf^.DERIVATIVES OF FUNDAMENTAL FUNCTIONS Increasing x 575 by Ax and y by At/. an increment Ax of the variable x corresponds to a diminution of y. Derivative and differential of y = log X. according to equation (1). because. „ . (x —^ = Subtracting (2) from (3). (1) x increasing by Ax.i2m ^ _ . + y^y _ — [(a: + Ax)" — a:"] Ax limit. y + Ay = log (x + Ax). and we have. K^^ y^ + y^y Ay 1 Ax 2/^ + yAy ^^=[(x+A. This as it should be.'»]. and from (1st) we have.). y increases by a corresponding quantity Ay. the equation (2) becomes.
log X = log — = log X { 1 H \ X ) . Subtracting (1) from t^y = log {x + Ax) . . 2 =(^r l+l+T^+ 12. and representing the limiting value of (1 by e. (396) / Ax Putting Ax x — or (3) Ax = expression (3) becomes: m Ax —=— m 1 X log('l+) .n + ^ . become zero: i 1. ^.. V m/ 2 \ m/ 1 • 2 • 3\ m/ \ m/ and if m= oo. 2 — m .576 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS (2). +•• + ' 1. the terms 1 — m' .3. \ mj m Taking the limit dx which corresponds to \ 1 m = oo. . expand 1 H — • 1 by the binomial Newton ( mj m m(m — 1) common 1 • 12 (w 1 • • 2 3 mr 1 _ — 2) 123canceling the • (m n — n + 1) 1 nf " n^' factors in each term and dividing by m.2. .. I • 1 2 • 3 • • n(n + 1) + ^ I 1 2 • 3 • • • n(n + + 1) (n +2) . we have dy dx __ log e ^ ( To obtain theorem of the value of (564): e. logfl+iV X Ax X X of Ax.
and (1) becomes.3n'™U+l'''(n+l)(n + 2)"^(n+l)(n+2)(w+3)+"J"^^^ The sum than the sion.2. (1) Giving the increment Aj. 577 having the first common is factors the limit of their sum. therefore. dy log e 0.7182818 and log oi y e = 0. (2). . to the arc sin takes the the function y or the corresponding increment Aj/..DERIVATIVES OF FUNDAMENTAL FUNCTIONS The terms containing n. the n+ I this sum having  sum of the terms within the parentheses of expression (4) value of e is smaller than — • Therefore.. (407) The derivative / = log x . 1 1 of the fractions placed in parentheses being smaller of the sum terms of the descending geometrical progres1 n+1' (n + iy (n+ of ly which the first term and the constant multiplier are for its limit. and it is be calculated with any desired degree of approxfound that = 2. . the may e imation. 1.4342945 and the differential is ay 1278. less the 1 term. (2) y Subtracting (1) from + Ay = sin (x + — Ax). dx log e Derivative and differential of y = sin X. (4) . (3) p — smq=2cos^(p + q) sin ^(P ~ 5').4342945. x. Ay = Since (1276) sin sin (x + Ax) sin x. = . is.
678 putting ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS p = X + Ax or and q = x. The relation (4) applied to the difference (3) gives Ay = 2 cos (x + ~] sin i^j • Dividing both members by Ax. ^(p + q) = x+—< ^^pq)^'^. (2) which differ only by the constant C. The derivative and differential of a constant quantity are Given the functions. we have. we have. pq=Ax. ^=cos(x+^). . Ay Ax ^"°^(^ + T)^^^(f) Ax member by 2. dy dx and the differential is. Dividing both terms of the fraction in the second ^^ Ax cos(^+^)sin(^) Ax ~2 The ratio of the sin 1— dy j to — having 1 for its limit (1277). dx ^ being negligible. y y = F (x). dy = cos xdx. zero. THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION 1279. we have. = Fix) + (1) C. p + q=2x+Ax.
{x)+F. as are also their differentials. . F^ (x) = sin x. ^ . + Ay = F {x + + Ay = F{x + Ax). The C disappears in the process of differentiation. Ax) + C.. F {x) = If log X. [i^i Ay =\_F{x + Ax) .F (x) _„ = F'(x). F^ (x) = x™ . _ F(x + Ax) Ax  F(x) 2/' = ^ = hm i .. for the increment both of these expressions give the same value Ay of the fmiction Ay = Therefore both give.F (x)] + {x + Ax)  Fj... designate different algebraic quantities expressed in terms of x. dy F {x + Ax) ^^ .F^ix) ^ f • • • or y' = F' (x) + F\ (x) + F'^(x) + = ^+cosx + mx"! + • • • .F (x). Given the sum y in = F(x)+F.THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION From from (1). we have. the quantity y increases relation (1) becomes. by a corresponding increment Ay. for example. give. . The constant 1280. (1) which F{x). . F^{x). thus Thus the derivatives of the functions both dy (1) and (2) are the same. derivative and differential of the sum and of several functhe tions are respectively the sum of the derivatives sum of the differentials of the functions. 579 y y (2).{x) + . dy T dx — ^^ = lim F{x + Ax)F{x) + r^ Ax . X is increased by the increment Ax. F^ix) . dividing both members by Ax and equating . .. (x)] + [J5'j(x + Ax)i^2(x)] + •• the limits. = F' (x) dx. and y + Ay = F{x + Ax) + F^{x + Ax) + i^^ (x + Ax) + • • • (2) Subtracting (1) from (2).. ^^ F^{x lim ^ . ] Ax) —Ax . Ay Ax and . F (x + Ax) .
Increasing x by the increment Ax. we have (1277. Ay = vAu + uAv + AuAv. dividing by Ax. {A) of x. Aw Ax and equating the limits. y' = vu' wv. and Ay. and the relation (3) is the required derivative. Av. the fimction y deducing the derivative. in which the variables u and v are the functions for example. 1278). . dv . is obtained. Given.dv oi u' — Av v' is negligible. loff e dx + cos xdx + ma. and y take the corresponding increments Aw. For e . Am Ax Av Aw Ax . (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). and v = sin x.™"' dx + • • • The derivative of the 'product of several functions or vari ables is equal to the sum of the products which arc obtained by mul tiplying the derivative of each function by the product of the other variables.580 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS In the same manner the differential which was to be proved. ' Ax dy du . . dy = F' (x) dx + F\ {x) dx + F'^ {x)dx >r = 1281. u = log X. 1st. v. . (1) = + uv'. such that. The limit t. u. y + Ay = (u + Am) (v + Av) = ux + vAu + uAv + AuAv. and relation (1) becomes. . /on or y' = vu' + uv'. and designate the derivatives of u and v with respect to x. u = log X. since the factor dv is an infinitesimal. V = sin X. 1 log X cos X. log dy ^ = sm X —^ dx X .
x. of of the products obtained by multiplying each variable by the derivative of the other. and from (1st) its derivative . dy = stv'dx + svt'dx tvs'dx. In the same to manner may be shown that this theorem applies any number of factors. . we have. dt ds U'.and w' j respectively and s'. ^ = ^s<i>' dx + si)i' + (6) which gives that which was to be proved. _dy _ dx du. V = sin x. = log tds. we have. = du a. = sdt the relation (5) becomes.. Putting St = u. Given the product. is. t = + y x. 3. (5) three variables which are functions of x. dv du dx dx Substituting for u and . = uv.t' '£^^*di^d^^^^^^ Designating j. ^^^^ ^^^di'^^^'di^^^'dc' t*U/ by tes' v'. .THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION From the relation (3) the differential is 581 deduced. stv. dy = x^log x cos xdx + it x" sin x ^^ dx + log x sin xmx'"'^dx. ."." log X cos X + x" sin x^ + + log x sin xmx'""^ The differential of y is deduced from (6). which gives. dy tt/Jy ^dv U/Jb V ilJb ^. we have. (6) to the given example. (4) y = smx —^ — y f log x cos the derivative of the product of two variables is equal to the sum 2d. 2/'= J Applying the formula = a. . and for the given example. t' . . .dv titl' . dy — vu'dx + uv'dx = vdu + udv. = sin x —^ dx + log x cos xdx. dy and Thus. in this case. s for example.
"". 1st). dy = amx^^^dx. v = From relation (1) we deduce y = uv~^. Applying the general rule for the differentiation of two ^ factors (1st). of factors (1281. ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS Special case where one of the factors is constant. = amx'^^ + = owia. V ^du . . = vdu 5 — V udv r = vdu — 5 udv\ \ ^ . differential of a quotient or a fraction._. u Taking the derivative (1281. 1st) .582 3d. 1282. of the same variable log x.'""'. of = yv. x. Applying the rule for the differentiation of the product and taking the differentials. Thus in the differentiation of a product. Given the product. two ~ uv 'dv „ . x. and the differential is. V V (2) To obtain the derivative of relation (1). both members with respect to we have du dx _ dv dy dx' (3) dx . u = x"" and (482). y in = aa. in for (1) which u and v are functions example. we have. all constant factors enter both the derivative and the differential as coefficient. Derivative and Given the function.»=:. which the factor a is a constant.
Derivatives of a function of a function.THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION or designating the derivatives of y. it is seen that by replacing word derivative by that of differential in the last rule. representing it itself by u. = log (x™). . It is The quantity y is called the principal function. 683 x."". the preceding expressions == sin a. When y it is a function is variable x. u. is In these examples the quantity within the parenthesis a function of x. y = sin (mx + c). Equating the limits dx du dx . the rule for the differential of a quotient is obtained. u the and x the independent variable. u or w = u = m£ + c. 1283. u and y may be. the Comparing the relations (2) and (4). nate function. with respect to by y'. all being divided by the square of the denominator. y = u' uv' 2 = — vu' — 2 uv' which shows that ihe derivative of a quotient is equal to the product of the denominator by the derivative of the numerator less the product of the numerator by the derivative of the denominator. ~ Am Ax which is true no matter what the simultaneous increments Ax. and v'. Am and Ay of the variables x. Such relations are written thus: y = Ff{x). W. said to be a function of a function. and v. as in the not expressed directly by the independent examples y = log (sin x). Writing the identity subordi easy to find an algebraic relation between these different quantities. may be written y y y — = = log log sin M or M w or x. Aa.
f dy ax = dy log e T^ cos X sin X ^— = log e tan x ^. ^ being the derivative with respect to function is equal tions x.). and j. a. Example Find the derivative of y Putting the relation (1) becomes u y = = = log (sin sin x.in relation (a). (1) (2) log u. y'= Taking the differential. Example from (1053) Putting 2. dij p = cos M = cos (90° — a. (5) and substituting y = sin u. sin (90° (3) = M = y in (4). dy T" ax = —^— cos x: log e u then substituting for u.684 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS of y with respect to u. the tion (2) gives du r Substituting for ^ and dij = cos X.  x). Find the derivative of y = cos x.that of u seen that the derivative of a function of a product of the derivatives of the simple func which compose 1. it is to the it.) = sin x. dy ^ loge du u rela Taking the derivative of u with respect to x (1278).„. and taking the derivative (1755). dx.» (1041) = tana. (4) 90°  X. Taking the derivative of y with respect to the subordinate function u (1278). .. du r. .
