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Introduction to Abstract Mathematics
(Second part of MA103)
Amol Sasane
ii
Contents
1 Analysis 1
1.1 The real numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Sequences and limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.1 Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.2 Limit of a convergent sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.3 Bounded and monotone sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.4 Algebra of limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.2.5 Sandwich theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.2.6 Subsequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.3 Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.3.1 Deﬁnition of continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.3.2 Continuous functions preserve convergent sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.3.3 Extreme value theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.3.4 Intermediate value theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2 Algebra 39
2.1 Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.1.1 Deﬁnition of a Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.1.2 Subgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.1.3 Homomorphisms and isomorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.1.4 Cosets and Lagrange’s theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.2 Vector spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.2.1 Deﬁnition of a vector space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.2.2 Subspaces and linear combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
iii
iv Contents
2.2.3 Basis of a vector space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.2.4 Linear transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Solutions 69
Bibliography 127
Index 129
Chapter 1
Analysis
Analysis is the theory behind real numbers, sequences, and functions. The word ‘theory’ is im
portant. You might, for example, have a good idea of what we mean by a ‘limit’ of a convergent
sequence or the notion of a ‘continuous’ function, but in this part of the course we try to formalize
such notions.
1.1 The real numbers
The rational number system is inadequate for many purposes. For instance, there is no rational
number q such that q
2
= 2, and the set
S = ¦q ∈ Q [ q
2
≤ 2¦
does not have a largest element in Q. So we see that the rational number system has certain holes.
The real number system R ﬁlls these gaps. Thus the set
S = ¦q ∈ R [ q
2
≤ 2¦
has a largest element. This is a consequence of a very important property of the real numbers,
called the least upper bound property. But before we state this property of R, we need a few
deﬁnitions.
Deﬁnitions. Let S be a subset of R.
1. An element u ∈ R is said to be an upper bound of S if for all x ∈ S, x ≤ u. If the set of all
upper bounds of S is not empty, then S is said to be bounded above.
2. An element l ∈ R is said to be a lower bound of S if for all x ∈ S, l ≤ x. If the set of all
lower bounds of S is not empty, then S is said to be bounded below.
3. The set S is said to be bounded if it is bounded above and it is bounded below.
Examples.
1. The set S = ¦x ∈ R [ 0 ≤ x < 1¦ is bounded. Any real number y satisfying 1 ≤ y (for
instance 1, π, 100) is an upper bound of S, and any real number z satisfying z ≤ 0 (for
instance 0, −1) is a lower bound of S.
1
2 Chapter 1. Analysis
2. The set S = ¦n [ n ∈ N¦ is not bounded. Although it is bounded below (any real number
x ≤ 1 serves as a lower bound), it has no upper bound, and so it is not bounded above.
3. The set
1
S = ¦(−1)
n
[ n ∈ N¦ is bounded. It is bounded above by 1 and bounded below by
−1.
4. The set S =
_
1
n
¸
¸
n ∈ N
_
is bounded. Any real number x satisfying 1 ≤ x is an upper
bound, and 0 is a lower bound.
5. The sets Z and R are neither bounded above nor bounded below. Indeed, this is a conse
quence of the inequality z < z + 1.
6. The set ∅ is bounded. (Why?) ♦
We now introduce the notions of a least upper bound (also called supremum) and a greatest
lower bound (also called inﬁmum) of a subset S of R.
Deﬁnitions. Let S be a subset of R.
1. An element u
∗
∈ R is said to be a least upper bound of S (or a supremum of S) if
(a) u
∗
is an upper bound of S, and
(b) if u is an upper bound of S, then u
∗
≤ u.
2. An element l
∗
∈ R is said to be a greatest lower bound of S (or an inﬁmum of S) if
(a) l
∗
is a lower bound of S, and
(b) if l is a lower bound of S, then l ≤ l
∗
.
Example. If S = ¦x ∈ R [ 0 ≤ x < 1¦, then the supremum of S is 1 and the inﬁmum of S is 0.
Clearly 1 is an upper bound of S.
Now we show that if u is another upper bound, then 1 ≤ u. Suppose not, that is, u < 1. Then
we have
0 ≤ u <
u + 1
2
< 1, (1.1)
where the ﬁrst inequality is a consequence of the facts that u is an upper bound of S and 0 ∈ S,
while the last two inequalities follow using u < 1. From (1.1), it follows that the number
u+1
2
satisﬁes 0 <
u+1
2
< 1, and so it belongs to S. The middle inequality in (1.1) above then shows
that u cannot be an upper bound for S, a contradiction. Hence 1 is a supremum.
Next we show that this is the only supremum, since if u
∗
is another supremum, then in
particular u
∗
is also an upper bound, and the above argument shows that 1 ≤ u
∗
. But 1 < u
∗
is
not possible as 1 is an upper bound, and as u
∗
is a supremum, u
∗
must be less than or equal to
1. So it follows that u
∗
= 1.
Similarly one can show that the inﬁmum of S is 0. ♦
In the above example, there was a unique supremum and inﬁmum of the set S. In fact, this
is always the case and we have the following result.
1
Note that this set is simply the ﬁnite set (that is, the set has ﬁnite cardinality) {−1, 1}. More generally, any
ﬁnite set S is bounded.
1.1. The real numbers 3
Theorem 1.1.1 If the least upper bound of a subset S of R exists, then it is unique.
Proof Suppose that u
∗
and u
∗
are two least upper bounds of S. Then in particular u
∗
and u
∗
are also upper bounds of S. Now since u
∗
is a least upper bound of S and u
∗
is an upper bound
of S, it follows that
u
∗
≤ u
∗
. (1.2)
Furthermore, since u
∗
is a least upper bound of S and u
∗
is an upper bound of S, it follows that
u
∗
≤ u
∗
. (1.3)
From (1.2) and (1.3), we obtain u
∗
= u
∗
.
Thus it makes sense to talk about the least upper bound of a set. The least upper bound of a
set S (if it exists) is denoted by
sup S
(the abbreviation of ‘supremum of S’). Similarly, the inﬁmum of a set S (if it exists) is also unique,
and is denoted by
inf S.
When the supremum and the inﬁmum of a set belong to the set, then we give them special names:
Deﬁnitions.
1. If supS ∈ S, then sup S is called a maximum of S, denoted by max S.
2. If inf S ∈ S, then inf S is called a minimum of S, denoted by min S.
Examples.
1. If S = ¦x ∈ R [ 0 ≤ x < 1¦, then supS = 1 ,∈ S and so max S does not exist. But
inf S = 0 ∈ S, and so min S = 0.
2. If S = ¦n [ n ∈ N¦, then sup S does not exist, inf S = 1, max S does not exist, and min S = 1.
3. If S = ¦(−1)
n
[ n ∈ N¦, then sup S = 1, inf S = −1, max S = 1, min S = −1.
4. If S =
_
1
n
¸
¸
n ∈ N
_
, then sup S = 1 and max S = 1. We show below (after Theorem 1.1.2)
that inf S = 0. So min S does not exist.
5. For the sets Z and R, sup, inf, max, min do not exist.
6. For the set ∅, sup, inf, max, min do not exist. ♦
In the above examples, we note that if S is nonempty and bounded above, then its supremum
exists. In fact this is a fundamental property of the real numbers, called the least upper bound
property of the real numbers, which we state below:
If S is a nonempty subset of R having an upper bound, then sup S exists.
4 Chapter 1. Analysis
Remarks(∗).
1. Note that the set of rational numbers do not possess this property. For instance, the set
S = ¦q ∈ Q [ q
2
≤ 2¦
has an upper bound, say 2 (indeed, if q > 2, then q
2
> 4 > 2, and so q ,∈ S), but we now
show that it does not have a supremum in Q. Assume on the contrary that u
∗
∈ Q is a
supremum for S. Deﬁne
r = u
∗
−
u
2
∗
−2
u
∗
+ 2
. (1.4)
Then we can check that
r
2
−2 =
2(u
2
∗
−2)
(u
∗
+ 2)
2
(1.5)
We have the following cases:
1
◦
Suppose that u
2
∗
< 2. From (1.5) we obtain r ∈ S, and from (1.4) it follows that r > u
∗
,
which contradicts the fact that u
∗
is an upper bound of S.
2
◦
Suppose that u
2
∗
= 2. This is impossible, since u
∗
is a rational number.
3
◦
Suppose that u
2
∗
> 2. We see that r is an upper bound of S (indeed, if q > r, then
2
q
2
> r
2
> 2, and so q ,∈ S). But (1.4) implies that r < u
∗
, contradicting the fact that u
∗
is
the supremum.
2. In Exercise 6 on page 7 below, given a nonempty set S of R, we deﬁne −S = ¦−x [ x ∈ S¦.
One can show that if a nonempty subset S of R is bounded below, then −S is bounded above
and so sup(−S) exists, by the least upper bound property. The negative of this supremum,
namely −sup(−S), can then be shown to serve as the greatest lower bound of S (this is
precisely the content of Exercise 6). Thus the real numbers also have the ‘greatest lower
bound property’: If S is a nonempty subset of R having an lower bound, then inf S exists.
We now prove the following theorem, which is called the Archimedean property of the real
numbers.
Theorem 1.1.2 (Archimedean property.) If x, y ∈ R and x > 0, then there exists an n ∈ N such
that y < nx.
Proof If not, then the nonempty set S = ¦nx [ n ∈ N¦ has an upper bound y, and so by the least
upper bound property of the reals, it has a least upper bound u
∗
. But then u
∗
− x < u
∗
(since
x is positive) and so it follows that u
∗
− x cannot be an upper bound of S. Hence there exists a
natural number m such that u
∗
− x < mx, that is, u
∗
< (m + 1)x ∈ S. This contradicts the fact
that u
∗
is an upper bound of S.
Example. If S =
_
1
n
¸
¸
n ∈ N
_
, then inf S = 0. We know that 0 is a lower bound of S. Suppose
that l is a lower bound of S such that l > 0. By the Archimedean property (with the real numbers
x and y taken as x = 1 (> 0) and y =
1
l
), there exists a n ∈ N such that
1
l
= y < nx = n 1 = n,
and so
1
n
< l, contradicting the fact that l is a lower bound of S. Thus any lower bound of S
must be less than or equal to 0. Hence 0 is the inﬁmum of S. ♦
2
the last inequality follows from (1.5)
1.1. The real numbers 5
Deﬁnition. An interval is a set consisting of all the real numbers between two given real numbers,
or of all the real numbers on one side or the other of a given number. So an interval is a set of
any of the following forms, where a, b ∈ R:
PSfrag replacements
a
a
a
a
a
a
b
b
b
b
b
b
(a, b) = ¦x ∈ R [ a < x < b¦
[a, b] = ¦x ∈ R [ a ≤ x ≤ b¦
(a, b] = ¦x ∈ R [ a < x ≤ b¦
[a, b) = ¦x ∈ R [ a ≤ x < b¦
(a, ∞) = ¦x ∈ R [ a < x¦
[a, ∞) = ¦x ∈ R [ a ≤ x¦
(−∞, b) = ¦x ∈ R [ x < b¦
(−∞, b] = ¦x ∈ R [ x ≤ b¦
(−∞, ∞) = R
In the above notation for intervals, a parenthesis ‘(’ or ‘)’ means that the respective endpoint
is not included, and a square bracket ‘[’ or ‘]’ means that the endpoint is included. Thus [0, 1)
means the set of all real numbers x such that 0 ≤ x < 1. (Note that the use of the symbol ∞ in
the notation for intervals is simply a matter of convenience and is not be taken as suggesting that
there is a number ∞.)
In analysis, in order to talk about notions such as convergence and continuity, we will need a
notion of ‘closeness’ between real numbers. This is provided by the absolute value [ [, and the
distance between real numbers x and y is [x −y[. We give the deﬁnitions below.
Deﬁnitions.
1. The absolute value of a real number x is denoted by [x[, and it is deﬁned as follows:
[x[ =
_
x if x ≥ 0,
−x if x < 0.
2. The distance between two real numbers x and y is the absolute value [x−y[ of their diﬀerence.
Thus [1[ = 1, [0[ = 0, [ −1[ = 1, and the distance between the real numbers −1 and 1 is equal
to [ −1 −1[ = [ −2[ = 2. The distance gives a notion of closeness of two points, which is crucial in
the formalization of the notions of analysis. We can now specify regions comprising points close
to a certain point x
0
∈ R in terms of inequalities in absolute values, that is, by demanding that
the distance of the points of the region, to the point x
0
, is less than a certain positive number δ,
say δ = 0.01 or δ = 0.0000001, and so on. See Exercise 9 on page 8 and Figure 1.1.
PSfrag replacements
x
0
−δ x
0
+δ
I
x
0
x
Figure 1.1: The interval I = (x
0
− δ, x
0
+δ) = ¦x ∈ R [ [x − x
0
[ < δ¦ is the set of all points in R
whose distance to the point x
0
is strictly less than δ (> 0).
6 Chapter 1. Analysis
The following properties of the absolute value will be useful in the sequel.
Theorem 1.1.3 If x, y are real numbers, then
[xy[ = [x[ [y[ and (1.6)
[x +y[ ≤ [x[ +[y[. (1.7)
Proof We prove (1.6) by exhausting all possible cases:
1
◦
x = 0 or y = 0. Then [x[ = 0 or [y[ = 0, and so [x[ [y[ = 0. On the other hand, as x = 0 or
y = 0, it follows that xy = 0 and so [xy[ = 0.
2
◦
x > 0 and y > 0. Then [x[ = x and [y[ = y, and so [x[ [y[ = xy. On the other hand, as x > 0
and y > 0, it follows that xy > 0 and so [xy[ = xy.
3
◦
x > 0 and y < 0. Then [x[ = x and [y[ = −y, and so [x[ [y[ = x(−y) = −xy. On the other
hand, as x > 0 and y < 0, it follows that xy < 0 and so [xy[ = −xy.
4
◦
x < 0 and y > 0. This follows from 3
◦
above by interchanging x and y.
5
◦
x < 0 and y < 0. Then [x[ = −x and [y[ = −y, and so [x[ [y[ = (−x)(−y) = xy. On the
other hand, as x < 0 and y < 0, it follows that xy > 0 and so [xy[ = xy.
This proves (1.6).
Next we prove (1.7). First observe that from the deﬁnition of [ [, it follows that for any real
x ∈ R, [x[ ≥ x: indeed if x ≥ 0, then [x[ = x, while if x < 0, then −x > 0, and so [x[ = −x > 0 > x.
From (1.6), we also have [ −x[ = [ −1 x[ = [ −1[[x[ = 1[x[ = [x[, for all x ∈ R, and so it follows
that [x[ = [ −x[ ≥ −x for all x ∈ R. We have the following cases:
1
◦
x+y ≥ 0. Then [x+y[ = x+y. As [x[ ≥ x and [y[ ≥ y, we obtain [x[ +[y[ ≥ x+y = [x+y[.
2
◦
x + y < 0. Then [x + y[ = −(x + y). Since [x[ ≥ −x and [y[ ≥ −y, it follows that
[x[ +[y[ ≥ −x + (−y) = −(x +y) = [x +y[.
This proves (1.7).
It is easy to check that the distance satisﬁes the following properties:
D1. (Positive deﬁniteness.) For all x, y ∈ R, [x − y[ ≥ 0. If [x −y[ = 0 then x = y.
D2. (Symmetry.) For all x, y ∈ R, [x −y[ = [y −x[.
D3. (Triangle inequality.) For all x, y, z ∈ R, [x −z[ ≤ [x −y[ +[y −z[.
Exercises.
1. Provide the following information about the set S
An
upper
bound
A
lower
bound
Is S
bounded?
sup S inf S
If sup S exists,
then is sup S
in S?
If inf S exists,
then is inf S
in S?
max S min S
where S is given by:
1.1. The real numbers 7
(a) (0, 1]
(b) [0, 1]
(c) (0, 1)
(d)
_
1
n
¸
¸
n ∈ Z ¸ ¦0¦
_
(e)
_
−
1
n
¸
¸
n ∈ N
_
(f)
_
n
n+1
¸
¸
¸ n ∈ N
_
(g) ¦x ∈ R [ x
2
≤ 2¦
(h) ¦0, 2, 5, 2005¦
(i)
_
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
_ ¸
¸
n ∈ N
_
(j) ¦x
2
[ x ∈ R¦
(k) ¦
x
2
1+x
2
[ x ∈ R¦ .
2. Determine whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE.
(a) If u is an upper bound of a subset S of R, and u
< u, then u
is not an upper bound
for S.
(b) If u
∗
is the least upper bound of a subset S of R, and is any positive real number,
then u
∗
− is not an upper bound of S.
(c) Every subset of R has a maximum.
(d) Every subset of R has a supremum.
(e) Every bounded subset of R has a maximum.
(f) Every bounded subset of R has a supremum.
(g) Every bounded nonempty subset of R has a supremum.
(h) Every set that has a supremum is bounded above.
(i) For every set that has a maximum, the maximum belongs to the set.
(j) For every set that has a supremum, the supremum belongs to the set.
(k) For every set S that is bounded above, [S[ deﬁned by ¦[x[ [ x ∈ S¦ is bounded.
(l) For every set S that is bounded, [S[ deﬁned by ¦[x[ [ x ∈ S¦ is bounded.
(m) For every bounded set S, if inf S < x < sup S, then x ∈ S.
3. For any nonempty bounded set S, prove that inf S ≤ supS, and that the equality holds iﬀ
3
S is a singleton set (that is a set with cardinality 1).
4. Let A and B be nonempty subsets of R that are bounded above and such that A ⊂ B. Prove
that sup A ≤ sup B.
5. Let A and B be nonempty subsets of R that are bounded above and deﬁne
A+B = ¦x +y [ x ∈ A and y ∈ B¦.
Prove that sup(A+B) exists and that sup(A+B) ≤ supA+ sup B.
6. Let S be a nonempty subset of real numbers which is bounded below. Let −S denote the set
of all real numbers −x, where x belongs to S. Prove that inf S exists and inf S = −sup(−S).
7. Let S be a nonempty set of positive real numbers, and deﬁne S
−1
=
_
1
x
¸
¸
x ∈ S
_
. Show that
S
−1
is bounded above iﬀ inf S > 0. Furthermore, in case inf S > 0, show that supS
−1
=
1
inf S
.
3
The abbreviation ‘iﬀ’ is standard in Mathematics, and it stands for ‘if and only if’.
8 Chapter 1. Analysis
8. Let A
n
, n ∈ N, be a collection of sets.
The notation
n∈N
A
n
denotes the intersection of the sets A
n
, n ∈ N, that is,
n∈N
A
n
= ¦x [ ∀n ∈ N, x ∈ A
n
¦,
and we use
_
n∈N
A
n
to denote the union of the sets A
n
, n ∈ N, that is,
_
n∈N
A
n
= ¦x [ ∃n ∈ N such that x ∈ A
n
¦.
Prove that
(a) ∅ =
n∈N
_
0,
1
n
_
.
(b) ¦0¦ =
n∈N
_
0,
1
n
_
.
(c) (0, 1) =
_
n∈N
_
1
n + 2
, 1 −
1
n + 2
_
.
(d) [0, 1] =
n∈N
_
−
1
n
, 1 +
1
n
_
.
9. Let x
0
∈ R and δ > 0. Prove that (x
0
−δ, x
0
+δ) = ¦x ∈ R [ [x −x
0
[ < δ¦.
10. Prove that if x, y are real numbers, then [[x[ −[y[[ ≤ [x −y[.
11. Show that a subset S of R is bounded iﬀ there exists a M ∈ R such that for all x ∈ S,
[x[ ≤ M.
1.2 Sequences and limits
1.2.1 Sequences
The notion of a sequence occurs in ordinary conversation. An example is the phrase “an unfor
tunate sequence of events”. In this case, we envision one event causing another, which in turn
causes another event and so on. We can identify a ﬁrst event, a second event, etcetera.
A sequence of real numbers is a list
a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, . . .
of real numbers, where there is the ﬁrst number (namely a
1
), the second number (namely a
2
), and
so on. For example,
1,
1
2
,
1
3
, . . .
is a sequence. The ﬁrst number is 1, the second number is
1
2
and so on. (There may not be a
connection between the numbers appearing in a sequence.) If we think of a
1
as f(1), a
2
as f(2),
and so on, then it becomes clear that a sequence is a special type of function, namely one with
domain N and codomain R.
1.2. Sequences and limits 9
Deﬁnition. A sequence is a function f : N →R.
Only the notation is somewhat unusual. Instead of writing f(n) for the value of f at a natural
number n, we write a
n
. The entire sequence is then written in any one of the following ways:
(a
n
)
n∈N
, (a
n
)
∞
n=1
, (a
n
)
n≥1
, (a
n
).
In (a
n
)
∞
n=1
, the ∞ symbol indicates that the assignment process 1 → a
1
, 2 → a
2
, . . . continues
indeﬁnitely. The nth term a
n
of a sequence may be deﬁned explicitly by a formula involving n, as
in the example given above:
a
n
=
1
n
, n ∈ N.
It might also sometimes be deﬁned recursively. For example,
a
1
= 1, a
n+1
=
n
n + 1
a
n
for n ∈ N.
(Write down the ﬁrst few terms of this sequence.)
Examples.
1.
_
1
n
_
n∈N
is a sequence with the nth term given by
1
n
, for n ∈ N. This is the sequence
1,
1
2
,
1
3
, . . . .
2.
_
1 +
1
n
_
n∈N
is a sequence with the nth term given by 1 +
1
n
, for n ∈ N. This is the sequence
2,
3
2
,
4
3
,
5
4
,
6
5
,
7
6
, . . . .
3.
_
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
__
n∈N
is a sequence with the nth term given by (−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
_
, for n ∈ N. This
is the sequence
−2,
3
2
, −
4
3
,
5
4
, −
6
5
,
7
6
, . . . .
4. ((−1)
n
)
n∈N
is a sequence with the nth term given by (−1)
n
, for n ∈ N. This sequence is
simply
−1, 1, −1, 1, −1, 1, . . .
with the nth term equal to −1 if n is odd, and 1 if n is even.
5. (1)
n∈N
is a sequence with the nth term given by 1, for n ∈ N. This is the constant sequence
1, 1, 1, . . . .
6. (n)
n∈N
is a sequence with the nth term given by n, for n ∈ N. This is the increasing sequence
1, 2, 3, . . . .
7.
_
1
1
1
+
1
2
2
+
1
3
3
+ +
1
n
n
_
n∈N
is a sequence with the nth term given by
1
1
1
+
1
2
2
+
1
3
3
+ +
1
n
n
,
for n ∈ N. This is the sequence of ‘partial sums’
1
1
1
,
1
1
1
+
1
2
2
,
1
1
1
+
1
2
2
+
1
3
3
, . . . .
♦
10 Chapter 1. Analysis
1.2.2 Limit of a convergent sequence
A sequence can be graphed. For instance, the ﬁrst 4 points of the graph of the sequence
_
1
n
_
n∈N
are displayed in Figure 1.2. This portion of the graph suggests that the terms of the sequence
PSfrag replacements
1
2 3 4
1
Figure 1.2: First four points of the graph of the sequence
_
1
n
_
n∈N
.
_
1
n
_
n∈N
tend toward 0 as n increases. This is consistent with the idea of convergence that you
might have encountered before: a sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
converges to some real number L, if the terms
a
n
get “closer and closer” to L as n “increases without bound”. Symbolically, this is represented
using the notation
lim
n→∞
a
n
= L,
where L denotes the limit of the sequence. If there is no such ﬁnite number L to which the terms
of the sequence get arbitrarily close, then the sequence is said to diverge.
Th problem with this characterization is its imprecision. Exactly what does it mean for the
terms of a sequence to get “closer and closer”, or “as close as we like”, or “arbitrarily close” to some
number L? Even if we accept this apparent ambiguity, how would one use the deﬁnition given
in the preceding paragraph to prove theorems that involve sequences? Since sequences are used
throughout analysis, the concepts of their convergence and divergence must be carefully deﬁned.
PSfrag replacements
1
2
2 3 4
1
Figure 1.3: First four points of the graph of the sequence
_
1 +
1
n
_
n∈N
.
For example, the terms of
_
1 +
1
n
_
n∈N
get “closer and closer” to 0 (indeed the distance to 0
keeps decreasing), but its limit is 1. See Figure 1.3.
The terms of
_
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
__
n∈N
get “as close as we like” or “arbitrarily close” to 1, but the
sequence has no limit. See Figure 1.4.
Deﬁnition. The sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
is said to converge to L if for every > 0, there exists
4
an
N ∈ N such that for all n > N,
[a
n
−L[ < .
4
depending on
1.2. Sequences and limits 11
PSfrag replacements
1
1
2
2
3 4 5 6 7 8
−1
−2
Figure 1.4: First eight points of the graph of the sequence
_
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
__
n∈N
.
Then we say that (a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent (with limit L) and write
lim
n→∞
a
n
= L.
If there does not exist a number L such that lim
n→∞
a
n
= L, then the sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
is said to
be divergent.
Note that [a
n
− L[ < iﬀ a
n
∈ (L − , L + ). Hence pictorially, for a convergent sequence
with limit L, this deﬁnition means the following, as illustrated in Figure 1.5: Pick any > 0, and
consider the shaded strip of width around the horizontal line passing through L. Then one can
ﬁnd a N ∈ N, large enough, such that all the terms a
n
of the sequence, for n > N lie in the shaded
strip.
PSfrag replacements
L +
L +
L
L
L
L −
L −
N N + 1 N + 2 N + 3
Figure 1.5: Convergence of a sequence with limit L.
Examples.
1.
_
1
n
_
n∈N
is a convergent sequence with limit 0.
12 Chapter 1. Analysis
Given > 0, we need to ﬁnd a N such that for all n > N,
[a
n
−L[ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
n
−0
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
1
n
< .
If we choose N ∈ N such that N >
1
(such a N exists by the Archimedean property!), then
for n > N (⇔
1
n
<
1
N
), we have
[a
n
−L[ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
n
−0
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
1
n
<
1
N
< .
Hence lim
n→∞
1
n
= 0.
2.
_
1 +
1
n
_
n∈N
is a convergent sequence with limit 1.
Given > 0, we need to ﬁnd a N such that for all n > N,
[a
n
−L[ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 +
1
n
−1
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
1
n
< .
Again we choose a N ∈ N such that N >
1
and so for n > N we have
[a
n
−L[ =
1
n
<
1
N
< .
Hence lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
n
_
= 1.
3.
_
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
__
n∈N
is a divergent sequence.
Let a
n
= (−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
_
for n ∈ N. In order to prove that
(a
n
)
n∈N
is divergent,
we have to show that
[(a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent] ,
that is,
[∃L ∈ R such that ∀ > 0 ∃N ∈ N such that ∀n > N, [a
n
−L[ < ] ,
that is,
∀L ∈ R ∃ > 0 such that ∀N ∈ N ∃n > N such that [a
n
−L[ ≥ .
Let L ∈ R. Now we need to prove
∃ > 0 such that ∀N ∈ N ∃n > N such that [a
n
−L[ ≥ .
Let = 1. (It is not obvious that = 1 would work, but it has been found by trial and
error.) Now we will show that
∀N ∈ N ∃n > N such that [a
n
−L[ ≥ .
So let N ∈ N. If L ≥ 0, then choose n to be any odd number > N. Then we have
[a
n
−L[ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
_
−L
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
−1 −
1
n
−L
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 1 +
1
n
+L > 1 = .
If L < 0, then choose n to be any even number > N. Then we have
[a
n
−L[ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
_
−L
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 +
1
n
−L
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 1 +
1
n
−L > 1 = .
Thus we have shown that for all L ∈ R, there exists a > 0 (namely = 1) such that for all
N ∈ N, there exists a n > N (namely any odd number > N if L ≥ 0, and any even number
> N if L < 0) such that [a
n
−L[ ≥ . Thus the sequence is divergent. ♦
1.2. Sequences and limits 13
The notation lim
n→∞
a
n
suggests that the limit of a convergent sequence is unique. Indeed this
is the case, and we prove this below.
Theorem 1.2.1 A convergent sequence has a unique limit.
Proof Consider a convergent sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
and suppose that it has distinct limits L
1
and
L
2
. Let
=
[L
1
−L
2
[
2
> 0,
where the positivity of the deﬁned above follows from the fact that L
1
,= L
2
. Since L
1
is a limit,
∃N
1
∈ N such that for all n > N
1
,
[a
n
−L
1
[ < .
Since L
2
is a limit, ∃N
2
∈ N such that for all n > N
2
,
[a
n
−L
2
[ < .
Consequently for n > max¦N
1
, N
2
¦,
2 = [L
1
−L
2
[ = [L
1
−a
n
+a
n
−L
2
[ ≤ [L
1
−a
n
[ +[a
n
−L
2
[ = [a
n
−L
1
[ +[a
n
−L
2
[ < + = 2,
a contradiction.
Exercises.
1. (a) Prove that the constant sequence (1)
n∈N
is convergent.
(b) Can the limit of a convergent sequence be one of the terms of the sequence?
(c) If none of the terms of a convergent sequence equal its limit, then prove that the terms
of the sequence cannot consist of a ﬁnite number of distinct values.
(d) Prove that the sequence ((−1)
n
)
n∈N
is divergent.
2. Prove that lim
n→∞
1
n
,= 1.
3. In each of the cases listed below, give an example of a divergent sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
that
satisﬁes the given conditions. Suppose that L = 1.
(a) For every > 0, there exists an N such that for inﬁnitely many n > N, [a
n
−L[ < .
(b) There exists an > 0 and a N ∈ N such that for all n > N, [a
n
−L[ < .
4. Let S be a nonempty subset of R that is bounded above. Show that there exists a sequence
(a
n
)
n∈N
contained in S (that is, a
n
∈ S for all n ∈ N) and which is convergent with limit
equal to sup S.
5. Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be a sequence such that for all n ∈ N, a
n
≥ 0. Prove that if (a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent
with limit L, then L ≥ 0.
6. A sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
is said to be Cauchy if for every > 0, there exists a N ∈ N such that
for all n, m > N, [a
n
−a
m
[ < .
Show that every convergent sequence is Cauchy.
Hint: [a
n
−a
m
[ = [a
n
−L +L −a
m
[ ≤ [a
n
−L[ +[a
m
−L[.
14 Chapter 1. Analysis
1.2.3 Bounded and monotone sequences
It is cumbersome to check from the deﬁnition if a sequence is convergent or not. In this section,
we will study a condition under which we can conclude that a sequence is convergent even without
knowing its limit! We will prove that if a sequence is both ‘bounded’ as well as ‘monotone’, then
it is always convergent.
Deﬁnition. A sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
is said to be bounded if there exists a M > 0 such that
for all n ∈ N, [a
n
[ ≤ M. (1.8)
Note that a sequence is bounded iﬀ the set S = ¦a
n
[ n ∈ N¦ is bounded. (See Exercise 11 on
page 8).
Examples.
1. (1)
n∈N
is bounded, since [1[ = 1 ≤ 1 for all n ∈ N.
2.
_
1
n
_
n∈N
is bounded, since
¸
¸
1
n
¸
¸
=
1
n
≤ 1 for all n ∈ N.
3.
_
1 +
1
n
_
n∈N
is bounded, since
¸
¸
1 +
1
n
¸
¸
= 1 +
1
n
≤ 2 for all n ∈ N.
4.
_
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
__
n∈N
is bounded, since
¸
¸
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
_¸
¸
= 1 +
1
n
≤ 2 for all n ∈ N.