Simplifying and transposing. Differentiating y'^ = Va' x^. taking the derivative of u with (1276. Derivative of a radical of the second degree. relation (6) may be written from (1276) ^2/ _!. y and the differential = Tx= ''''''' =— sin xdx. — 2x 2 ^a^ _ x^ the derivative of a radical of the second degree is obtained by dividing the derivative of the quantity under the radical by twice the radical. du =— 2 xdx du and j = —2x. dy Example 3. du dx dif _ we have Substituting for j^ and die j in relation (a). 2 ydy =— 2 xdx. of the theorem of a Putting u= The a' — x^. 1279. The same problem may be solved by aid function of a function.. (553) du 2ui 2'^a^x' . — xdx y xdx Va^ X —== J and dy y>=^ = dx ya'—: which may be written dy y'=r = dx that is.*_ . y Squaring. dy = . 585 respect the relation (5).. x\ (6) = o? — both members (1276.u.? = 2 1 I . 1288). 1279.THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION From to a. 1280).
686 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS and p in (a) Substituting for p dy .
^ va. r cos (x a) + a). functions of and differentials the form y of exponential functions. (556) which log A is a constant quantity. u = \lz. (1276)' _ = _ = sin + (1277) a) cos z cos (x + a) (1278) 2=1. a. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) From the theorem (a) and the derivatives of (4). + VTT^ 2 = + Vl + a. Find the derivative y Putting and we have = log Vx + Vn^.^ y = log m. ^= du dv J 3 w^ log V = e 3 [log sin log e sin z {^a)y log e (a. (5) and (3). we have 587 (5). logy in == X log A. Derivatives that is. Substituting these values in (a). (1) = A. (4). 1280) dx Multiplying both members by dv = ^ = ^ 3 [log sin (a. . «' " dz (1279. are variables and A a constant. + a)] ^ sm of —7^+— loff 6 (a. the differential dy is Example 2.+ VI + a. . w = Va. obtained. in which y and a. Taking the logarithms of both members of the equation (1). + Vr+^ ^x + Vl + VTT = log e Vl + x2 1285. ^ _dy _ " dx'' \ /dy\ /du\ /dz\ \du) \ dzj \dx) M 2 2/ / \2 W 1 1+ V 2 Vr+ ^ 2^ ^ a:^/ or log^ 2/'= ^ / Vl x' + x^ + x\ Va. dx.THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION and taking the derivatives of these successive functions (3) and (2).
= = = = arc (sin x). 3d. If the constant is. we have (407) ^= ax Special Cases. Derivatives iions (1024). If T = ^'e^ = ^e"' the given function were 2/ = e ^. put = z. we would have successively \ogy y dy dx = X log e. which gives y'= 3d.588 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS differentials of Taking the both members. Therefore. qoge)dy^__ . X. (log. A) A==dx. and Such as differentials trigonometric func DiBEOT Trigokometeio Functions. then dz = e". if A is equal to the base of e of the Napierian system. . arc (cos arc (tan a. 1st. ^^i^^)Jy = log Adx. 5 G y y y y cos X. (log (1277.). arc (cot x). For theorem 2/ = e^. 1281) and then V' = — = ^°^ ^^ = dx ay ^ log e ^) ^°' . 7 8 cot X. log log e e " ^ of the 1286. tan x. that y dy dx = e' the derivative becomes ^ e* (log e) e^ log e ^^ ?/ 2d. a. the dy dx _ dy dz dx may be applied. 2 3 y y y 2/ 4 = = = = sva. log e m^ ' = (log^)^'". —^ log e In the Napierian system. \ Inverse Tkigonometbio ruNOTioNS.). A) A^ and dy = (log.
) _ cos^ x + sin' x cos^a.. For y we may V write x cosx > from (1282) dy _ cos X cos x dx — x (sin x X — sin cos' a. = — sin = sin and dy = — sin xdx. a. 589 For y y' = sin a.THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION 1st. we have (1278) = = ^OT cos x. For y y' we have (x) (1283. 2) 2d. cos^x Having we have cos' x + sin' = 1 and x = rr—— 5— 1 + tan' X — (1041) ^ ^ . 3d. /' (x) = cos X and dy = cos xdx. Example = = —or f tan x.
tan'' y.. sin ^  x" „. (3) The relation (1) becomes 2/=sini. Example 2) ^ .^— =  dx dj/ sin 2/ ^/. From (1283. Taking the derivative g = (l + dy 1287. tan 1 y. 2' = 2 i?a.^. Example Find the derivative of 2/ = . = ^ d^ For y a. dx J '^2/=jqr^ For y X write = = cot» a. (4) From (1283) V'^t^P. da. x. ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS For y a.^ and 8th. (^^ . of derivatives of trigonometric functions. z (2) a!. (1) Putting = V2 Ea.7^= — VI and 7th. From then (3) dx ^ dy 2/' = + + = S= dx 1 tan'' 2/ 1 + a.590 6th. =— sin w. cot j/. 1 Examples 1.^ . _. cot2 2/)=(l + a?). VI — „ ^ cos^ y 1_ = . write = = cos' cos y. V2 Rx a. 1 dy =f then y' 1 = . write = = tan' x.
dy dx R Rx VRa. 1 L. Find the derivative of = smi . V2 Ry —^ K ^ y^ • (1) Let y = F {x) = j 2 ax of the function (2) be given to find the derivative to X. Example 2 3). = sin~'^(4) The relation (1) becomes The theorem of a function of a function (1284): du dx _ du dz dz dy dy dx .THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION From (4) 591 we deduce dy dz . 2== (3) = u 2% 2/^. (3) and (2) give the derivatives: du dz dz _ R R — y' R—y '\l2Ryf' dy ^ = 2a. . x' R S/Rx Rx u ..x^ Example 2. The relations (4). dz 2{Rx) 'sliix Rx sjRx is dx  x^  x^ Therefore the required derivative (A) . 2^ R R— X and from (2) (1284. u with respect Putting z= ^2Ryf. dx Therefore the relation (5) gives the required derivative du dx 2aR V2 Ry f .
(2) Subtractmg (1) from fix (2). rules to the determination of the derivais. y)  f ix.y +  f (x.fix. But often this method is laborious. and the relation (1) becomes fix + Ax. + Ax. ^g^ which is true. Giving X an increment Ax. no matter what the simultaneous increments Ax and Ay may be . ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS « Derivatives and differentials of implicit functions.y) Ay Ay Ax + Ax. we have fix ^ + Ax.). a. and reduced to the form f{^. and it may be simpler to have recourse to a general theorem which does not require the solution of the equation with respect to one of the variables. (1) which indicates that a relation exists between the two variables X and y such that the simultaneous values of the two written in one member make that member equal to zero.y) _^ Ax ' . commence by to the solving the equations for y. To apply the foregoing dv tive p ing . fix + Ax.y). we + Ax. that reduc them form y = /(a. Subtracting and adding the fimction f{x in + Ax. y) f jx + Ax.y). Dividing the terms by Ax.y) + f(x + Ax.y) = o. y)f jx.y + Ay)fix + Ax.y^ Ay) Ay) =0.692 1288. y) = 0.y + Ay) / (a: Ax. y) = 0. which y have f{x is considered as a constant and as a variable. Let us assume that all the terms of an equation have been transposed to one side.y+ all Ay)  fix + + Ax. y takes a corresponding increment Ay. y) ^^ Ax Multiplying and dividing the fix first Ax term by Ay.
THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION In taking the limits. y). Hn. The same tials of result is the different terms of the relation (5). representing (x of the function /(x + Ax. w' '^ = 2. that / (x. and y as That a. 2/. f'J. 1st. Remark..y) = 0. considering x as variable and y as constant. in which x + Ax is considered as variable (1274).. — b^x dy = _ = _^. ./J^±^^^^li(^ = /. ^ ^^^ Thus the derivative of an implicit function involving two vari ables is equal to at least the derivative of the given function taken with respect to x. divided to y. . Example Find the derivative of the implicit function (1131) ay + We . is. . y) = 2 a^y. + 2 Vxdx = 0. y). j/). rAx.y) . dy dx = —2b'x = — ¥x — — ^ 2 a^y a'y Remark. The atives of quantities / (x. .y)^ and the required derivative rfy^ y dx + f'^{x. Vx"  a^W = 0. 2/) = 2 b^x and f'y (x.y) rAx.(x. f'^ and /'„ are called partial deriv the function 1.). which y is considered as a constant and x Then the limit of the relation (3) is y) in f'yix. the derivative with respect to x of the given function as a variable. a constant 2d. it is 593 to be noted: That lim ^ by f'„ = f\ (x 4 Ax. we have 2 a^ydy . transposmg. obtained by taking the differenThus. (5) have therefore . by the derivative of the same function with respect considering X as constant and y as variable.x. y) the derivative with respect to y + Ax.
Find the derivative of (y {y Having / {x. (3) Adding and subtracting the following mixed function in the second member of (3). y)  2 px /'.694 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS 2. V + Av)— F (u. required to dx Giving X an increment Ax.  /'. take the corresponding increments Aw. (x. V + Av).p)2 _ r^ = qY 0. and " = J = ^ = £. .v + we obtain Av). .y) r. _ 2{xp) ^ {xp) 2 = f'y{yqy = 2(yq). y) 2/' = 2p and =2y. v). v and y. we have f'xix.qf + (x . and the relation (1) find the derivative y' ^ dy = ~^ becomes y + Ay = F {u + (2). it is (1) The quantities u and v being the functions of x. Au.pY = r*. = y) 0. u is to be considered as a constant and it must be observed This v as a variable. ^ ^_ dx by f':c f'y{x. y^ Write then / (x. (x. that With reference to the mixed function.v + Av)F {u. V + Av) . v) V). _ {F (u + Au.F (u. {x. y) and . Compound functions Let us consider a function of two variables u and v which we will designate y = F{u. V + Av). Example Find the derivative of the function 2/^ = = 2 px. y) = r^{x . F iu. dx 2y y Example 3. ^~\ +F (u. y) = + {x.y) iyq) yq ' 1289. Av and Ay. (2) Subtracting (1) from Ay = F (u + Au.ix" 2px+p')=2x2p = 2(xp).v). the other variables.pY = f'vix. u.
z'. v) u' + F\ (m. Ax.v + Av) —F {u. v) v'. and the rela may be written = F'y + F\v. we have y = u\ Applying theorem (6). = f. derivative of F (u. v) Av The limits of these ratios are Ax Ay Aa. ^ . This theorem function is of general apphcation. and considering w as a constant and m as a variable likewise the derivative of tion (5) F (m. v) Ax the common factors Am and Av are introduced into the two general terms of the last expression. V + Av) — F (u. = F{u. the derivative of a compound function of two variables V is equal to the sum of the products obtained by multiplying independent variable x. . (6) u and Thus.^"^. if 595 all the terms of the last relation are divided by {u we have %_F Ax + Am. that is. V + Ay) —F {u. if F {u. = M and sin a.= a.v + Av Am Aa. Thus the y gives y' 1. Putting a. v) F'y y' when v is the variable. = F'„m' 4 F'^v' Example Find the derivative of y . each partial derivative by the derivative of the corresponding variable taken with respect to the Remark.v All. we have Av) Ay Ax _ F (u + F {u. v + Av) by F\. y' = F'y + F'y. V. ' Am Ax . Av Ax which may be written designating the = F\ (m. Am + Av) —F (u. z) + F'. y' is (5) neglecting Av . V + Ay) Ax + Finally.THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION being true.