5. The sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
deﬁned by
a
n
=
1
1
1
+
1
2
2
+
1
3
3
+ +
1
n
n
, n ∈ N
is bounded. Indeed this can be seen as follows:
[a
n
[ = a
n
=
1
1
1
+
1
2
2
+
1
3
3
+ +
1
n
n
<
1
1
1
+
1
2
2
+
1
2
3
+ +
1
2
n
=
1
1
1
+
1
2
_
1 −
1
2
_
+
1
2
2
_
1 −
1
2
_
+ +
1
2
n−1
_
1 −
1
2
_
= 1 +
1
2
−
1
2
2
+
1
2
2
−
1
2
3
+− +
1
2
n−1
−
1
2
n
= 1 +
1
2
−
1
2
n
<
3
2
.
(Write down a detailed proof using induction on n.) So all the terms are bounded by
3
2
, and
so the sequence is bounded.
6. The sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
given by a
n
= n for n ∈ N, is not bounded. Indeed, given any M > 0,
there exists an N ∈ N such that M < N (Archimedean property with y = M and x = 1).
Thus
[∃M > 0 such that for all n ∈ N, [a
n
[ = [n[ = n ≤ M],
and so (n)
n∈N
is not bounded. ♦
1.2. Sequences and limits 15
The sequences (1)
n∈N
,
_
1
n
_
n∈N
,
_
1 +
1
n
_
n∈N
are all convergent, and we have shown above that
these are also bounded. This is not a coincidence, and in the next theorem we show that the set
of all convergent sequences is contained in the set of all bounded sequences. See Figure 1.6.
convergent bounded
sequences sequences
PSfrag replacements
L +
Figure 1.6: All convergent sequences are bounded.
Theorem 1.2.2 If a sequence is convergent, then it is bounded.
Proof Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be a convergent sequence with limit L. Let := 1 > 0. Then ∃N ∈ N such
that for all n > N
[a
n
−L[ < = 1.
Hence for all n > N,
[a
n
[ = [a
n
−L +L[ ≤ [a
n
−L[ +[L[ < 1 +[L[.
Let M = max¦[a
1
[, . . . , [a
N
[, 1 +[L[¦. Then for all n ∈ N
[a
n
[ ≤ M
and so (a
n
)
n∈N
is bounded.
Deﬁnitions. A sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
is said to be increasing if for all n ∈ N, a
n
≤ a
n+1
. Thus
(a
n
)
n∈N
is increasing if
a
1
≤ a
2
≤ a
3
≤ . . . .
A sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
is said to be decreasing if for all n ∈ N, a
n
≥ a
n+1
. Thus (a
n
)
n∈N
is decreasing
if
a
1
≥ a
2
≥ a
3
≥ . . . .
A sequence is said to be monotone if it is increasing or decreasing.
Examples.
Sequence Is it Is it Is it
increasing? decreasing? monotone?
_
1
n
_
n∈N
No Yes Yes
_
1 +
1
n
_
n∈N
No Yes Yes
_
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
__
n∈N
No No No
(1)
n∈N
Yes Yes Yes
(n)
n∈N
Yes No Yes
_
1
1
1
+
1
2
2
+
1
3
3
+ +
1
n
n
_
n∈N
Yes No Yes
♦
The following theorem can be useful in showing that sequences converge when one does not
know the limit beforehand.
16 Chapter 1. Analysis
Theorem 1.2.3 If a sequence is monotone and bounded, then it is convergent.
Proof
1
◦
Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be an increasing sequence. Since (a
n
)
n∈N
is bounded, it follows that the set
S = ¦a
n
[ n ∈ N¦
has an upper bound and so sup S exists. We show that in fact (a
n
)
n∈N
converges to sup S. Indeed
given > 0, then since supS − < supS, it follows that sup S − is not an upper bound for S
and so ∃a
N
∈ S such that sup S − < a
N
, that is
sup S −a
N
< .
Since (a
n
)
n∈N
is an increasing sequence, for n > N, we have a
N
≤ a
n
. Since supS is an upper
bound for S, a
n
≤ sup S and so [a
n
−sup S[ = sup S −a
n
, Thus for n > N we obtain
[a
n
−sup S[ = sup S −a
n
≤ sup S −a
N
< .
2
◦
If (a
n
)
n∈N
is a decreasing sequence, then clearly (−a
n
)
n∈N
is an increasing sequence. Further
more if (a
n
)
n∈N
is bounded, then (−a
n
)
n∈N
is bounded as well ([ − a
n
[ = [a
n
[ ≤ M). Hence by
the case considered above, it follows that (−a
n
)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence with limit
sup¦−a
n
[ n ∈ N¦ = −inf¦a
n
[ n ∈ N¦ = −inf S,
where S = ¦a
n
[ n ∈ N¦ (see Exercise 6 on page 7). So given > 0, ∃N ∈ N such that for all
n > N, [ − a
n
− (−inf S)[ < , that is, [a
n
− inf S[ < . Thus (a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit
inf S.
Examples.
1. We have shown that the sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
deﬁned by
a
n
=
1
1
1
+
1
2
2
+
1
3
3
+ +
1
n
n
, n ∈ N
is monotone (indeed, it is increasing since a
n+1
− a
n
=
1
(n+1)
(n+1)
> 0 for all n ∈ N) and
bounded (see item 5 on page 14). Thus it follows from Theorem 1.2.3 that this sequence
5
is
convergent.
2. The following table gives a summary of the valid implications, and gives counterexamples to
implications which are not true.
Question Answer Reason/Counterexample
Is every convergent sequence bounded? Yes Theorem 1.2.2
Is every bounded sequence convergent? No ((−1)
n
)
n∈N
is bounded,
but not convergent.
Is every convergent sequence monotone? No
_
(−1)
n
n
_
n∈N
is convergent,
but not monotone: −1 <
1
2
> −
1
3
.
Is every monotone sequence convergent? No (n)
n∈N
is not convergent.
Is every bounded AND monotone Yes Theorem 1.2.3
sequence convergent?
♦
5
Although it is known that this sequence is convergent to some limit L ∈ R, it is so far not even known if the
limit L is rational or irrational, and this is still an open problem in mathematics! Also associated with this sequence
is the interesting identity
∞
X
n=1
1
n
n
=
Z
1
0
1
x
x
dx, the proof of which is beyond the scope of this course.
1.2. Sequences and limits 17
Exercises.
1. Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be a sequence deﬁned by
a
1
= 1 and a
n
=
2n + 1
3n
a
n−1
for n ≥ 2.
Prove that (a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent.
2. If (b
n
)
n∈N
is a bounded sequence, then prove that
_
bn
n
_
n∈N
is a convergent sequence with
limit 0.
3. (a) (∗) If (a
n
)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence with limit L, then prove that the sequence
(s
n
)
n∈N
, where
s
n
=
a
1
+ +a
n
n
, n ∈ N,
is also convergent with limit L.
(b) Give an example of a sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
such that (s
n
)
n∈N
is convergent but (a
n
)
n∈N
is
divergent.
4. (∗) Given a bounded sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
, deﬁne
l
k
= inf¦a
n
[ n ≥ k¦ and u
k
= sup¦a
n
[ n ≥ k¦, k ∈ N.
Show that the sequences (l
n
)
n∈N
, (u
n
)
n∈N
are bounded and monotone, and conclude that
they are convergent. (Their respective limits are denoted by liminf
n→∞
a
n
and limsup
n→∞
a
n
.)
5. (∗) Recall the deﬁnition of a Cauchy sequence from Exercise 6 on page 13. Prove that every
Cauchy sequence is bounded.
1.2.4 Algebra of limits
In this section we will learn that if we ‘algebraically’ combine the terms of convergent sequences,
then the new sequence which is obtained, is again convergent, and moreover the limit of this
sequence is the same algebraic combination of the limits. In this manner we can sometimes prove
the convergence of complicated sequences by breaking them down and writing them as an algebraic
combination of simple sequences. Thus, we conveniently apply arithmetic rules to compute the
limits of sequences if the terms are the sum, product, quotient of terms of simpler sequences with
a known limit. For instance, using the formal deﬁnition of a limit, one can show that the sequence
(a
n
)
n∈N
deﬁned by
a
n
=
4n
2
+ 9
3n
2
+ 7n + 11
converges to
4
3
. However, it is simpler to observe that
a
n
=
n
2
_
4 +
9
n
2
_
n
2
_
3 +
7
n
+
11
n
2
_ =
4 +
9
n
2
3 +
7
n
+
11
n
2
,
where the terms
9
n
2
,
7
n
,
11
n
2
all have limit 0, and by a repeated application of Theorem 1.2.4 given
below, we obtain
lim
n→∞
a
n
=
lim
n→∞
_
4 +
9
n
2
_
lim
n→∞
_
3 +
7
n
+
11
n
2
_ =
lim
n→∞
4 + lim
n→∞
9
n
2
lim
n→∞
3 + lim
n→∞
7
n
+ lim
n→∞
11
n
2
=
4 + 0
3 + 0 + 0
=
4
3
.
18 Chapter 1. Analysis
Theorem 1.2.4 If (a
n
)
n∈N
and (b
n
)
n∈N
are convergent sequences, then the following hold:
1. For all α ∈ R, (αa
n
)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence and lim
n→∞
αa
n
= α lim
n→∞
a
n
.
2. ([a
n
[)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence and lim
n→∞
[a
n
[ =
¸
¸
¸ lim
n→∞
a
n
¸
¸
¸.
3. (a
n
+b
n
)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence and lim
n→∞
(a
n
+b
n
) = lim
n→∞
a
n
+ lim
n→∞
b
n
.
4. (a
n
b
n
)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence and lim
n→∞
a
n
b
n
=
_
lim
n→∞
a
n
__
lim
n→∞
b
n
_
.
5. For all k ∈ N, (a
k
n
)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence and lim
n→∞
a
k
n
=
_
lim
n→∞
a
n
_
k
.
6. If for all n ∈ N, b
n
,= 0 and lim
n→∞
b
n
,= 0, then
_
1
b
n
_
n∈N
is convergent and moreover,
lim
n→∞
1
b
n
=
1
lim
n→∞
b
n
.
Proof Let (a
n
)
n∈N
and (b
n
)
n∈N
converge to L
a
and L
b
, respectively.
1. If α = 0, then αa
n
= 0 for all n ∈ N and clearly (0)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence with limit
0. Thus
lim
n→∞
αa
n
= 0 = 0L
a
= α lim
n→∞
a
n
.
If α ,= 0, then given > 0, let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N,
[a
n
−L
a
[ <
[α[
,
that is
[αa
n
−αL
a
[ = [α[ [a
n
−L
a
[ < [α[
[α[
= .
Hence (αa
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit αL
a
, that is,
lim
n→∞
αa
n
= αL
a
= α lim
n→∞
a
n
.
2. Given > 0, let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N,
[a
n
−L
a
[ < .
Then we have for all n > N:
[[a
n
[ −[L
a
[[ ≤ [a
n
−L
a
[ < .
Hence ([a
n
[)
n∈N
is convergent with limit [L
a
[, that is,
lim
n→∞
[a
n
[ = [L
a
[ =
¸
¸
¸ lim
n→∞
a
n
¸
¸
¸ .
3. Given > 0, let N
1
∈ N be such that for all n > N
1
,
[a
n
−L
a
[ <
2
.
1.2. Sequences and limits 19
Let N
2
∈ N be such that for all n > N
2
,
[b
n
−L
b
[ <
2
.
Then for all n > N := max¦N
1
, N
2
¦, we have
[a
n
+b
n
−(L
a
+L
b
)[ = [a
n
−L
a
+b
n
−L
b
[ ≤ [a
n
−L
a
[ +[b
n
−L
b
[ <
2
+
2
= .
Hence (a
n
+b
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit L
a
+L
b
, that is,
lim
n→∞
(a
n
+b
n
) = L
a
+L
b
= lim
n→∞
a
n
+ lim
n→∞
b
n
.
4. Note that
[a
n
b
n
−L
a
L
b
[ = [a
n
b
n
−L
a
b
n
+L
a
b
n
−L
a
L
b
[
≤ [a
n
b
n
−L
a
b
n
[ +[L
a
b
n
−L
a
L
b
[
= [a
n
−L
a
[ [b
n
[ +[L
a
[ [b
n
−L
b
[. (1.9)
Given > 0, we need to ﬁnd a N such that for all n > N,
[a
n
b
n
−L
a
L
b
[ < .
This can be achieved by ﬁnding a N such that each of the summands in (1.9) is less than
2
for n > N. This can be done as follows.
Step 1. Since (b
n
)
n∈N
is convergent, by Theorem 1.2.2 it follows that it is bounded: ∃M > 0
such that for all n ∈ N, [b
n
[ ≤ M. Let N
1
∈ N be such that for all n > N
1
,
[a
n
−L
a
[ <
2M
.
Step 2. Let N
2
∈ N be such that for all n > N
2
,
[b
n
−L
b
[ <
2([L
a
[ + 1)
.
Thus for n > N := max¦N
1
, N
2
¦, we have
[a
n
b
n
−L
a
L
b
[ ≤ [a
n
−L
a
[ [b
n
[ +[L
a
[ [b
n
−L
b
[
<
2M
M +[L
a
[
2([L
a
[ + 1)
=
2
+
2
= .
So (a
n
b
n
)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence with limit L
a
L
b
, that is,
lim
n→∞
a
n
b
n
= L
a
L
b
=
_
lim
n→∞
a
n
__
lim
n→∞
b
n
_
.
5. This can be shown by using induction on k and from part 4 above. It is trivially true with
k = 1. Suppose that it holds for some k, then (a
k
n
)
n∈N
is convergent and
lim
n→∞
a
k
n
=
_
lim
n→∞
a
n
_
k
.
Hence by part 4 above applied to the sequences (a
n
)
n∈N
and (a
k
n
)
n∈N
, we obtain that the
sequence (a
n
a
k
n
)
n∈N
is convergent and
lim
n→∞
a
n
a
k
n
=
_
lim
n→∞
a
n
__
lim
n→∞
a
k
n
_
=
_
lim
n→∞
a
n
__
lim
n→∞
a
n
_
k
=
_
lim
n→∞
a
n
_
k+1
.
20 Chapter 1. Analysis
Thus (a
k+1
n
)
n∈N
is convergent and
lim
n→∞
a
k+1
n
=
_
lim
n→∞
a
n
_
k+1
.
6. Let N
1
∈ N be such that for all n > N
1
,
[b
n
−L
b
[ <
[L
b
[
2
.
Thus for all n > N
1
,
[L
b
[ −[b
n
[ ≤ [[L
b
[ −[b
n
[[ ≤ [b
n
−L
b
[ <
[L
b
[
2
,
and so [b
n
[ ≥
L
b

2
. Let > 0, and let N
2
∈ N be such that for all n > N
2
,
[b
n
−L
b
[ <
[L
b
[
2
2
.
Hence for n > N := max¦N
1
, N
2
¦, we have
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
b
n
−
1
L
b
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
[b
n
−L
b
[
[b
n
[ [L
b
[
<
[L
b
[
2
2
2
[L
b
[
1
[L
b
[
= .
So
_
1
b
n
_
n∈N
is convergent and lim
n→∞
1
b
n
=
1
L
b
=
1
lim
n→∞
b
n
.
Exercises.
1. Recall the convergent sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
from Exercise 1 on page 17 deﬁned by
a
1
= 1 and a
n
=
2n + 1
3n
a
n−1
for n ≥ 2.
What is its limit?
Hint: If (a
n
)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence with limit L, then (a
n+1
)
n∈N
is also a convergent
sequence with limit L.
2. Suppose that the sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent, and assume that the sequence (b
n
)
n∈N
is
bounded. Prove that the sequence (c
n
)
n∈N
deﬁned by
c
n
=
a
n
b
n
+ 5n
a
2
n
+n
is convergent, and ﬁnd its limit.
3. (a) Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be a convergent sequence with limit L and suppose that a
n
≥ 0 for all
n ∈ N. Prove that the sequence (
√
a
n
)
n∈N
is also convergent, with limit
√
L.
Hint: First show that L ≥ 0. Let > 0. If L = 0, then choose N ∈ N large enough so
that for n > N, [a
n
− L[ = a
n
<
2
. If L > 0, then choose N ∈ N large enough so that
for n > N, [
√
a
n
−
√
L[[
√
a
n
+
√
L[ = [a
n
−L[ <
√
L.
(b) Show that (
_
n
2
+n −n)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence and ﬁnd its limit.
Hint: ‘Rationalize the numerator’ by using
√
n
2
+n +n.
4. Prove that if (a
n
)
n∈N
and (b
n
)
n∈N
are convergent sequences such that for all n ∈ N, a
n
≤ b
n
,
then
lim
n→∞
a
n
≤ lim
n→∞
b
n
.
Hint: Use Exercise 5 on page 13.
1.2. Sequences and limits 21
1.2.5 Sandwich theorem
Another useful theorem that is useful in proving that sequences are convergent and in determining
their limits is the socalled sandwich theorem. Roughly speaking, it says that if a sequence is
sandwiched between two convergent limits with the same limit, then the sandwiched sequence is
also convergent with the same limit.
Theorem 1.2.5 (Sandwich theorem.) Let (a
n
)
n∈N
, (b
n
)
n∈N
be convergent sequences with the
same limit, that is,
lim
n→∞
a
n
= lim
n→∞
b
n
.
If (c
n
)
n∈N
is a third sequence such that
for all n ∈ N, a
n
≤ c
n
≤ b
n
,
then (c
n
)
n∈N
is also convergent with the same limit, that is,
lim
n→∞
a
n
= lim
n→∞
c
n
= lim
n→∞
b
n
.
Proof Let L denote the common limit of (a
n
)
n∈N
and (b
n
)
n∈N
:
lim
n→∞
a
n
= L = lim
n→∞
b
n
.
Given > 0, let N
1
∈ N be such that for all n > N
1
, [a
n
−L[ < . Hence for n > N
1
,
L −a
n
≤ [L −a
n
[ = [a
n
−L[ < ,
and so L −a
n
< , that is,
L − < a
n
.
Let N
2
∈ N be such that for all n > N
2
, [b
n
−L[ < . So for n > N
2
, b
n
−L < , that is,
b
n
< L +.
Thus for n > N := max¦N
1
, N
2
¦, we have
L − < a
n
≤ c
n
≤ b
n
< L +,
and so L − < c
n
< L + . Consequently, c
n
−L < and −(c
n
−L) < , and so
[c
n
−L[ < .
This proves that (c
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit L.
Examples.
1. lim
n→∞
n
10
n
= 0.
It can be shown by induction that for all n ∈ N, n
2
< 10
n
.
Consequently, we have
0 ≤
n
10
n
≤
n
n
2
=
1
n
.
Since lim
n→∞
0 = 0 = lim
n→∞
1
n
, from the Sandwich theorem it follows that the sequence
_
n
10
n
_
n∈N
is convergent and
lim
n→∞
n
10
n
= 0.
Thus the sequence
1
10
,
2
100
,
3
1000
,
4
10000
, . . . is convergent with limit 0.
22 Chapter 1. Analysis
2. lim
n→∞
2
1
n
= 1.
2 > 1 and so 2
1
n
> 1 (for otherwise 2 = (2
1
n
)
n
≤ 1, a contradiction). Let a
n
:= 2
1
n
− 1 ≥ 0.
Then 2 = (1 +a
n
)
n
≥ 1 +na
n
(It can be shown using induction that for all real x ≥ −1 and
for all n ∈ N, (1 +x)
n
≥ 1 +nx.) Hence
0 ≤ a
n
≤
1
n
and so using the Sandwich theorem it follows that lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0. Consequently, lim
n→∞
2
1
n
= 1,
that is, the sequence 2,
√
2,
3
√
2,
4
√
2,
5
√
2, . . . is convergent with limit 1.
3. For any a, b ∈ R, lim
n→∞
([a[
n
+[b[
n
)
1
n
= max¦[a[, [b[¦.
Clearly,
(max¦[a[, [b[¦)
n
≤ [a[
n
+[b[
n
≤ (max¦[a[, [b[¦)
n
+ (max¦[a[, [b[¦)
n
and so
max¦[a[, [b[¦ ≤ ([a[
n
+[b[
n
)
1
n
≤ 2
1
n
max¦[a[, [b[¦.
So using the Sandwich theorem, it follows that lim
n→∞
([a[
n
+[b[
n
)
1
n
= max¦[a[, [b[¦.
In particular, with a = 24 and b = 2005, we have that lim
n→∞
(24
n
+ 2005
n
)
1
n
= 2005, that is,
the sequence 2028, 2005.1436, 2005.001146260873, ... is convergent with limit 2005.
4. If a ∈ (0, 1), then lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0.
Since 0 < a < 1, it follows that 1 <
1
a
and so h :=
1
a
−1 > 0. Then we have
1
a
n
= (1 +h)
n
≥ 1 +nh ≥ nh
and so
0 ≤ a
n
≤
1
nh
.
Hence from the Sandwich theorem, it follows that lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0.
5. lim
n→∞
_
1
n
2
+ 1
+
1
n
2
+ 2
+ +
1
n
2
+n
_
= 0.
For all n ∈ N, we have
n
n
2
+n
≤
1
n
2
+ 1
+
1
n
2
+ 2
+ +
1
n
2
+n
≤
n
n
2
+ 1
,
and since
lim
n→∞
n
n
2
+n
= 0 = lim
n→∞
n
n
2
+ 1
.
it follows from the Sandwich theorem that lim
n→∞
_
1
n
2
+ 1
+
1
n
2
+ 2
+ +
1
n
2
+n
_
= 0. ♦
Exercises.
1. Prove that the sequence
_
n!
n
n
_
n∈N
is convergent and lim
n→∞
n!
n
n
= 0.
Hint: Observe that 0 ≤
n!
n
n
=
1
n
2
n
n
n
≤
1
n
1 1 ≤
1
n
.
1.2. Sequences and limits 23
2. Prove that for all k ∈ N, the sequence
_
1
k
+ 2
k
+ 3
k
+ +n
k
n
k+2
_
n∈N
is convergent and
lim
n→∞
1
k
+ 2
k
+ 3
k
+ +n
k
n
k+2
= 0.
3. (a) Using induction, prove that if x ≥ −1 and n ∈ N, then
(1 +x)
n
≥ 1 +nx. (1.10)
(b) Show that for all n ∈ N,
1 ≤ n
1
n
< (1 +
√
n)
2
n
≤
_
1 +
1
√
n
_
2
.
Hint: Take x =
1
√
n
in the inequality (1.10).
(c) Prove that (n
1
n
)
n∈N
is convergent and ﬁnd its limit.
4. Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be a sequence contained in the interval (a, b) (that is, for all n ∈ N, a < a
n
< b).
If (a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit L, then prove that L ∈ [a, b].
Hint: Use Exercise 5 on page 13.
Give an example to show that L needn’t belong to (a, b).
5. Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be a convergent sequence, and let (b
n
)
n∈N
satisfy [b
n
− a
n
[ <
1
n
for all n ∈ N.
Show that (b
n
)
n∈N
is also convergent. What is its limit?
Hint: Observe that −
1
n
+a
n
< b
n
< a
n
+
1
n
for all n ∈ N.
1.2.6 Subsequences
In this section we prove an important result in analysis, known as the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem,
which says that every bounded sequence has a convergent ‘subsequence’. We begin this section
by deﬁning what we mean by a subsequence of a sequence.
Deﬁnition. Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be a sequence and let (n
k
)
k∈N
be a sequence of natural numbers such
that n
1
< n
2
< n
3
< . . . . Then (a
n
k
)
k∈N
is called a subsequence of (a
n
)
n∈N
.
Examples.
1.
_
1
2n
_
n∈N
,
_
1
n
2
_
n∈N
,
_
1
n!
_
n∈N
and
_
1
n
n
_
n∈N
are all subsequences of
_
1
n
_
n∈N
. Also the sequence
(a
n
)
n∈N
deﬁned by
a
n
=
1
p
, where p is the nth prime in the inﬁnite sequence of increasing primes 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, . . .
is a subsequence of
_
1
n
_
n∈N
. The sequence
1
2
, 1,
1
3
,
1
4
, . . .
is not a subsequence of
_
1
n
_
n∈N
.
24 Chapter 1. Analysis
2. The sequences ((−1)
2n
)
n∈N
(that is, the constant sequence 1, 1, 1, . . . ) and ((−1)
2n−1
)
n∈N
(that is the constant sequence −1, −1, −1, . . . ) are subsequences of ((−1)
n
)
n∈N
. ♦
Exercise(∗). Beginning with 2 and 7, the sequence 2, 7, 1, 4, 7, 4, 2, 8, 2, 8, . . . is constructed by
multiplying successive pairs of its terms and adjoining the result as the next one or two members
of the sequence depending on whether the product is a one or twodigit number. Thus we start
with 2 and 7, giving the product 14, and so the next two terms are 1, 4. Proceeding in this manner,
we get subsequent terms as follows:
2, 7
2, 7, 1, 4
2, 7, 1, 4
2, 7, 1, 4, 7
2, 7, 1, 4, 7
2, 7, 1, 4, 7, 4
2, 7, 1, 4, 7, 4
2, 7, 1, 4, 7, 4, 2, 8
2, 7, 1, 4, 7, 4, 2, 8
2, 7, 1, 4, 7, 4, 2, 8, 2, 8
.
.
.
Prove that this sequence has the constant subsequence 6, 6, 6, . . . .
Hint: Show that 6 appears an inﬁnite number of times as follows. Since the terms 2, 8, 2, 8 are
adjacent, they give rise to the adjacent terms 1, 6, 1, 6 at some point, which in turn give rise to
the adjacent terms 6, 6, 6 eventually, and so on. Proceeding in this way, ﬁnd out if you get a loop
containing the term 6.
Theorem 1.2.6 If (a
n
)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence with limit L, then any subsequence of (a
n
)
n∈N
is also convergent with the limit L.
Proof Let (a
n
k
)
k∈N
be a subsequence of (a
n
)
n∈N
. Given > 0, let N ∈ N be such that for all
n > N, [a
n
−L[ < . Since the sequence n
1
< n
2
< n
3
< . . . , it follows that there exists a K ∈ N
such that n
K
> N. Then for all k > K, n
k
> n
K
> N. Hence for k > K, [a
n
k
− L[ < , and so
(a
n
k
)
k∈N
is convergent with limit L.
Examples.
1.
_
1
2n
_
n∈N
,
_
1
n
2
_
n∈N
,
_
1
n!
_
n∈N
and
_
1
n
n
_
n∈N
are convergent sequences with limit 0.
2. The sequence ((−1)
n
)
n∈N
is divergent since the subsequence 1, 1, 1, . . . has limit 1, while the
subsequence −1, −1, −1, . . . has limit −1. ♦
Theorem 1.2.7 Every sequence has a monotone subsequence.
1.2. Sequences and limits 25
We ﬁrst give an illustration of the idea behind this proof. Assume that (a
n
)
n∈N
is the given
sequence. Imagine that a
n
is the height of the hotel with number n, which is followed by hotel
n + 1, and so on, along an inﬁnite line, where at inﬁnity there is the sea. A hotel is said to have
the seaview property if it is higher than all hotels following it. See Figure 1.7. Now there are only
PSfrag replacements
1 2 3 4 5 6
. . .
. . .
Figure 1.7: The seaview property.
two possibilities:
1
◦
There are inﬁnitely many hotels with the seaview property. Then their heights form a decreasing
subsequence.
2
◦
There is only a ﬁnite number of hotels with the seaview property. Then after the last hotel
with the seaview property, one can start with any hotel and then always ﬁnd one that is at least
as high, which is taken as the next hotel, and then ﬁnding yet another that is at least as high as
that one, and so on. The heights of these hotels form an increasing subsequence.
Proof Let
S = ¦m ∈ N [ for all n > m, a
n
< a
m
¦.
Then we have the following two cases.
1
◦
S is inﬁnite. Arrange the elements of S in increasing order: n
1
< n
2
< n
3
< . . . . Then (a
n
k
)
k∈N
is a decreasing subsequence of (a
n
)
n∈N
.
2
◦
S is ﬁnite. If S empty, then deﬁne n
1
= 1, and otherwise let n
1
= max S+1. Deﬁne inductively
n
k+1
= min¦m ∈ N [ m > n
k
and a
m
≥ a
n
k
¦.
(The minimum exists since the set ¦m ∈ N [ m > n
k
and a
m
≥ a
n
k
¦ is a nonempty subset of N:
indeed otherwise if it were empty, then n
k
∈ S, and this is not possible if S was empty, and also
impossible if S was not empty, since n
k
> max S.) Then (a
n
k
)
k∈N
is an increasing subsequence of
(a
n
)
n∈N
.
An important consequence of the above theorem is the following result.
Theorem 1.2.8 (BolzanoWeierstrass theorem.) Every bounded sequence has a convergent sub
sequence.
Proof Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be a bounded sequence. Then there exists a M > 0 such that for all n ∈ N,
[a
n
[ ≤ M. From Theorem 1.2.7 above, it follows that the sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
has a monotone
subsequence (a
n
k
)
k∈N
. Then clearly for all k ∈ N, [a
n
k
[ ≤ M and so the sequence (a
n
k
)
k∈N
is
also bounded. Since (a
n
k
)
k∈N
is monotone and bounded, it follows from Theorem 1.2.3 that it is
convergent.
26 Chapter 1. Analysis
Example. Consider the sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
of fractional parts of integral multiples of
√
2, deﬁned
by
a
n
= n
√
2 −¸n
√
2, for n ∈ N,
where for x ∈ R, ¸x denotes the greatest integer part of x, which is deﬁned as the largest integer
less than or equal to x:
¸x = min¦z ∈ Z [ x < z¦ −1.
(By the Archimedean property, there exist natural numbers n
1
and n
2
such that x < n
1
and
−x < n
2
, that is, −n
2
< x < n
1
. Hence the set ¦z ∈ Z [ x < z¦ is a nonempty subset of Z
(indeed, n
1
belongs to it!), and it is bounded below (by −n
2
∈ Z), and so the minimum of the set
¦z ∈ Z [ x < z¦ exists in Z. Consequently ¸ is a welldeﬁned function.)
The terms of the sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
are as follows:
√
2 = 1.414213 . . . a
1
= 0.414213 . . .
2
√
2 = 2.828427 . . . a
2
= 0.828427 . . .
3
√
2 = 4.242640 . . . a
3
= 0.242640 . . .
4
√
2 = 5.656854 . . . a
4
= 0.656854 . . .
5
√
2 = 7.071067 . . . a
5
= 0.071067 . . .
6
√
2 = 8.485281 . . . a
6
= 0.485281 . . .
.
.
.
The sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
is bounded: indeed, 0 ≤ a
n
< 1. So by the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem it
has a convergent subsequence
6
. ♦
Exercise. (∗) Recall the deﬁnition of a Cauchy sequence from Exercise 6 on page 13, where we
had already seen that every convergent sequence is Cauchy. Using BolzanoWeierstrass theorem,
we can prove the converse. Show that if a sequence is Cauchy, then it is convergent.
Hint: Proceed as follows. Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be a Cauchy sequence. From Exercise 5 on page 17, it
follows that (a
n
)
n∈N
is bounded. By the Bolzano Weierstrass theorem, it follows that (a
n
)
n∈N
has a convergent subsequence, say (a
n
k
)
k∈N
with limit L. Prove (using the fact that (a
n
)
n∈N
is
Cauchy), that then (a
n
)
n∈N
is itself convergent with limit L.