(a) which may be written in the form y u" v by putting Applying theorem u (6). Example 3. Find the derivative of y 3f. we have X. the H theorem e gives y'= log X This result ^ X = log + log x. log e \ log e/ Remark.—2 X log e — h log a. Example to 4.™^!^^ cos loge x. taking the logarithms. Application of the theorem of compound functions the determination of an implicit function.696 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS successively log e y' we have ' = sin aix""^' + = = a. = x and = ". X.) {A) case. log e + log x. X log and the derivative gives log e y' = y a. = . may also relative to the product of be obtained by applying the theorem two functions (1281). (^4. Find the derivative of the compound function y = uv which is As a special Putting u y' = y F\u'  F\v'. be found as follows. From logy = . Example 2. take = X log = X and v = log x. . This derivative may also the given function (a).
THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION The theorem of (1288) of compound functions. Tangent a . F'^' + but the derivative x' reduces to is equal to one. = (A) Comparing this with y and putting the latter gives =F (u. y' and x' being the the function. y'= + F\v'. y) = = 0. it is seen that the derivative gives two members should be zero. (B) From of the the relation F (x.y) be given. 1291. F' F' TANGENTS. of coordinates of the point of the equation of contact of a tangent to any curve. 597 may be deduced from the general theorem Let the implicit function F{x. and the above expression = from which y' = 2^'. general equation of a tangent to From the any curve We will now apply to this equation in circle. Then (B) F'yy'. the coefficient a must be equal to the derivative j of the equation of the curve this it follows that is taken at the point of contact. this point is (1118) any line which passes through y  y' ==. was increment of equal to the slope of the tangent to the curve which represents 1290. We saw in article (1275) that the limit of the From this property it is easy to deduce a method drawing a tangent to a curve whose equation is given and determine the equation of the tangent. In order that this line be tangent to the curve. v) u = x and F'ji' v = y. f^ of the ratio ax the function y to that of the variable x. a{x  x'). some examples.+ F\y'.
from (1288) ^ = ^^. Equation (a)) a^y' is therefore the equation of the tangent 1293.') .698 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS of a circle referred to its center being (1123) 2/2  The equation a. yy' or yy' Thus the sum 1292. becomes y — x' .2 = X j^^ applying the rule for implicit functions (1288) we have dy dx _ — y For the point of contact (x'. dx <ry dy dx and for the point of contact _ — Vx' (1290. — = — xx' + + xx' = y'^ + x'^ = r'. y'). ^ = ^' dx a'y of the tangent is and therefore the equation 2/ (1290. which is given. is The equation of an hyperbola ay — From (1288) W3? = — aW. upon substituting dii for ^ in (a) of the preceding article. Tangent to an hyperbola. the derivative is xf y' circle' dy dx _ — Therefore the equation of a tangent to the at this point. yy' + xx^ = r^ = constant. 1291)  2/ = ^ (a:  a. x''^ Tangent to an ellipse.y'= TT (^ 2/'^ ^0 Eliminating the denominator and reducing. Theequationof an ellipse referred to its principal axes being(1131) d?y'^ + V^x^ = xW.
dx x' . and 00. 1291) yy'= Special Cases. For the vertex x' = y'= 0. 599 Tangent to a parabola. dy log e shows that the yaxis is an asymptote of the curve on the negaThis tive side.THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION 1294. For becomes 0. 1291) yy'=^. loge _ 0. x' = log x' the equation (a) ^ y' . its The equation of a parabola referred to vertex being (1197) 2/^ principal axis and = dx 2 px. Tangent to a logarithmic curve.4342945 {x — x'). dy 2 dx This indicates that tihe p = ^= is tangent perpendicular to the xaxis and coincides with the 1295.' = aad ^ = l£iJ = loge.xis. 1st.4342945 (a) consequently the tangent to the curve at the point represented {x'. we have y' Fig. 2d. The equation of the curve being from (1277) dy dx _ y = log x. ya. = =— log e cc. y'. we have y is Therefore the equation of the tangent (1290.) is by the equation (1290.{xx'). For x' = 1. 366 = log a.
— y' = cos x' {x — x'). a. Tangent to a sine wave.axis. and at this point These same values are ob tained for the point D. we have (1027) y'= sin x' = 0. 1st. Thus. . tt. 3d. 2d. at the point B. 1291) y Special Cases.600 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS Thus at the point A where the curve meets the a. . and consequently o=135°. therefore. For x' = 0. we have. we have tan a = — 1. we have tan a = 0. where x' = ir. a = 45°. {x'y') is repre sented Consequently the equation of tangent at the point by the equation (1290. y'= sin af = 0.' = y' 00 we have a. .4342945. and so on for the suc 6 IT .' = log = oo . and — = cos x^= cos ir =— 1. . Thus the curve passes through the tan II = 1. Thus the curve goes constantly away from the at infinity the tangent is a. and parallel to the xaxis. For a.axis. The equation of a sine wave y dy dx is = sin X from (1278) = cos X. 1296. . For x' = IT = 180°. and ^ ax = — 3/ ^= 0.'= cos 0° = 1. The same values are obtained for x' = 3 tt. and dy dx cosa. origin. . . and.' = 5 ir . of x'. . which gives x' = 2 cessive values 4 IT.
— V .. .. is the radius of the generating circle of a cycloid represented by R. y'. E. /2Ry = .y\ (1) The equation of a tangent at the point y a M is . = {"p — )' and In equation (2). z' R2 R^ 1 V ^' R^ _ substituting for z^.y'. (4) z'= Ry . (5) The relations (4) and (5) give Ry y and . _ V2%. —z'= .^ = m{x  a). = sin~' all D K ~ 2 (^) Taking the derivatives of independent variable a. and the point cycloid is A is taken as origin.. 1247). gents to the curve at to the Xaxis.y^. the points A. z'=^^^y taking the derivative with respect to x.'=7r. C. are parallel 1297. a. .f. the terms with respect to the (1298) z' 1= .' x'=^. .y " . x'=^^. 601 For cos a. which indicates that the tan. we have = and tan a = 0. We know To that m= = 2 dv ^ is the derivative of equation (1) of the curve. z' put (2) and equation = V2 Ry . 3/'= 1/ . . (A) and j3 being the coordinates of the point of contact and in the slope of the tangent. 350. the equation of the X = sin> ^:^^^%=^ ^2Ry. Ry yl2R f m. If Tangent to a cycloid (see Fig. then (1) may be written X Ry . z find this derivative.THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION 3d..
Therefore the tangents at these points are perpendicular to the a. and Equation (a) K = prbecomes p = ^rw. is 45°. Tangents to curves referred to polar coordinates. Z'jr (6) . For the highest point or the vertex of the and the value of the coefRcient m is cycloid. its equation is of the form (a) = a Ka>. 1298. If for 0) =2 IT we have p= a. coefficient If the point of contact the generating circle. we have J m=y 2R2R =0. Tangent spiral of Archimedes (1230 and The curve starting from the p pole. 1st. 1.602 ELEMENTS OP CALCULUS is Therefore the equation (A) of the tangent to a cycloid j2Ry.axis or the base of the Remark. and the coefficient for each of these values is . we have y = 0.axis. is parallel to the a. yP = \/\^i^<^)y (6) = 2R. Let the equation of the curve be P = F M= tan 6 (1) (2) The expression is ~— = dp tan (Tp) the coefficient or the slope of the tangent T with respect to the radius vector p drawn to to the point of contact. the Example 1270). and becomes which shows that the angle between the tangent and the a. the preceding equation (a) gives = K2w.axis At the origin and at the end of the cycloid./R m= yQ =<x. ^\/^ 2^  Thus the tangent cycloid. is placed at the height of the the center of we have y = R.
dp = . tan = dot pr dp = 2ir p a For p = b y^e have m = and tan e = 2 a ff. If for vector increases (1) by an amount p 2 57 and = b + b + each revolution of the spiral the radius a. and therefore the slope of the tangent to the curve with respect to the radius vector is . as in the first » example. 2d. therefore. and we have a = b + K2Tr • and K = TTof the spiral is Then the equation and we have. . at the origin the spiral For p = 0. (A) = b + Ko>.THEOREMS OF DIFFERENTIATION The general expression to the radius vector. the through the pole. has the value tan o This value is /. Tangent to a logarithmic spiral (1270). is The equation of the logarithmic spiral log p = A<o or jo = . spiral passes we make 6 = 0. tan^ = loge P^=^d<o . is = 0. the above equation will hold a. tan tangent to the polar axis. Thus the first element of the spiral is no longer tangent to the If polar axis as in the preceding case. and we have tan ^ = 0. as 603 of the slope of the tangent with respect given by equation (2). Example 2. log e P —^. for the curve traced in (1233). Adw. = d<0 prdp = p —=— a a 2 TT 2 Trp  . The spiral not starting P at the pole has the equation of the form. jo = 6. 6^" Taking the differentials. For for 0) = = 0.
we have with respect to x. is the derivative of y with respect to or y'. we have . f {x) and is called a derivative of the y' first order.axis makes an angle with the whose trigonometric tangent x. This derivative is represented by ~. then tan „ da = p^ = dp 2R 2RxO ' which indicates that the tangent to the thest from the polar axis is circle at the point farperpendicular to the radius vector 2 R.604 This quantity ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS is constant. _ 2 dp R p cos <« 0) For j9 = 2 iJ. it is same manner as the derivative of of 3/' respect to x was found. mic spiral Example then 3. The relation = f {x) possible to find the derivative being a new function of x. is and also represented by the notation d. A circle tangent to the polar axis at the pole. We have seen (1275. in the y This new derivative or a second derivative. <i). The equation in polar coordinates (1270): and = 2 R sin T^ = 2 i? cos p d<o o). 1290) that the relation y = fix) is the equation of a curve. the tangent to which a. cos = . SUCCESSIVE DERIVATIVES 1299. co = 90°. or first derivative. and if this derivative is designated y with by /" (x) or y". Thus the tangent to the logarithmakes a constant angle with the radius vector. to the point of contact.x'' the figure 2 indicating the order of the derivative. and parallel to the polar axis. ~ dx~ is dx ~l ^'^' called a derivative of the second order. .
the derivative of is y" with respect X gives the third derivative.. etc. Continuing thus. which ^ represented thus ' ^ ^ do? fifth. may (x) obtain the fourth. we tives.SUCCESSIVE DERIVATIVES ' 605 The relation y" = f" (x) being also to a new function of x. deriva which are given in a table below y =/ .
parallel to each other and the y&xes coinciding y with the same line. Giving .. then with may be drawn. Ox^ and Refer the equations (1). representing the funcThus making b = y'.™ is a constant. y" and y'". (2).368 y'. From the succes sive derivatives and their geometrical interpretation. may be determined as one wishes arid the curves traced. construct by points. the tangent to the curve C^ . of the curve C. Let us interpret geometrically the equations (1). and the point M^ of the curve Cj and so on. Cj and d. Ci. gives or y". at Mj. X different values as many points on the curves C. dy" Cj is a straight line whose slope — is 6 D.. Ox^ and O^y. that f is.606 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS In the same way. The abscissa at point is X. and since this angular coefficient is nothing other than M^Pi may = ^'8. and Cs is a straight the aid of the successive derivatives the tangents dv'" line parallel to the xaxis. (3) (4) respectively to the Ojy. it is the line representing the constant function 6 D. . Ox^. etc. Now tions y. The relation (3) in the same dv' way. In the above example (1) the curves C and C^ are parabolic. C^. Ox^. etc. therefore its slope ^ —= 0. (3) and (4). taking the axes Ox. . (2). the follow ing important theorems are deduced. C2. and coordinate systems Ox and Oy. the relation (2) gives the slope ^ of the tan gent to the curve C at Af so MT of be drawn (1290). . the curves C. relation (1) gives y OP. the = MP that . mth derivative of function of the mth degree 2/ = a.. the point is M^ the curve C^ ^jijg obtained.