1.3 Continuity
A function f : R → R is a rule of correspondence that assigns to each real number a unique
real number. Many bizarre functions make appearances in analysis, and in order to avoid falling
into pitfalls with simplistic thinking, we need deﬁnitions and hypothesis of theorems to be stated
carefully and clearly.
Within the huge collection of functions, there is an important subset: the continuous functions.
Continuous functions play a prominent role in analysis since they possess some useful properties.
In this section we give the formal deﬁnition of continuous functions and prove two of the most
important properties: the extreme value theorem and the intermediate value theorem.
6
In fact, it can be shown that these fractional parts an are “dense” in (0, 1). Thus given any number L ∈ (0, 1),
there exists a subsequence of the sequence (an)
n∈N
above that converges to L.
1.3. Continuity 27
1.3.1 Deﬁnition of continuity
In everyday speech, a ‘continuous’ process is one that proceeds without gaps of interruptions or
sudden changes. What does it mean for a function f : R → R to be continuous? The common
informal deﬁnition of this concept states that a function f is continuous if one can sketch its graph
without lifting the pencil. In other words, the graph of f has no breaks in it. If a break does
occur in the graph, then this break will occur at some point. Thus (based on this visual view of
continuity), we ﬁrst give the formal deﬁnition of the continuity of a function at a point below.
Next, if a function is continuous at each point, then it will be called continuous.
If a function has a break at a point, say c, then even if points x are close to c, the points f(x)
do not get close to f(c). See Figure 1.8.
PSfrag replacements
c
f(c)
Figure 1.8: A function with a break at c. If x lies to the left of c, then f(x) is not close to f(c),
no matter how close x comes to c.
This motivates the following deﬁnition of continuity, which guarantees that if a function is
continuous at a point c, then we can make f(x) as close as we like to f(c), by choosing x suﬃciently
close to c. See Figure 1.9.
PSfrag replacements
f(c) +
f(c)
f(c) +
f(x)
c −δ c c +δ x
Figure 1.9: The deﬁnition of the continuity of a function at point c. If the function is continuous
at c, then given any > 0 (which determines a strip around the line y = f(c) of width 2), there
exists a δ > 0 (which determines an interval of width 2δ around the point c) such that whenever
x lies in this width (so that x satisﬁes c − δ < x < c + δ, that is, [x − c[ < δ), then f(x) satisﬁes
f(c) − < f(x) < f(c) +, that is, [f(x) −f(c)[ < .
Deﬁnitions. Let I be an interval in R and let c ∈ I. A function f : I → R is continuous at c if
for every > 0, there exists a δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ I satisfying [x −c[ < δ, [f(x) −f(c)[ < .
A function f : I →R is continuous (on I) if for every c ∈ I, f is continuous at c.
Examples.
1. f : R →R given by f(x) = 1 for all x ∈ R is continuous.
28 Chapter 1. Analysis
Let c ∈ R = (−∞, ∞). Given > 0, let δ be an arbitrary positive real number; for instance,
let δ = 1. Then if x ∈ R and [x −c[ < δ = 1, we have:
[f(x) −f(c)[ = [1 −1[ = [0[ = 0 < .
So f is continuous at c. Since the choice of c ∈ R was arbitrary, it follows that f is continuous
on R. See Figure 1.10.
PSfrag replacements
1
0
x
Figure 1.10: The continuous constant function 1.
2. f : R →R given by
f(x) =
_
0 if x = 0,
1 if x ∈ R ¸ ¦0¦.
is not continuous at 0.
Suppose that it is continuous at 0. Then given =
1
2
> 0, let δ > 0 be such that if x ∈ R and
[x[ = [x−0[ < δ, then [f(x) −f(0)[ = [f(x) −0[ = [f(x)[ < =
1
2
. But now take x =
δ
2
∈ R,
and so [x[ =
¸
¸
δ
2
¸
¸
=
δ
2
< δ. Thus [f(x)[ =
¸
¸
f
_
δ
2
_¸
¸
= [1[ = 1 >
1
2
= , a contradiction. So f
cannot be continuous at 0.
However, for all c ∈ R ¸ ¦0¦, f is continuous at c. This can be seen as follows. Given > 0,
let δ =
c
2
> 0. Then if x ∈ R and [x −c[ < δ, we have
[c[ −[x[ ≤ [[c[ −[x[[ ≤ [c −x[ = [x −c[ < δ =
[c[
2
and so
[x[ >
[c[
2
> 0.
Thus x ,= 0 and so f(x) = 1. Hence if x ∈ R and [x −c[ < δ, we obtain
[f(x) −f(c)[ = [1 −1[ = [0[ = 0 < .
Consequently f is continuous at c. See Figure 1.11.
PSfrag replacements
1
0
x
Figure 1.11: A function continuous everywhere except at 0.
3. f : R →R given by f(x) = x for all x ∈ R is continuous.
Let c ∈ R. Given > 0, let δ = . Then if x ∈ R and [x −c[ < δ, we have:
[f(x) −f(c)[ = [x −c[ < δ = .
So f is continuous at c. Since the choice of c ∈ R was arbitrary, it follows that f is continuous
on R.
1.3. Continuity 29
4. f : (0, 1) →R given by f(x) =
1
x
for all x ∈ R is continuous (on (0, 1)).
Let c ∈ (0, 1). Given > 0, let δ = min
_
c
2
,
c
2
2
_
(> 0). Then if x ∈ (0, 1) and [x − c[ < δ,
we have
[c[ −[x[ ≤ [[c[ −[x[[ ≤ [c −x[ = [x −c[ < δ ≤
[c[
2
and so
[c[
2
< [x[, that is,
1
[x[
<
2
[c[
.
Consequently, if x ∈ (0, 1) and [x −c[ < δ,
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
x
−
1
c
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
[c − x[
[x[ [c[
=
[x −c[
[x[ [c[
< δ
2
[c[
1
[c[
=
2δ
c
2
≤ .
So f is continuous at c. Since the choice of c ∈ (0, 1) was arbitrary, it follows that f is
continuous (on (0, 1)). ♦
Exercises.
1. Let the function f : R →R be given by f(x) = x
2
.
(a) Prove that f is continuous at 0.
(b) (∗) Suppose that c is a nonzero real number. Prove that f is continuous at c.
In Exercise 1 on page 31, we will give a slick proof of the fact that f is continuous on R.
2. Let f : R →R be a function that satisﬁes f(x +y) = f(x) +f(y) for all x, y ∈ R.
(a) Suppose that f is continuous at some real number c. Prove that f is continuous on R.
Hint: Since f is continuous at c, given > 0, ∃δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ R satisfying
[x − c[ < δ, [f(x) − f(c)[ < . Show that given any other point c
∈ R, the function f
is continuous at c
by showing that the same δ works (for this ).
(b) Give an example of such a function.
3. Suppose that f : R → R and there exists a M > 0 such that for all x ∈ R, [f(x)[ ≤ M[x[.
Prove that f is continuous at 0.
Hint: Find f(0).
4. Let f : R →R be deﬁned by
f(x) =
_
0 if x is rational,
1 if x is irrational.
Prove that for every c ∈ R, f is not continuous at c.
Hint: Use the fact that there are irrational numbers arbitrarily close to any rational number
and rational numbers arbitrarily close to any irrational number.
5. Let f : R →R be a continuous function. Prove that if for some c ∈ R, f(c) > 0, then there
exists a δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ (c −δ, c +δ), f(x) > 0.
If f and g are functions on R, then the composition of g with f, denoted by g ◦ f, is deﬁned
by
(g ◦ f)(x) = g(f(x)), x ∈ R.
The following theorem implies that the composition of continuous functions is continuous.
30 Chapter 1. Analysis
Theorem 1.3.1 Let c ∈ R. If f : R →R is continuous at c and g : R →R is continuous at f(c),
then g ◦ f is continuous at c.
Proof Since g is continuous at f(c), it follows that given > 0, ∃δ > 0 such that for all y ∈ R
satisfying [y −f(c)[ < δ,
[g(y) −g(f(c))[ < .
Since f is continuous at c, ∃δ
1
> 0 such that for all x ∈ R satisfying [x −c[ < δ
1
,
[f(x) −f(c)[ < δ.
Consequently, for all x ∈ R satisfying [x −c[ < δ
1
, we have [f(x) −f(c)[ < δ, and so
[g(f(x)) −g(f(c))[ < ,
that is,
[(g ◦ f)(x) −(g ◦ f)(c)[ < .
Hence g ◦ f is continuous at c.
1.3.2 Continuous functions preserve convergent sequences
We now give an alternative characterization of continuity.
Theorem 1.3.2 Let I be an interval in R and let c ∈ I. Suppose that f : I → R is a function.
Then f is continuous at c iﬀ
for every convergent sequence (x
n
)
n∈N
contained in I with limit c,
(f(x
n
))
n∈N
is convergent and lim
n→∞
f(x
n
) = f(c).
(1.11)
Proof
Only if: Suppose that f is continuous at c ∈ I and let (x
n
)
n∈N
be a convergent sequence contained
in I with limit c.
Since f is continuous at c ∈ I, given > 0, ∃δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ I satisfying [x−c[ < δ,
[f(x) −f(c)[ < .
Since (x
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit c, ∃N ∈ N such that for all n > N, [x
n
−c[ < δ.
Consequently for n > N, [f(x
n
) −f(c)[ < . So (f(x
n
))
n∈N
is convergent with limit f(c).
If: Suppose that (1.11) holds. Then we need to show that f is continuous at c and we prove this
by contradiction. Assume that f is not continuous at c, that is,
[∀ > 0 ∃δ > 0 such that ∀x ∈ I such that [x −c[ < δ, [f(x) −f(c)[ < ]
that is,
∃ > 0 such that ∀δ > 0 ∃x ∈ I such that [x −c[ < δ but [f(x) −f(c)[ ≥ .
Hence if δ =
1
n
, then we can ﬁnd x
n
∈ I such that [x
n
−c[ < δ =
1
n
, but [f(x
n
) −f(c)[ ≥ .
Claim 1: The sequence (x
n
)
n∈N
is contained in I and is convergent with limit c.
1.3. Continuity 31
Indeed, we have for all n ∈ N, x
n
∈ I. Furthermore, given any ζ > 0, we can ﬁnd N ∈ N such
that
1
ζ
< N (Archimedean property), that is,
1
N
< ζ. Hence for n > N, [x
n
− c[ <
1
N
< ζ. So
(x
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit c.
Claim 2: The sequence (f(x
n
))
n∈N
does not converge to f(c).
Indeed for all n ∈ N, we have [f(x
n
)−f(c)[ ≥ . Thus for instance
2
> 0, but it is not possible
to ﬁnd a large enough N ∈ N such that for all n > N, [f(x
n
) −f(c)[ <
2
(for if this were possible,
then we would arrive at the contradiction ≤ [f(x
n
) −f(c)[ <
2
).
The Claims 1 and 2 show that (1.11) does not hold, a contradiction. Hence f is continuous
at c.
Exercises.
1. Recall Exercise 1 on page 29: The function f(x) : R → R is given by f(x) = x
2
. Using the
characterization of continuity provided in Theorem 1.3.2, prove that f is continuous on R.
2. Prove that
7
if f : R → R is continuous and f(x) = 0 if x is rational, then f(x) = 0 for all
x ∈ R.
Hint: Given any real number c, there exists a sequence of rational numbers (q
n
)
n∈N
that
converges to c.
3. Let f : R →R be a function that preserves divergent sequences, that is, for every divergent
sequence (x
n
)
n∈N
, (f(x
n
))
n∈N
is divergent as well. Prove that f is onetoone.
Hint: Let x
1
, x
2
be distinct real numbers, and consider the sequence x
1
, x
2
, x
1
, x
2
, . . . .
Using the above theorem, we obtain the following useful Theorem 1.3.3. But before we state
this result, we introduce some convenient notation.
Let I be an interval in R. Given functions f : I →R and g : I →R, we deﬁne the following:
1. If α ∈ R, then we deﬁne the function αf : I →R by (αf)(x) = α f(x), x ∈ I.
2. We deﬁne the absolute value of f, [f[ : I →R by [f[(x) = [f(x)[, x ∈ I.
3. The sum of f and g, f +g : I →R is deﬁned by (f +g)(x) = f(x) +g(x), x ∈ I.
4. The product of f and g, fg : I →R is deﬁned by (fg)(x) = f(x)g(x), x ∈ I.
5. If k ∈ N, then we deﬁne the kth power of f, f
k
: I →R by f
k
(x) = (f(x))
k
, x ∈ I.
6. If for all x ∈ I, g(x) ,= 0, then we deﬁne
1
g
: I →R by
_
1
g
_
(x) =
1
g(x)
, x ∈ I.
Theorem 1.3.3 Let I be an interval in R and let c ∈ I. Suppose that f : I → R and g : I → R
are continuous at c. Then:
1. For all α ∈ R, αf is continuous at c.
2. [f[ is continuous at c.
3. f +g is continuous at c.
7
See Exercise 4 on page 29.
32 Chapter 1. Analysis
4. fg is continuous at c.
5. For all k ∈ N, f
k
is continuous at c.
6. If for all x ∈ I, g(x) ,= 0, then
1
g
is continuous at c.
Proof Suppose that (x
n
)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence contained in I, with limit c. Since f and g
are continuous at c, from Theorem 1.3.2 , it follows that (f(x
n
))
n∈N
and (g(x
n
))
n∈N
are convergent
with limits f(c) and g(c), respectively. Hence from Theorem 1.2.4, it follows that:
1. (α f(x
n
))
n∈N
is convergent with limit α f(c), that is, ((αf)(x
n
))
n∈N
is convergent with
limit (αf)(c). So from Theorem 1.3.2 , it follows that αf is continuous at c.
2. ([f(x
n
)[)
n∈N
is convergent with limit [f(c)[, that is, ([f[(x
n
))
n∈N
is convergent with limit
[f[(c). So from Theorem 1.3.2 , it follows that [f[ is continuous at c.
3. (f(x
n
)+g(x
n
))
n∈N
is convergent with limit f(c)+g(c), that is, ((f +g)(x
n
))
n∈N
is convergent
with limit (f +g)(c). So from Theorem 1.3.2 , it follows that f +g is continuous at c.
4. (f(x
n
)g(x
n
))
n∈N
is convergent with limit f(c)g(c), that is, ((fg)(x
n
))
n∈N
is convergent with
limit (fg)(c). So from Theorem 1.3.2 , it follows that fg is continuous at c.
5. ((f(x
n
))
k
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit (f(c))
k
, that is, (f
k
(x
n
))
n∈N
is convergent with limit
f
k
(c). So from Theorem 1.3.2 , it follows that f
k
is continuous at c.
6.
_
1
g(xn)
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit
1
g(c)
(since for all x ∈ I, g(x) ,= 0, in particular g(x
n
) ,= 0
and g(c) ,= 0), that is,
__
1
g
_
(x
n
)
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit
_
1
g
_
(c). So from Theorem
1.3.2 , it follows that
1
g
is continuous at c.
Example. Since f : R → R given by f(x) = x for x ∈ R is continuous (see Example 3 on page
28), it follows that for all k ∈ N, x
k
is continuous. Thus given arbitrary scalars a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
N
in R,
it follows that the functions a
0
1, a
1
x, . . . , a
N
x
N
are continuous. Consequently the polynomial
function p : R →R deﬁned by
p(x) = a
0
+a
1
x + +a
N
x
N
, x ∈ R
is continuous. ♦
Exercise. Show that the rational function f : R →R deﬁned by
f(x) =
x
2
1 +x
2
, x ∈ R,
is continuous on R.
1.3.3 Extreme value theorem
Below we show that a continuous function on an interval [a, b] attains its maximum and minimum
values. See Figure 1.12.
1.3. Continuity 33
PSfrag replacements
a
b
c
d
Figure 1.12: Extreme value theorem.
Theorem 1.3.4 (Extreme value theorem). If f : [a, b] → R is continuous, then there exist
c, d ∈ [a, b] such that
f(c) = sup¦f(x) [ x ∈ [a, b]¦, and (1.12)
f(d) = inf¦f(x) [ x ∈ [a, b]¦. (1.13)
Note that since c, d ∈ [a, b], the supremum and inﬁmum in (1.12) and (1.13) are in fact the
maximum and minimum, respectively.
Proof
Step 1. We ﬁrst show that f is bounded, that is, the set
S = ¦f(x) [ x ∈ [a, b]¦
is bounded. Suppose that S is not bounded. Then given n ∈ N, ∃x
n
∈ [a, b] such that [f(x
n
)[ > n
(for if this fails for some N ∈ N, then [f(x)[ ≤ N for all x ∈ [a, b], and so S would be bounded, a
contradiction). In this way, we get a sequence (x
n
)
n∈N
. Since
a ≤ x
n
≤ b for all n ∈ N, (1.14)
(x
n
)
n∈N
is bounded, and so by the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem (Theorem 1.2.8), it follows that
it has a convergent subsequence (x
n
k
)
k∈N
that converges to some limit L. Now we show that
L ∈ [a, b]. If not, then either L > b or L < a. If L > b, then L −b > 0, and so ∃K ∈ N such that
for all k > K, [x
n
k
−L[ < L −b. But then for all k > K, we obtain
L −x
n
k
≤ [L −x
n
k
[ = [x
n
k
−L[ < L −b,
that is, x
n
k
> b, which contradicts (1.14). Similarly, if L < a, then a − L > 0, and so ∃K ∈ N
such that for all k > K, [x
n
k
−L[ < a −L. But then for all k > K, we obtain
x
n
k
−L ≤ [x
n
k
−L[ < a −L,
that is, x
n
k
< a, which contradicts (1.14). Thus L ∈ [a, b]. But by Theorem 1.2.2 it follows
that (f(x
n
k
))
k∈N
cannot be convergent, since it is not bounded (indeed, [f(x
n
k
)[ > n
k
!). From
Theorem 1.3.2, we see that this contradicts the continuity of f. So S must be bounded.
Step 2. Let M := sup¦f(x) [ x ∈ [a, b]¦. We prove that there exists a c ∈ [a, b] such that
f(c) = M. For each n ∈ N, M −
1
n
< M, and so M −
1
n
cannot be an upper bound for
¦f(x) [ x ∈ [a, b]¦. So ∃x
n
∈ [a, b] such that
M −
1
n
< f(x
n
) ≤ M. (1.15)
By the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem, (x
n
)
n∈N
has a convergent subsequence (x
n
k
)
k∈N
with limit
c ∈ [a, b]. Since f is continuous (f(x
n
k
))
k∈N
is convergent with limit f(c). From (1.15), it follows
34 Chapter 1. Analysis
from the Sandwich theorem that f(c) = M. This proves the existence of c ∈ [a, b] such that (1.12)
holds.
Step 3. Let m := inf¦f(x) [ x ∈ [a, b]¦. The proof that there exists a d ∈ [a, b] such that f(d) = m
is similar to Step 2 above, and is left as an exercise to the reader.
Examples.
1. The function f : [0, 1] → R given by f(x) = 1 for all x ∈ [0, 1] is continuous and for any
c, d ∈ [0, 1] we have
f(c) = 1 = sup¦f(x) [ x ∈ [0, 1]¦ = inf¦f(x) [ x ∈ [0, 1]¦ = 1 = f(d).
2. The function f : (0, 1) →R given by f(x) = x is continuous on (0, 1). If
S = ¦x [ x ∈ (0, 1)¦,
then sup S = 1 and inf S = 0, but these values are not attained. Thus the statement of
Theorem 1.3.4 does not hold if [a, b] is replaced by (a, b). ♦
Exercises.
1. Complete the details in Step 3 of the proof of Theorem 1.3.4.
2. Give an example of a function f : [0, 1] → R that is not continuous on [0, 1], but f satisﬁes
the conclusion of Theorem 1.3.4.
3. A function f : R →R is periodic if there exists a T > 0 such that for all x ∈ R, f(x + T) =
f(x). If f : R →R is continuous and periodic, then prove that f is bounded, that is, the set
S = ¦f(x) [ x ∈ R¦ is bounded.
4. Let f : [a, b] →R be continuous on [a, b], and deﬁne f
∗
as follows:
f
∗
(x) =
_
f(a) if x = a,
max¦f(y) [ y ∈ [a, x]¦ if x ∈ (a, b].
(a) Show that f
∗
is a welldeﬁned function.
(b) (∗) Prove that f
∗
is continuous on [a, b].
(c) If f : [−1, 1] →R is given by f(x) = x −x
2
, then ﬁnd f
∗
.
1.3.4 Intermediate value theorem
We now prove one of the most fundamental (and obvious!) theorems on continuous functions:
a continuous function cannot “hop over” intermediate values. For instance, if the height of a
mountain is 1976 meters above sea level, then given any number between 0 and 1976, say 399,
there must exist a point on the mountain that is exactly 399 meters above sea level. See Figure
1.13.
Theorem 1.3.5 (Intermediate value theorem). If f : [a, b] →R is continuous and y is such that
f(a) ≤ y ≤ f(b), then there exists a c ∈ [a, b] such that f(c) = y.
1.3. Continuity 35
PSfrag replacements
a b c
f(a)
f(b)
y
Figure 1.13: Intermediate value theorem.
Note that in the above statement of the theorem, the order f(a) ≤ y ≤ f(b) can be reversed
without changing the conclusion. Indeed, if y ∈ R is such that f(b) ≤ y ≤ f(a), then we have
(−f)(a) ≤ −y ≤ (−f)(b),
and applying the above Theorem 1.3.5 to the continuous function −f (Theorem 1.3.3.1 with
α = −1!), we get the existence of c ∈ [a, b] such that (−f)(c) = −y, that is, f(c) = y.
Proof Suppose that f(a) ≤ y ≤ f(b), and deﬁne
S = ¦x ∈ [a, b] [ y ≤ f(x)¦.
S is not empty (since b ∈ S) and S is bounded below by a (since S ⊂ [a, b]). Thus S has an
inﬁmum, say c.
We claim that f(c) = y. Suppose that our claim is false. Then either f(c) < y or f(c) > y.
1
◦
Suppose that f(c) < y. Thus := y − f(c) > 0, and since f is continuous at c, ∃δ > 0 such
that for all x ∈ [a, b] such that [x −c[ < δ, [f(x) −f(c)[ < y − f(c). Since c is the inﬁmum of S,
∃x ∈ S such that c ≤ x < c +δ, that is, x ∈ [a, b], 0 ≤ x −c = [x −c[ < δ and y ≤ f(x). Thus we
have
y −f(c) ≤ f(x) −f(c) ≤ [f(x) −f(c)[ < y −f(c),
a contradiction.
2
◦
Suppose that f(c) > y. Thus := f(c) − y > 0, and since f is continuous at c, ∃δ > 0 and
moreover satisfying
8
δ ≤ c − a , such that for all x ∈ [a, b] such that [x − c[ < δ, [f(x) − f(c)[ <
y −f(c). Let x := c −
δ
2
. Then x ∈ [a, c] ⊂ [a, b]: indeed,
a ≤
c +a
2
≤ c −
δ
2
≤ c ≤ b.
Furthermore,
[x −c[ = c −x = c −
_
c −
δ
2
_
=
δ
2
< δ.
Hence f(c) − f(x) ≤ [f(c) − f(x)[ = [f(x) − f(c)[ < f(c) − y, and so f(x) ≥ y. Consequently,
x ∈ S and since c = inf S, we have c ≤ x. Thus we obtain
c ≤ x = c −
δ
2
< c,
a contradiction.
8
If not, then replace δ by
δ
N
with N ∈ N large enough to guarantee
δ
c−a
< N.
36 Chapter 1. Analysis
So f(c) = y, and this completes the proof.
Examples.
1. Every odd polynomial with real coeﬃcients has at least one real root.
Suppose that p is a polynomial with degree 2m+ 1, m ∈ N ∪ ¦0¦. Let
p(x) = a
0
+a
1
x + +a
2m
x
2m
+a
2m+1
x
2m+1
,
where a
2m+1
,= 0.
In order to show that p has a real root, we will choose a large enough N ∈ N such that
p(N) and p(−N) have opposite signs, and then restrict our attention to an interval [−N, N].
Then appealing to the intermediate value theorem, we can conclude that p must vanish at
some point in this interval, that is, for some real c ∈ [−N, N], p(c) = 0. The proof is long,
and so we have divided it into a sequence of steps.
Step 1. For large positive n, p(n) has the same sign as a
2m+1
.
Since
lim
n→∞
_
a
0
n
2m+1
+
a
1
n
2m
+ +
a
2m
n
_
= 0,
it follows that there exists N
1
∈ N such that for all n > N
1
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
p(n)
n
2m+1
−a
2m+1
¸
¸
¸
¸
<
[a
2m+1
[
2
.
Now we show that for n > N
1
, p(n) has the same sign as a
2m+1
. Since a
2m+1
,= 0, either
a
2m+1
> 0 or a
2m+1
< 0. If a
2m+1
> 0, then for all n > N
1
a
2m+1
−
p(n)
n
2m+1
≤
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
2m+1
−
p(n)
n
2m+1
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
p(n)
n
2m+1
−a
2m+1
¸
¸
¸
¸
<
[a
2m+1
[
2
=
a
2m+1
2
,
and so
0 <
a
2m+1
2
<
p(n)
n
2m+1
.
Thus p(n) is also positive for all n > N
1
. Similarly, if a
2m+1
< 0, then for all n > N
1
p(n)
n
2m+1
−a
2m+1
≤
¸
¸
¸
¸
p(n)
n
2m+1
−a
2m+1
¸
¸
¸
¸
<
[a
2m+1
[
2
= −
a
2m+1
2
,
and so
p(n)
n
2m+1
<
a
2m+1
2
< 0.
Thus p(n) is also negative for all n > N
1
.
So it follows that for n > N
1
, p(n) has the same sign as a
2m+1
.
Step 2. For large positive n, p(−n) has the same sign as −a
2m+1
.
Similarly, using the fact that
lim
n→∞
_
a
0
(−n)
2m+1
+
a
1
(−n)
2m
+ +
a
2m
(−n)
_
= 0,
we now show that there exists N
2
∈ N such that for all n > N
2
, p(−n) has the same sign as
−a
2m+1
. Let N
2
∈ N be such that for all n > N
2
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
p(−n)
n
2m+1
+a
2m+1
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
−
p(−n)
n
2m+1
−a
2m+1
¸
¸
¸
¸
<
[a
2m+1
[
2
.
1.3. Continuity 37
If a
2m+1
> 0, then for all n > N
2
p(−n)
n
2m+1
+a
2m+1
≤
¸
¸
¸
¸
p(−n)
n
2m+1
+a
2m+1
¸
¸
¸
¸
<
[a
2m+1
[
2
=
a
2m+1
2
,
and so
p(−n)
n
2m+1
< −
a
2m+1
2
< 0.
Thus p(−n) is negative for all n > N
2
. Similarly, if a
2m+1
< 0, then for all n > N
2
−
p(−n)
n
2m+1
−a
2m+1
≤
¸
¸
¸
¸
p(−n)
n
2m+1
+a
2m+1
¸
¸
¸
¸
<
[a
2m+1
[
2
= −
a
2m+1
2
,
and so
p(−n)
n
2m+1
> −
a
2m+1
2
> 0.
Thus p(−n) is positive for all n > N
2
.
So it follows that for n > N
2
, p(−n) has the same sign as −a
2m+1
.
Step 3. Application of the intermediate value theorem and the conclusion.
Hence if N := max¦N
1
, N
2
¦ + 1, then p(N) has the same sign as a
2m+1
, while p(−N) has
the same sign as −a
2m+1
. Thus the continuous function p must vanish a some point in the
interval [−N, N].
The polynomial p(x) = x
2005
−x
1976
+
1
399
has a real root in [−1, 1]: indeed p(1) =
1
399
> 0
and p(−1) = −2 +
1
399
< 0 and so ∃c ∈ [−1, 1] such that p(c) = 0.
2. At any given time, there exists a pair of diametrically opposite points on the equator which
have the same temperature.
Let T(Θ) denote the surface temperature at the point at longitude Θ. See Figure 1.14.
(Note that Θ(0) = Θ(2π).) Assuming that Θ is a continuous function of Θ, it follows that
PSfrag replacements
Θ
Figure 1.14: The point on the equator with longitude Θ.
the function f : [0, π] → R deﬁned by f(Θ) = T(Θ) − T(Θ + π) is continuous as well. If
f(0) = 0, then it follows that the temperatures at 0 and 180
◦
longitude are the same. If
f(0) ,= 0, then since f(0) and f(π) = −f(0) have opposite signs, by the intermediate value
theorem, it follows that f must vanish at some point, and so the claim follows. ♦
Exercises.
1. Suppose that f : [0, 1] →R is a continuous function such that for all x ∈ [0, 1], 0 ≤ f(x) ≤ 1.
Prove that there exists at least one c ∈ [0, 1] such that f(c) = c.
Hint: Consider the continuous function g(x) = f(x) − x, and use the intermediate value
theorem.
38 Chapter 1. Analysis
2. At 8:00 a.m. on Saturday, a hiker begins walking up the side of a mountain to his weekend
campsite. On Sunday morning at 8:00 a.m., he walks back down the mountain along the
same trail. It takes him one hour to walk up, but only half an hour to walk down. At some
point on his way down, he realizes that he was at the same spot at exactly the same time
on Saturday. Prove that he is right.
Hint: Let u(t) and d(t) be the position functions for the walks up and down, and apply the
intermediate value theorem to f(t) = u(t) −d(t).
3. Show that the polynomial function p(x) = 2x
3
−5x
2
−10x+5 has a real root in the interval
[−1, 2].
4. Let f : R →R be continuous. If S := ¦f(x) [ x ∈ R¦ is neither bounded above nor bounded
below, prove that S = R.
Hint: If y ∈ R, then since S is neither bounded above nor bounded below, there exist
x
0
, x
1
∈ R such that f(x
0
) < y < f(x
1
).
5. (a) (∗) Show that given any continuous function f : R → R, there exists a x
0
∈ [0, 1] and
a m ∈ Z such that f(x
0
) = mx
0
. In other words, the graph of f intersects some line
y = mx at some point x
0
in [0, 1].
Hint: If f(0) = 0, take x
0
= 0 and any m ∈ Z. If f(0) > 0, then choose N ∈ N
satisfying N > f(1), and apply the intermediate value theorem to the continuous
function g(x) = f(x) −Nx on the interval [0, 1]. If f(0) < 0, then ﬁrst choose a N ∈ N
such that N > −f(1), and consider the function g(x) = f(x) + Nx, and proceed in a
similar manner.
(b) (∗) Prove that there does not exist a continuous function f : R →R such that assumes
rational values at irrational numbers, and irrational values at rational numbers, that
is,
f(Q) ⊂ R ¸ Q and f(R ¸ Q) ⊂ Q.
Hint: Note that for every m ∈ Z, there does not exist a x
0
∈ R such that f(x
0
) = mx
0
.
Chapter 2
Algebra
In this part of the course, we study two important algebraic objects: groups and vector spaces.
We begin with a discussion about groups.
2.1 Groups
In this section, we study one of the most basic algebraic objects, namely a group. A group is a set
on which a law of composition is deﬁned, such that certain properties hold. The precise deﬁnition
is given in the next subsection.
2.1.1 Deﬁnition of a Group
By a law of composition on a set S, we mean a rule for combining pairs a, b of S to get another
element, say c, of S. We denote the set of all ordered pairs of elements from a set S by S S,
that is, S S = ¦(a, b) [ a, b ∈ S¦.
Deﬁnition. A law of composition on a set S is a function f : S S → S.
The functional notation c = f(a, b) is not very convenient for what is going to follow, and so
instead, the element obtained by applying the law of composition to a pair (a, b) is usually denoted
using a notation resembling that used for addition or multiplication:
c = a ∗ b, or ab, or a ◦ b, or a +b and so on,
with a ﬁxed choice being made for the particular law in question.
Examples.
1. The addition of integers is a law of composition on Z. Indeed, the sum of two integers is yet
another integer, and addition is the function from the set Z Z to the set Z that assigns
a +b to the pair (a, b), denoted by (a, b) → a +b.
2. The multiplication of real numbers is a law of composition on R.
39
40 Chapter 2. Algebra
3. If a, b are rational numbers, then let a ∗ b = a +b −ab. The function from QQ to Q given
by (a, b) → a ∗ b is a law of composition on Q.
4. If a, b are real numbers, then deﬁne a ∗ b =
√
a
2
+b
2
. Then (a, b) → a ∗ b is not a law of
composition on Q, since 1 ∈ Q, but 1 ∗ 1 =
√
2 ,∈ Q. However, (a, b) → a ∗ b is a law of
composition on R.
5. Let n ∈ N, and let S denote the set of all matrices of size n n with real entries. Then
matrix multiplication is a law of composition on S.
6. Let n ∈ N, and let GL(n, R) denote the set of all invertible matrices of size n n with
real entries. Then matrix multiplication is a law of composition on GL(n, R). Indeed, if
A, B ∈ GL(n, R), then the matrix AB is again a matrix of size n n with real entries, and
moreover, since A and B are invertible, it follows that AB is also invertible.
7. Let a, b be real numbers such that a < b. Let C[a, b] denote the set of all continuous functions
on the interval [a, b]. Let addition of functions be deﬁned as follows: if f, g belong to C[a, b],
then
(f +g)(x) = f(x) +g(x), x ∈ [a, b].
Then addition of functions is a law of composition on C[a, b], since the sum of continuous
functions is again continuous; see Theorem 1.3.3.
8. If a, b ∈ N, then let
a ∗ b =
a
b
.
∗ is not a law of composition on N, since 1 ∗ 2 =
1
2
,∈ N. ♦
On a set there may be several diﬀerent laws of compositions that can be deﬁned. Some laws
of compositions are nicer than others, that is, they possess some desirable properties. A group is
a set G together with a law of composition on G that has three such desirable properties, and we
give the deﬁnition below.
Deﬁnition. A group is a set G together with a law of composition (a, b) → a ∗ b : G G → G,
which has the following properties:
G1. (Associativity.) For all a, b, c ∈ G, (a ∗ b) ∗ c = a ∗ (b ∗ c).
G2. (Identity.) There exists an element
1
e ∈ G such that for all a ∈ G, a ∗ e = a = e ∗ a.
G3. (Inverses.) For every a ∈ G, there exists an element
2
a
−1
∈ G such that a∗a
−1
= e = a
−1
∗a.
G1, G2, G3 are called group axioms. Sometimes we use the notation (G, ∗) for the group.
Remarks. Note that hidden in the deﬁnition of a group, is the following axiom G0:
G0. For all a, b ∈ G, a ∗ b ∈ G. (That is, ∗ is actually a law of composition on G.)
Hence when checking that a certain set G is a group with respect to a certain operation ∗ that
combines pairs of elements from G, we have to check, ﬁrst of all, that for every a, b ∈ G, a ∗ b
belongs to G.
1
Such an element e is called an identity element of the group G.
2
depending on a, and such an element a
−1
is called an inverse of the element a in the group G.
2.1. Groups 41
Examples.
1. Z with addition is a group. Indeed, the addition of integers is a law of composition on Z
that satisﬁes the group axioms:
G1. For all a, b, c ∈ Z, (a +b) +c = a + (b +c).
G2. 0 serves as an identity element: for all a ∈ Z, a + 0 = a = 0 +a.
G3. If a ∈ Z, then −a ∈ Z and a + (−a) = 0 = −a +a.
2. R with multiplication is a not a group. Indeed, although the multiplication of real numbers
is a law of composition on R that satisﬁes G1 and G2, but the group axiom G3 does not
hold:
G1. For all a, b, c ∈ R, (ab)c = a(bc).
G2. (If e is an identity element, then we must have ae = a = ea for all a ∈ R, and in
particular, with a = 1, we should have 1e = 1, and so, e = 1. And so if e is an identity
element, then it must be equal to 1!) 1 serves as an identity element: for all a ∈ R,
a1 = a = 1a.
G3. Does not hold, since 0 ∈ R, but for all a
−1
∈ R, 0a
−1
= a
−1
0 = 0 ,= 1 = e. So there is
no inverse of the element 0 ∈ R.
However, the set of nonzero real numbers, or the set of positive real numbers are both groups
with multiplication, since in addition to G1 and G2, now in each case G3 also holds.
3. Let n ∈ N, and let GL(n, R) denote the set of all invertible matrices of size n n with real
entries. Then GL(n, R) is group with matrix multiplication. Indeed, matrix multiplication
is a law of composition on GL(n, R) that satisﬁes the group axioms:
G1. For all A, B, C ∈ GL(n, R), (AB)C = A(BC), since matrix multiplication is associative.
G2. The identity matrix
I
n
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 . . . 0
0 1 . . . 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 . . . 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
serves as an identity element. I
n
is an invertible matrix of size n n with real entries,
and so it belongs to GL(n, R), and moreover, for all A ∈ GL(n, R), AI
n
= A = I
n
A.
G3. If A ∈ GL(n, R), then A is an invertible matrix, and so there exists a matrix A
−1
such
that AA
−1
= I
n
= A
−1
A. The matrix A
−1
∈ GL(n, R) and serves as an inverse of A.
This group is called the general linear group.
4. Let a, b be real numbers such that a < b. Then C[a, b] is a group with addition of functions.
Indeed, the addition of functions is a law of composition on C[a, b] that satisﬁes the group
axioms:
G1. For all f, g, h ∈ C[a, b], and any x ∈ [a, b] we have
(f + (g +h))(x) = f(x) + (g +h)(x)
= f(x) + (g(x) +h(x))
= (f(x) +g(x)) +h(x) (since addition is associative in R!)
= (f +g)(x) +h(x)
= ((f +g) +h)(x).
Hence f + (g +h) = (f + g) +h.
42 Chapter 2. Algebra
G2. The constant function 0 deﬁned by 0(x) = 0 for all x ∈ [a, b], serves as an identity
element. 0 is a continuous function on [a, b] and so 0 ∈ C[a, b]. Moreover, for all
f ∈ C[a, b], we have for all x ∈ [a, b]:
(f +0)(x) = f(x) +0(x)
= f(x) + 0
= f(x) (since 0 is an identity element for addition in R!)
= 0 +f(x)
= 0(x) +f(x)
= (0 +f)(x).
Hence f +0 = f = 0 +f.
G3. If f ∈ C[a, b], then deﬁne −f by (−f)(x) = −f(x), for x ∈ [a, b]. Given f ∈ C[a, b], we
have for all x ∈ [a, b]:
(f + (−f))(x) = f(x) + (−f)(x)
= f(x) + (−f(x))
= 0 = 0(x) = 0
= −f(x) +f(x)
= (−f)(x) +f(x)
= (−f +f)(x).
Hence f + (−f) = 0 = −f +f. ♦
We note that the groups in the above Examples 1 and 4, also satisfy
G4. (Commutativity.) For all a, b ∈ G, a ∗ b = b ∗ a ,
while the group in Example 3 (with n = 2) does not satisfy G4:
_
1 1
0 1
_ _
1 0
1 1
_
=
_
2 1
1 1
_
,=
_
1 1
1 2
_
=
_
1 0
1 1
_ _
1 1
0 1
_
.
This gives rise to the following natural deﬁnition.
Deﬁnition. A group (G, ∗) is said to be abelian
3
if for all a, b ∈ G, a ∗ b = b ∗ a.
Examples.
1. The set of integers Z with addition is an abelian group.
2. The set of positive real numbers with multiplication is an abelian group.
3. Let n, m ∈ N. The set matrices R
n×m
of size n m with entries in R with matrix addition
is an abelian group.
4. Let n ∈ N. The set GL(n, R) with matrix multiplication is a group, but it is not an abelian
group if n > 1. ♦
3
after the Norwegian mathematician Abel
2.1. Groups 43
We now prove a few elementary theorems concerning groups.
Theorem 2.1.1 There is a unique identity element in a group.
Proof Let e and e
be identity elements in (G, ∗). Since e ∈ G and e
is an identity, we obtain
e = e ∗ e
.
Moreover, since e
∈ G and e is an identity, we also have
e ∗ e
= e
.
Consequently, e = e
.
Theorem 2.1.2 Let (G, ∗) be a group and let a ∈ G. Then a has a unique inverse.
Proof Let the group have the identity e. If a
1
and a
2
are inverses of a, then we have
a
1
= a
1
∗ e (since a
1
∈ G and e is the identity)
= a
1
∗ (a ∗ a
2
) (since a
2
is an inverse of a)
= (a
1
∗ a) ∗ a
2
(associativity)
= e ∗ a
2
(since a
1
is an inverse of a)
= a
2
(since a
2
∈ G and e is the identity).
Example. If A, B are matrices of size n n with real entries and I
n
− AB is invertible, then
I
n
− BA is also invertible, and (I
n
− BA)
−1
= I
n
+ B(I
n
− AB)
−1
A. Indeed, it is easy to check
that
(I
n
−BA)(I
n
+B(I
n
−AB)
−1
A) = I
n
= (I
n
+B(I
n
−AB)
−1
A)(I
n
−BA),
and so it follows that I
n
− BA is invertible. By the uniqueness of the inverse of the element
I
n
−BA in the group GL(n, R), it follows that (I
n
−BA)
−1
= I
n
+B(I
n
− AB)
−1
A. ♦
Deﬁnitions. A group (G, ∗) is said to be ﬁnite, if the set G has ﬁnite cardinality. The order of
a ﬁnite group (G, ∗) is the cardinality of G. A group is said to be inﬁnite if it is not ﬁnite.
Examples.
1. The set ¦−1, 1¦ with multiplication is a ﬁnite group of order 2.
2. The set Z with addition is an inﬁnite group. ♦
A ﬁnite group can be completely described by writing its group table. This is a table that
displays the law of composition as follows: the elements of the group are listed in the ﬁrst row and
the ﬁrst column, and then given a, b ∈ G, the element a ∗ b is entered in the row corresponding to
a and the column corresponding to b, as shown below.
44 Chapter 2. Algebra
∗ . . . b . . .
.
.
.
a a ∗ b
.
.
.
We clarify this further by considering a simple example.
Example. The ﬁnite group ¦−1, 1¦ with multiplication can be described by the group table given
below.
1 −1
1 1 −1
−1 −1 1
The table completely describes the law of composition: 1 1 = 1, 1 (−1) = −1, −1 1 = −1
and −1 (−1) = 1. ♦
Exercises.
1. (a) Show that the set Z
6
of integers modulo 6, with addition modulo 6 is a group. Write
down its group table.
(b) Is Z
6
with multiplication modulo 6 also a group? If, instead, we consider the set Z
∗
6
of
nonzero integers modulo 6, then is Z
∗
6
a group with multiplication modulo 6?
(c) (∗) Let m be an integer such that m ≥ 2, and let Z
∗
m
denote the set of nonzero integers
modulo m. Prove that Z
∗
m
is a group with multiplication modulo m iﬀ m is a prime
number.
Hint: If m is a prime number, then any r ∈ ¦1, . . . , m− 1¦ is coprime to m, and so
there exist integers s and t such that sm +tr = 1.
2. (a) Given n ∈ N, let S
n
be the set of all bijections from the set ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ onto itself.
Prove that the set S
n
with the composition of functions is a group. This is called the
symmetric group S
n
.
Hint: Composition of bijections is again a bijection, and composition of functions
on a set is also associative. The identity element is simply the identity map ι :
¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ → ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ given by ι(m) = m for all m ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦, while
the inverse of an element f ∈ S
n
is simply the inverse of that bijection.
(b) What is the order of S
n
?
(c) If n = 3, give examples of bijections f and g on ¦1, 2, 3¦ such that f ◦ g ,= g ◦ f.
(d) (∗) Show that S
n
is abelian iﬀ n ≤ 2.
3. Consider the set
S =
__
a b
−b a
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
a, b ∈ R and a
2
+b
2
,= 0
_
.
Show that S with the operation of matrix multiplication forms a group.
4. Let (G, ∗) be a group.
(a) Show that if a, b, c ∈ G are such that a ∗ b = a ∗ c, then b = c.
(b) Show that if a, b ∈ G, then the equation a ∗ x = b has a unique solution.
(c) Show that if a, b ∈ G, then (a ∗ b)
−1
= b
−1
∗ a
−1
.
2.1. Groups 45
2.1.2 Subgroups
Deﬁnition. A subset H of a group G is called a subgroup of G, if it has the following properties:
H1. (Closure) If a, b ∈ H, then a ∗ b ∈ H.
H2. (Identity) e ∈ H.
H3. (Inverses) If a ∈ H, then a
−1
∈ H.
These conditions ensure that H is itself a group which is contained in the group G, and this
is explained as follows:
H1. This condition tells us that the law of composition ∗ on the group G can be used to deﬁne
a law of composition on H, namely, the function from H H to H given by (a, b) → a ∗ b,
which is called the induced law of composition. Since ∗ is associative, it follows that the
induced law of composition is associative as well: for all a, b, c ∈ H, a ∗ (b ∗ c) = (a ∗ b) ∗ c.
H2. This shows that H, with the induced law of composition, has an identity element. Indeed
the identity element from G (which also belongs to H) serves as the identity element also in
H: for every a ∈ H, a ∗ e = a = e ∗ a.
H3. Finally this shows that every element in H possesses an inverse element in H. Of course,
since G is a group, we already knew that a possesses an inverse element a
−1
∈ G. But
now H3 says that this inverse element is in H. Thus for all a ∈ H, ∃a
−1
∈ H such that
a ∗ a
−1
= e = a
−1
∗ a.
Thus the conditions H1, H2, H3 imply that the subset H, with the induced law of composition, is
a group. Thus, a subgroup is itself a group which sits in a larger group.
Examples.
1. The subset of even integers ¦2m [ m ∈ Z¦ is a subgroup of the group of integers Z with
addition. Indeed, the sum of even numbers is even (and so H1 holds), 0 is even (and so H2
holds), and ﬁnally, given the even number 2m, −2m = 2(−m) is even as well (and so H3
holds).
2. The group of integers with addition (Z, +) is a subgroup of the group of rational numbers
with addition (Q, +), which in turn is a subgroup of the group of real numbers with addition
(R, +).
3. If G is a group with identity e, then ¦e¦ and G are both subgroups of G.
4. The subset of symmetric matrices of size 2 2, namely
__
a b
b d
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
a, b, d ∈ R
_
with real entries is a subgroup of the set of all 2 2 matrices having real entries with matrix
addition. Indeed, given any two symmetric matrices
_
a b
b d
_
and
_
a
b
b
d
_
,
46 Chapter 2. Algebra
their sum
_
a b
b d
_
+
_
a
b
b
d
_
=
_
a +a
b +b
b +b
d +d
_
is also symmetric, and so H1 holds. Clearly the identity element
_
0 0
0 0
_
is symmetric, and so H2 also holds. Finally, the inverse (with respect to matrix addition) of
any symmetric matrix
_
a b
b d
_
,
is the element
_
−a −b
−b −d
_
which is also symmetric, and so H3 holds.
5. The subset of upper triangular invertible matrices,
UT(2, R) =
__
a b
0 d
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
a, b, d ∈ R and ad ,= 0
_
is a subgroup of the group GL(2, R) with matrix multiplication. Indeed, if
_
a b
0 d
_
,
_
a
b
0 d
_
∈ UT(2, R),
then
_
a b
0 d
_ _
a
b
0 d
_
=
_
aa
ab
+bd
0 dd
_
∈ UT(2, R),
and so H1 holds. Clearly
_
1 0
0 1
_
∈ UT(2, R),
and so H2 also holds. Finally,
if
_
a b
0 d
_
∈ UT(2, R), then
_
a b
0 d
_
−1
=
_
1
a
−
b
ad
0
1
d
_
∈ UT(2, R).
♦
Exercises.
1. Determine if the following statements are TRUE or FALSE.
(a) The nonnegative integers form a subgroup of Z with addition.
(b) The odd integers form a subgroup of Z with addition.
(c) If G is abelian and H is a subgroup of G, then H is abelian.
2. Is there an inﬁnite group with a ﬁnite subgroup?
3. (a) Consider the group of integers Z with addition. Suppose that H is the subgroup of Z
comprising multiples of 4, and let K be the subgroup of Z comprising multiples of 6.
What is H ∩ K?
2.1. Groups 47
(b) If H and K are subgroups of a group G, then show that H∩K is also a subgroup of G.
4. Let C[0, 1] denote the group comprising the set of continuous functions on the interval [0, 1]
with addition of functions deﬁned in the usual way: if f, g belong to C[0, 1], then for all
x ∈ [0, 1], (f +g)(x) = f(x) +g(x).
(a) Let H
1
= ¦f ∈ C[0, 1] [ f
_
1
2
_
= 0¦. Prove that H
1
is a subgroup of C[0, 1].
(b) Let H
2
denote the set of all polynomial functions, that is, the set of all functions
p : [0, 1] →R such that there exists an n ∈ N ∪ ¦0¦ and real numbers a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
such that p(x) = a
0
+ a
1
x + a
2
x
2
+ + a
n
x
n
, for all x ∈ [0, 1]. Show that H
2
is a
subgroup of C[0, 1].
5. Let G be a group. The center of G is the set Z(G) = ¦z ∈ G [ ∀a ∈ G, z ∗ a = a ∗ z¦.
(a) Show that Z(G) is not empty.
(b) If G is abelian, then determine Z(G).
(c) Show that Z(G) is a subgroup of G.
(d) (∗) If G is the group GL(2, R) with matrix multiplication, then determine Z(G).
Hint: Take a =
_
1 1
0 1
_
,
_
1 0
1 1
_
.
Let G be a group and let a ∈ G. We deﬁne
a
0
= e and a
n
= a
n−1
∗ a for n ∈ N.
Moreover, if n ∈ N, then we deﬁne
a
−n
= (a
n
)
−1
.
It can be shown that the usual laws of exponents hold: for all m, n ∈ Z,
a
m
∗ a
n
= a
m+n
and a
mn
= (a
m
)
n
.
(Exercise!)
Deﬁnitions. Let G be a group and suppose that a ∈ G.
1. If there exists an m ∈ N such that a
m
= e, then a is said to have ﬁnite order.
2. If a has ﬁnite order, then the order of a, denoted by ord(a), is
ord(a) = min¦m ∈ N [ a
m
= e¦.
3. If a does not have ﬁnite order, then a is said to have inﬁnite order.
Examples.
1. The element −1 has order 2 in the group of nonzero real numbers with multiplication.
2. The element 2 has inﬁnite order in the group of integers with addition.
3. The element
_
_
0 0 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
_
_
is an element of order 3 in the group GL(3, R). ♦
48 Chapter 2. Algebra
We now prove that given any element from a group, the set of its powers form a subgroup of
the group.
Theorem 2.1.3 Suppose that G is a group and a ∈ G. Let ¸a) = ¦a
n
[ n ∈ Z¦. Then:
1. ¸a) is a subgroup of G.
2. If a is an element with ﬁnite order m, then ¸a) = ¦e, a, a
2
, a
3
, . . . , a
m−1
¦.
Proof
1. We prove that H1, H2, H3 hold.
H1. Given m, n ∈ Z, clearly m+n ∈ Z and so a
m
∗ a
n
= a
m+n
∈ ¸a).
H2. e = a
0
∈ ¸a).
H3. For any m ∈ Z, −m ∈ Z and so (a
m
)
−1
= a
−1·m
= a
−m
∈ ¸a).
So ¸a) is a subgroup of G.
2. Clearly ¦e, a, a
2
, a
3
, . . . , a
m−1
¦ ⊂ ¸a). Conversely, if n ∈ Z, then there exist integers q and r,
such that 0 ≤ r ≤ m−1, and n = q m +r. So
a
n
= a
q·m+r
= a
q·m
∗ a
r
= (a
m
)
q
∗ a
r
= (e)
q
∗ a
r
= e ∗ a
r
= a
r
∈ ¦e, a, a
2
, a
3
, . . . , a
m−1
¦.
The element [1] in the group Z
5
with addition modulo 5 has ﬁnite order, since
[1] ⊕[1] ⊕[1] ⊕[1] ⊕[1] = [0],
and the subgroup ¸[1]) = ¦[0], [1], [2], [3], [4]¦ is in fact the whole group. This example motivates
the following deﬁnition.
Deﬁnition. A group G is said to be cyclic if there exists an element a ∈ G such that G = ¸a).
Such an element a is then called a generator of the group G.
Exercises.
1. If G is a ﬁnite group, then show that every element in the group has a ﬁnite order, which is
at most equal to [G[.
Hint: If a ∈ G, then consider the set S = ¦e, a, a
2
, a
3
, . . . , a
G
¦, and use the pigeonhole
principle.
2. If G is a group and a ∈ G, then show that for all m, n ∈ Z, a
m
∗a
n
= a
m+n
and (a
m
)
n
= a
mn
.
3. Determine the order of
_
1 1
−1 0
_
in the group GL(2, R).
4. Prove that in any group (G, ∗), and for any a, b in G, the orders of a ∗ b and b ∗ a are the
same.
5. Is the group of integers with addition cyclic? What is a generator of this group? Is it unique?
2.1. Groups 49
2.1.3 Homomorphisms and isomorphisms
Deﬁnition. Let (G, ∗) and (G
, ∗
) be groups. A homomorphism ϕ : G → G
is a function such
that
for all a, b ∈ G, ϕ(a ∗ b) = ϕ(a) ∗
ϕ(b).
Examples.
1. Let G be R with addition, and G
be the set of positive reals with multiplication. The
exponential function from G to G
, given by x → 2
x
, is a homomorphism. Indeed, we have
2
x+y
= 2
x
2
y
for all real x, y.
2. Let G be the group GL(2, R) with matrix multiplication, and G
be the group of nonzero
real numbers with multiplication. Then the determinant function det : G → G
is a homo
morphism, since for all 2 2 real matrices A, B we have det(AB) = det(A) det(B).
3. Let G be the group C[0, 1] of continuous functions on the interval [0, 1] with addition, and
G
be the group R with addition. Then the function f → f
_
1
2
_
is a homomorphism. Indeed,
if f, g are continuous functions on the interval [0, 1], then (f +g)
_
1
2
_
= f
_
1
2
_
+g
_
1
2
_
, by the
deﬁnition of f +g.
4. If G is a group, then the identity map ι : G → G deﬁned by ι(a) = a for all a ∈ G, and the
trivial map ζ : G → G deﬁned by ζ(a) = e for all a ∈ G are homomorphisms. ♦
Thus a homomorphism is a function between two groups that respects the law of composition.
In the next theorem we show that it preserves the identity element and the inverses of elements
as well.
Theorem 2.1.4 Let G be a group with identity e and G
be a group with identity e
. If ϕ : G → G
is a homomorphism, then:
1. ϕ(e) = e
.
2. If a ∈ G, then (ϕ(a))
−1
= ϕ(a
−1
).
Proof We have
e
∗
ϕ(e) = ϕ(e) = ϕ(e ∗ e) = ϕ(e) ∗
ϕ(e),
and so canceling ϕ(e) on both sides, we obtain e
= ϕ(e). Next,
ϕ(a
−1
) ∗
ϕ(a) = ϕ(a
−1
∗ a) = ϕ(e) = e
and similarly,
e
= ϕ(e) = ϕ(a ∗ a
−1
) = ϕ(a) ∗
ϕ(a
−1
).
Thus ϕ(a
−1
) ∗
ϕ(a) = e
= ϕ(a) ∗
ϕ(a
−1
), and by the uniqueness of the inverse of ϕ(a) in G
, we
obtain (ϕ(a))
−1
= ϕ(a
−1
).
Every group homomorphism ϕ determines two important subgroups: its image and its kernel.
Deﬁnitions. Let G, G
be groups and let ϕ : G → G
be a group homomorphism.
50 Chapter 2. Algebra
1. The kernel of ϕ is the set ker(ϕ) = ¦a ∈ G [ ϕ(a) = e
¦.
2. The image of ϕ is the set im(ϕ) = ¦a
∈ G
[ ∃a ∈ G such that ϕ(a) = a
¦.
Using Theorem 2.1.4, we now prove the following result.
Theorem 2.1.5 Let G, G
be groups and let ϕ : G → G
be a group homomorphism. Then:
1. ker(ϕ) is a subgroup of G.
2. im(ϕ) is a subgroup of G
.
Proof It is easy to check that ker(ϕ) is a subgroup of G. Indeed if a, b belong to ker(ϕ), then
ϕ(a ∗ b) = ϕ(a) ∗
ϕ(b) = e
∗
e
= e
, and so H1 holds. Moreover, as ϕ(e) = e
, e ∈ ker(ϕ) and so
H2 holds too. Finally, H3 holds, since if a ∈ ker(ϕ), then ϕ(a
−1
) = (ϕ(a))
−1
= (e
)
−1
= e
, and
so a
−1
∈ ker(ϕ). Hence ker(ϕ) is a subgroup of G.
We now also check that im(ϕ) is a subgroup of G
. If a
, b
belong to im(ϕ), then there exist
elements a, b in G such that ϕ(a) = a
and ϕ(b) = b
. Consequently, ϕ(a∗b) = ϕ(a)∗
ϕ(b) = a
∗
b
,
and so there exists an element in G, namely a∗b, such that ϕ(a∗b) = a
∗
b
, that is, a
∗
b
∈ im(ϕ).
Thus H1 holds. Since ϕ(e) = e
, it follows that e
∈ im(ϕ). Finally, if a
∈ im(ϕ), then there exists
an a ∈ G such that ϕ(a) = a
, and so a
−1
= (ϕ(a))
−1
= ϕ(a
−1
). Hence a
−1
∈ im(ϕ), and H3
holds. So im(ϕ) is a subgroup of G
.
Examples.
1. Let G be R with addition, and G
be the set of positive reals with multiplication. The
exponential function from G to G
, given by x → 2
x
, is a homomorphism with kernel the
trivial subgroup comprising the element 0, and the image is the whole group of positive reals
with multiplication, since it can be shown that given any y > 0, there exists a unique real
number (called the logarithm of y to the base 2, denoted by log
2
y) such that y = 2
log
2
y
.
2. Let G be the group GL(2, R) with matrix multiplication, and G
be the group of nonzero
real numbers with multiplication. Then the determinant function det : G → G
is a homo
morphism. Its kernel is the set of all invertible matrices with determinant equal to 1, and
we denote this subgroup by SL(2, R), and it is called the special linear group:
SL(2, R) = ¦A ∈ GL(2, R) [ det(A) = 1¦.
The image of this homomorphism is the whole group of nonzero reals: indeed, given any real
number a not equal to zero, we have that
A :=
_
1 0
0 a
_
∈ GL(2, R),
and det(A) = 1 a −0 0 = a.
3. Let G be the group C[0, 1] of continuous functions on the interval [0, 1] with addition, and
G
be the group R with addition. Then the function f → f
_
1
2
_
is a homomorphism, and
its kernel is the set of all continuous functions on the interval [0, 1] that have a root at
1
2
(for instance the straight line f(x) = x −
1
2
belongs to the kernel). The image is the set of
all real numbers, since given any a ∈ R, the constant function f(x) = a for all x ∈ [0, 1] is
continuous, and f
_
1
2
_
= a. ♦
2.1. Groups 51
In Example 1 above, the homomorphism between the two groups was also bijective. We give
a special name to such homomorphisms.
Deﬁnition. Let G, G
be groups. A homomorphism ϕ : G → G
is said to be an isomorphism if
it is bijective.
Examples.
1. Let G be R with addition, and G
be the set of positive reals with multiplication. The
exponential function from G to G
, given by x → 2
x
, is an isomorphism.
2. If G is a group, then the identity function ι : G → G deﬁned by ι(a) = a for all a ∈ G is an
isomorphism.
3. Let G be the subgroup of GL(2, R) comprising all matrices of the form
_
1 x
0 1
_
, where
x ∈ R. Let G
be the group R with addition. Then the function from G to G
, given by
_
1 x
0 1
_
→ x,
is an isomorphism. ♦
Isomorphisms are important because their existence between two groups means that the two
groups are essentially the “same”, in the sense that as far as algebraic properties go, there is no
real diﬀerence between them.
Exercises.
1. (a) Let G, G
, G
be groups and let ϕ : G → G
and ψ : G
→ G
be group homomorphisms.
Prove that the composition ψ ◦ ϕ : G → G
deﬁned by (ψ ◦ ϕ)(a) = ψ(ϕ(a)), a ∈ G is
a group homomorphism.
(b) Describe the kernel of ψ ◦ ϕ.
2. A subgroup N of a group G is called a normal subgroup if for every a ∈ N and every b ∈ G,
then b ∗ a ∗ b
−1
∈ N. Prove that if G, G
are groups and ϕ : G → G
is a homomorphism,
then ker(ϕ) is a normal subgroup of G.
3. If G is an abelian group, then show that the function from G to G, given by a → a
−1
is an
isomorphism.
4. Let G, G
be groups and let ϕ : G → G
be an isomorphism. Prove that the inverse function
ϕ
−1
: G
→ G is also an isomorphism.
5. Let G be a group and let a be an element of G.
(a) Prove that the function from Z to ¸a), given by m → a
m
, is a homomorphism from the
group of integers Z with addition to the subgroup ¸a).
(b) If a has inﬁnite order, then prove that it is an isomorphism.
52 Chapter 2. Algebra
2.1.4 Cosets and Lagrange’s theorem
Given a subgroup H of a group G, deﬁne the relation R on G by
aRb if b = a ∗ h for some h ∈ H. (2.1)
Then R is an equivalence relation:
E1. (Reﬂexivity) For all a ∈ G, aRa since e ∈ H and a = a ∗ e.
E2. (Symmetry) For all a, b in G, if aRb, then there exists a h ∈ H such that b = a ∗ h and so
b ∗ h
−1
= a. Since H is a subgroup, and h ∈ H, it follows that h
−1
∈ H. Thus bRa.
E3. (Transitivity) For all a, b, c in G, if aRb and bRc, then there exist elements h
1
, h
2
in H such
that b = a ∗ h
1
and c = b ∗ h
2
. Hence we obtain c = b ∗ h
2
= (a ∗ h
1
) ∗ h
2
= a ∗ (h
1
∗ h
2
).
Since h
1
, h
2
∈ H and H is a subgroup, it follows that h
1
∗ h
2
∈ H, and so aRc.
Deﬁnition. Let H be a subgroup of a group G, and let R be the equivalence relation given by
(2.1). If a ∈ G, then the equivalence class of a, namely the set
¦b ∈ G [ aRb¦ = ¦b ∈ G [ ∃h ∈ H such that b = a ∗ h¦ = ¦a ∗ h [ h ∈ H¦,
is called a left coset of H, and is denoted by a ∗ H.
We know that the equivalence classes of an equivalence relation partition the set. (Recall that
a by partition of a set S, we mean a subdivision of the set S into nonoverlapping subsets:
S = union of disjoint, nonempty subsets of S.