CONCAVITY AND CONVEXITY to the point 607 M are situated within the acute angle a or the obtuse MT to the curve at that point angle a'. which the tangent M y .
It is seen. In the same way seen that in creasing X. thus the ordinates of tions of bending of the curves be increasing the same as the corresponding function. and the curve C^ concave to the xaxis corresponds to the curve Cj" whose ordinates are negative. and in general. 1302. changes its direction change takes place is called a point of inflection. while the ordinates of C^' will be decreasing.axis. of bending. in fact. and the function ^ = f (a. the slopes increase. representing the second 1/ Now constructing the curves C" and derivatives of the original functions = /(x). is decreasing. we have curves whose equations have the form that is. POINT OF INFLECTION. that x increasing the tangent makes greater and greater acute angles with the a. the point '^Yhen a curve this M where AMB Mm . the tangent to the curve Cj makes smaller and smaller acute angles with the xaxis. 370. the curve will . Drawing a tangent to the curve at the point M. is f = f (a. it is easily seen that /" (x) is and increasing in the case of the curve Thus the curve C which is convex to the xaxis corresponds to the curve C" whose ordinates are positive.608 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS C and Cj. ±00. As is shown in Fig. In general.elements and Mn which are situated just General Case. the ordinates y" of which are equal to the slopes of the and C'l. which is represented it is by the also increasing. the two. this property applies also to the curves C^ and d. we may say that any curve whose equation is of the form tangents to the curves positive C C y is = fix) convex or concave to the xaxis according as y" = f" (x) is posi tive or negative. C and the function curve Ci. which is represented by the curve Ci. the second derivative of a curve for the point of inflection is zero or equal to 1st. C/'.) = y'. therefore the slopes diminish.) = y'.
the corresponding curve M"B" of its second derivative has positive ordinates. if there is a point of inflection M. must cut the axis A^M^B^ and AJtit^B^. This is evident a because. and the portion convex to Ox. Fig. two curves at M". The same Special Case. B B' ^ H. the corresponding curve tive A"M" of the second deriva being has negative ordinates (1301). which correspond to the points of inflection Constructing the M . the portion AM being con cave to Ox. and second derivative curves. 371 and of the first and second derivative functions. y' = /' (X) = y" = /" (x) M dx dx being respectively the equations of the required curve AMB. Given. it is easily seen that the points M" and Af/'. y = / ix). we obtain for this point y" = /" {x) = 0) which indicates that the point curve is M" of the second derivative on the xaxis.POINT OF INFLECTION before 609 and just after the point of inflection lie on opposite sides of the tangent MT. AMB and AJiliBi whose points of inflection M and Mj correspond to the tangents MT first and M^Ti which are parallel to the j/axis. from this it follows that the continuous curve is MB A"M"B" true of the curves 2d.'priori.
610 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS y .
= a. x is (1) replaced hy x { h. on the curve representing the function y" the axis. considering constant. . y The value 2/"= fix) corresponding to 3 T. as a variable and a. Given a sine curve 611 is whose equation y = sin X. we have dy^^dy^^ dx In fact. equal to the /i first derivative TT of y' with respect to h. . M^.. From y' (1282.. M" M".axis. M" . . a function y=f{x). tt. putting x dh relation (2) + h = x'. . If in Preliminary theorem..TAYLOR'S THEOREM Example. . = f" (x) are also on TAYLOR'S THEOREM 1303. are situated on the .it follows that all these points of inflection 0. 2 ir. as a Thus. (3) . = — sin x. becomes 2/'=/('x'). since for these values of x we have y = M' W^ Fig. 374 ia 0. the corresponding points 0^. M. The first derivative /i dv' ^ dx a variable and dy' of y' with respect to x. it follows that y takes the value y' and (2) relation (1) becomes y' = f{x + h). considering x as is as a constant. M^. and furthermore. 1287) /' (a. = 0.) = y" = fix) = cos x. and or dy' dy' dx' 7 = /'(A d(x{h) = /' (x + h). a. . n TT.
are unknown functions of the variable x. may be written %n^^K). . Suppose that the expansion of the function y' = f(x + h) (1) with respect to the successive powers of h be given.. •  (3) In the same equation considering h constant. we have A + 2Bh+SCh'+4J)h'+ • • = ^ + ^h+ dx dx ^W + ^¥+ dx ax • • • (5) . number . . dB dx . B. dy' (2) the derivative of y' with respect to x is dy dx dA dx . .612 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS variable. which are to be determined. Assuming h constant and x d{x and expression (3) + h) = dx. (4) d{x relation (3) + h) = + dh. Taking the derivative of y' with respect to h in equation (2). y' = y + Ah + Bh^ + Ch^ + D¥+ 2) It is evident that the polynomial which expresses the value of y' contains an infinite of h increases indefinitely of terms. The coefficients A. D. . . Taylor's theorem. equating the second members. becomes f= Equating expressions (4) /'(x ^). . dx The first members of equations (3) and (4) being equal (1303). (5) and dx (5). we have (1276) . C. dC dx . in which the exponent from the first term where it is zero. . .. % = A + 2Bh + 3Ch' + iDh^ + ah . dy^^dl^ dh 1304.. Now and supposing x constant and h variable.
D= — 4 dx we have ' A by A R its value in the expression of B. c= —. we have dx =^. in the series (2). . etc. fe' . then B by its new value in C. _ d^ dx "Ydx"!^ T2' _d^J^_d?y 3dxl2 dx' 1 • _ d?"y 1 d^ 1 2 • 3 D= d^ dx' 4 dx 1 • 1 d*y 1 • 2 3 dxM . 3 da. B = dx Replacing 2dx' — . + • • • (1) X is nating y' made equal by y) its and h x.x). D..TAYLOR'S THEOREM Putting the terms of the same order equal to each other. h) y'=f{x + and in y' its (A) expansion (1304) f(x) = +r to (X) h + /" = y (X) — +r w i7^ f(. . the function (A) becomes (desig = and 2/ expansion takes the form /"(O) = /(x) =/(0)+/'(0)x + 3^2 + r X7^ + (0) • • (2) . 2 • 3 • 4 Substituting these values oi A.C. 1305.i. B. . we have ^ ^ ^ which may cPy fe^ dy d'y dx ^ dxM 2 ^ dx' be written in the form • d^y • fe^ • 1 . If in Madaurin's theorem or a the function special case of Taylor's theorer. 613 A=^. 2 3 ^ dxH + 2 3 • 4 f{x + h)=fix) + r (X) h +r (x) ^ /"' (x) j^ («) + /"(^)rT2^4+which is Taylor's theorem for expanding a function with the aid of its successive derivatives.
1305) /(x)= J/=x"'. and using the notation theorem (1305). f" (x) /^ (x) /" (x) ^"{x) = sin x = cos X. = — sin X. 1283) / (x) /' (x) /" (x) /'" (x) = sin X. . .3 of sine "'' + x.sin 0° = 0.cos 0° = /i^(x) =f">^(0)= sin X = sin 0° = 0. is nothing other than Newton's binomial theorem (564). Making arc x of Maclaurin's = 0° in these expressions.. which /"(O). . Substituting these values of /(x). and its successive de rivatives when X = 1306. Application of Taylor's and Maclaurin's theorems expansion of the sine and cosine in terms of the arc.614 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS is .cosx = . /' (0). we have fix) = sin 0° = 0. fix) /'"(x) =/"'(0)= .. = — cos X. known . f (x)= f" (x)= moif~^. . From this relation we deduce successively (1276. 1st. fix) = /"(0)= . are values of the function y 0. f"lx)=m(m l)3f^. which 2d. to the Expand y' = {x + a)". . 1) m (m  (m  2) x"'.in formula (6) (1304). fix). we have (x + + a)™ = x™ + max"! + "^ \"^ ~ ^' a^x""^ m (m  1) (m  2) 12. = — sin x. . = = / (0) = /'(O) = sin X 1. as Maclaurin's theorem. cos X = cos 0° = 1. and in which / (0). and noting that h is replaced by a. Expansion x as a function of arc From the function 2/ = sin X we deduce successively (1278. = cos X. /'(x).sin X = . = — cos X.
0.MAXIMA AND MINIMA ula (2) of (1305).sin = . Expansion of the cos x as a function y From the function = cos X we deduce successively f(x) f'{x) f"{x) f"'{x) = cos X.cos 0° = . / (0) a. the function or the ordinate y = is said to be a maximum. Making arc x rem. Let the curve C represent the function y If for = fKi) x of the abscissa. = .' ^ »' l2. x* +————— — ' we have: cosx=l——— .67 of the arc x. a value OP = . /'(O) = .' 12 1..78 MAXIMA AND MINIMA 1307. = sin X. in Maclauformula (1305). we have sin a. x^ a. fix) .. 3d. — — 123 + 12345  a. Maxima and minima of functions.234 123456 +1. = sinO° = 0. = sin x. the. fix). 615 Substituting these values of f{x).2 X* 34.cos X = .sin X.sin 0° = . = — cos X.. and noting that the even terms equal zero. these expressions fix) and using the notation of Maclaurin's theobecome (1305) fix) fix) f"'{x) f" i^) = cos X = cos 0° = 1.) f (x) p"^ (x) r"(^) = cos x.sin x.corresponding value is greater than the vaiues^'^he ordinates m'p' and m"p" corresponding to the abscissas Op' and Qp" one of which comes just before and the other just after OP = x. = 0°. in formand noting that the odd terms are equal to zero. =f^ (0) = cos X = cos 0° = 1..345.1. f" (x) . MP = y oi the ordinate MP . fix).56. = = = rin's Substituting these values of fix). = a. = — cos X.. f*^ (a. /"(O) =/"'(0) = sina. = . = .