For example, the sets ¦1, 3¦, ¦2, 5¦, ¦4¦ form a partition of the ¦1, 2, 3, 4, 5¦. The two sets, of even
integers, and of odd integers, form a partition of the set Z of all integers.)
Hence we obtain the following result:
PSfrag replacements
G
a ∗ H = a
∗ H
(aRa
)
b ∗ H
c ∗ H
Figure 2.1: Distinct cosets partition the group.
Corollary 2.1.6 Let H be a subgroup of a group G. Then the left cosets of H partition the group
G.
2.1. Groups 53
Remarks.
1. The notation a∗H denotes a certain subset of G. As with any equivalence relation, diﬀerent
notations may represent the same subset. In fact, we know that a ∗ H is the unique coset
containing a, and so
a ∗ H = b ∗ H iﬀ aRb.
Corollary 2.1.6 says that if a ∗ H and b ∗ H have an element in common then they are equal.
2. One can also deﬁne the relation R
on G by aR
b if b = h∗a for some h ∈ H. The associated
equivalence classes are called right cosets.
Examples.
1. Consider the group G of the integers modulo 6, Z
6
, with addition modulo 6, and let H be
the subgroup ¸[2]) = ¦[0], [2], [4]¦. The left cosets, which we now denote by a ⊕H are
[0] ⊕H = [2] ⊕H = [4] ⊕H = ¦[0], [2], [4]¦, and
[1] ⊕H = [3] ⊕H = 5 ⊕H = ¦[1], [3], [5]¦.
Note that the cosets ¦[0], [2], [4]¦ and ¦[1], [3], [5]¦ do form a partition of G:
G = ¦[0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]¦ = ¦[0], [2], [4]¦∪¦[1], [3], [5]¦, and ¦[0], [2], [4]¦∩¦[1], [3], [5]¦ = ∅.
2. Consider the group G of the integers Z, with addition, and let H be the subgroup of even
numbers ¦2m [ m ∈ Z¦. The left cosets, which we now denote by a +H are
= −2 +H = 0 +H = ¦2m [ m ∈ Z¦ = ¦. . . , −4, −2, 0, 2, 4, . . . ¦ = 2 +H = . . . ,
= −1 +H = 1 +H = ¦2m+ 1 [ m ∈ Z¦ = ¦. . . , −3, −1, 1, 3, . . . ¦ = 3 +H = . . . .
Note that the cosets ¦. . . , −4, −2, 0, 2, 4, . . . ¦ and ¦. . . , −3, −1, 1, 3, . . . ¦ do indeed partition
the set of all integers. ♦
Note that in Example 1 above, there are only two distinct cosets, and
[G[ = 6 = 3 2 = [H[ (number of cosets of H).
In particular the order of H (namely 3) divides the order of G (namely 6). This is not a coincidence.
We now prove an important result concerning the order of a group G and the number of cosets of
a subgroup H, due to Lagrange.
Theorem 2.1.7 (Lagrange’s theorem) Let H be a subgroup of a ﬁnite group G. Then the order
of H divides the order of G.
Proof Note that there is a bijective function from the subgroup H to the coset a ∗ H, given by
h → a∗ h, for h ∈ H. Consequently, each coset a∗ H has the same number of elements as H does.
Since G is the union of the cosets of H, and since these cosets do not overlap, we obtain the
counting formula
[G[ = [H[ (number of cosets of H).
In particular, [H[ divides [G[.
54 Chapter 2. Algebra
Corollary 2.1.8 Let G be a ﬁnite group and let a ∈ G. Then the order
4
of a divides the order of
G. In particular a
G
= e.
Proof Let a have order m. ¸a) is a subgroup of G, and from Theorem 2.1.3, it follows that
[¸a)[ = m divides [G[, and so [G[ = m k for some k ∈ N. Thus a
G
= a
m·k
= (a
m
)
k
= e
k
= e.
The following theorem characterizes all groups whose order is a prime number.
Corollary 2.1.9 If G is a group with prime order p, then G is cyclic, and G = ¸a) for every
a ∈ G¸ ¦e¦.
Proof If a ,= e, then a has order > 1, say m. Since m divides p, and p is prime, it follows that
m = p. As G itself has order p, it now follows that G = ¸a), and so G is cyclic.
Exercises.
1. Determine if the following statements are TRUE or FALSE.
(a) If H is a subgroup of G and a, b ∈ G are such that a ,= b, then (a ∗ H) ∩ (b ∗ H) = ∅.
(b) If H is a subgroup of G and a ∈ G is such that a ∗ H has 4 elements, then H has 4
elements.
(c) If H is a subgroup of a ﬁnite group G, then for any a ∈ G, the left coset a ∗ H has the
same number of elements as the right coset H ∗ a.
2. (a) Verify that
G =
__
x y
0 1
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
x, y ∈ R and x > 0
_
is a group with matrix multiplication.
(b) Show that
H =
__
x 0
0 1
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
x ∈ R and x > 0
_
is a subgroup of G.
(c) Any element of G can be represented by a point in the (x, y)plane. Draw the partitions
of the plane into left and into right cosets of H.
3. Let H and K be subgroups of a group G of orders 3 and 5 respectively. Prove that H∩K =
¦e¦.
Hint: H ∩ K is a subgroup of H as well as K.
4. Prove or disprove that the group S
4
has an element of order 16.
5. (a) Let p be a prime, and let Z
∗
p
denote the group of nonzero integers modulo p with
multiplication modulo p. Show that if a is an integer such that a is not divisible by p,
then [a]
p−1
= [1].
(b) (∗) Prove Fermat’s little theorem: for any integer a, a
p
≡ a(mod p).
Hint: If a ∈ Z is not divisible by p, then [a] ,= [0], and so by part (5a) above,
[a]
p−1
= [1]. Hence p[(a
p−1
−1), and so p[(a
p
−a).
(c) (∗) Show that 7 divides 2222
5555
+ 5555
2222
.
Hint: Note that 2222 = 7 317+3, so that in Z
7
, [2222
5555
] = [3]
5555
. Now use the fact
that [3]
6
= [1] to conclude that [2222
5555
] = [3
5
]. Proceeding in a similar manner, show
that [5555
2222
] = [3
2
]. Hence we obtain [2222
5555
+5555
2222
] = [3
5
+3
2
] = [3
2
28] = [0].
4
By Exercise 1 on page 48, it follows that every element in a ﬁnite group has a ﬁnite order.
2.2. Vector spaces 55
2.2 Vector spaces
In this section we introduce a very important algebraic object, called a vector space. Roughly
speaking it is a set of elements, called “vectors”. Any two vectors can be “added”, resulting in a
new vector, and any vector can be multiplied by an element from R so as to give a new vector.
The precise deﬁnition is given in the next subsection.
2.2.1 Deﬁnition of a vector space
Deﬁnition. A vector space V is a set together with two functions, + : V V → V , called vector
addition, and : R V → V , called scalar multiplication, such that (V, +) is an abelian group,
and the following hold:
V1. For all v ∈ V , 1 v = v.
V2. For all α, β ∈ R and all v ∈ V , α (β v) = (αβ) v.
V3. For all α, β ∈ R and all v ∈ V , (α +β) v = α v +β v.
V4. For all α ∈ R and all v
1
, v
2
∈ V , α (v
1
+v
2
) = α v
1
+α v
2
.
V3 and V4 are called the distributive laws. The elements of a vector space are called vectors.
We observe that since (V, +) is an abelian group, a vector space also has the following prop
erties:
1. For all v
1
, v
2
, v
3
∈ V , v
1
+ (v
2
+v
3
) = (v
1
+v
2
) +v
3
.
2. There exists an element 0 ∈ V (called the
5
zero vector) such that for all v ∈ V , v +0 = v =
0 +v.
3. For every v ∈ V , there exists a unique
6
element in V , denoted by −v, such that v + (−v) =
0 = −v +v.
4. For all v
1
, v
2
∈ V , v
1
+v
2
= v
2
+v
1
.
Examples.
1. Let n, m ∈ N. The set R
n×m
of n m matrices having real entries with matrix addition is
an abelian group. Deﬁne scalar multiplication as follows: if α ∈ R and
if α ∈ R and A=
_
¸
_
a
11
. . . a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
. . . a
mn
_
¸
_ ∈ R
n×m
, then αA=
_
¸
_
αa
11
. . . αa
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
αa
m1
. . . αa
mn
_
¸
_. (2.2)
Then α A ∈ R
n×m
, and moreover V1, V2, V3, V4 are satisﬁed:
5
Since there is a unique identity element in a group, the zero vector is unique!
6
In a group, every element has a unique inverse!
56 Chapter 2. Algebra
V1. If A ∈ R
n×m
, then clearly
1 A = 1
_
¸
_
a
11
. . . a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
. . . a
mn
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
_
1a
11
. . . 1a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
1a
m1
. . . 1a
mn
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
_
a
11
. . . a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
. . . a
mn
_
¸
_ = A.
V2. For all α, β ∈ R and all A ∈ R
n×m
,
α (β A) = α
_
_
_β
_
¸
_
a
11
. . . a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
. . . a
mn
_
¸
_
_
_
_
= α
_
¸
_
βa
11
. . . βa
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
βa
m1
. . . βa
mn
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
α(βa
11
) . . . α(βa
1n
)
.
.
.
.
.
.
α(βa
m1
) . . . α(βa
mn
)
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
(αβ)a
11
. . . (αβ)a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
(αβ)a
m1
. . . (αβ)a
mn
_
¸
_
= (αβ)
_
¸
_
a
11
. . . a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
. . . a
mn
_
¸
_
= (αβ) A.
V3. For all α, β ∈ R and all A ∈ R
n×m
,
(α +β) A = (α +β)
_
¸
_
a
11
. . . a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
. . . a
mn
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
(α +β)a
11
. . . (α +β)a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
(α +β)a
m1
. . . (α +β)a
mn
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
αa
11
+βa
11
. . . αa
1n
+βa
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
αa
m1
+βa
m1
. . . αa
mn
+βa
mn
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
αa
11
. . . αa
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
αa
m1
. . . αa
mn
_
¸
_ +
_
¸
_
βa
11
. . . βa
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
βa
m1
. . . βa
mn
_
¸
_
= α
_
¸
_
a
11
. . . a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
. . . a
mn
_
¸
_ +β
_
¸
_
a
11
. . . a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
. . . a
mn
_
¸
_
= α A+β A.
2.2. Vector spaces 57
V4. For all α ∈ R and all A, B ∈ R
n×m
,
α (A+B) = α
_
_
_
_
¸
_
a
11
. . . a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
. . . a
mn
_
¸
_ +
_
¸
_
b
11
. . . b
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
b
m1
. . . b
mn
_
¸
_
_
_
_
= α
_
¸
_
a
11
+b
11
. . . a
1n
+b
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
+b
m1
. . . a
mn
+b
mn
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
α(a
11
+b
11
) . . . α(a
1n
+b
1n
)
.
.
.
.
.
.
α(a
m1
+b
m1
) . . . α(a
mn
+b
mn
)
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
αa
11
+αb
11
. . . αa
1n
+αb
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
αa
m1
+αb
m1
. . . αa
mn
+αb
mn
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
αa
11
. . . αa
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
αa
m1
. . . αa
mn
_
¸
_ +
_
¸
_
αb
11
. . . αb
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
αb
m1
. . . αb
mn
_
¸
_
= α
_
¸
_
a
11
. . . a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
. . . a
mn
_
¸
_ +β
_
¸
_
b
11
. . . b
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
b
m1
. . . b
mn
_
¸
_
= α A+β B.
Hence R
m×n
is a vector space with matrix addition and with scalar multiplication deﬁned
by (2.2). If n = 1, then we denote the vector space of column vectors R
m×1
by R
m
.
2. Let a, b be real numbers with a < b. The set C[a, b] of continuous functions on the interval
[a, b] with addition of functions is an abelian group. Let scalar multiplication be deﬁned as
follows:
if α ∈ R and f ∈ C[a, b], then (α f)(x) = αf(x), x ∈ [a, b]. (2.3)
Then α f ∈ C[a, b], and moreover V1, V2, V3, V4 are satisﬁed:
V1. Let f ∈ C[a, b]. For all x ∈ [a, b], we have
(1 f)(x) = 1f(x) = f(x),
and so 1 f = f.
V2. Let α, β ∈ R and f ∈ C[a, b]. For all x ∈ [a, b], we have
(α (β f))(x) = α(β f)(x)
= α(βf(x))
= (αβ)f(x)
= ((αβ) f)(x),
and so (α (β f) = (αβ) f.
V3. Let α, β ∈ R and f ∈ C[a, b]. For all x ∈ [a, b], we have
((α +β) f)(x) = (α +β)f(x)
= αf(x) +βf(x)
= (α f)(x) + (β f)(x)
= (α f +β f)(x),
58 Chapter 2. Algebra
and so (α +β) f = α f +β f.
V4. Let α ∈ R and f, g ∈ C[a, b]. For all x ∈ [a, b], we have
(α (f +g))(x) = α(f +g)(x)
= α(f(x) +g(x))
= αf(x) +αg(x)
= (α f)(x) + (α g)(x)
= (α f +α g)(x),
and so α (f +g) = α f +α g.
Hence C[a, b] with addition and scalar multiplication is a vector space. ♦
We now prove a few elementary properties of vector spaces.
Theorem 2.2.1 Let V be a vector space. Then the following hold:
1. For all v ∈ V , 0 v = 0.
2. For all α ∈ R, α 0 = 0.
3. If v ∈ V , then (−1) v = −v.
Proof Please go through the entire proof carefully, noting which symbols refer to the number
0 ∈ R, and which refer to the zero vector 0 ∈ V .
1. To see this, we use the distributive law to write
0 v + 0 v = (0 + 0) v = 0 v.
Now add −(0 v) on both sides, to obtain 0 v = 0.
2. Similarly, α 0 +α 0 = α (0 +0) = α 0, and hence α 0 = 0.
3. Finally, we have
v + (−1) v = 1 v + (−1) v (since 1 v = v)
= (1 + (−1)) v (distributive law)
= 0 v (since 1 + (−1) = 0)
= 0 (since 0 v = 0),
and so v + (−1) v = 0 = (−1) v + v. Hence (−1) v is an inverse of v. But the inverse of an
element from a group is unique, and so (−1) v = −v.
Exercises.
1. Let n ∈ N.
(a) Is the set of invertible nn matrices having real entries with matrix addition and with
scalar multiplication deﬁned by (2.2) a vector space?
2.2. Vector spaces 59
(b) Is the set of invertible nn matrices having real entries with matrix multiplication and
with scalar multiplication deﬁned by (2.2) a vector space?
2. Let V be a vector space. Prove that if α ∈ R and v ∈ V are such that α v = 0, then either
α = 0 or v = 0.
Hint: If α ,= 0, then α
−1
∈ R. Premultiply both sides of α v = 0 by α
−1
.
3. (∗) Consider the set R
∞
of all sequences with addition deﬁned as follows:
if (a
n
)
n∈N
, (b
n
)
n∈N
∈ R
∞
, then (a
n
)
n∈N
+ (b
n
)
n∈N
= (a
n
+b
n
)
n∈N
, (2.4)
and scalar multiplication deﬁned as follows:
if α ∈ R and (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ R
∞
, then α (a
n
)
n∈N
= (αa
n
)
n∈N
. (2.5)
Prove that R
∞
is a vector space with the above addition and scalar multiplication.
2.2.2 Subspaces and linear combinations
Deﬁnition. Let V be a vector space. A subset U is called a subspace of V if
S1. 0 ∈ U.
S2. If v
1
, v
2
∈ U, then v
1
+v
2
∈ U.
S3. If v ∈ U and α ∈ R, then α v ∈ U.
Subspaces of a vector space are just like subgroups of a group, that is, a subspace of a vector
space is itself a vector space with the same addition and scalar multiplication as with V (this is
easy to check). So a subspace is really a smaller vector space sitting inside a larger vector space.
Examples.
1. If V is a vector space, then the subset U comprising only the zero vector, namely U = ¦0¦,
is a subspace of V .
Also, the entire vector space, that is U = V , is a subspace of V .
If a subspace U of V is neither ¦0¦ nor V , then it is called a proper subspace of V .
2. Consider the vector space R
2×2
with matrix addition and scalar multiplication deﬁned by
(2.2). Then the set of upper triangular matrices
U
1
=
__
a b
0 d
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
a, b, d ∈ R
_
is a subspace of R
2×2
.
Also, the set of symmetric matrices
U
2
=
__
a b
b d
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
a, b, d ∈ R
_
is a subspace of R
2×2
.
60 Chapter 2. Algebra
3. Let a, b ∈ R and a < b. Consider the set of all polynomial functions
P[a, b] =
_
p : [a, b] →R
¸
¸
¸
¸
∃n ∈ N ∪ ¦0¦ and a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
∈ R such that
p(x) = a
0
+a
1
x +a
2
x
2
+ +a
n
x
n
for all x ∈ [a, b]
_
Then U = P[a, b] is a subspace of the vector space C[0, 1] with addition of functions and
scalar multiplication deﬁned by (2.3). ♦
Deﬁnitions. Let V be a vector space.
1. If v
1
, . . . , v
n
are vectors in V and α
1
, . . . , α
n
belong to R, then the vector α
1
v
1
+ +α
n
v
n
is called a linear combination of the vectors v
1
, . . . , v
n
.
2. Let S be a nonempty subset of a vector space V . The span of S, denoted by span(S), is
deﬁned as the set of all possible linear combinations
7
of vectors from S:
span(S) = ¦α
1
v
1
+ +α
n
v
n
[ n ∈ N, v
1
, . . . , v
n
∈ S, α
1
, . . . , α
n
∈ R¦.
Examples.
1. Let m ∈ N. Any vector in the vector space R
m
is a linear combination of the vectors
v
1
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1
0
.
.
.
0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
, . . . , v
m
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0
0
.
.
.
1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
.
Hence span(¦v
1
, . . . , v
m
¦) = R
m
.
2. Let a, b ∈ R with a < b. Any polynomial p on the interval [a, b] is a linear combination of
the functions from the set S = ¦1, x, x
2
, . . . ¦. Hence span(S) = P[a, b] in the vector space
C[a, b]. ♦
The span of a set of vectors turns out to be a special subspace of the vector space.
Theorem 2.2.2 Let V be a vector space and S be a nonempty subset of V . Then span(S) is the
smallest subspace of V that contains S.
Proof We ﬁrst show that span(S) is a subspace of V .
Let v ∈ S. Then 0 = 0 v ∈ span(S). If u, v ∈ span(S), then we know that
u = α
1
u
1
+ +α
n
u
n
and v = β
1
v
1
+ +β
m
v
m
for some vectors u
1
, . . . , u
n
, v
1
, . . . , v
m
∈ S and scalars α
1
, . . . , α
n
, β
1
, . . . , β
m
∈ R. Consequently,
u +v = α
1
u
1
+ +α
n
u
n
+β
1
v
1
+ +β
m
v
m
∈ span(S).
7
Note that although S might be inﬁnite, a linear combination, by deﬁnition, is always a linear combination of a
ﬁnite set of vectors from S.
2.2. Vector spaces 61
Finally, if v ∈ span(S), then we know that v = α
1
v
1
+ + α
n
v
n
for some v
1
, . . . , v
n
∈ S and
scalars α
1
, . . . , α
n
∈ R, and so for any β ∈ R, we have
βv = β(α
1
v
1
+ +α
n
v
n
) = β(α
1
v
1
)+ +β(α
n
v
n
) = (βα
1
)v
1
+ +(βα
n
)v
n
∈ span(S).
So span(S) satisﬁes S1,S2,S3, and so it is a subspace of V . Moreover, if v ∈ S, then v = 1 v ∈
span(S), and so S ⊂ span(S). Thus span(S) contains S.
If U is another subspace that contains the vectors from S, then from S2 and S3 it follows that
it certainly contains all linear combinations of vectors from S belong to U, and so span(S) ⊂ U.
Hence span(S) is the smallest subspace of V containing S.
Deﬁnitions. Let V be a vector space, and suppose that v
1
, . . . , v
n
are vectors that belong to V .
1. The vectors v
1
, . . . , v
n
are called linearly independent if the following condition holds:
if ∃α
1
, . . . , α
n
∈ R such that α
1
v
1
+ +α
n
v
n
= 0, then α
1
= = α
n
= 0.
An arbitrary subset S of vectors from V is said to be linearly independent if every nonempty
ﬁnite set of vectors from S is an independent set of vectors.
2. The vectors v
1
, . . . , v
n
are called linearly dependent if they are not linearly independent, that
is,
∃α
1
, . . . , α
n
∈ R, not all zeros, such that α
1
v
1
+ +α
n
v
n
= 0.
An arbitrary subset S of vectors from V is said to be a linearly dependent if there exists a
nonempty ﬁnite set of dependent vectors from S.
Examples.
1. Let V be a vector space. Then any ﬁnite set of vectors from V containing the zero vector is
linearly dependent. Indeed if v
1
, . . . , v
n
∈ V and v
k
= 0, then
0 v
1
+ + 0 v
k−1
+ 1 v
k
+ 0 v
k+1
+ + 0 v
n
= 0.
2. The vectors
v
1
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1
0
.
.
.
0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
, . . . , v
m
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0
.
.
.
0
1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
are linearly independent in R
m
. Indeed if α
1
v
1
+ +α
m
v
m
= 0, then
_
¸
_
α
1
.
.
.
α
m
_
¸
_ = α
1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1
0
.
.
.
0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
+ +α
m
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0
.
.
.
0
1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
0
.
.
.
0
_
¸
_,
and so α
1
= = α
m
= 0.
3. Let a, b ∈ R with a < b. The functions 1, x on the interval [a, b] are linearly independent.
Indeed, if for all x ∈ [a, b], α 1 +β x = 0(x), then in particular, we have
α +βa = 0 and α +βb = 0,
and since a ,= b, it follows that α = β = 0. ♦
62 Chapter 2. Algebra
Exercises.
1. Determine if the following statements are TRUE or FALSE:
(a) The union of two subspaces of a vector space V is a subspace of V .
(b) The intersection of two subspaces of a vector space V is a subspace of V .
(c)
_
_
1
2
3
_
_
∈ span
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
3
4
_
_
,
_
_
0
1
1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
in the vector space R
3
.
(d) The vectors
_
_
1
0
1
_
_
,
_
_
1
2
1
_
_
,
_
_
0
3
0
_
_
are linearly independent in the vector space R
3
.
(e) If v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
are linearly independent, then v
1
, v
2
, v
3
are linearly independent.
(f) If v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
are linearly dependent, then v
1
, v
2
, v
3
are linearly dependent.
2. (a) Prove that if t
1
and t
2
are distinct real numbers in R, then
span
___
1
t
1
_
,
_
1
t
2
___
= R
2
in the vector space R
2
.
(b) (∗) Prove that R
2
is not the union of a ﬁnite number of proper subspaces.
Hint: Consider the inﬁnite subset S =
__
1
t
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
t ∈ R
_
.
3. (∗) Let R
∞
be the vector space of all sequences, with addition and scalar multiplication
deﬁned by (2.4) and (2.5), respectively. We deﬁne the following subsets of R
∞
:
(a)
∞
is the set of all bounded sequences.
(b) c is the set of all convergent sequences.
(c) c
0
is the set of all convergent sequences with limit 0.
(d) c
00
= ¦(a
n
)
n∈N
∈ R
∞
[ ∃N ∈ N such that ∀n > N, a
n
= 0¦, is the set of all sequences
that are eventually zero.
Prove that c
00
⊂ c
0
⊂ c ⊂
∞
⊂ R
∞
, and that each is a subspace of the next one.
4. Consider the vector space C[0, 1] with addition of functions and scalar multiplication deﬁned
by (2.3). Let S(y
1
, y
2
) = ¦f ∈ C[0, 1] [ f(0) = y
1
and f(1) = y
2
¦. Show that S(y
1
, y
2
) is a
subspace of C[0, 1] iﬀ y
1
= 0 = y
2
.
2.2.3 Basis of a vector space
Deﬁnition. Let V be a vector space. Then a set of vectors B is said to be a basis of V if
B1. span(B) = V , and
B2. B is linearly independent.
2.2. Vector spaces 63
Example. The vectors
v
1
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1
0
.
.
.
0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
, . . . , v
m
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0
0
.
.
.
1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
form a basis of R
m
. ♦
Theorem 2.2.3 Let V be a vector space and B be a basis of V such that B has n elements. Then
any linearly independent set S of n vectors is also a basis of V .
Proof We simply prove that span(S) = V . This is proved as follows: we claim that for each
k ∈ ¦0, 1, . . . , n¦, there is a set S
k
with n elements such that it has n − k elements from B and
the other k elements belong to S, and such that span(S
k
) = V . We prove this claim by induction
on k.
For k = 0, we simply deﬁne S
0
= B. Then S
0
is a set with n elements such that it has
n − 0 = n elements from B and the other 0 elements belong to S, and since B is a basis,
V = span(B) = span(S
0
).
Suppose that the claim is true for some k. Thus S
k
is a set with n elements such that it has
n − k elements v
1
, . . . , v
n−k
from B and the other k elements, say u
1
, . . . , u
k
, belong to S, and
such that span(S
k
) = V . Now suppose that u
r
is an element from S such that it does not belong
to ¦u
1
, . . . , u
k
¦. Since span(S
k
) = V , there exist numbers α
1
, . . . , α
n−k
, β
1
, . . . , β
k
∈ R such that
u
r
= α
1
v
1
+ +α
n−k
v
n−k
+β
1
u
1
+ +β
k
u
k
.
Then we have the following two cases:
1
◦
If α
1
= = α
n−k
= 0, then we get that 1 u
r
−β
1
u
1
− − β
k
u
k
= 0, which contradicts
the linear independence of S. So this case is not possible.
2
◦
Hence there must exist an α
j
,= 0. So the spans of the sets
S
k
= ¦v
1
, . . . , v
j−1
, v
j
, v
j+1
, . . . , v
n−k
, u
1
, . . . , u
k
¦, and
S
k+1
:= ¦v
1
, . . . , v
j−1
, u
r
, v
j+1
, . . . , v
n−k
, u
1
, . . . , u
k
¦
are the same. (Why?) Moreover, S
k+1
has n elements, n − k − 1 of these belong to B, and the
other elements (namely, u
r
, u
1
, . . . , u
k
) belong to S.
Hence by induction, for k = n, we obtain that S
n
has n elements, such that 0 of these are in
B, and the other n − 0 elements are in S, and such that span(S
n
) = V . But S has n elements,
and so S
n
= S. Thus span(S) = V .
Given a vector space, there are of course many bases. However, the next result says that the
cardinality of the basis is unique for any given vector space.
Corollary 2.2.4 If a vector space V has a basis with n elements, then every basis of V has the
same number of elements.
Proof Suppose that B is a basis of V with n elements and suppose that B
is another basis of V .
64 Chapter 2. Algebra
Let B
have > n elements. Then take any n distinct elements v
1
, . . . , v
n
from B
. From the
previous theorem, it follows that these span V , and so if v ∈ B
¸ ¦v
1
, . . . , v
n
¦, it can be written
as a linear combination of ¦v
1
, . . . , v
n
¦, which contradicts the independence of B
.
If B
has < n elements, then by interchanging the roles of B and B
and proceeding as above,
we once again arrive at a contradiction.
The above result motivates the following natural deﬁnitions.
Deﬁnition. Let V be a vector space.
1. If there exists a basis B of V such that B has n elements, then n is called the dimension of
V , and it is denoted by dim(V ).
2. If a vector space has a basis with a ﬁnite number of elements, then it is called a ﬁnite
dimensional vector space. .
3. If a vector space is not ﬁnite dimensional, then it is called an inﬁnite dimensional vector
space.
Exercises.
1. Prove or disprove that
B =
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
0
_
_
,
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
,
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
_
_
_
is a basis for R
3
.
2. Prove that if B is a basis of a ﬁnite dimensional vector space V , then every element v ∈ V
can be written as a unique linear combination of the vectors from B.
3. (∗) Show that C[0, 1] is inﬁnite dimensional.
Hint: One can prove this by contradiction. Let C[0, 1] be a ﬁnite dimensional vector space
with dimension d, say. First show that the set B = ¦x, x
2
, . . . , x
d
¦ is linearly independent.
Then by Theorem 2.2.3, B is a basis for C[0, 1], and so the constant function 1 should be a
linear combination of the functions from B. Derive a contradiction.
4. (a) (∗) For k ∈ N, let e
k
denote the sequence with the kth term equal to 1, and all other
terms equal to zero:
e
k
= (a
n
)
n∈N
, where a
n
=
_
1 if n = k,
0 if n ,= k,
and let B = ¦e
k
[ k ∈ N¦. Prove that B is a basis for the vector space c
00
, comprising
all sequences that are eventually zero.
(b) (∗) Is B = ¦e
k
[ k ∈ N¦ also a basis for the vector space R
∞
?
Hint: Consider the constant sequence (1)
n∈N
.
2.2. Vector spaces 65
2.2.4 Linear transformations
Deﬁnition. Let U, V be two vector spaces. A function T : U → V is called a linear transformation
if it satisﬁes the following two properties:
L1. For all u
1
, u
2
∈ U, T(u
1
+u
2
) = T(u
1
) +T(u
2
).
L2. For all u ∈ U, and all α ∈ R, T(α u) = α T(u).
Thus just like group homomorphisms that are functions that respect group operations, linear
transformations are functions that respect vector space operations.
Examples.
1. Let m, n ∈ N. Let
A =
_
¸
_
a
11
. . . a
1n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
. . . a
mn
_
¸
_ ∈ R
m×n
.
Then the function T
A
: R
n
→R
m
deﬁned by
T
A
_
¸
_
x
1
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
_
a
11
x
1
+ +a
1n
x
n
.
.
.
a
m1
x
1
+ +a
mn
x
n
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
k=1
a
1k
x
k
.
.
.
n
k=1
a
mk
x
k
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
for all
_
¸
_
x
1
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
_ ∈ R
n
, (2.6)
is a linear transformation from the vector space R
n
to the vector space R
m
. Indeed, we have
T
A
_
_
_
_
¸
_
x
1
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
_ +
_
¸
_
y
1
.
.
.
y
n
_
¸
_
_
_
_ = T
A
_
¸
_
x
1
+y
1
.
.
.
x
n
+y
n
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
k=1
a
1k
(x
k
+y
k
)
.
.
.
n
k=1
a
mk
(x
k
+y
k
)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
k=1
(a
1k
x
k
+a
1k
y
k
)
.
.
.
n
k=1
(a
mk
x
k
+a
mk
y
k
)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
k=1
a
1k
x
k
+
n
k=1
a
1k
y
k
.
.
.
n
k=1
a
mk
x
k
+
n
k=1
a
mk
y
k
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
k=1
a
1k
x
k
.
.
.
n
k=1
a
mk
x
k
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
+
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
k=1
a
1k
y
k
.
.
.
n
k=1
a
mk
y
k
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= T
A
_
¸
_
x
1
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
_ +T
A
_
¸
_
y
1
.
.
.
y
n
_
¸
_,
66 Chapter 2. Algebra
for all
_
¸
_
x
1
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
_,
_
¸
_
y
1
.
.
.
y
n
_
¸
_ ∈ R
n
,
and so L1 holds. Moreover,
T
A
_
_
_α
_
¸
_
x
1
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
_
_
_
_ = T
A
_
¸
_
αx
1
.
.
.
αx
n
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
k=1
a
1k
αx
k
.
.
.
n
k=1
a
mk
αx
k
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
α
n
k=1
a
1k
x
k
.