a function according as a particular value a maxigreater is or smaller than the values infinitely near the point in question. for example. A function may have relative maximum and minimum values. the ordinate m"p" . y = f{^) is increasing.3d. that is.616 In the same infinitely near is ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS way it. mum or a minimum Thus. and at the same time have an absolute maximum and an absolute minimum value.P. A function may have several maximum values and several minimum values. and this true until the point M is reached. y'= fix) and y" At is = f"{x). remains positive. may be greater than a maximum MjPj. the ordinate M^P^ being smaller than the ones it theordinate or the function y which represents. A minimum ilf. increased. C„ and Cj. construct the curves C. the ordi nate m'p' increases also. 2d. when the abscissa Op". is said to be a minimum. but diminishes continuously until at it The tangent to the curve C at is parallel • M M is to Starting at M the function y becomes decreasing. where the function takes a Up value y to this point the slope remained positive. first the function is. representing the given function and its first and second derivatives (1299). in general. As shown in Fig. that is is. 375: 1st. = dy r'. function In order to obtain a clear conception of the behavior of a when it passes through maximum and minimum values..dx equal to_^frr&i the~a?^xis. that when the abscissa Op' is increased. y' maximum = MP.). A maximum or a minimum may be positive or negative.
is negative. It maximum MP. 0. M. this goes 617 on until at M^ mum. .MAXIMA AND MINIMA decreases./ which correspond to the points M. M to zero. positive. for example. as is indicated by the therefore. It is seen that the ordinate of the curve Cj or the second derivative. and it from til it this point de creases continuously unit reaches M^. to the curve Cj which represents the second derivative. M^'. where becomes zero. goes on increasing up to the point of inflection between M and Af j. the first derivative is zero. positive and at is equal tends towards zero. — ^ is ^^ first derivative positive. which corresponds to the minimum MJP^. portion AM' of the curve C^. the first derivative for the part m'.axis. Ml. which corresponds to the positive. is the function and the is increasing. is. Thus for all maximum or minimum y values of the function = / (a. It From M the function reaches a minifirst to M^ the slope or derivative is negative. the points M'. since the tangent to the curve at Ml is parallel to the a. while the second derivative. are situated on the axis Oia. becoming zero at M2. be tween Ml and M^. when the function.). In the same way. . and . . y is = f{x) is increasing.i. it is Since a quantity which is decreasing. . is may be demonstrated that this is always the Thus. case. which another maximum. . To distinguish a maximum from a minimum we have recourse that . M2.
(1) f{x + h)fix) = rix)^^^if ~iK Mg. we have. We have seen (1304) that a function sign. the derivative of this function negative.x) 1 •234 + of the vari and since when the increment h able X is very small. In this case it is necessary to have recourse to the 3d and 4th derivatives. is negative the original function reaches a it maximum be demonstrated that the second derivative of a function corresponding to a minimum value of that function. the terms of the second follow the first it. . this last relation reduced to 1 f{x + h)fix)=f (x) 23 + xg r(. the increment f{x is + h)—f (x) to of the function zero. is when a when decreasing. function is we see in Fig. 377 Therefore. therefore.+ a certain value of x the functions (x) are zero (x) and /" at the is same time (Fig. Since it is is In the same manner may positive. member which gible in comparison with term are neeUand we have. the second derivative M"P" value. + h) The increment of the function may be written: h* f(_x+h)fix)=nx)h+f"{x)^+rix)j^ +rix) If for /' 1234 . dis simply the sign of the second derivative which tinguishes between function. 377). as shown below. if it maximum and minimum values of a given have no happens that the second derivative is zero. which corresponds a maximum or a minimum. may y = f{x be written in the form. 376.618 is ELEMENTS OP CALCULUS This established. as a decreasing function. it can and could not indicate whether the corresponding value of the function were a maximum or a minimum.
(1) maximum or minimum of this function.) (1) f"'{x) is has the same sign as this increment. is is Since a which approaches zero decreasing. from the relation (a. fourth derivative /'^ (x) is negative or positive. 377). now remains to determine when we have a maximum and when a minimum. is increment h of the abscissa. . when several successive derivatives are equal there is neither the maximum not equal nor minimum or if the first derivative after one which is to zero is of an odd order. A function y oi a single variable x being given in the form y to find the = f(x). although very small. but if it is of it an is even order.MAXIMA AND MINIMA 619 which requires that since the zero. In general. There a maximum and it is or f" {x) is zero. Noting that before a maximum the increment f{x'+h) — f {x) is positive and before a minimum it is It negative. according as 1308. tive. it Since a negative function which approaches zero and the derivative of an increasing function is posifollows that /" (x) is positive for a minimum value of the is function. a maximum minimum. take the first it derivative of y with respect to x and put equal to zero. and therefore /'" (x) will be is ' o negative. there is negative or positive.inimum when the third derivative a minimum according as the to zero. For the same reason. tive. since h and therefore h^ positive function /'" always positive. thus: (2) f= /' (^) = 0. follows that l"{x) is negative for a maximum value of if the function (Fig. not Thus we see that the responds to maximum f"'{x) or minimum of a function cor = 0. and it the derivative of a decreasing function negative. increasing. /'" (x) L the increment f{x + h) — / (x) is nega —^— jr '  wUl be negative. /"'(^) = 0. a maximum or a m.
. Substituting this value in (b). 2/'"=/'"(x). %r'ix) = '^. y ex — x^. substituted in equation (1).=0. (4) t^rix). is maximum when have. we X + z = c {a) y c = xz (b) From (a) z = = — X. first derivative and putting equal to zero (1276. we would take the fifth and and so on. If the fourth derivative were also zero. 1. sixth. (2) we obtain the value corresponding to the maxic mum or minimum. whose sum c is constant. (3) and according as this derivative is negative or positive. (5) put f"{x) = 0. Applications of the preceding rule. ^ = 2 Taking the second derivative (1279). /'(x) = c2a. Example The product y a of two variables x and z. Accordingly. is the second derivative y" zero. and solve for x and substitute in (1). which will give the maximum or minimum value of y according as y^ is negative or positive. gives a maximum or minimum value of If y. The value of x deduced from equation (2). y" = f"{x). take the third and fourth ^ derivatives. g= Solving for x. there is a maximum or a minimum. Then find the second derivative. the two factors are equal (583).620 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS to the This equation solved for x gives the value of x corresponding maximum or minimum. it (1) Taking the 1280). 1309.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA
This derivative being negative, x
621
to a
=
c
^ corresponds
maximum
we
find
and not
to a
minimum.
Substituting this value in (a),
'=2
Thus we have a
maximum when
the two factors are equal,
c
Example
r
2.
Of
all
cylinders having the
same volume V,
de
termine which has the
minimum
total surface S.
being the radius of the base and h the altitude of the cylin
der,
we have,
S =
and
2nr^
TT
+
h
2 7rrh,
(a)
•
F=
r'h,
V =—
=
(b)
Substituting this value of h in (a),
volving only two variables
we obtain an expression
in
S and
r,
S=27rr2 +
Taking the
first
—
r
=27rr2
+
2Fr'.
equal to zero,
(1)
derivative and putting
=:f'(r)
it
^
Solving for
= 4:7rr2Vr^=0.
(2)
maximum
or
r, we obtain the value minimum.
of r corresponding to the
Taking the second derivative,
^=
mum
/"
(r)
=
4
,r
+ 4 7r' =
»•
4^
+
^
to a mini
This derivative being positive,
= V ^5~ corresponds
and not to a maximum. Substituting this value of r in we obtain the minimum value of S in terms of V; but the (1), dimension h being of more importance, substituting in (3) the
value of
V
r
given in
(6),
we have,
r^
= V ——
or
=
2"
and h
= 2r=2y
^
622
ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS
is
Thus *S
a
minimum when
the altitude of the cylinder
is
twice
the radius of the base, and
we have
2
IT
y=
ing
r = ——
4
Example 3. The mean temperature in a chimney correspondto the maximum draft, according to the old theory of P^clet, is
expressed by the formula
wherein
Qi
is
1.3 is the
the weight of air passed through the chimney per second; weight of a cubic meter of air at 0° and 860 milli
meter pressure; is one side of the minimum interior section, taken as square; a = 0.00367 is the temperature coefficient of air; is a constant for any one class of chimneys; t' is the mean temperature of the air in the chimney; t is the temperature of the outside air.
D
M
1.3
D'
y ^M
or
being a constant quantity for any one chimney, Q^ will be a max
imum when
have,
1.3
D^
y V
/
j
(1
— aty ^, +
t'
t
;
y —.— V (1 +
/
t'

—
— aty
t
fr^
is
a
maximum.
t'
Representing this radical by y and the variable
by
x,
we
or
2/'
+
2 axy^
+ aVy^ —
x
+
t
=
0.
it
Taking the
first
derivative (1288)
and putting
a:
equal to zero,
dy _ — dx
This being true only
2 g?/" — 2 ay + 1 _ 2y + i axy + 2 a^x^y
when
1
~2ay^
2 a^fx +
=
0,
or

2
a?/^
(1
+
ax)
+
1
=
0.
Substituting the value of y^ given in (1),
we have
MAXIMA AND MINIMA
from which we deduce successively,
2 a 2 ax
623
— = 1 + ax
1
—
+
1,
,
— 2at =
=
1
+
ax,'
ax
2at,
x=

a
+ 2t.
t
If we assume the temperature we have
of the outside air to be zero,
1310.
1st.
Special cases of
maxima and minima.
When
a function has a value equal to infinity or zero,
this
value cannot properly be considered as a
maximum
or a
minimum.
The parabola whose equation
2/2=
is
(1197)
2px,
co
oo
,
giving y
=
for x
=
0,
and y
=±
to
for
a;
=
oo
,
the function
varies continuously
from
+
ob
—
and has neither maximum
nor minimum.
The derivative
of the preceding function being
ax
putting
it
V
equal to zero.
/'(^)
=
f
=
o,
we have y
points at
infinity.
= ± <x> values which correspond to a; = oo Thus the which the tangents are parallel to the xaxis are at For x = 0, we have y = 0, and therefore,
,
.
/'(a;)
=
^
y
=
oo.
Thus the
If
^/axis is
tangent to the curve.
the logarithmic curve,
y
is
=
log X,
given:
Taking the derivative (1281),
dy_,,,
log e
_
0.4342945
X
.
dx^'^^^x
'
624
ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS
putting this derivative equal to zero,
„
f
,
,
(x)=
0.4342945 z
0;
from
for
a;
this
x
=
cc
,
and
therefore,
y
=
log x
oo
,
=
oo
;
moreover, since
varies conto
=
0,
we have y
=
^
log
= —
the
f imction
tinuously from
>l
+00
—
00,
and
nor
nevertheless has no
maximum
y
minimum.
2d. Another peculiarity of maxima
and minima. Point of retrogression. When a curve has two branches and MB, having a common
AM
tangent parallel to the
378), the point
^/axis (Fig.
Pi
378
M necessarily responds to a maximum or a minimum. At this point M the slope
of the tangent
is
cor
MAXIMA AND MINIMA
that point
625
of its
and beyond does not change the direction
;
slope with reference to the a;axis
except that
it is
zero at the
point of inflection.
Example of curves which have a maximum,
a minimum, and a point of inflection. Given the equation
y
=
x" a;'
 3 + 6x
a;
1
(1)
of a curve referred to a
Ox and Oy. Taking second derivative, we have,
nate axes
y'
system of coordithe first and
Fig. 381
y"
= 3x'3, = 6x.
For the point of inflection
zero (1302).
M the second derivative
0,
is
equal to
y"
It is seen that
= 6x =
and
a;
=
0.
the point of inflection
a;
is
situated
on the
yaxis.
To determine the ordinate, make
gives
3/
=
in equation (1),
which
=
1.
ing to the
to zero,
To obtain the coordinates of the points Mi and M^ correspondminimum and maximum, put the first derivative equal
3a;2 3
then,
a;
= 0; = ± +
3
1
1.
Therefore, equation (1) gives,
2/
=
1

3
= 
1,
2/=l +
Thus the points
+
l=+3.
M^ and M^
(a;
have the coordinates
= +
1
(x= —
1
1311.
A
study of quantities which have an indeterminate form.
Let us consider a quotient of two functions of the same variable x,
y
Giving X the value
a,
= W:<^(x)
(1)
we have,
626
Putting
ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS
u
V
= F (x), = (x).
<!>
(2)
(3)
The
relation (1)
may
be written, y
=
x,
(4)
,
Giving an increment
Aa; to
the variable
the variables u, v and
y take corresponding increments, and relation (4) becomes
w + Am by
.
dividing both terms of the fraction
Aa;,
u
y
+ Am

+ ^y^
n^
Aa;
(s)
If for the
it
value x
=
a,
the functions (2) and (3) become zero,
follows that relation (5) has the limit
Am
_'Ki_F'u y''Av~F'v'
Ax
that
is,
.
the value of the given quotient will be given
by the quo
tient of the derivatives of
both the terms, in which x
=
a.
Example
1.
Find the value of
^
for
a;
=
¥^
X"
1
'
=
1.
The
direct calculation gives the indeterminate form,
To make
a;
certain that the value
is
really indeterminate, replace
the two terms
by
their derivatives,
and in the new quotient put
=
1.
y
= y =
naf~*
n,
which
is
the required value.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA
Example
2.
627
Calculate
_
J
ax*—
ax
ah"
— aP
The
direct calculation gives,
for the particular
value x
=
\?.
Taking the derivatives of both the terms, and putting x
=
6^
we obtain the
rekl value,
3aa^ a
3a6* a
„,,
Example
3.
Calculate the following expression for x
1
=
30°:
^
— sm
a;
a;
y=
sin
{A)

J
Sin 30°
=
^
J
consequently the value of the expression takes the
indeterminate form,
Taking the derivatives of both terms of {A),
y
It
=
—
cos x
cos X
=—
1.
may
stant value
be noted that the given expression reduces to the con— 1 for all values of x. Thus,
2/
1
— sm
a;
=
1^
sm a; — ^
Example
4.
~Js1^ZjI^x. sm ^—
t,
Referring to the form ^, let the function 00'
y
=x.
(a)
be given, u and v being functions of
late the
It
is
required to calcu
value of y where a particular value, given to x gives and V = CO such that
;
u=
ao
00
"
00
628
ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS
relation (o)
The
may
be written
y
=
r
a particular value x
Therefore,
(b)
Since v and
reciprocals
u become
infinite for
=
a,
the
 and  are equal to
zero.
we may
con
sider y in relation (6) as
having the form y
=
*
ior the
is,
particular
value X
the
first
=
a;
and applying the above
is
rule, that
substituting
(6),
derivatives for the terms of the quotient
the re
quired value
obtained,
^~
or
_
v'
_v?
v'
r~~^
V? v' "2 7ir
u''
U
V
=
common
factor
,.
w
CanceUing the

,
we have,
u'
lim V
u
=
T
•
V
fit
Thus we
calculate the value of
i/
=

as in the
first
example,
by
substituting the derivatives of the terms in the given expres
sion
and putting x
5.
=
a.
Example
Find the value of the function
y=x
ior X
log X
= 00
.
The
direct calculation gives
y
'^
=
—
00 00
Taking the derivatives of the terms of the fraction separately, and making a; = oo we obtain the real value,
,
'
a;
00
If,
giving
y=\^x'
MAXIMA AND MINIMA
the value for
rivatives
a;
629
= oo
is
desired, replacing
,
both terms by their deis
and putting x =<x>
the real value
obtained,
_
1
_
X
log e
_
00
log e
log e
X
Example
6.
Find the value of
y
=
tan x
cos x
(a) '
for
x
=
90°.
The
direct calciilation gives
1
Q>)
630
ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS
RADII OF
CURVATURE
1312.
The equation
of a curve
2/
MM'D
/
(a;)
of the
form

being given to find the value of the radius of curvature (1239). and M' be two points on the curve, Let and M'B the
M
MA
tangents to the curve at these points, and and M'C the normals at the
MC
same
points.
Decreasing the arc
MM',
and
at the limit the chord
MM'
coincides
with the tangent to the curve at
the triangle
angle,
M;
MCM', whose
is
vertex
C
is
the center of curvature,
a right
tri
and we have
and
tanC =
MM'
'MC
MC:
MM'
tan
C
The angle C included by the two normals, and the angle /3 by the tangents, are equal, having their sides perpendicular to each other; and we have tan C = tan /3, and therefore.
included
MC = MM' tan/3
The angle
have
ft
(1)
a'
being an exterior angle of the triangle
a,
AEB, we
=
a

and (1046)
tan^S
=
tan
1
a'
—
tan a
i'
+
tan a tan a'
— i 1+ ii'
and
i'.
(2)
designating the trigonometric tangents
by
i
Since at the
di,
Umit the slope of the tangents
differs
only by a differential
we have,
i'=
i
+
di;
and substituting
this value in (2),
tan
j8
=
•i
1
di
\+
i{i
—i + di)
di
1
+
1='
+
(3)
idi
Furthermore, the right triangle
MM'Q
gives
MM' = ^MQ" + WQ^ =
"^{dxY
+
{dyf
=
dx
y 1 + (^Y

(4)
RADII OF CURVATURE
Substituting the values (3)
63l
and
(4) for
tan
/8
and
MM'
in (1),
we have,
dx y/l
+ /^Y(l +
di
i^
+
idi)
MC =
parison with 1
Noting that idi in the numerator may be neglected in com+ i^, dividing both terms of the fraction by dx
and designating the radius of curvature
MC by p,
+
^^)
we have
P
'
(i
di
(1
dx
Having
«
=
tan a
=
^ = f (x)
be written,
and
— = — = /"
(1
(x),
the above relation
may
PIf
(1
+
u'
jxmHi +
fix)
[f (x)f)
+
[f (x)Y)^
...
fix)
^^^
always taken as plus +, p will and consequently will be positive have the same or negative according as the curve is concave to the positive
the sign of the
numerator
is
sign as /" (x),
2/ordinates or the
1.
negative 2/ordinates.
to
Application
the
parabola.
The equation
of curvature
being (1197)
2/'
=
2 px,
we have
successively,
dx
i^
'
^
'
y
^;.
=
dy
[/'(x)P
=
yfx
°'^
^*=p
Differentiating this last relation (1281),
di
.
.dy
„
yTx'^'Tx'''
2/^ +
,
di
^
2
=
y
n. 0;
«?
and
,
/" T or '
di
,„,
.
(x)
^ ^
= 
r~ = P'
dx
— f
632
ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS
(5) for the radius of curva
These values substituted in formula
ture give,
T
indicates that p has a sign opposite to that of y.
For
2/
=
0,
_
(P!)f
_
2!
=
J9.
Thus at the vertex of the parabola the radius of curvature twice the distance from the vertex to the focus (1195).
2.
is
Application
to the circle.
From
r^,
the equation of the
circle
(1123)
y^+ x^=
we deduce
successively (1288),
dy
2
^'
,
,
—
X
x =
—
dx
•
yi,
dx
=
idy
^_l/_i
y\
or
+ ydi, ,dy\_{\ +
dx)
i')
y
y
Substituting these values of
(5),
/'
f
(x)
and /"
{x) in the general
formula
we have.
/'l+')^ ^ 3
P=
^
W
^
(y'
(2/Hx^)
(2/2
+ x^)h^ = T(2/ + .^^ = T V^m:^== Tr. + x^)(j/^)f
curvature
is
Thus the radius
radius of a
3.
of
constant and equal to the
circle.
to the
Application
is
sine
wave (1296, Fig. 367).
or y
=^
The equation
of the curve
y
= smx,
R sin
x,
RADII OF CURVATURE
and
/'
633
(x)
=R
cos x, f" (x)
=  R sin x.
The formula
(5) for the radius of
curvature gives,
_
For
(1
+ — +
.
R' cos^a;)^
22 sin
a;
x
=
0,
iroT 180°,
(1
2
tt
or 360°,
R')i
that
is,
at the points 0, B,
n
D
.,
there
is
an
inflection or
change
in curvature.
For
P
a;
=
2
'
~o~
'
•
•
•
*^^ radius of curvature has the value
is
=
4.
—n
= T pj
which
the radius of curvature in A, C,
.
.
.
Application
to the ellipse.
From
the equation of the ellipse,
a'b^,
ay+ 6V=
we deduce successively,
'.
^ '
=*
a^y
a'b'y
»
a'b^xy'
aY
^
ff'M
=
yff
= „
+
^
^^2/
y^
y
^
b\
and
«V
¥3?
Substituting these values of y'
for the radius of curvature,
2/"
in the general formula (5)
we
obtain,
"^
\,
''
~
aYI
a*yy
(ay + bV)^
a^'b^Cft^a^
_ /_&^_^\
Va'2/
 ay)
is
For a
=
6
=
r,
the formula gives p
is
=
r,
which
as
it
should be,
since the
curve
then a
circle.
For X
of the
=
and y
=
h,
p
=
(j2
t
'
which
is
the radius of curvature
minor vertices of the
is
axis.
For w
=
and x
=
a,
p
W = —,
a
which
the radius of curvature of the vertices of the major axis.
INTEGRAL CALCULUS
INTRODUCTION
1313.
The
object of integral calculus.
Integration.
Integral.
Integral calculus can be used to find a function
2/
whose derivative
is
y'
= =
=
/ (a;)
/'
(x)
given; or to find a function
y
fix)
whose
differential or differential coefficient
dy
is
=
/'
(x)
dx
given.
As is seen, integral calculus is the inverse of differential calculus. Thus the fundamental functions (1276, 1277, 1278, 1283)
2/
=
a;"",
y
=
log x,
y
=
sin x,
y
=
cos x,
having respectively the derivatives and differentials
y'
=
ma;"'', y'
—2_ = log e
,
y'
— =
cos x,
y'
=—
=—
sin x;
dy
if
—
mx^~'^ dxj dy
—^— = loff 6 dx,
X
dy
cos xdxj
dy
sin xdx,
table gives the fundamental function
one of these derivatives or differentials is given, the above from which it is derived.
for example,
However, since the same derivative,
y'
= =
mx"'~^,
mx'^~'dx,
or the same differential,
dy
corresponds to two functions, namely,
2/
and
y
= / (x) = x™ = f(x)+C
(1)
C
of
being a constant (1279), which can be determined, the result an integration is always written in the form
y
=
fix)
634
+
C,
satisfies the conditions. the increment M'Q' of the M ordinate : V~^ ordinate MP MP = is the differential dy of this y . which is the same thing. and A. substituting .INTEGRAL CALCULUS which signifies 635 tHat if the curve is C (Fig. the constant point on the curve as a is system of C ceases to be arbitrary as soon as one known. Geometrical interpretation of an integral. In practice. tion. as soon values of x and y are known because. and wish to find the original function Suppose the problem to be solved. whose equation y = f{^). and let the curve AMM'B represent the function. M. The derivative. the limit. or. the constant MA is C in relation (1). which approach at and M'. 1314. the tangents at these points are parallels. that is. The process of finding the function y of a differential = fix)+C — f (x) dx is equation dy is called integration. first Indefinite integral. be noted that the three curves have the same slope at the points A. and the increment PP' is of the abscissa OP the differential dx of . these values in equation (1) we may solve for C. and the function the integral of the differ ential dy. Definite integral. 383). the all same will be true of other curves C. whose Fig. y' being given. Considering the two points infinitely near each other. 383 ordinate at any point AP = MP The length It is to A gives. we have dy = r (X) = dy dx' = f {x) dx. ± MA. since /' (x) is the same for each. Sign of integra Limits of an integral.