.
.
α
n
k=1
a
mk
x
k
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= α
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
n
k=1
a
1k
x
k
.
.
.
n
k=1
a
mk
x
k
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= α T
A
_
¸
_
x
1
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
_,
for all α ∈ R and all vectors
_
¸
_
x
1
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
_ ∈ R
n
,
and so L2 holds as well. Hence T
A
is a linear transformation.
2. The function T : C[0, 1] →R given by
Tf = f
_
1
2
_
for all f ∈ C[0, 1],
is a linear transformation from the vector space C[0, 1] to the vector space R. Indeed, we
have
T(f +g) = (f +g)
_
1
2
_
= f
_
1
2
_
+g
_
1
2
_
= T(f) +T(g), for all f, g ∈ C[0, 1],
and so L1 holds. Furthermore
T(α f) = (α f)
_
1
2
_
= αf
_
1
2
_
= αT(f), for all α ∈ R and all f ∈ C[0, 1],
and so L2 holds too. Thus T is a linear transformation. ♦
Just as in the case of homomorphisms between groups, there are two important subsets asso
ciated with a linear transformation between vector spaces, whose deﬁnitions are given below.
Deﬁnitions. Let U, V be vector spaces and T : U → V a linear transformation.
1. The kernel of T is deﬁned to be the set ker(T) = ¦u ∈ U [ T(u) = 0
V
¦, where 0
V
denotes
the zero vector in V .
2. The image of T is deﬁned to be the set im(T) = ¦v ∈ V [ ∃u ∈ U such that T(u) = v¦.
2.2. Vector spaces 67
Examples.
1. Let A ∈ R
m×n
, and let T
A
: R
n
→ R
m
be the linear transformation deﬁned by (2.6). The
kernel of the linear transformation is the set of all vectors
x =
_
¸
_
x
1
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
_ ∈ R
n
such that the system of linear equations
a
11
x
1
+ +a
1n
x
n
= 0
.
.
.
a
m1
x
1
+ +a
mn
x
n
= 0
is simultaneously satisﬁed.
The range of T
A
is the set of all vectors
y =
_
¸
_
y
1
.
.
.
y
m
_
¸
_ ∈ R
m
such that there exists a vector
x =
_
¸
_
x
1
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
_ ∈ R
n
such that
a
11
x
1
+ +a
1n
x
n
= y
1
.
.
.
a
m1
x
1
+ + a
mn
x
n
= y
m
.
2. The function T : C[0, 1] → R given by Tf = f
_
1
2
_
for all f ∈ C[0, 1], is a linear transfor
mation from the vector space C[0, 1] to the vector space R, with kernel equal to the set of
continuous functions on the interval [0, 1] that vanish at the point
1
2
. The range of T is the
whole vector space R. ♦
Analogous to Theorem 2.1.5 for homomorphisms between groups, we now prove the following
result.
Theorem 2.2.5 Let U, V be vector spaces and T : U → V a linear transformation. Then:
1. ker(T) is a subspace of U.
2. im(T) is a subspace of V .
Proof In each of the cases, we check that S1, S2, S3 hold.
68 Chapter 2. Algebra
Let 0
U
, 0
V
denote the zero vectors in the vector spaces U, V , respectively. It is easy to
check that ker(T) is a subspace of U. Indeed, as T(0
U
) = T(0
U
+ 0
U
) = T(0
U
) + T(0
U
), it
follows that T(0
U
) = 0
V
, and so 0
U
∈ ker(T). Thus S1 holds. If u
1
, u
2
belong to ker(T), then
T(u
1
+u
2
) = T(u
1
) +T(u
2
) = 0
V
+0
V
= 0
V
, and so S2 holds as well. Finally, S3 holds, since if
α ∈ R and u ∈ ker(T), then T(α u) = α T(u) = α 0
V
= 0
V
. Hence ker(T) is a subspace of U.
We now also check that im(T) is a subspace of V . Since T(0
U
) = 0
V
, it follows that 0
V
∈
im(T), and so S1 holds. If v
1
, v
2
belong to im(T), then there exist elements u
1
, u
2
in U such that
T(u
1
) = v
1
and T(u
2
) = v
2
. Consequently, T(u
1
+ u
2
) = T(u
1
) + T(u
2
) = v
1
+ v
2
, and so there
exists an element in U, namely u
1
+u
2
, such that T(u
1
+u
2
) = v
1
+v
2
, that is, v
1
+v
2
∈ im(T).
Thus S2 holds. Finally, if α ∈ R and v ∈ im(T), then there exists a u ∈ U such that T(u) = v,
and so α v = α T(u) = T(α u). Hence α v ∈ im(T), and S3 holds. So im(T) is a subspace of
V .
Exercises.
1. Find the kernel and image of the linear transformations T
A
: R
2
→ R
2
, where A ∈ R
2×2
is
given by:
(a) A =
_
1 1
0 1
_
.
(b) A =
_
1 1
0 0
_
.
(c) A =
_
0 0
0 0
_
.
Each vector
_
x
y
_
in R
2
can be represented by a point in the (x, y)plane. In each of the
cases, draw a picture of the subspaces ker(T
A
) and im(T
A
) in the plane.
2. Consider the vector space R
2
with matrix addition and the usual scalar multiplication deﬁned
by (2.2). Deﬁne the function T : R
2
→R
2
as follows:
if
_
x
1
x
2
_
∈ R
2
, then T
_
x
1
x
2
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
x
2
1
x2
x
2
_
if x
1
x
2
,= 0,
_
x
1
x
2
_
if x
1
x
2
= 0.
Show that T satisﬁes L2, but not L1, and hence it is not a linear transformation.
3. (∗) Let c denote the vector space of all convergent sequences. Consider the function T : c →R
given by
T((a
n
)
n∈N
) = lim
n→∞
a
n
, for all sequences (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ c.
(a) Prove that T is a linear transformation from the vector space c to the vector space R.
(b) What is the kernel of T?
(c) Show that im(T) = R.
Solutions
Analysis
Solutions to the exercises on page 6
1. (a) S = (0, 1].
——————————————————————————————————————
An upper bound of S. 1 is an upper bound, since for all x ∈ S = (0, 1], we have x ≤ 1.
In fact any real number u ≥ 1 is an upper bound.
——————————————————————————————————————
A lower bound of S. 0 is a lower bound, since for all x ∈ S = (0, 1], we have 0 < x. In
fact any real number l ≤ 0 is a lower bound.
——————————————————————————————————————
Is S bounded? Yes. S is bounded above, since 1 is an upper bound of S. S is also
bounded below, since 0 is a lower bound. Since S is bounded above as well as bounded
below, it is bounded.
——————————————————————————————————————
Supremum of S. sup S = 1. Indeed, 1 is an upper bound, and moreover, if u is also an
upper bound, then 1 ≤ u (since 1 ∈ S).
——————————————————————————————————————
Inﬁmum of S. inf S = 0. First of all, 0 is a lower bound. Let l be a lower bound of
S. We prove that l ≤ 0. (We do this by supposing that l > 0, and arriving at a
contradiction. The contradiction is obtained as follows: if l > 0, then we will see that
the average of 0 and l, namely
l
2
, is an element in S that is less than the lower bound
l, which is a contradiction to the deﬁnition of a lower bound!) If l > 0, then 0 <
l
2
.
Moreover, since l ≤ 1 (l is a lower bound of S and 1 ∈ S) it follows that
l
2
≤
1
2
≤ 1.
Thus
l
2
∈ S. But since l > 0, it follows that
l
2
< l, a contradiction. Hence l ≤ 0.
——————————————————————————————————————
If sup S exists, then is sup S ∈ S? Yes, sup S = 1 ∈ (0, 1] = S.
——————————————————————————————————————
If inf S exists, then is inf S ∈ S? No, inf S = 0 ,∈ (0, 1] = S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Maximum of S. max S = 1, since sup S = 1 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Minimum of S. min S does not exist since inf S = 0 ,∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
69
70
(b) S = [0, 1].
——————————————————————————————————————
An upper bound of S. 1 is an upper bound, since for all x ∈ S = [0, 1], we have x ≤ 1.
——————————————————————————————————————
A lower bound of S. 0 is a lower bound, since for all x ∈ S = (0, 1], we have 0 ≤ x.
——————————————————————————————————————
Is S bounded? Yes, since S is bounded above (1 is an upper bound) and it is bounded
below (0 is a lower bound).
——————————————————————————————————————
Supremum of S. sup S = 1. Indeed, 1 is an upper bound, and moreover, if u is also an
upper bound, then 1 ≤ u (since 1 ∈ S).
——————————————————————————————————————
Inﬁmum of S. inf S = 0. Indeed, 0 is an lower bound, and moreover, if l is also an
lower bound, then l ≤ 0 (since 0 ∈ S).
——————————————————————————————————————
If sup S exists, then is sup S ∈ S? Yes, sup S = 1 ∈ [0, 1] = S.
——————————————————————————————————————
If inf S exists, then is inf S ∈ S? Yes, inf S = 0 ∈ [0, 1] = S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Maximum of S. max S = 1, since sup S = 1 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Minimum of S. min S = 0, since inf S = 0 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
(c) S = (0, 1).
——————————————————————————————————————
An upper bound of S. 1 is an upper bound, since for all x ∈ S = (0, 1), x < 1.
——————————————————————————————————————
A lower bound of S. 0 is a lower bound, since for all x ∈ S = (0, 1), 0 < x.
——————————————————————————————————————
Is S bounded? Yes, since S is bounded above (1 is an upper bound) and it is bounded
below (0 is a lower bound).
——————————————————————————————————————
Supremum of S. supS = 1.
First of all, 1 is a upper bound. Let u be an upper bound of S. We prove that 1 ≤ u.
(We do this by supposing that u < 1 and arriving at a contradiction. The contradiction
is obtained as follows: if u < 1, then we will see that the average of u and 1, namely
u+1
2
, is an element in S that is larger than the upper bound u, which is a contradiction
to the deﬁnition of an upper bound!) Since u is an upper bound and since
1
2
∈ S, it
follows that 0 < u (since 0 <
1
2
≤ u). So if u < 1, then 0 < u =
u+u
2
<
u+1
2
<
1+1
2
= 1.
Hence
u+1
2
∈ S. But u <
u+1
2
contradicts the fact that u is an upper bound of S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Inﬁmum of S. inf S = 0.
First of all, 0 is a lower bound. Let l be a lower bound of S. We prove that l ≤ 0. If
l > 0, then 0 <
l
2
. Moreover, since
1
2
∈ S and l is a lower bound of S, it follows that
l ≤
1
2
. Thus we have 0 <
l
2
< l ≤
1
2
< 1, and so
l
2
∈ S. But
l
2
< l contradicts the fact
that l is a lower bound of S.
——————————————————————————————————————
If sup S exists, then is sup S ∈ S? No, supS = 1 ,∈ (0, 1) = S.
——————————————————————————————————————
If inf S exists, then is inf S ∈ S? No, inf S = 0 ,∈ (0, 1) = S.
71
——————————————————————————————————————
Maximum of S. max S does not exist, since sup S = 1 ,∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Minimum of S. min S does not exist, since inf S = 0 ,∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
(d) S =
_
1
n
[ n ∈ Z ¸ ¦0¦
_
=
_
1
n
[ n ∈ N
_
∪
_
−
1
n
[ n ∈ N
_
.
——————————————————————————————————————
An upper bound of S. 1 is an upper bound, since for all n ∈ N,
1
n
≤ 1 and −
1
n
≤ 0 ≤ 1.
——————————————————————————————————————
A lower bound of S. −1 is a lower bound, since for all n ∈ N, −1 ≤ 0 ≤
1
n
and −1 ≤ −
1
n
.
——————————————————————————————————————
Is S bounded? Yes, since S is bounded above (1 is an upper bound) and it is bounded
below (−1 is a lower bound).
——————————————————————————————————————
Supremum of S. supS = 1. 1 is an upper bound. Moreover, if u is also an upper bound,
then since 1 =
1
1
∈ S, 1 ≤ u.
——————————————————————————————————————
Inﬁmum of S. inf S = −1. −1 is a lower bound. Moreover, if l is also a lower bound,
then since −1 =
1
−1
∈ S, it follows that l ≤ −1.
——————————————————————————————————————
If sup S exists, then is sup S ∈ S? Yes, sup S = 1 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
If inf S exists, then is inf S ∈ S? Yes, inf S = −1 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Maximum of S. max S = 1, since sup S = 1 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Minimum of S. min S = −1, since inf S = −1 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
(e) S =
_
−
1
n
[ n ∈ N
_
.
——————————————————————————————————————
An upper bound of S. 0 is an upper bound, since for all n ∈ N, −
1
n
< 0.
——————————————————————————————————————
A lower bound of S. −1 is a lower bound, since for all n ∈ N, −1 ≤ −
1
n
.
——————————————————————————————————————
Is S bounded? Yes, since S is bounded above (0 is an upper bound) and it is bounded
below (−1 is a lower bound).
——————————————————————————————————————
Supremum of S. sup S = 0. 0 is an upper bound. Moreover, if u is an upper bound and
if u < 0, then let N ∈ N be such that
1
−u
< N (Archimedean principle with y =
1
−u
and x = 1!), and so we obtain u < −
1
N
∈ S, a contradiction to the fact that u is an
upper bound of S. Thus if u is an upper bound, then 0 ≤ u.
——————————————————————————————————————
Inﬁmum of S. inf S = −1. −1 is a lower bound, and if l is another lower bound, then
since −1 = −
1
1
∈ S, it follows that l ≤ −1.
——————————————————————————————————————
If sup S exists, then is sup S ∈ S? No, since sup S = 0 ,∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
If inf S exists, then is inf S ∈ S? Yes, inf S = −1 ∈ S.
72
——————————————————————————————————————
Maximum of S. max S does not exist since sup S = 0 ,∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Minimum of S. min S = −1 since inf S = −1 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
(f) S =
_
n
n+1
[ n ∈ N
_
.
——————————————————————————————————————
An upper bound of S. 1 is an upper bound, since for all n ∈ N,
n
n+1
< 1.
——————————————————————————————————————
A lower bound of S.
1
2
is a lower bound because for all n ∈ N,
1
2
≤
n
n+1
(since n+1 ≤ 2n,
that is, 1 ≤ n).
——————————————————————————————————————
Is S bounded? Yes, since S is bounded above (1 is an upper bound) and it is bounded
below (
1
2
is a lower bound).
——————————————————————————————————————
Supremum of S. supS = 1. 1 is an upper bound of S. If u < 1 is an upper bound,
then let N ∈ N be such that
u
u−1
< N (Archimedean property). Then u <
N
N+1
,
contradicting the fact that u is an upper bound.
——————————————————————————————————————
Inﬁmum of S. inf S =
1
2
.
1
2
is a lower bound, and if l is a lower bound, then since
1
2
=
1
1+1
∈ S, it follows that l ≤
1
2
.
——————————————————————————————————————
If sup S exists, then is sup S ∈ S? No, since sup S = 1 ,∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
If inf S exists, then is inf S ∈ S? Yes, since inf S =
1
2
∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Maximum of S. max S does not exist since sup S = 1 ,∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Minimum of S. min S exists since inf S =
1
2
∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
(g) S = ¦x ∈ R [ x
2
≤ 2¦.
——————————————————————————————————————
An upper bound of S.
√
2 is an upper bound. (x >
√
2 implies x
2
> 2, and so x ,∈ S.
In other words, if x ∈ S, then x ≤
√
2, that is,
√
2 is an upper bound of S.)
——————————————————————————————————————
A lower bound of S. −
√
2 is a lower bound. (x < −
√
2 implies that −x >
√
2 > 1 > 0.
So using the fact that if a > b and c > 0, then ac > bc, we get x
2
= (−x)(−x) >
(−x)
√
2 >
√
2
√
2 = 2, and so, x ,∈ S. In other words, if x ∈ S, then x ≥ −
√
2, and so
−
√
2 is a lower bound.)
——————————————————————————————————————
Is S bounded? Yes, since S is bounded above (
√
2 is an upper bound) and it is bounded
below (−
√
2 is a lower bound).
——————————————————————————————————————
Supremum of S. sup S =
√
2. First of all,
√
2 is an upper bound of S. Let u be an
upper bound such that u <
√
2. Then
u+
√
2
2
∈ S. (As 0 ∈ S and u is an upper bound
of S, 0 ≤ u. As u <
√
2, u <
u+
√
2
2
<
√
2. Hence we have 0 <
u+
√
2
2
<
√
2, and
so
_
u+
√
2
2
_
2
=
_
u+
√
2
2
__
u+
√
2
2
_
<
_
u+
√
2
2
_
√
2 <
√
2
√
2 = 2. Thus
u+
√
2
2
∈ S.) But
73
u <
u+
√
2
2
contradicts the fact that u is an upper bound. So if u is an upper bound of
S, then
√
2 ≤ u.
——————————————————————————————————————
Inﬁmum of S. inf S = −
√
2. −
√
2 is a lower bound. Let l be a lower bound such that
−
√
2 < l. Then we have −l <
√
2, and since sup S =
√
2, it follows that −l cannot be
an upper bound of S. So there exists an x ∈ S such that −l < x. But since x ∈ S,
we have (−x)
2
= x
2
≤ 2. So it follows that −x ∈ S. As l is a lower bound, l ≤ −x,
that is, x ≤ −l. From −l < x and x ≤ −l, we arrive at the contradiction that −l < −l.
Consequently, if l is a lower bound, then l ≤ −
√
2.
——————————————————————————————————————
If sup S exists, then is sup S ∈ S? Yes, sup S =
√
2 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
If inf S exists, then is inf S ∈ S? Yes, inf S = −
√
2 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Maximum of S. max S =
√
2.
——————————————————————————————————————
Minimum of S. min S = −
√
2.
——————————————————————————————————————
(h) S = ¦0, 2, 5, 2005¦.
——————————————————————————————————————
An upper bound of S. 2005 is an upper bound, since 0 ≤ 2005, 2 ≤ 2005, 5 ≤ 2005 and
2005 ≤ 2005.
——————————————————————————————————————
A lower bound of S. 0 is a lower bound, since 0 ≤ 0, 0 ≤ 2, 0 ≤ 5 and 0 ≤ 2005.
——————————————————————————————————————
Is S bounded? Yes, since S is bounded above (2005 is an upper bound) and it is bounded
below (0 is a lower bound).
——————————————————————————————————————
Supremum of S. sup S = 2005. 2005 is an upper bound, and if u is also an upper bound,
then since 2005 ∈ S, it follows that 2005 ≤ u.
——————————————————————————————————————
Inﬁmum of S. inf S = 0. 0 is an lower bound, and if l is also an lower bound, then
since 0 ∈ S, it follows that l ≤ 0.
——————————————————————————————————————
If sup S exists, then is sup S ∈ S? Yes, sup S = 2005 ∈ ¦0, 2, 5, 2005¦ = S.
——————————————————————————————————————
If inf S exists, then is inf S ∈ S? Yes, inf S = 0 ∈ ¦0, 2, 5, 2005¦ = S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Maximum of S. max S = 2005 since supS = 2005 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Minimum of S. min S = 0 since inf S = 0 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
(i) S =
_
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
_
[ n ∈ N
_
.
(This set has the elements −
2
1
,
3
2
, −
4
3
,
5
4
, . . . .)
——————————————————————————————————————
An upper bound of S.
3
2
is an upper bound.
If n ∈ N and n is even, then (−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
_
= 1 +
1
n
≤ 1 +
1
2
=
3
2
.
74
If n ∈ N and n is odd, then (−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
_
= −1 −
1
n
< 0 <
3
2
.
——————————————————————————————————————
A lower bound of S. −2 is a lower bound.
If n ∈ N and n is even, then (−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
_
= 1 +
1
n
> 0 > −2.
If n ∈ N and n is odd, then (−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
_
= −1 −
1
n
≥ −1 −1 = −2.
——————————————————————————————————————
Is S bounded? Yes, since S is bounded above (
3
2
is an upper bound) and it is bounded
below (−2 is a lower bound).
——————————————————————————————————————
Supremum of S. sup S =
3
2
.
3
2
is an upper bound, and if u is also an upper bound,
then since
3
2
= (−1)
2
_
1 +
1
2
_
∈ S, it follows that
3
2
≤ u.
——————————————————————————————————————
Inﬁmum of S. inf S = −2. −2 is a lower bound, and if l is also a lower bound, then
since −2 = (−1)
1
_
1 +
1
1
_
∈ S, it follows that l ≤ −2.
——————————————————————————————————————
If sup S exists, then is sup S ∈ S? Yes, sup S =
3
2
∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Maximum of S. max S =
3
2
.
——————————————————————————————————————
Minimum of S. min S = −2.
——————————————————————————————————————
(j) S = ¦x
2
[ x ∈ R¦.
——————————————————————————————————————
An upper bound of S. There does not exist an upper bound of S. Let u ∈ R be an
upper bound of S, then u +
1
2
∈ R, and so u
2
+ u +
1
4
=
_
u +
1
2
_
2
∈ S. But since
u
2
+
1
4
> 0, it follows that u < u
2
+u +
1
4
=
_
u +
1
2
_
2
∈ S, contradicting the fact that
u is an upper bound of S. Thus S does not have an upper bound.
——————————————————————————————————————
A lower bound of S. 0 is a lower bound of S, since for all x ∈ R, 0 ≤ x
2
.
——————————————————————————————————————
Is S bounded? No, since the set is not bounded above.
——————————————————————————————————————
Supremum of S. sup S does not exist, since the set does not have an upper bound, and
so it cannot have a least upper bound. (Recall that every least upper bound is an upper
bound).
——————————————————————————————————————
Inﬁmum of S. inf S = 0. 0 is a lower bound, and if l is also a lower bound, then since
0 = 0
2
∈ S, it follows that l ≤ 0.
——————————————————————————————————————
If sup S exists, then is sup S ∈ S? sup S does not exist.
——————————————————————————————————————
If inf S exists, then is inf S ∈ S? Yes, inf S = 0 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Maximum of S. max S does not exist, since sup S does not exist.
——————————————————————————————————————
Minimum of S. min S = 0, since inf S = 0 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
75
(k) S =
_
x
2
1+x
2
[ x ∈ R
_
.
——————————————————————————————————————
An upper bound of S. 1 is an upper bound of S, since for all x ∈ R,
x
2
1+x
2
< 1.
——————————————————————————————————————
A lower bound of S. 0 is a lower bound of S, since for all x ∈ R, 0 ≤
x
2
1+x
2
.
——————————————————————————————————————
Is S bounded? Yes, since S is bounded above (1 is an upper bound) and it is bounded
below (0 is a lower bound).
——————————————————————————————————————
Supremum of S. sup S = 1. 1 is an upper bound. Let u be an upper bound and let
u < 1. Since 0 =
0
2
1+0
2
∈ S, 0 ≤ u. Let N ∈ N be such that
_
u
1−u
< N. Then we have
u <
N
2
1+N
2
∈ S, a contradiction to the fact that u is an upper bound of S. Hence if u is
an upper bound of S, then 1 ≤ u.
——————————————————————————————————————
Inﬁmum of S. inf S = 0. 0 is a lower bound, and if l is also a lower bound, then since
0 =
0
2
1+0
2
∈ S, it follows that l ≤ 0.
——————————————————————————————————————
If sup S exists, then is sup S ∈ S? No, supS = 1 ,∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
If inf S exists, then is inf S ∈ S? Yes, inf S = 0 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Maximum of S. max S does not exist, since sup S ,∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
Minimum of S. min S = 0, since inf S = 0 ∈ S.
——————————————————————————————————————
2. (a) FALSE (if S = ¦1¦, then u = 3 is an upper bound of S, and although u
= 2 < 3 = u,
u
(= 2) is an upper bound of ¦1¦ = S).
(b) TRUE (if > 0, then u
∗
− < u
∗
, and so u
∗
− cannot be an upper bound of S).
(c) FALSE (N has no maximum).
(d) FALSE (N has no supremum).
(e) FALSE ([0, 1) is bounded, but it does not have a maximum).
(f) FALSE (∅ is bounded, but it does not have a supremum).
(g) TRUE (least upper bound property of R).
(h) TRUE (the supremum itself is an upper bound).
(i) TRUE (deﬁnition of maximum).
(j) FALSE (the set [0, 1) has supremum 1, but 1 ,∈ [0, 1)).
(k) FALSE (−N is bounded above since 0 is an upper bound, but [−N[ = N is not bounded).
(l) TRUE (l ≤ x ≤ u implies x ≤ u and −x ≤ −l, and so we have
x ≤ u ≤ max¦−l, u¦ and −x ≤ −l ≤ max¦−l, u¦.
Thus [x[ ≤ max¦−l, u¦ and so max¦−l, u¦ is an upper bound of [S[. Moreover, for
every y ∈ [S[, we have y = [x[ for some x ∈ S, and so y = [x[ ≥ 0. Thus 0 is a lower
bound of [S[.)
(m) FALSE (if S = ¦0, 1¦, then inf S = 0 <
1
2
< 1 = supS, but
1
2
,∈ S).
76
3. Since S is bounded, in particular, it is bounded above, and furthermore, since it is nonempty,
supS exists, by the least upper bound property of R.
Since S is bounded, in particular it is bounded below, and furthermore, since it is nonempty,
inf S exists, by the greatest lower bound property of R.
Let x ∈ S. Since inf S is a lower bound of S,
inf S ≤ x. (2.7)
Moreover, since sup S is an upper bound of S,
x ≤ sup S. (2.8)
From (2.7) and (2.8), we obtain inf S ≤ supS.
Let inf S = supS. If x ∈ S, then we have
inf S ≤ x ≤ sup S, (2.9)
and so inf S = x(= sup S) (for if inf S < x, then from (2.9), inf S < supS, a contradiction).
Thus S is a singleton set. Conversely, if S = ¦x¦, then clearly x is an upper bound. If u < x
is an upper bound, then x ≤ u < x gives x < x, a contradiction. So sup S = x. Clearly
x is also a lower bound. If l > x is also a lower bound, then x > l ≥ x gives x > x, a
contradiction. So inf S = x = sup S.
4. Since sup B is an upper bound of B, we have x ≤ sup B for all x ∈ B. Since A ⊂ B, in
particular we obtain x ≤ sup B for all x ∈ A. So sup B is an upper bound of A, and so by
the deﬁnition of the least upper bound of A, we obtain sup A ≤ sup B.
5. Since A is bounded above, ∃M
A
∈ R such that ∀x ∈ A, x ≤ M
A
.
Since B is bounded above, ∃M
B
∈ R such that ∀y ∈ B, y ≤ M
B
.
Consequently if x ∈ A and y ∈ B, x +y ≤ M
A
+M
B
.
So ∀z ∈ A+B, z ≤ M
A
+M
B
, and so M
A
+M
B
is an upper bound for A+B. So A+B is
bounded above.
Clearly A + B is nonempty. Indeed, A is nonempty implies that ∃x ∈ A; B is nonempty
implies that ∃y ∈ B; thus x +y ∈ A+B, and so A+B is not empty.
Since A+B is bounded above and it is not empty, by the least upper bound property of R,
it follows that sup(A+B) exists.
Since sup A is an upper bound of A, ∀x ∈ A, x ≤ sup A.
Since sup B is an upper bound of B, ∀y ∈ B, y ≤ sup B.
So for all x ∈ A and y ∈ B, x +y ≤ sup A+ sup B.
Since every z ∈ A + B is such that z = x + y with x ∈ A and y ∈ B, it follows that for
all z ∈ A + B, z ≤ sup A + sup B. So sup A + sup B is an upper bound of A + B, and
consequently, by the deﬁnition of the least upper bound of A+B,
sup(A+B) ≤ sup A+ supB.
6. Let l be a lower bound of S: ∀x ∈ S, l ≤ x. So ∀x ∈ S, −x ≤ −l, in other words,
∀y ∈ −S, y ≤ −l.
Thus −S is bounded above because −l is an upper bound of −S.
Since S is nonempty, it follows that ∃x ∈ S, and so we obtain that −x ∈ −S. Hence −S is
nonempty.
77
As −S is nonempty and bounded above, it follows that sup(−S) exists, by the least upper
bound property of R.
Since sup(−S) is an upper bound of −S, we have:
∀y ∈ −S, y ≤ sup(−S),
that is,
∀x ∈ S, −x ≤ sup(−S),
that is,
∀x ∈ S, −sup(−S) ≤ x.
So −sup(−S) is a lower bound of S.
Next we prove that −sup(−S) is the greatest lower bound of S. Suppose that l
is a lower
bound of S such that −sup(−S) < l
. Then we have
∀x ∈ S, −sup(−S) < l
≤ x,
that is,
∀x ∈ S, −x ≤ −l
< sup(−S),
that is,
∀y ∈ −S, y ≤ −l
< sup(−S).
So −l
is an upper bound of −S, and −l
< sup(−S), which contradicts the fact that sup(−S)
is the least upper bound of −S. Hence l
≤ −sup(−S).
Consequently, inf S exists and inf S = −sup(−S).
7. (S is nonempty and bounded below (0 is a lower bound), and so by the greatest lower bound
property of R, inf S exists.)
If: Let inf S > 0. Since inf S is a lower bound, it follows that
∀x ∈ S, inf S ≤ x,
that is,
∀x ∈ S,
1
x
≤
1
inf S
,
that is,
∀y ∈ S
−1
, y ≤
1
inf S
.
So
1
inf S
is an upper bound of S
−1
. Thus S
−1
is bounded above.
Only if: Suppose S
−1
is bounded above (with an upper bound u, say). Then
∀y ∈ S
−1
y ≤ u,
that is,
∀x ∈ S,
1
x
≤ u. (2.10)
Since S is not empty, ∃x
∗
∈ S and so
1
x∗
≤ u. But x
∗
∈ S implies that x
∗
> 0, and so
1
x∗
> 0. Consequently u > 0. Hence from (2.10), we have
∀x ∈ S,
1
u
≤ x.
Thus
1
u
is a lower bound of S, and so
1
u
≤ inf S.
78
But u > 0 implies
1
u
> 0, and consequently inf S
_
≥
1
u
_
> 0.
If inf S > 0, then as in the If part, we see that
1
inf S
is an upper bound of S
−1
and so we
obtain
sup S
−1
≤
1
inf S
. (2.11)
Furthermore, since u := sup S
−1
is an upper bound of S
−1
, as in the Only if part, we see
that
1
u
=
1
sup S
−1
is a lower bound of S, and so
1
supS
−1
≤ inf S,
that is,
1
inf S
≤ sup S
−1
. (2.12)
From (2.11) and (2.12), it follows that
sup S
−1
=
1
inf S
.
8. (a) If x ∈
n∈N
_
0,
1
n
_
, then
for all n ∈ N, 0 < x <
1
n
. (2.13)
Let N ∈ N be such that
1
x
< N (Archimedean property). Thus
1
N
< x, which contra
dicts (2.13). So
_
∃x ∈
n∈N
_
0,
1
n
_
_
, that is,
n∈N
_
0,
1
n
_
= ∅.
(b) Clearly ¦0¦ ⊂
_
0,
1
n
¸
for all n ∈ N and so
¦0¦ ⊂
n∈N
_
0,
1
n
_
. (2.14)
Let x ∈
n∈N
_
0,
1
n
_
. Then x ∈ [0, 1] and so x ≥ 0. If x > 0, then let N ∈ N be
such that
1
x
< N (Archimedean property), that is,
1
N
< x. So x ,∈
_
0,
1
N
¸
, and hence
x ,∈
n∈N
_
0,
1
n
_
. Consequently, if x ∈
n∈N
_
0,
1
n
_
, then x = 0, that is,
n∈N
_
0,
1
n
_
⊂ ¦0¦. (2.15)
From (2.14) and (2.15),
n∈N
_
0,
1
n
_
= ¦0¦.
(c) Let n ∈ N. If x ∈
_
1
n
, 1 −
1
n
¸
, then 0 <
1
n
≤ x ≤ 1 −
1
n
< 1, and so x ∈ (0, 1). Hence
_
n∈N
_
1
n
, 1 −
1
n
_
⊂ (0, 1). (2.16)
79
If x ∈ (0, 1), then 0 < x < 1. Let N
1
∈ N be such that
1
x
< N
1
(Archimedean property),
that is,
1
N1
< x. Let N
2
∈ N be such that
1
1−x
< N
2
(Archimedean property), that is,
x < 1 −
1
N2
. Thus with N := max¦N
1
, N
2
¦, we have
1
N
≤
1
N
1
< x < 1 −
1
N
2
≤ 1 −
1
N
,
that is, x ∈
_
1
N
, 1 −
1
N
_
⊂
_
n∈N
_
1
n
, 1 −
1
n
_
. So we have
(0, 1) ⊂
_
n∈N
_
1
n
, 1 −
1
n
_
. (2.17)
From (2.16) and (2.17), we obtain (0, 1) =
_
n∈N
_
1
n
, 1 −
1
n
_
.
(d) If x ∈ [0, 1], then for any n ∈ N,
−
1
n
< 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 < 1 +
1
n
,
and so x ∈
_
−
1
n
, 1 +
1
n
_
. Hence
[0, 1] ⊂
n∈N
_
−
1
n
, 1 +
1
n
_
. (2.18)
Let x ∈
n∈N
_
−
1
n
, 1 +
1
n
_
. Then
−
1
n
≤ x ≤ 1 +
1
n
for all n ∈ N. (2.19)
We prove that this implies that 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. For if x < 0, then let N
1
∈ N be such that
−
1
x
< N
1
, that is, x < −
1
N1
, a contradiction to (2.19). Similarly, if x > 1, then let
N
2
∈ N be such that
1
x−1
< N
2
, that is, x > 1 +
1
N2
, a contradiction to (2.18). Hence
we see that neither x < 0 nor x > 1 are possible, and hence x ∈ [0, 1]. Thus
n∈N
_
−
1
n
, 1 +
1
n
_
⊂ [0, 1]. (2.20)
(2.18) and (2.20) imply
n∈N
_
−
1
n
, 1 +
1
n
_
= [0, 1].
9. If x ∈ (x
0
−δ, x
0
+δ), then x
0
− δ < x < x
0
+δ. Adding −x
0
, we obtain −δ < x − x
0
< δ.
So x − x
0
< δ, and −(x − x
0
) < δ. Thus [x − x
0
[ < δ, and x ∈ ¦x ∈ R [ [x − x
0
[ < δ¦.
Consequently (x
0
−δ, x
0
+δ) ⊂ ¦x ∈ R [ [x −x
0
[ < δ¦.
If x ∈ ¦x ∈ R [ [x − x
0
[ < δ¦, then [x − x
0
[ < δ. Since for any real number r, [r[ ≥ r
and [r[ ≥ −r, we obtain that x − x
0
≤ [x − x
0
[ < δ and −(x − x
0
) ≤ [x − x
0
[ < δ. Hence
−δ < x − x
0
< δ. Adding x
0
, this yields x
0
− δ < x < x
0
+ δ, that is, x ∈ (x
0
− δ, x
0
+ δ).
So ¦x ∈ R [ [x −x
0
[ < δ¦ ⊂ (x
0
−δ, x
0
+δ).
Thus (x
0
−δ, x
0
+δ) = ¦x ∈ R [ [x −x
0
[ < δ¦.
80
10. From the inequality (1.7) on page 6, we have that [x[ = [x −y +y[ ≤ [x −y[ +[y[, that is,
[x[ −[y[ ≤ [x −y[ (2.21)
for all x, y ∈ R. Interchanging x and y in (2.21), we obtain
[y[ −[x[ ≤ [y −x[ = [ −(x −y)[ = [ −1[[x −y[ = 1 [x −y[ = [x −y[,
and so,
−([x[ −[y[) ≤ [x −y[ (2.22)
for all x, y ∈ R. From (2.21) and (2.22), we obtain [[x[ −[y[[ ≤ [x −y[ for all x, y ∈ R.
11. If S is bounded, then it is bounded above and it is bounded below. Thus S has an upper
bound, say u, and a lower bound, say l. So for all x ∈ S, l ≤ x ≤ u, that is, x ≤ u and
−x ≤ −l, and so we have
x ≤ u ≤ max¦−l, u¦ and −x ≤ −l ≤ max¦−l, u¦.
Thus [x[ ≤ max¦−l, u¦ =: M.
Conversely, if there exists a M such that for all x ∈ S, [x[ ≤ M, we have −M ≤ x ≤ M. So
−M is a lower bound of S and M is an upper bound of S. Thus S is bounded.
81
Solutions to the exercises on page 13
1. (a) We prove that (1)
n∈N
is convergent sequence with limit 1. Given > 0, let N ∈ N, say
N = 1. Then for all n > N = 1, we have
[a
n
−L[ = [1 −1[ = [0[ < .
(b) Yes. For instance, the constant sequence (1)
n∈N
converges to 1.
(c) Suppose that the terms of the convergent sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
(with limit, say, L) lie in
the ﬁnite set ¦v
1
, . . . , v
m
¦. If L ,∈ ¦v
1
, . . . , v
m
¦, then with
:= min¦[v
1
−L[, . . . , [v
m
−L[¦ > 0,
let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N, [a
n
−L[ < . In particular, with n = N+1 > N, we
have [a
N+1
−L[ < . But a
N+1
∈ ¦v
1
, . . . , v
m
¦. Let a
N+1
= v
k
for some k ∈ ¦1, . . . , m¦.
Then we have
[v
k
−L[ = [a
N+1
−L[ < = min¦[v
1
−L[, . . . , [v
m
−L[¦ ≤ [v
k
−L[,
a contradiction. So L ∈ ¦v
1
, . . . , v
m
¦, that is, L must be one of the terms. Thus we
have shown that
terms of the sequence
take ﬁnitely many values
=⇒
L must be one
of the terms
,
that is,
L is not equal to
any of the terms
=⇒
terms of the sequence cannot
consist of ﬁnitely many values
.
(d) Suppose that ((−1)
n
)
n∈N
is a convergent sequence with limit L. Then from part 1c
above, it follows that L = 1 or L = −1: indeed the terms of the sequence take ﬁnitely
many values, namely 1 and −1, and so L must be one of these terms. So we have the
following two cases:
1
◦
If the limit is 1, then given = 1 > 0, let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N,
[(−1)
n
− 1[ < = 1. Let n be any odd number > N. Then we have 2 = [ − 2[ =
[ −1 −1[ = [(−1)
n
−1[ < = 1, a contradiction.
2
◦
If the limit is −1, then given = 1 > 0, let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N,
[(−1)
n
− (−1)[ < = 1. Let n be any even number > N. Then we have 2 = [2[ =
[1 + 1[ = [(−1)
n
−(−1)[ < = 1, a contradiction.
So ((−1)
n
)
n∈N
is divergent.
2. If lim
n→∞
1
n
= 1, then given any > 0, there exists an N ∈ N such that for all n ∈ N such that
n > N,
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
n
−1
¸
¸
¸
¸
< .
Let =
1
2
. (This choice is motivated by Figure 2.2, from which we see that, for instance
= 1 won’t give us a contradiction, but =
1
2
would.) Then there exists a N
∗
∈ N such that
for all n > N
∗
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
n
−1
¸
¸
¸
¸
< =
1
2
,
that is,
1 −
1
n
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
1
n
−1
¸
¸
¸
¸
<
1
2
.
82
PSfrag replacements
1
Figure 2.2:
_
1
n
_
n∈N
.
Consequently, for all n > N
∗
,
1 −
1
n
<
1
2
,
that is, n < 2. In particular, since n = N
∗
+1 > N
∗
, we obtain N
∗
+1 < 2, that is, N
∗
< 1.
But there does not exist any natural number N
∗
that is less than 1. Hence we arrive at a
contradiction, and so lim
n→∞
1
n
,= 1.
3. (a) We have seen that the sequence
_
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
__
n∈N
is divergent. Given any > 0, let
N ∈ N be such that
1
< N. Then for all even n > N (there are obviously inﬁnitely
many such n), we have
[a
n
−L[ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
_
−1
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 +
1
n
−1
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
1
n
<
1
N
< .
(b) Again, for the divergent sequence
_
(−1)
n
_
1 +
1
n
__
n∈N
, with = 4 > 0, for all N ∈ N
and all n > N, we have
[a
n
−L[ ≤ [a
n
[ +[L[ ≤ 2 + 1 = 3 < 4 = .
4. S is nonempty and bounded above, and so by the least upper bound property of R, it follows
that sup S exists.
Given n ∈ N, we have
1
n
> 0, and so sup S −
1
n
< supS. Thus S −
1
n
is not an upper
bound of S. Hence there must exist an element in S, which we denote by a
n
, such that
[a
n
≤ sup S −
1
n
], that is, a
n
> sup S −
1
n
. In this way we construct the sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
.
As sup S is an upper bound of S and so we also have a
n
≤ sup S for all n ∈ N. Consequently,
∀n ∈ N, sup S −
1
n
< a
n
≤ sup S < sup S +
1
n
,
that is,
∀n ∈ N, −
1
n
< a
n
−sup S <
1
n
, that is, [a
n
−sup S[ <
1
n
.
Given > 0, let N ∈ N be such that N >
1
. Then for all n > N, we have
[a
n
−sup S[ <
1
n
<
1
N
< .
Hence (a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit equal to sup S.
5. Suppose L < 0. Then := −
L
2
> 0, and so there exists a N ∈ N such that for all n > N,
[a
n
−L[ < = −
L
2
. Hence with n = N + 1 (> N), we obtain
a
N+1
−L ≤ [a
N+1
−L[ < −
L
2
,
that is, a
N+1
<
L
2
< 0, a contradiction.
83
6. Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be a convergent sequence with limit L¿ Given > 0, there exists a N ∈ N such
that
for all n > N, [a
n
−L[ <
2
. (2.23)
Hence if n, m > N, then
[a
n
−a
m
[ = [a
n
−L +L −a
m
[
≤ [a
n
−L[ +[L −a
m
[ (triangle inequality)
= [a
n
−L[ +[a
m
−L[ (using [r[ = [ −r[ for all real r)
<
2
+
2
(using (2.23)).
Consequently (a
n
)
n∈N
is a Cauchy sequence.
Solutions to the exercises on page 17
1. We prove that the sequence is monotone and bounded, and hence it must be convergent.
We prove that [a
n
[ ≤ 1 for all n ∈ N. We prove this using induction. We have [a
1
[ = [1[ = 1.
If k ∈ N is such that [a
k
[ ≤ 1, then
[a
k+1
[ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
2k + 3
3k + 3
a
k
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
2k + 3
3k + 3
¸
¸
¸
¸
[a
k
[ =
_
2k + 3
3k + 3
_
[a
k
[ ≤ 1 1 = 1,
and so the claim follows from induction. So the sequence is bounded.
Since n ≥ 1, it follows that 2n + 1 ≤ 3n, and so
2n+1
3n
≤ 1 for all n ∈ N. Furthermore, note
that for all n ∈ N, a
n
≥ 0 (induction!). Hence for all n ≥ 2, a
n
=
2n+1
3n
a
n−1
≤ 1a
n−1
= a
n−1
.
So (a
n
)
n∈N
is decreasing.
As the sequence is bounded and monotone, it is convergent.
2. Let M > 0 be such that for all n ∈ N, [b
n
[ ≤ M. Given > 0, let N ∈ N be such that
M
< N, that is,
1
N
<
M
. Then for all n > N,
¸
¸
¸
¸
b
n
n
−0
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
[b
n
[
n
≤
M
n
<
M
N
< M
M
= .
Hence
_
bn
n
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit 0.
3. (a) Given > 0, ∃N
1
∈ N such that ∀n > N
1
, [a
n
− L[ <
2
. Since (a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent,
it is bounded: ∃M > 0 such that ∀n ∈ N, [a
n
[ ≤ M. Choose
8
N ∈ N such that
max
_
N
1
,
N
1
(M +[L[)
2
_
< N,
and so,
N > N
1
and
N
1
(M +[L[)
N
<
2
.
8
This is arrived at by working backwards; we wish to make
˛
˛
˛
a
1
+···+an
n
− L
˛
˛
˛ less than for all n > N, so we
manipulate this (as shown in the chain of inequalities that follow) to see if can indeed achieve this by choosing the
N large enough.
84
Then for n > N, we have:
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
1
+ +a
N1
+a
N1+1
+ +a
n
n
− L
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
1
+ +a
N1
+a
N1+1
+ +a
n
−nL
n
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
[a
1
+ +a
N1
+ a
N1+1
+ +a
n
−nL[
n
≤
[a
1
−L[ + +[a
N1
−L[ +[a
N1+1
−L[ + +[a
n
−L[
n
≤
([a
1
[ +[L[ + +[a
N1
[ +[L[) +
2
+ +
2
n
≤
N
1
(M +[L[) + (n −N
1
)
2
n
≤
N
1
(M +[L[)
n
+
_
1 −
N
1
n
_
2
<
N
1
(M +[L[)
N
+ 1
2
<
2
+
2
= .
So
_
a1+···+an
n
_
n∈N
is a convergent sequence with limit L.
(b) If a
n
= (−1)
n
, n ∈ N, then (a
n
)
n∈N
is divergent, but the sequence with nth term
a
1
+ +a
n
n
=
(−1)
1
+ (−1)
2
+ + (−1)
n
n
=
_
0 if n is even
−
1
n
if n is odd
,
is convergent with limit equal to 0. Indeed, given > 0, let N ∈ N be such that
1
< N.
Then for n > N, we have
[a
n
−0[ = [a
n
[ =
_
0 if n is even
1
n
if n is odd
_
≤
1
n
<
1
N
< .
So
_
a1+···+an
n
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit 0.
4. Since (a
n
)
n∈N
is bounded, it follows that there exists a M such that for all n ∈ N, [a
n
[ ≤ M,
that is, −M ≤ a
n
≤ M. If k ∈ N, then in particular, for all n ≥ k, −M ≤ a
n
≤ M, and so
the set ¦a
n
[ n ≥ k¦ is bounded. By the least upper bound property of R, it then follows that
inf¦a
n
[ n ≥ k¦ and sup¦a
n
[ n ≥ k¦ exist, that is, l
k
and u
k
are welldeﬁned. Furthermore,
for each k,
−M ≤ inf¦a
n
[ n ≥ k¦ ≤ sup¦a
n
[ n ≥ k¦ ≤ M,
and so we see that the sequences (l
k
)
k∈N
and (u
k
)
k∈N
are bounded.
Clearly ¦a
n
[ n ≥ k + 1¦ ⊂ ¦a
n
[ n ≥ k¦, and by Exercise 4 on page 7, we then obtain that
u
k+1
= sup¦a
n
[ n ≥ k + 1¦ ≤ sup¦a
n
[ n ≥ k¦ = u
k
,
and so (u
k
)
k∈N
is a decreasing sequence.
Similarly, ¦−a
n
[ n ≥ k + 1¦ ⊂ ¦−a
n
[ n ≥ k¦, and so we have
sup¦−a
n
[ n ≥ k + 1¦ ≤ sup¦−a
n
[ n ≥ k¦.
Using Exercise 6 on page 7, we obtain
inf¦a
n
[ n ≥ k + 1¦ = −sup¦−a
n
[ n ≥ k + 1¦ ≥ −sup¦−a
n
[ n ≥ k¦ = inf¦a
n
[ n ≥ k¦,
85
that is, l
k+1
≥ l
k
. Consequently, (l
k
)
k∈N
is a increasing sequence.
As the sequences (u
k
)
k∈N
, (l
k
)
k∈N
are both bounded and monotone, by Theorem 1.2.3, it
follows that they are convergent.
5. Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be a Cauchy sequence. Then given := 1 > 0, there exists a N ∈ N such that
for all n, m > N, [a
n
−a
m
[ < = 1. In particular, with m := N +1 (> N), [a
n
−a
N+1
[ < 1
for all n > N, that is,
[a
n
[ = [a
N+1
+a
n
−a
N+1
[ ≤ [a
N+1
[ +[a
n
−a
N+1
[ < [a
N+1
[ + 1 for all n > N.
Deﬁning M = max¦[a
1
[, . . . , [a
N
[, [a
N+1
[ + 1¦, we see that [a
n
[ ≤ M for all n ∈ N, and so
(a
n
)
n∈N
is bounded.
86
Solutions to the exercises on page 20
1. First we prove the
Claim: (a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit L, then (a
n+1
)
n∈N
is also convergent with limit L.
Proof Let > 0. Then ∃N ∈ N such that for all n > N, [a
n
−L[ < . Thus for all n > N,
we have n + 1 > N + 1 > N, and so [a
n+1
− L[ < . Hence (a
n+1
)
n∈N
is convergent with
limit L.
Alternately, observe that (a
n+1
)
n∈N
is a subsequence of (a
n
)
n∈N
, and use Theorem 1.2.6.
We now apply this result to our sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
, which satisﬁes:
a
n+1
=
2(n + 1) + 1
3(n + 1)
a
n
=
2 +
3
n
3 +
3
n
a
n
,
for all n ∈ N. Since the sequence
_
1
n
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit 0, by the theorem on
algebra of limits, it follows that the sequence
_
2+
3
n
3+
3
n
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit
2+3·0
3+3·0
=
2
3
.
Again applying the theorem on algebra of limits, we obtain
L = lim
n→∞
a
n+1
= lim
n→∞
_
2 +
3
n
3 +
3
n
a
n
_
= lim
n→∞
_
2 +
3
n
3 +
3
n
_
lim
n→∞
a
n
=
2
3
L.
Hence
1
3
L = 0, that is, L = 0. So lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0.
2. We have
c
n
=
a
n
b
n
+ 5n
a
2
n
+n
=
a
n
bn
n
+ 5
a
n
a
n
1
n
+ 1
for all n ∈ N.
N. The sequence
_
a
n
bn
n
+ 5
_
n∈N
is convergent.
The sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit, say L. Since (b
n
)
n∈N
is bounded,
the sequence
_
bn
n
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit 0 (see Exercise 2 on page 17). Hence
_
a
n
bn
n
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit L 0 = 0. The sequence (5)
n∈N
is convergent with
limit 5. So the sequence
_
a
n
bn
n
+ 5
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit 0 + 5 = 5.
D. The sequence
_
a
2
n
n
+ 1
_
n∈N
has nonzero terms for all n ∈ N and it is convergent with
the nonzero limit 1.
We have
a
2
n
n
+ 1 ≥ 1 for all n ∈ N, and so
a
2
n
n
+ 1 ,= 0 for all n ∈ N.
Since the sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit L, it follows that the sequence
(a
2
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit L
2
. Since
_
1
n
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit 0, it follows
that
_
a
2
n
1
n
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit L
2
0 = 0. Finally, as (1)
n∈N
is convergent with
limit 1, it follows that the sequence
_
a
2
n
n
+ 1
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit 0+1 = 1(,= 0).
87
From the parts N and D above and the theorem on the algebra of limits, it follows that
(c
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit
5
1
= 5.
3. (a) We begin by showing that L ≥ 0. If L < 0, then := −
L
2
> 0. Let N ∈ N be such that
for all n > N, [a
n
−L[ < = −
L
2
. Then we have
a
n
−L ≤ [a
n
−L[ < −
L
2
,
and so a
n
<
L
2
< 0 for all n > N, a contradiction to the fact that
a
n
≥ 0 for all n ∈ N.
So L ≥ 0.
Now we show that (
√
a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit
√
L. Let >). We consider the
only two possible cases, namely L = 0 and L > 0:
1
◦
If L = 0, then let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N,
[a
n
−L[ = [a
n
−0[ = [a
n
[ = a
n
<
2
.
Then for n > N, we have
√
a
n
< , that is,
[
√
a
n
−
√
L[ = [
√
a
n
−
√
0[ = [
√
a
n
[ =
√
a
n
< .
So (
√
a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit
√
L.
2
◦
If L > 0, then let N ∈ N be such that for n > N, [a
n
− L[ <
√
L. Then for all
n > N, we obtain
> [a
n
−L[
= [(
√
a
n
−
√
L)(
√
a
n
+
√
L)[
= [
√
a
n
−
√
L[[
√
a
n
+
√
L)[
= [
√
a
n
−
√
L[(
√
a
n
+
√
L)
and so
[
√
a
n
−
√
L[ <
√
L
√
a
n
+
√
L
≤
√
L
√
L
= .
Hence (
√
a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit
√
L.
(b) For all n ∈ N, we have
_
n
2
+n −n = (
_
n
2
+n −n)
√
n
2
+n +n
√
n
2
+n +n
=
n
2
+n −n
2
√
n
2
+n +n
=
n
√
n
2
+n +n
=
n(1)
n
_
1
n
√
n
2
+n + 1
_
=
1
_
n
2
+n
n
2
+ 1
=
1
_
1 +
1
n
+ 1
.
88
As (1)
n∈N
is convergent with limit 1 and
_
1
n
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit 0, it follows
that
_
1 +
1
n
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit 1. Furthermore 1 +
1
n
≥ 0 for all n ∈ N,
and so by the previous part, it follows that
__
1 +
1
n
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit
√
1 = 1. Hence
__
1 +
1
n
+ 1
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit 1 + 1 = 2(,= 0). Also
_
1 +
1
n
+ 1 > 1 > 0. Thus by the theorem on algebra of limits, we conclude that
the sequence
_
1
√
1+
1
n
+1
_
n∈N
is convergent with limit
1
2
, that is, (
√
n
2
+n − n)
n∈N
is
convergent with limit
1
2
.
4. Consider the sequence (b
n
− a
n
)
n∈N
. As a
n
≤ b
n
, it follows that b
n
− a
n
≥ 0 for all
n ∈ N. From the theorem on algebra of limits, it follows that the sequence (b
n
− a
n
)
n∈N
is
convergent (being the sum of the convergent sequence (b
n
)
n∈N
and the convergent sequence
(−a
n
)
n∈N
). Moreover, its limit is lim
n→∞
b
n
− lim
n→∞
a
n
. From Exercise 5 on page 13, we obtain
lim
n→∞
b
n
− lim
n→∞
a
n
≥ 0, that is lim
n→∞
b
n
≥ lim
n→∞
a
n
.
Solutions to the exercises on page 22
1. For all n ∈ N, we have
0 ≤
n!
n
n
=
1
n
2
n
n −1
n
n
n
≤
1
n
1 1 1 =
1
n
.
Since (0)
n∈N
and
_
1
n
_
n∈N
are both convergent with the same limit 0, from the Sandwich
theorem, it follows that
_
n!
n
n
_
n∈N
is convergent with the limit 0.
2. Let k ∈ N. For all n ∈ N, we have
0 ≤
1
k
+ 2
k
+ 3
k
+ +n
k
n
k+2
≤
n
k
+n
k
+n
k
+ +n
k
n
k+2
≤
n n
k
n
k+2
=
1
n
.
Thus
0 ≤
1
k
+ 2
k
+ 3
k
+ +n
k
n
k+2
≤
1
n
for all n ∈ N. Since the sequences (0)
n∈N
and
_
1
n
_
n∈N
are both convergent with limit 0, from
the Sandwich theorem, we obtain that
lim
n→∞
1
k
+ 2
k
+ 3
k
+ +n
k
n
k+2
= 0.
3. (a) We prove the claim using induction. Let x ≥ −1. Clearly (1 + x)
1
= 1 +x = 1 + 1 x.
If for some k ∈ N, (1 +x)
k
≥ 1 +kx, then we have
(1 +x)
k+1
= (1 +x)
k
(1 +x)
≥ (1 +kx)(1 +x) (by the induction hypothesis and since 1 +x ≥ 0)
= 1 +kx +x +x
2
= 1 + (k + 1)x +x
2
≥ 1 + (k + 1)x.
Hence by induction, the result follows.
89
(b) For all n ∈ N,
n
1
n
≥ 1 (2.24)
(for if n
1
n
< 1, then n = (n
1
n
)
n
< 1
n
= 1, a contradiction!). Clearly for all n ∈ N,
n
1
n
= (
√
n
2
)
1
n
=
√
n
2
n
< (1 +
√
n)
2
n
. (2.25)
Finally,
_
1 +
1
√
n
_
n
≥ 1 +n
1
√
n
= 1 +
√
n,
and so
_
1 +
1
√
n
_
2
=
__
1 +
1
√
n
_
n
_
2
n
≥ (1 +
√
n)
2
n
. (2.26)
Combining (2.24), (2.25), and (2.26), we obtain
1 ≤ n
1
n
< (1 +
√
n)
2
n
≤
_
1 +
1
√
n
_
2
(2.27)
for all n ∈ N.
(c) Since lim
n→∞
1
n
= 0, using Exercise 3a on page 20, it follows that lim
n→∞
1
√
n
= 0. Hence
lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
√
n
_
2
= (1 + 0)
2
= 1 = lim
n→∞
1.
Using (2.27), it follows from the Sandwich theorem that (n
1
n
)
n∈N
is convergent and
lim
n→∞
n
1
n
= 1.
4. Consider the sequence (a
n
− a)
n∈N
. As a
n
∈ (a, b) for all n ∈ N, we have a
n
− a ≥ 0.
From the theorem on algebra of limits, it follows that the sequence (a
n
−a)
n∈N
is convergent
(being the sum of the convergent sequence (a
n
)
n∈N
and the convergent sequence (−a)
n∈N
).
Moreover, its limit is L−a. From Exercise 5 on page 13, we obtain L−a ≥ 0, that is a ≤ L.
Next consider the sequence (b − a
n
)
n∈N
. As a
n
∈ (a, b) for all n ∈ N, we have b − a
n
≥ 0.
From the theorem on algebra of limits, it follows that the sequence (b −a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent
(being the sum of the convergent sequence (−a
n
)
n∈N
and the convergent sequence (b)
n∈N
).
Moreover, its limit is −L + b. From Exercise 5 on page 13, we obtain −L + b ≥ 0, that is
L ≤ b.
Consequently a ≤ L ≤ b, that is, L ∈ [a, b].
Consider the sequence (
1
n
)
n∈N
contained in (0, 1). It is convergent with limit 0 ,∈ (0, 1).
5. For all n ∈ N, we have −
1
n
< b
n
− a
n
<
1
n
, and so by adding a
n
, we have −
1
n
+ a
n
< b
n
<
1
n
+a
n
. By the theorem on algebra of limits, we know that
lim
n→∞
_
−
1
n
+a
n
_
= lim
n→∞
−
1
n
+ lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0 + lim
n→∞
a
n
= lim
n→∞
a
n
lim
n→∞
_
1
n
+a
n
_
= lim
n→∞
1
n
+ lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0 + lim
n→∞
a
n
.
So by the sandwich theorem, it follows that (b
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with the limit lim
n→∞
a
n
.
90
Solution to the exercise on page 24
Observe that
the terms 2, 8, 2, 8 appear adjacently
and so the terms 1, 6, 1, 6 appear adjacently
and so the terms 6, 6, 6 appear adjacently
and so the terms 3, 6, 3, 6 appear adjacently
and so the terms 1, 8, 1, 8 appear adjacently
and so the terms 8, 8, 8 appear adjacently
and so the terms 6, 4, 6, 4 appear adjacently
and so the terms 2, 4, 2, 4 appear adjacently
and so the terms 8, 8, 8 appear adjacently
.
.
.
Hence we get the loop
. . . , 8, 8, 8, → . . . , 6, 4, 6, 4, → . . . , 2, 4, 2, 4, → . . . , 8, 8, 8, →,
which contains 6, and so 6 appears inﬁnite number of times. Thus we can choose indices
n
1
< n
2
< n
3
< . . .
such that for all k ∈ N, a
n
k
= 6. So (6)
k∈N
is a subsequence of the given sequence.
Solution to the exercise on page 26
Let (a
n
)
n∈N
be a Cauchy sequence. From Exercise 5 on page 17, it follows that (a
n
)
n∈N
is bounded.
By the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem, it follows that (a
n
)
n∈N
has a convergent subsequence, say
(a
n
k
))
k∈N
with limit L. Using the fact that (a
n
)
n∈N
is Cauchy, we now prove that (a
n
)
n∈N
is itself
convergent with limit L.
Let > 0. Since (a
n
)
n∈N
is Cauchy, there exists a N ∈ N such that for all n, m > N,
[a
n
−a
m
[ <
2
.
As (a
n
k
)
k∈N
is convergent with limit L, there exists a K ∈ N such that for all n
K
> N and
[a
nK
−L[ <
2
. Then for all n > N, we have
[a
n
−L[ = [a
n
−a
nK
+ a
nK
−L[
≤ [a
n
−a
nK
[ +[a
nK
−L[ (triangle inequality)
<
2
+
2
= .
Consequently, (a
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit L.
91
Solutions to the exercises on page 29
1. (a) Let > 0. If δ :=
√
, then we note that δ > 0. Moreover, if x ∈ R and [x −0[ = [x[ <
δ =
√
, then we obtain
[x
2
−0
2
[ = [x
2
[ = [x[ [x[ < δ δ =
√
√
= .
So f is continuous at 0.
(b) Let c ∈ R and suppose that c ,= 0. Let > 0. If x ∈ R, then
[x
2
−c
2
[ = [(x −c)(x +c)[ = [x −c[ [x +c[.
If x ∈ R is such that [x −c[ < δ, then
x < c +δ ≤ [c +δ[ ≤ [c[ +[δ[ = [c[ +δ, and
−x < δ −c ≤ [δ −c[ ≤ [δ[ +[ −c[ = δ +[c[.
Thus if x ∈ R satisﬁes [x −c[ < δ, then [x[ < δ +[c[, and so
[x +c[ ≤ [x[ +[c[ < δ +[c[ +[c[ = δ + 2[c[.
So if [x − c[ < δ, we have [x
2
− c
2
[ = [x − c[ [x + c[ < δ (δ + 2[c[). Thus in order to
make [x
2
−c
2
[ less than , we choose δ such that δ(δ + 2[c[) < : indeed, let
δ := min
_
2[c[ + 1
, 1
_
.
Since > 0, it follows that δ is positive. Furthermore, if x ∈ R satisﬁes [x − c[ < δ,
then we obtain
[x
2
−c
2
[ < δ(δ + 2[c[) ≤
2[c[ + 1
(1 + 2[c[) = .
2. (a) Let c
∈ R and > 0. Since f is continuous at c, there exists a δ > 0 such that for all
x ∈ R satisfying [x−c[ < δ, [f(x) −f(c)[ < . Then for all x ∈ R satisfying [x−c
[ < δ,
we have
9
[f(x) −f(c
)[ = [f(x) −f(c
) +f(c) −f(c)[ = [f(x −c
+c) −f(c)[ < ,
since [(x−c
+c) −c[ = [x−c
[ < δ. So f is continuous at c
. Since the choice of c
∈ R
was arbitrary, it follows that f is continuous on R.
(b) Let α ∈ R, and let f : R →R be given by f(x) = αx, for all x ∈ R. Then
f(x +y) = α(x +y) = αx +αy = f(x) +f(y).