636 the abscissa ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS OP = x. the sum of increments M'Q'. ordinate of a point A of a certain number and it is seen that in order to pass from the on the curve to another point B. dy = dx^ = dxf {x) = y'dx. read. M"Q" = dy. is This sum the required integral of dy. The element M'M" gives. it and since we have the same is for each element of the curve seen that the quantity BC which is . integral of dy equal to integral of y'dx. to the ordinate at the point A. . read. and written J which is dy = J y'dx. we write. . M. One of these limits can be zero . integral between the limits a integral between the limits a and b of y'dx.^J AB. must be added . To point indicate that this sum or integral is to A to the point B. equal to the sum of the differentials dy. . Since at the hmit the arc MM' coincides with the chord MM' or with tangent to the curve at triangle. M"Q". made between the limits a and b corresponding to two ordinates or particular finite values of the function y. that My = wherein ^dy represents the to dy' "Sii/dx. added is. integral of the differential quantity of and b of dy equal to the and signifies that the the form dy is = /' (x) dx the sum of the increments dy of the function y.MQ' tan (M'MQ'). designating the abscissa at be taken from the A by a and that at B by b. the figure MM'Q' is a right and we have. = dx. sum of all the quantities analogous and 'Sy'dx the is sum of all the products analogous to y'dx. dy^. to be at/ . dy^ which is I y'dx. M'Q' or . to the ordinate is at the point A in order to obtain that the point B.
1315. the A definite integral may be represented geometrically by area of a curve. BR. A is on the or at the left of in each case the integral is written. the hmit h can tive. The hmit a being negative. The calculation of a definite integral whose limits are Let be given. y= Then from 2/ fx^dx (1) ^ ^/ (1276. 637 that is what happens when the point it. AP in order to obtain BR. dy = \ y'dx. Q = I + C.AP = ^^= the required result is obtained Thus by substituting successively to the in the indefinite integral (1) the values of x which correspond limits of the integral results. let it whose coordinates are lx = a = OP / „(x = \y ^\y=a'=AP' To calculate the integral ing to the points b = 0R = h'=BR' x^dx between the limits correspondto finding the length A and B. amounts BQ the which must be added to relation (2) we have.INTEGRAL CALCULUS or negative 2/axis . . given. (2) 'o p n « Now tegral ^^' ^^ be required to calculate this inbetween the limits corresponding to the points A and B. also be zero or nega An gral. From AP = y = ^ + C and and BR = \ y =^^ + C 3?dx. and I dy = \ y'dx. 1313). integral taken between two limits is called a definite inte/ and an integral under the general form dy is called an indefinite integral. and taking the algebraic difference of these two 1316.
'5/B„ is. sum of the corresponding areas. that is. by Thus. y'dx = 4i4. and y' by the ordinate MiPi. that they deter mine the ordinates which bound the area. and it follows that the increment dy = M'Q' of the ordinate y = of the curve C is represented by the area M^PJP^M^. it follows that in passing from the ordinate at the point A to the ordinate at the point B. dy from which = f (x) dx = y'dx. it is seen that the calculation of a definite intealways be reduced to the determination of the area of a curve included between two ordinates which correspond to the limits of the integral. we Fig. since at the limit MJ^^ = M^P^. . 386 j dy = j y'dx ov y = j y'dx. Constructing the curves Q C the function and y = fix) (1) and ^n»). the original function (1). sumtotal BD of all the increments of y will be represented by the the area A^A^B^'B^. Since any other increment of MP the ordinate is likewise represented by a corresponding area. Since in integrating this last expression jg. wherein a and h are the limits of the integral. (2) The infinitesimal increment dx of the variable x being repre sented geometrically by PP' = P^P^. we obtain have. up.the product y'dx is represented by the trapezoid MjPJ'iM^.638 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS C and C" which represent respectively its first derivative. thus representing the first derivative of gral Summing may the required function y = f(x) = J y'dx.
This rule does not apply in the case where n /.. (3) one of the expressions (2) or (3) were given to find the original function.j^ quantity divided the new exponent and ^^dx ov y dx. / Thus we would have. the fdy=f>mx"! dx = of + C. no general method Thus the function y of integration. 639 Integrals of simple functions. that is.f^ + or. ^'^ then the arbitrary constant expression of the function C is added so as to obtain a general whose derivative is mx"""'. dy = mx'"~^dx.=/§= £. Analogy serves as = x'" having the derivative (1280). (1) 2/' ^= and the if = mx""S (2) differential. hf 'dx _ log X ^ log e . and we would write. exponent m — 1 is increased by one by j unit and the .. is There the rule. if C= dx Vc = l + C = oo + (7. the answer would be. thus. Therefore we have.". I dy = mx = ^ = a. we had dyby analogy (1281).RULES FOR INTEGRATION RULES FOR INTEGRATION 1317. afdx = ^Vt + Cn + 1 = —1.
(9) ^ ' J a CSC X cosx ^5—' sin^ X C. _ = sec' x + C. = / —=—5 sin* — X .rfa. .cosx da.»+» = (n + 1) x'^dx. X (17) d^/x . (1287) I sin =— tan + C. ~r X^ dor (1290) = 1 x+C. C. (1290) I —  ('1290) "^ ^ 5— ^ = a. d rf J fa^rfx = J^^a"' log a + { a. xdx a. „ .„„_v fe = 2V^ + C. = . (13) d cot' X = =^. = ^ ^^^dx.^„.. . (1282) I cos. (11) d cos' X d tan»x = ~^^ = (1290) r 7^^ = cosi x + C. ex' log e a. (1280) fx^dx = ^—^ + C (1) d\ogx ^ log log a./ / COS"* sm —— X ic 5 da.640 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS Table of Integrals and Their Corresponding Differentials da.Vx21 .g. = CSC"' (15) — — xyy? dl = ^.n^x)dx. x+C. + a. (14) *^ dsec'x= d CSC' X — 3. = sinx cos C. (7) d cot X = = = X ^^ COS^X (J^ = . d^ ^ (1281) r^^dx = \ogx + C.:^ 1/ i JI tan"' x cot' + C. J . rd£ (2) . esc (10) ^ sini = Vi  (1290) x^ . dx. ^ log a: __ ^ ' J (1289) X log e ^ da^=^^^a''dx. / J vn^ = sin^x + . = X ar ) 1 / »^ — . (6) rftana._. =— sin xdx.= cos^x ^={l + ta. (1290) /j^ = r^^.. = ^ 2 Vx F'(x)dx (1280) /. C. (16) xVx^l x^ (1280) J «^ f^ = + +C. C + C. C. sec x + x C. +^ . . (4) ' ^ sin =cos xrfa. dec ) J / XVX^ . (5) cos a. (12) j^ J. Vx rF'(x)dx „ / (18) .. ^ . —5— Sin ic .cot / (8) d sec a.
giving (1285.'t+i x""*"* "*" ^ ^ m+ dy 1 n 1 ~p+ a. the algebraic sum. All constant factors in a differential expression appear in the coefficient of the integral of this expression. dy = x'^dx + + afdx — x'^dx. j. Integrating the differential expression. Thus. which a is a constant. = u + vz + C. Thus. = dx + cos xdx. 641 The integral of the variable x is equal to the sum of several differentials of the same sum of the integrals tvhich compose this sum. = I dx + j cos xdx = log x + sin x + C. Integrating. d{u + — z) = du + dv — Integrating both members. we obtain (1317). y in = u + V  z. af'{x)dx. . C being the sum of the constants which must be added to each particular integral. we have. we have af{x) af'{x)dx = /° + C. (1) which u. I I or d(u + v y z)= du+ I dv  j dz + C.RULES FOR INTEGRATION 1318. we obtain y 1319. (1317). giving (1284). y in = = af(x).*""*"' "^ ^° 1 Example 2. Example 1. the function. x. As example we have (1317) y=f5xMx = ^+ C. 3d) dy Integrating this function. v and z are any functions V of the same variable dz.
+ C. but simpler to operate in the following manner: Putting ax + bx z = rr b z. If the logarithms are taken in the Napierian system 1. ""loge their integrals X X dx = log a. 1317. Uax + bx'y dx= \ a^xHx + / 2 abxMx + ^• / b'^xl^dx _ aV 2 abx* 6V ."3" + ~4~ + T~ + 1321. a and b being constant coefficients.642 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS PRINCIPAL THEOREMS OF INTEGRATION 1320. Let it be required to integrate dy = {ax + bxTdx. (1) The second member may be expanded by Newton's binomial it is theorem (530). the integrals of certain functions (1317) may The dy be deduced directly by divisors. /dx _ log X dx log e ^ Remark. (408). we have (479. making these constants appear as multipliers or Example 1. we have x = —+ a and dx —+— a ^ dz. 1318). ^dx = loge X + C. differing only differ also by this by the constant coefficient log e. Example 1. and each term separately integrated. since loge e = we would have. f Example 2. . b . Considering the constant coefficient. same coefficient. or {a + = b)x 1 = z. differentials = — and dy = dx. thus (1317). Integration by changing the independent variable or by A differential function which is not immediately iiitegrable sometimes becomes so by changing the independent variable. substitution.
1 ^+' ^ ' ' y aVbm+l^ z. or sin xdx = — dz.= / t/ Sin 2/ COS X dx.THEOREMS OF INTEGRATION Substituting these values oi ax 643 + bx and dx in relation (1).da. b m+1 dx +^ Find the integral = I . then dx = adz. Example 3. (1') Putting  X = z. 'a x = zb and dx = dz. w= f—£=dz = a^ fi£L= = a^sm^z+C=a^sm^. then dz (1").+ C. then substituting ax +' hx for we have. (1317) Find the integral /I tana. and substituting in ^ rdz^logz^^^^hgco^^^^ J z log e log e (408).rfa. and substituting in (1'). — a . dx. A being a constant. = — loge cos X + C. = I — 1 . and /xV I  = z^. dx = I . 1319). l_{px + hxr^ y~a + Example y 2. =— sin a. Example 4. log^e Taking the logarithms in the Napierian system and therefore y = 1. integrate Putting ax + = z. we have and integrating both members (1317. (1") Putting cos X = z.
put X = dz a sin 2. put = M. _ . + 6)7 "^ *"• Example Find the integral y = j Va^ — xMx. and therefore Va^ — a? = "^/a^ — d^ sin^ 2 = a Vl sin^ 2 = a cos 2.Cdz . 1318. (a') from (1756) dx = a cos 2 and x^ = — a? siv? z. (1041) Substituting these values in (a). ^ a'Vloge z 1 ^ 2^^ by its ^ b. (a) 2 being taken as the first auxiliary variable. and substituting dy = A(zdy hfdz A IzHz _ 2 hzdz A/fds 2bzdz a'\ 2^ 2? b^dz\ «' / or = :^J^2 hz^dz + hHH^ . log e + 2 (oa. then integrating both members (1317. fcos 22 2/ c?z Tcos 2 2 = ^+aJ^d2. (6) Having (1047) o cos 2 2 = 2 cos^ 02 2—1. ~ a^Vloge^ 2 22^/''"^' and replacing value ax + ^A ^ / log (ax + b) "^ 2b ax _ 6 6^ \ a»\ 5. then 2 = ^ and dz = —. be written J and cos^ 2 2 = 1 + cos 22 ^ .644 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS in (1'"). y = j a^ cos^ zdz= 1 a^ I cos^ 2 d2. In order to integrate the second term of this 2 2 last relation. . the relation (6) may n+cos22 . . 1320).
Find the integral y = f 'sf^'+l^dx (a) wherein p Putting is a constant.and z a = sin"'  a and from (1041. now substituting these values in the last expression for y. X a? 2/=2^^^ simplif jdng a + T^a^— I 2 „x y/a? — x^ ' and adding the constant C. (b) wherein z an auxiliary variable. 1047) we have sin 2 z = 2 sin z cos z. we have 2/ =^ "2 sini  a + V^^^^ + C This formula finds application in (1328) for determining the area of the circle and the ellipse. r)2 =x+ + + p^ + •^f a.—^ — — 2zx. the relation (a) becomes y = j (z — x) dx = I zdx — j xdx = I zdx (a') From the relation (6) we deduce successively. a' . Vp^ + is x^ = z — X. f+ p' x^= z^ 2" z^ 2zx + x\ (c) = = = X z 2^ 2z 2 x' . _. (572) a..2.THEOREMS OF INTEGRATION and then we have 646 Since the relation (a') gives sin 2 = . . Example 6. and cos z = V1 — sin^ z = \ y \ 5 of' = a . 2 Vp" + x^.
. 1322. differentiating the expression we have (1281) from which. 1281) = from whicli dx 2 zdz — 2 zdx — 2 xdz. 1280. Integration by parts. we have (1320) ' J Ldx^ fil+fUl = J 2z f^_^ J 2 + J r§^ = ^ + ^ 1^^ 2 z 4i 2 log e Now substituting for z and z'^. which u and v are functions y of x. we obtain. 1279. (A) . and in (1389) for the rectification of the spiral of Archimedes. udv = d (uv) —vdu.646 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS we obtain (1276.= ^ + VPT^+^l2i(^±^^+c. = (z — x) dz = \ 2z z dx'va. = /v^^. In fact. id) This formula will be used in (1338) for the rectification of a parabola. dy = d (uv) = vdu + udv.z. = uv. Differentiating the equation (c). thus. y and integrating both members. I ) _ {^ + p') dz z 2z^ z Substituting this value of dx of relation (a'). Integrating the expression dy in = udv. = I udv — uv — I vdu. This value of tegral j zdx substituted in relation (a') gives the in upon adding the constant C. y = j udv = uv — j vdu.
= du. (1285) .THEOREMS OF INTEGRATION as THIiis 64? the integral of the product udv is transformed to an algebraic" difference one term of which is the product uv of the / variables (functions of x). dx Putting X sin x u. C1277) and putting dx = dv. Example 1.cosa. Example Find the integral y = I x'a^dx. v = j sin x dx =— cos x. Putting log X = u. . X (log a. (396) Example Find the integral y = = j xsin xdx. log x I  x log e. and the other vdu. j udv = uv — j vdu. may be simpler. or I logxdx 2. . we have 2xdx=du ^^ a'dx = log e dv. and dx = dv. y = I log xdx = = X log X  j X — = a. we have du = i^^^ X v. + sin + C. Find the integral y = f logxdx. y = I xsin xdx 3. although of the same form as the given integral. (1317) Then from formula (A).log e) + C = x log  + C. = . Putting x^ = u and and a'" = v. we have x = Then from formula (A).xcosx— I cos xdx = a. a.
(B) a°2 x dx. from formula (A). Putting u = Va^ — and x = v and differentiating. v= by Va^ I Va^ — x^dx = X Va^ — a. y=i'x^d'dx=x'a''To put calculate / \d'2xdx. these relations give (1283) du = Va^ ' — dx. 2 X a^dx = u. x^ and dx = dv. r^^ w' = log a (1317) ^ ' Substituting once more in formula (A). (a) Multiplying and dividing the first member "' . of this equation — x^.^ — / dx. J fa^2xdx = 2x^^a^log a J f2^^a^dx log a log a log a log a \ log a log a/ Now substituting this integral in formula (B). j udv = uv — j vdu. . and = dv. C. "^^ f y/^^T^'dx = r f ~ dx = f cZa. Example Find the integral (1321) y = j Va^ — x^ x'dx.(1=^= dx. Therefore.648 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS Then from formula (A) j udv = uv — \ vdu. . then 2 dx then = du v. 2/= J fx^a^dx=xV2^^a^(x'^^) + log o log a/ \ 4.
two numerators of relation (3) be equal. A = B. Va^a:^ (b) ^ ^ Adding the equations 2 and {b). a . /. Example 2). we have. Example Find the integral Replacing —^ ^ by the sum ' of two fractions.C ^ ( ^^ ~ J a^ — 3? J2a\a + x 2a{a + x)^ J a \ — x/ ^*^ y^J 2a(axy . 649 from (1794. then the required integral is (1321) 7^ — x^dx = sin"'  + Va^ — x' + C. putting a^ — ^ oc^ a + X +^ a — X (2) and reducing to a common denominator. thus. 1323. we have a^ — x' 2 a\a + X a — ' xj and the given integral (1) becomes ^^ \ ^ °'" = C ^^ .x'dx= (a) a^ sin>   a J / . aiA + B) = A^B = 2a ^. Substituting these values of A and B in expression (2). 1 a:(g^) + a(^ + g) a^ — 3^ €? — 1^ (3) The quantities A and 5 in the preceding relations are indeter minate quantities. to which values may be assigned such that the Thus. Va^ Va^ dx x^ = a^sin"^ . Examples 1. putting 1. f y/a? Va^  x'dx = a^ sin^ + x Va^  x^.THEOREMS OF INTEGRATION or. of integrals involving logarithmic functions. dx.
~ J Put loi z = ^. / difference of du r dv ^ logM 2 a log e _ log!) 2au J 2 av 2 a log e Now replacing u and v by their values (5). a+^^ _x log e z (2) z X being an auxiliary variable. (3) (4) d^=^and.= a Relation (1) ^^^i^. Find the integral r ^ dx J x^a^' first Following the same method as in the example.650 Putting ELEMENTS OFt!ALCULVS + X = u and a — x = v. a (5) we have Relation (4) becomes.log e\ a J ax\ J ax / C\ogedx_x by its value (3). From (2) az + log e = a. 1 1 /a + x\ _ Example 2. integral. \ogx (gv f'^^ by replacing x we obtain the required y= i [(az + log e) . „_ Finally. . and observing that the two logarithms is equal to the logarithm of a quotient. we obtain 2/=2^^"s(fT^)+^Example 3. dx = du and — dx =+ dv. Find the integral r dz_ (1) . a may be written dx " rl^ J X z fdx^^ rd_x/x.log {az + log e)] + C.
^ loge^^ ^ loge ^ ' ' m (C). considering a = 1. 1x' and substitutmg . . we find 2/ = 5. . 2 [(az  log e) + log (az  log e)] + C. . Proceeding as in the first example in article (1323). make the following substitua tions in relation (1): = 1 and x = —=— > (£) then. y + log (z \oge) + e) C. / 2(1+1^) dz r dz ^2(1. = z  ^logiz + +2 (^  log + C.THEOREMS OF INTEGRATION Example 4. we have. and we can write the result in the form y= 2^{z + log e) log e) log {z + log e)] log e)] + \i{zSimplifying. . the above relation (A) may be written. 1x^ and replacing x by its 2\l+x^ 1xJ' 2r ^ value (B). Example Find the integral '^b' r dz Referring to first example (1323).1^)' These integrals are the same as those in the third and fourth examples. 651 Find the integral y ' — r J I dz ' log e z Following the same method as in the third example.
ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS Integrals of trigonometric functions obtained in the form of logarithmic functions. Example 1.652 1324. (1) .
= = .' _ (m sin a. _ /dx /dx sin"" a. The two following general integrals may be solved with the aid of the two preceding examples. 653 Find the integral /dx : cos X in the Putting sin x = z. For m= 2. cos X = tanx. and following the same course as 1 . formula {B) gives _ X sin X 1 r dx cos x „ dx / > 2 cos^ x 2 J . the latter gives I /dx cos^ dx X sin cos. m—lj m— 2 sin^^^a. Taking the differentials. dz cosx Vl — . For m = 3. / Example dx cos^x _ ~ sinx 2 cos^x 1 /I + sin x\ „ 4 log e U — sin x/ 3.„. we have. preceding example. (m — — 1) sin™"' a. — cos X m — 2 r dx . Generalization of the two preceding examples.. = dz or cos xdx dz dz and ax .THEOREMS OF INTEGRATION Example 2. T dx _ . Substituting the value foimd in the second example for cos a.\ = z.. 1) cos' m—lj X cos'"~*a. cos x = Vl d sin X sin^ x or cos x = Vl = • z'. ^ 2^ . Remark. which conforms with the result given in the table (1317). cos^x l^cos^^'a. Find the integral /dx cos X Putting sin x fr. /dx + x\ „ ^^ = 2krei°Hr^^i^J + ^' /I sin .
and following a course analogous to that in the third example. X = ^j and 2dx (1324. = dz. a. iC SlU X and putting cos x = z. we obtain /dx cot X _ log cos X log e ^ Example 5. dx tan X _ log sin X log e _ Find the integral r dx J cot Writing cot x a. 2x = z. INTEGRATION BY SERIES Example 1. cos a. —= log tan ^ ^ 2 = log tan x. dz ^ r Jg VI . a' _ frf2_log2. J sm 2 a. = COS . we obtain Example 1) V '^ therefore = = J smz  I . cos a. ' ^ 2/ / J smx cos X = log tan x ° + C.654 ELEMENTS OF CALCULUS Substituting in relation (2). r^_: loge therefore relation (1) gives / Example 4. ^ ' This may be written (1069) r J Putting 2 2dx ^ r^dx_^ sm a. Find the integral /r dx . Find the integral " J sin a. Substituting in (2) the values of 2 and 2 dx in terms of z.
13). y = 2. each term of this . y ^ = Ccos xdx + r J I dx 2 cos a. the terms of the second member by