3. We observe that as [f(0)[ ≤ M[0[ = M 0 = 0, it follows that [f(0)[ = 0, that is, f(0) = 0.
Given > 0, we deﬁne δ =
M
. Then for all x ∈ R satisfying [x[ = [x −0[ < δ, we have
[f(x) −f(0)[ = [f(x) −0[ = [f(x)[ ≤ M[x[ = M[x −0[ < Mδ = M
M
= .
Hence f is continuous at 0.
4. Let c ∈ R. Suppose that f is continuous at c. Consider =
1
2
> 0. Then ∃δ > 0 such that
for all x ∈ R satisfying [x −c[ < δ, [f(x) −f(c)[ < =
1
2
. We have the following two cases:
9
Here we use the fact that f is ‘additive’. First of all, f(0) = f(0 + 0) = f(0) + f(0), and so f(0) = 0. Hence it
follows that −f(c
) = f(−c
), since 0 = f(0) = f(c
− c
) = f(c
) + f(−c
). Finally we have f(x) − f(c
) + f(c) =
f(x) + f(−c
) + f(c) = f(x − c
) + f(c) = f(x − c
+ c).
92
1
◦
c ∈ Q. Then there exists x ∈ R ¸ Q such that [x −c[ < δ.
But [f(x) −f(c)[ = [1 −0[ = [1[ = 1 >
1
2
, a contradiction.
2
◦
c ∈ R ¸ Q. Then there exists x ∈ Q such that [x −c[ < δ.
But [f(x) −f(c)[ = [0 −1[ = [ −1[ = 1 >
1
2
, a contradiction.
Hence f is not continuous at c.
5. Since
f(c)
2
> 0, there exists a δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ R satisfying [x −c[ < δ,
[f(x) −f(c)[ <
f(c)
2
.
Thus for all x ∈ R satisfying [x −c[ < δ (that is, c −δ < x < c +δ), we have
f(c) −f(x) ≤ [f(c) −f(x)[ = [f(x) −f(c)[ <
f(c)
2
,
and so f(x) >
f(c)
2
> 0.
Solutions to the exercises on page 31
1. Let (x
n
)
n∈N
be a convergent sequence with limit c. Then (x
2
n
)
n∈N
is also convergent with limit
c
2
. Thus (f(x
n
))
n∈N
is convergent with limit f(c). So by Theorem 1.3.2, f is continuous.
2. If n ∈ N, then there exists q
n
∈ Q such that [q
n
−c[ <
1
n
.
Claim: (q
n
)
n∈N
is convergent with limit c.
Proof Let > 0. By the Archimedean principle, there exists an N ∈ N such that
1
< N.
Thus for n > N,
[q
n
−c[ <
1
n
<
1
N
< .
This proves the claim.
Since f is continuous at c, by Theorem 1.3.2, we have f(c) = lim
n→∞
f(q
n
) = lim
n→∞
0 = 0.
3. If x
1
,= x
2
, then the sequence x
1
, x
2
, x
1
, x
2
, . . . is divergent. (Indeed, the subsequence
x
1
, x
1
, x
1
, . . . converges to x
1
, while the subsequence x
2
, x
2
, x
2
, . . . converges to x
2
, and so
by Theorem 1.2.6, it follows that the sequence x
1
, x
2
, x
1
, x
2
, . . . is divergent.)
Thus the sequence f(x
1
), f(x
2
), f(x
1
), f(x
2
), . . . is divergent. Consequently f(x
1
) ,= f(x
2
):
for otherwise if f(x
1
) = f(x
2
), then the sequence
f(x
1
), f(x
2
), f(x
1
), f(x
2
) . . .
f(x
1
), f(x
1
), f(x
1
), f(x
1
) . . .
is a constant sequence, and so it is convergent with limit f(x
1
) (= f(x
2
)).
So we have shown that if x
1
,= x
2
, then f(x
1
) ,= f(x
2
), that is, the function f is onetoone.
93
Solution to the exercise on page 32
We apply Theorem 1.3.3 several times in order to prove this.
Since the function x → x is continuous on R, it follows that the function x → x
2
is continuous
on R as well. Moreover the function x → 1 is continuous on R, and so we obtain that the function
x → 1 + x
2
is continuous on R. As 1 + x
2
≥ 1 > 0 for all real x, we conclude that the function
x →
1
1+x
2
is continuous on R. Hence the function x → x
2
1
1+x
2
=
x
2
1+x
2
is continuous on R, that
is, f is continuous on R.
94
Solutions to the exercises on page 34
1. Let m := inf¦f(x) [ x ∈ [a, b]¦. We prove that there exists a d ∈ [a, b] such that f(d) = m.
For each n ∈ N, m < m +
1
n
, and so m+
1
n
cannot be a lower bound for ¦f(x) [ x ∈ [a, b]¦.
So there exists an x
n
∈ [a, b] such that
m ≤ f(x
n
) < m +
1
n
. (2.28)
By the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem, (x
n
)
n∈N
has a convergent subsequence (x
n
k
)
k∈N
with
limit d ∈ [a, b]. Since f is continuous at d, it follows that (f(x
n
k
))
k∈N
is convergent with
limit f(d). From (2.28), using the Sandwich theorem, we conclude that f(d) = m.
2. Let f : [0, 1] →R be deﬁned by
f(x) =
_
0 for all 0 ≤ x <
1
2
,
1 for all
1
2
≤ x ≤ 1.
Then f is not continuous at
1
2
: indeed the sequence
_
1
2
−
1
n+1
_
n∈N
is contained in [0, 1],
PSfrag replacements
1
1
0 1
2
Figure 2.3: A discontinuous function on [0, 1] that attains its extreme values.
and it is convergent with limit
1
2
−0 =
1
2
. However,
lim
n→∞
f
_
1
2
−
1
n + 1
_
= lim
n→∞
0 = 0 ,= 1 = f
_
1
2
_
.
But ¦f(x) [ x ∈ [0, 1]¦ = ¦0, 1¦, and so
sup¦f(x) [ x ∈ [0, 1]¦ = sup¦0, 1¦ = 1 = f(1), and
inf¦f(x) [ x ∈ [0, 1]¦ = inf¦0, 1¦ = 0 = f(0).
3. Consider the function g : [0, T] →R, given by
g(x) = f(x) for all x ∈ [0, T].
Then g is continuous on [0, T].
(Indeed, the continuity of g on [0, T] is a trivial consequence of the continuity of f on R: If
c ∈ [0, T], and > 0, then there exists a positive δ such that for all x ∈ R satisfying [x−c[ < δ,
[f(x)−f(c)[ < . Hence for all x ∈ [0, T] satisfying [x−c[ < δ, [g(x)−g(c)[ = [f(x)−f(c)[ < .
So g is continuous at c. But the choice of c was arbitrary, and so g is continuous on [0, T].)
Applying the extreme value theorem to g, we conclude that there exist c, d ∈ [0, T] such that
g(c) = max¦g(x) [ x ∈ [0, T]¦ and
g(d) = min¦g(x) [ x ∈ [0, T]¦.
So for all x ∈ [0, T], g(d) ≤ g(x) ≤ g(c), that is, f(d) ≤ f(x) ≤ f(c). So far we have proved
95
PSfrag replacements
0
g = f[
[0,T]
T
c
d
f(c)
f(d)
−T
2T 3T 4T
. . . . . .
Figure 2.4: A continuous periodic function is bounded.
the fact that f is bounded on [0, T]. We now prove that f is bounded on R by using the
periodicity of f. See Figure 2.4.
Now if x is any real number, there exists a n ∈ Z such that x = nT +r, where r ∈ R is such
that r ∈ [0, T). (Indeed, we have
x
T
=
_
x
T
_
+ Θ
where Θ ∈ [0, 1). Consequently, we obtain x = nT +r, where n :=
_
x
T
_
∈ Z and r := T Θ ∈
[0, T).) Thus f(x) = f(nT +r) = f(r). As f(d) ≤ f(r) ≤ f(c), it follows that f(d) ≤ f(x) ≤
f(c). Since the choice of x ∈ R was arbitrary, it follows that f(d) ≤ f(x) ≤ f(c) for all
x ∈ R. So f(c) and f(d) are upper and lower bounds, respectively, of the set ¦f(x) [ x ∈ R¦,
and so it is bounded.
4. (a) If x ∈ (a, b], then let f[
[x,b]
denote the restriction of f to [x, b], deﬁned by f[
[x,b]
(y) =
f(y) for all y ∈ [x, b]. We note that f[
[x,b]
is a continuous function. Applying the
intermediate value theorem to f[
[x,b]
, we see that
max¦f[
[x,b]
(y) [ y ∈ [a, x]¦ = max¦f(y) [ y ∈ [a, x]¦
exists, and so f
∗
is welldeﬁned.
(b) First we observe that f
∗
is an increasing function, that is, if x < y then, f
∗
(x) ≤ f
∗
(y).
Furthermore, since sup(A ∪ B) = max¦supA, sup B¦ (why?), it follows that if x < y,
then
f
∗
(y) ≤ max¦f
∗
(x), max¦f(z) [ z ∈ [x, y]¦.
Let c ∈ [a, b], and let > 0. Choose δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ [a, b] such that [x−c[ < δ,
[f(x) − f(c)[ < . Let x ∈ [a, b] be such that [x − c[ < δ. Then we have the following
two cases:
1
◦
Let c < x < c +δ. Then we have
f
∗
(x) = max¦f
∗
(c), max¦f(z) [ z ∈ [c, x]¦¦
≤ max¦f
∗
(c), f(c) +¦
≤ max¦f
∗
(c), f
∗
(c) +¦
= f
∗
(c) +,
and so [f
∗
(x) −f
∗
(c)[ = f
∗
(x) −f
∗
(c) ≤ .
2
◦
Let c −δ < x ≤ c. If x = c, then [f
∗
(x) −f
∗
(c)[ = 0 < trivially. If c −δ < x < c,
then for any z ∈ (c −δ, c), we have
[f(z) −f(x)[ = [f(z) −f(c) +f(c) −f(x)[ ≤ [f(z) −f(c)[ +[f(c) −f(x)[ = 2,
and so f(z) ≤ f(x) + 2. Thus
f
∗
(c) = max¦f
∗
(x), max¦f(z) [ z ∈ [x, c]¦¦
≤ max¦f
∗
(x), f(x) + 2¦
≤ max¦f
∗
(x), f
∗
(x) + 2¦
= f
∗
(x) + 2,
and so [f
∗
(x) −f
∗
(c)[ = f
∗
(c) −f
∗
(x) ≤ 2.
96
Hence for all x ∈ [a, b] satisfying [x−c[ < δ, we have [f
∗
(x) −f
∗
(c)[ < 2. Consequently
f
∗
is continuous at c. Since the choice of c was arbitrary, it follows that f
∗
is continuous
on [a, b].
(c) f
∗
is given by
f
∗
(x) =
_
x −x
2
if 0 ≤ x ≤
1
2
,
1
4
if
1
2
< x ≤ 1.
See Figure 2.5.
PSfrag replacements
0
0
1
1
1
4
1
4
1
2
1
2
f
f
∗
f(d)
Figure 2.5: f and f
∗
.
Solutions to the exercises on page 37
1. Since the function f : [0, 1] →R and the function x → x from [0, 1] to R are both continuous
on the interval [0, 1], it follows that also the function g : [0, 1] →R deﬁned by
g(x) = f(x) −x, for all x ∈ [0, 1]
is continuous on [0, 1]. Since 0 ≤ f(x) ≤ 1 for all x ∈ [0, 1], we have
g(0) = f(0) −0 = f(0) ≥ 0, and
g(1) = f(1) −1 ≤ 0.
So by the intermediate value theorem, there exists a c ∈ [0, 1] such that g(c) = 0, that is,
f(c) = c.
2. Let the weekend campsite be at altitude H. Let u : [0, 1] → R be the position function for
the walk up, and d :
_
0,
1
2
¸
→ R be the position function for the walk down. (We assume
that these are continuous functions.) Consider the function f :
_
0,
1
2
¸
→R given by
f(t) = u(t) −d(t), t ∈
_
0,
1
2
_
.
Then f is also continuous, and moreover
f(0) = u(0) −d(0) = 0 −H = −H < 0, while
f
_
1
2
_
= u
_
1
2
_
−d
_
1
2
_
= u
_
1
2
_
−0 = u
_
1
2
_
> 0.
See Figure 2.6. Hence by the intermediate value theorem, it follows that there exists a
c ∈
_
0,
1
2
¸
such that f(c) = 0, that is, u(c) = d(c). So at time c past 8:00, the hiker was
exactly at the same spot on Saturday and Sunday.
97
PSfrag replacements
0
H
u d
1
2
1 c
u(c) = d(c)
Figure 2.6: The walks up and down.
3. The polynomial function p : [−1, 2] →R is continuous on the interval [−1, 2]. Moreover,
p(−1) = 2 (−1)
3
−5 (−1)
2
−10 (−1) + 5 = −2 −5 + 10 + 5 = 8 > 0, and
p(2) = 2 (2)
3
−5 (2)
2
−10 (2) + 5 = 16 −20 −20 + 5 = −19 < 0.
Since p(−1) > 0 > p(2), from the intermediate value theorem applied to the continuous
function p on the interval [−1, 2], we conclude that there must exist a c ∈ [−1, 2] such that
p(c) = 0. So p has a real root in the interval [−1, 2].
4. Obviously S ⊂ R. We now show the reverse inclusion. Let y ∈ R.
As S is not bounded above, y is not an upper bound of S, that is, there exists a x
0
∈ R such
that f(x
0
) < y.
Similarly, since S is not bounded below, y is not a lower bound of S, and so there exists a
x
1
∈ R such that f(x
1
) > y.
Now consider the restriction of f to the interval with endpoints x
0
and x
1
with the end
points included in the interval. Applying the intermediate value theorem to this continuous
function, it follows that there exists a real number c such that f(c) = y.
This shows that S = R.
5. (a) The following three cases are possible:
1
◦
f(0) = 0. Then let x
0
= 0 and let m ∈ Z. Clearly f(x
0
) = f(0) = 0 = m0 = mx
0
.
2
◦
f(0) > 0. Choose N ∈ N satisfying N > f(1) (that such a N exists follows
from the Archimedean property). Consider the function g : [0, 1] → R deﬁned by
g(x) = f(x) −Nx, x ∈ [0, 1]. As the functions f and x → Nx are continuous, so is
g. Note that g(0) = f(0) − N0 = f(0) > 0, while g(1) = f(1) − N < 0. Applying
the intermediate value theorem to g (with y = 0), it follows that there exists a
x
0
∈ [0, 1] such that g(x
0
) = 0, that is, f(x
0
) = Nx
0
.
3
◦
f(0) < 0. Choose a N ∈ N such that N > −f(1) (again the Archimedean property
guarantees the existence of such a N), and consider the continuous function g :
[0, 1] → R deﬁned by g(x) = f(x) + Nx. We observe that g(0) = f(0) < 0, and
g(1) = f(1) + N > 0, and so by the intermediate value theorem, it follows that
there exists a x
0
∈ [0, 1] such that g(x
0
) = 0, that is, f(x
0
) = −Nx
0
.
This completes the proof.
(b) Suppose that such a continuous function exists. From the part above, it follows that
there exists a x
0
∈ R and a m ∈ Z such that f(x
0
) = mx
0
. We have the following two
possible cases:
1
◦
x
0
∈ Q. But then f(x
0
) is irrational, while mx
0
is rational, a contradiction.
2
◦
x
0
,∈ Q. But then f(x
0
) is rational, whereas mx
0
is irrational, a contradiction.
So f cannot be continuous.
98
Algebra
Solutions to the exercises on page 44
1. (a) Addition modulo 6 is a law of composition on Z
6
, since if [a], [b] ∈ Z
6
, then [a] ⊕[b] =
[a +b] ∈ Z
6
. Moreover, we verify below that the group axioms are satisﬁed.
G1. Addition modulo 6 is associative: if [a], [b], [c] ∈ Z
6
, then
([a] ⊕[b]) ⊕[c] = [a +b] ⊕[c]
= [(a +b) +c]
= [a + (b +c)]
= [a] ⊕[b +c]
= [a] ⊕([b] ⊕[c]).
G2. [0] is the identity element: for all [a] ∈ Z
6
, we have
[0] ⊕[a] = [0 +a] = [a] = [a + 0] = [a] ⊕[0].
G3. If [a] ∈ Z
6
, then [−a] ∈ Z
6
, and
[a] ⊕[−a] = [a + (−a)] = [0] = [−a +a] = [−a] ⊕[a].
So Z
6
with addition modulo 6 forms a group.
We give its group table below:
⊕ [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]
[0] [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]
[1] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [0]
[2] [2] [3] [4] [5] [0] [1]
[3] [3] [4] [5] [0] [1] [2]
[4] [4] [5] [0] [1] [2] [3]
[5] [5] [0] [1] [2] [3] [4]
(b) No; multiplication modulo 6 is a law of composition on Z
6
that satisﬁes G1 and G2,
but G3 is not true:
G1. Multiplication modulo 6 is associative: if [a], [b], [c] ∈ Z
6
, then
([a] ⊗[b]) ⊗[c] = [ab] ⊗[c]
= [(ab)c]
= [a(bc)]
= [a] ⊗[bc]
= [a] ⊗([b] ⊗[c]).
G2. (If e = [k] is the identity element for some integer k, then for all [a] ∈ Z
6
, [a] ⊗e =
[a] = e⊗[a]. In particular, with [a] = [1] ∈ Z
6
, we obtain e = [k] = [1k] = [1]⊗[k] =
[1] ⊗ e = [1]. So if there is an identity element e, then it must be [1].) Indeed [1]
serves as an identity element, since for all [a] ∈ Z
6
,
[a] ⊗[1] = [a 1] = [a] = [1 a] = [a] ⊗[a].
G3 is not satisﬁed. For instance, [0] ∈ Z
6
, but for all [a] ∈ Z
6
, [0] ⊗ [a] = [a] ⊗ [0] =
[0] ,= [1]. So there does not exist an inverse of the element [0] in Z
6
.
99
Hence Z
6
with multiplication modulo 6 is not a group.
Z
∗
6
with multiplication modulo 6 is also not a group, since multiplication modulo 6 is
not a law of composition on the set Z
∗
6
: indeed, [2], [3] ∈ Z
∗
6
, but [2] ⊗ [3] = [2 3] =
[6] = [0] ,∈ Z
∗
6
.
(c) If: Let m be a prime number.
First we show that multiplication modulo m is a law of composition on Z
∗
m
. Let
[a], [b] ∈ Z
∗
m
. Then a and b are not divisible by m, and since m is prime, it follows that
ab is also not divisible by m. Thus [a] ⊗[b] = [ab] ,= [0], and so [a] ⊗[b] ∈ Z
∗
m
.
Next we show that the group axioms are satisﬁed:
G1. If [a], [b], [c] ∈ Z
∗
m
, then
([a] ⊗[b]) ⊗[c] = [ab] ⊗[c]
= [(ab)c]
= [a(bc)]
= [a] ⊗[bc]
= [a] ⊗([b] ⊗[c]).
G2. [1] ,= [0] and so [1] ∈ Z
∗
m
. Furthermore, For all [a] ∈ Z
∗
m
, we have
[a] ⊗[1] = [a 1] = [a] = [1 a] = [1] ⊗[a].
G3. If [a] ∈ Z
∗
m
, then m does not divide a (for otherwise [a] = [0]). As m is prime, it
follows that gcd(a, m) = 1. (Indeed, gcd(a, m) divides m, and since m is prime,
the only factors of m are 1, m, −1, −m. As gcd(a, m) ≥ 0, the only possible values
are m and 1. Also, gcd(a, m) divides a, and since a is not divisible by m, it follows
that gcd(a, m) ,= m. So the only possible value of gcd(a, m) is 1.) So there exist
s, t ∈ Z such that
as +mt = 1.
Consequently
[s] ⊗[a] = [sa] = [as] = [a] ⊗[s]
= [as]
= [1 −mt]
= [1] ⊕[m(−t)]
= [1] ⊕[0]
= [1].
Furthermore [s] ,= [0], since otherwise m[s, and so m[as + mt, that is m[1, a
contradiction. Hence [s] ∈ Z
∗
m
, and so [s] is the inverse of [a].
Hence Z
∗
m
with multiplication modulo m is a group.
Only if: Suppose that m = p q, where p, q ∈ ¦2, 3, . . . , m− 1¦. Clearly, as m does
not divide p or q, it follows that [p] ,= [0] and [q] ,= [0]. So [p], [q] ∈ Z
∗
m
. However,
[p] ⊗[q] = [p q] = [m] = [0] ,∈ Z
∗
m
,
and so multiplication modulo m is not a law of composition on Z
∗
m
. Consequently, Z
∗
m
with multiplication modulo m is not a group.
2. (a) Composition of functions gives a law of composition on the set S
n
of all bijections from
¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ onto itself. Indeed if f, g are bijections from ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ onto itself,
then f ◦ g is again a bijection from ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ onto itself:
100
i. f ◦ g is onetoone. Let k
1
, k
2
∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦. If (f ◦ g)(k
1
) = (f ◦ g)(k
2
), then
f(g(k
1
)) = f(g(k
2
)), and since f is onetoone, we get g(k
1
) = g(k
2
). Furthermore,
since g is onetoone, k
1
= k
2
.
ii. f ◦ g is onto. If k ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦, then since f is onto, there exists a k
∈
¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ such that f(k
) = k. Moreover, since g is onto, there exists a
k
∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ such that g(k
) = k
. Thus (f ◦g)(k
) = f(g(k
)) = f(k
) = k.
So f ◦ g is onto.
Next we show that the group axioms are satisﬁed:
G1. If f, g, h ∈ S
n
, then for all k ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦,
((f ◦ g) ◦ h)(k) = (f ◦ g)(h(k)) = f(g(h(k))) = f((g ◦ h)(k)) = (f ◦ (g ◦ h))(k).
So (f ◦ g) ◦ h = f ◦ (g ◦ h).
G2. The identity function ι : ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ → ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ deﬁned by ι(k) = k for
all k ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦, serves as the identity element in S
n
. Indeed, for all f ∈ S
n
,
we have
(f ◦ ι)(k) = f(ι(k)) = f(k) = ι(f(k)) = (ι ◦ f)(k), ∀k ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦.
Thus f ◦ ι = f = ι ◦ f.
G3. If f ∈ S
n
, then since f is a bijection, it follows that for all k ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦, there
exists a unique element k
such that f(k
) = k. Deﬁne f
−1
: ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ →
¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ as follows: if k ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦, then f
−1
(k) = k
, where k
∈
¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ is such that f(k
) = k. Then for all k ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦, we have
(f ◦ f
−1
)(k) = f(f
−1
(k)) = k = ι(k) = k = f
−1
(f(k)) = (f
−1
◦ f)(k),
and so f ◦ f
−1
= ι = f
−1
◦ f.
Hence S
n
with the composition of functions is a group.
(b) The number of bijections from a set with n elements onto itself is n!, and so the order
of S
n
is n!.
Indeed, in order to specify the bijection f, one needs to specify f(1), . . . , f(n). The
number of ways of specifying f(1) is n (as it can be any one of the numbers 1, . . . , n). As
f is onetoone, f(2) can be only be any one of the elements of the set ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ ¸
¦f(1)¦ (which has n − 1 elements). Proceeding in this way, the number of distinct
bijections we get are n (n −1) 2 1 = n!.
(c) Let f : ¦1, 2, 3¦ → ¦1, 2, 3¦ be the function
f(1) = 2
f(2) = 1
f(3) = 3,
and g : ¦1, 2, 3¦ → ¦1, 2, 3¦ be the function
g(1) = 1
g(2) = 3
g(3) = 2.
Then
(f ◦ g)(1) = f(g(1)) = f(1) = 2 ,= 3 = g(2) = g(f(1)) = (g ◦ f)(1),
and so f ◦ g ,= g ◦ f.
101
(d) If: S
1
has the only element ι : ¦1¦ → ¦1¦, and so ι ◦ ι = ι = ι ◦ ι. Thus S
1
is abelian.
S
2
has the two elements ι : ¦1, 2¦ → ¦1, 2¦, and r : ¦1, 2¦ → ¦1, 2¦ given by
r(1) = 2
r(2) = 1.
Since ι ◦ r = r ◦ ι we see that S
2
is abelian.
So if n ≤ 2, then S
n
is abelian.
Only if: If n > 2, then consider the bijections f : ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ → ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦
and g : ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ → ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ given by
f(1) = 2
f(2) = 1
f(n) = n ∀n ∈ ¦3, . . . , n¦
and
g(1) = 1
g(2) = 3
g(3) = 2
g(n) = n ∀n ∈ ¦1, 2, 3, . . . , n¦ ¸ ¦1, 2, 3¦
.
Then
(f ◦ g)(1) = f(g(1)) = f(1) = 2 ,= 3 = g(2) = g(f(1)) = (g ◦ f)(1),
and so f ◦ g ,= g ◦ f. Thus S
n
is not abelian.
Hence S
n
is abelian iﬀ n ≥ 2.
3. We note that if
_
a b
−b a
_
,
_
a
b
−b
a
_
∈ S,
then
_
a b
−b a
_ _
a
b
−b
a
_
=
_
aa
−bb
ab
+ ba
−(ab
+ba
) aa
−bb
_
,
and
(aa
−bb
)
2
+ (ab
+ba
)
2
= a
2
a
2
−2aa
bb
+b
2
b
2
+a
2
b
2
−2ab
ba
+b
2
a
2
= a
2
(a
2
+b
2
) +b
2
(b
2
+a
2
)
= (a
2
+b
2
)(a
2
+b
2
)
,= 0.
Hence matrix multiplication is a law of composition on S. Next we verify that the group
axioms are satisﬁed:
G1. Matrix multiplication is associative, and so for all A, B, C ∈ S, (AB)C = A(BC).
G2. Let I denote the identity matrix. Then we have
I =
_
1 0
0 1
_
=
_
1 0
−0 1
_
and moreover, 1
2
+ 0
2
= 1 ,= 0. So I belongs to S. Furthermore, for every A ∈ S,
AI = A = IA.
G3. Let
A =
_
a b
−b a
_
∈ S.
Then a
2
+b
2
,= 0. If
B :=
_
a
a
2
+b
2
b
a
2
+b
2
−b
a
2
+b
2
a
a
2
+b
2
_
,
102
then
_
a
a
2
+b
2
_
2
+
_
b
a
2
+b
2
_
2
=
a
2
+b
2
(a
2
+b
2
)
2
=
1
a
2
+b
2
,= 0.
So B ∈ S, and furthermore, AB = I = BA.
So S is a group with matrix multiplication.
4. (a) Let a, b, c ∈ G, and suppose that a ∗ b = a ∗ c. Since a ∈ G, there exists a
−1
∈ G such
that a ∗ a
−1
= e = a
−1
∗ a, where e denotes the identity element in G. Then we have
b = e ∗ b (since e is the identity element)
= (a
−1
∗ a) ∗ b (since a
−1
is the inverse of a)
= a
−1
∗ (a ∗ b) (associativity)
= a
−1
∗ (a ∗ c) (since a ∗ b = a ∗ c)
= (a
−1
∗ a) ∗ c (associativity)
= e ∗ c (since a
−1
is the inverse of a)
= c (since e is the identity element).
(b) Clearly
a ∗ (a
−1
∗ b) = (a ∗ a
−1
) ∗ b = e ∗ b = b,
and so x = a
−1
∗ b is a solution to a ∗ x = b.
If there are two solutions, say x
1
and x
2
, then
a ∗ x
1
= b = a ∗ x
2
,
and by part 4a above, it follows that x
1
= x
2
. Hence a ∗ x = b has the unique solution
x = a
−1
∗ b.
(c) Since a, b ∈ G, there exist elements a
−1
, b
−1
∈ G such that
a ∗ a
−1
= e = a
−1
∗ a and b ∗ b
−1
= e = b
−1
∗ b.
We have
(a ∗ b) ∗ (b
−1
∗ a
−1
) = a ∗ (b ∗ (b
−1
∗ a
−1
)) (associativity)
= a ∗ ((b ∗ b
−1
) ∗ a
−1
) (associativity)
= a ∗ (e ∗ a
−1
) (since b
−1
is the inverse of b)
= a ∗ a
−1
(since e is the identity element)
= e (since a
−1
is the inverse of a),
and
(b
−1
∗ a
−1
) ∗ (a ∗ b) = ((b
−1
∗ a
−1
) ∗ a) ∗ b (associativity)
= (b
−1
∗ (a
−1
∗ a)) ∗ b (associativity)
= (b
−1
∗ e) ∗ b (since a
−1
is the inverse of a)
= b
−1
∗ b (since e is the identity element)
= e (since b
−1
is the inverse of b).
Thus b
−1
∗ a
−1
is an inverse of a ∗ b. Since the inverse of a ∗ b is unique, it follows that
(a ∗ b)
−1
= b
−1
∗ a
−1
.
103
Solutions to the exercises on page 46
1. (a) FALSE. Although H1 and H2 hold, H3 does not hold. Indeed, 1 is a nonnegative integer,
but its inverse −1 is not a nonnegative integer.
(b) FALSE. H1 and H2 are not true. Indeed, the sum of the odd integers 1 and −1 is 0,
which is not an odd integer. So H1 and H2 do not hold. But H3 is true, since if m is
an odd integer, then so is −m.
(c) TRUE. For all a, b ∈ H, we have that a, b also belong to G, and as G is abelian, we
know that a ∗ b = b ∗ a.
2. Yes. For instance, given any inﬁnite group G, the set ¦e¦ comprising the identity element e
is a subgroup of the group G. Thus ¦0¦ is a ﬁnite subgroup of the inﬁnite group Z of integers
with addition. The subgroup ¦−1, 1¦ of the set of nonzero real numbers with multiplication
is another example.
3. (a) We note that
H = ¦4m [ m ∈ Z¦ = ¦. . . , −12, −8, −4, 0, 4, 8, 12, . . . ¦, and
K = ¦6m [ m ∈ Z¦ = ¦. . . , −18, −12, −6, 0, 6, 12, 18, . . . ¦.
Claim: H ∩ K = ¦12m[ m ∈ Z¦ = ¦. . . , −12, 0, 12, . . . ¦.
Proof If k ∈ H∩K, then k ∈ H and k ∈ K. Hence 4[k and 6[k. So there exist integers
k
1
and k
2
such that k = 4k
1
and k = 6k
2
. Thus 4k
1
= 6k
2
and so 2k
1
= 3k
2
. Since
integers possess a unique factorization into primes, it follows that 2[k
2
. Consequently,
k
2
= 2k
2
, and so k = 6k
2
= 6(2k
2
) = 12k
2
. Hence k ∈ ¦12m [ m ∈ Z¦. So we have
shown that H ∩ K ⊂ ¦12m [ m ∈ Z¦.
Conversely, if k ∈ ¦12m [ m ∈ Z¦, then k = 12m for some m ∈ Z. Thus k = 4(3m) =
6(2m), and so k is a multiple of 4 and 6. Consequently k belongs to H as well as K.
Hence ¦12m[ m ∈ Z¦ ⊂ H ∩ K.
(b) We check that H1, H2, H3 hold:
H1. If a, b ∈ H ∩ K, then a, b belong to both H and K. As H is a subgroup and
a, b ∈ H, it follows that a ∗ b ∈ H. Similarly, as K is a subgroup and a, b ∈ K, it
follows that a ∗ b ∈ K as well. Hence a ∗ b ∈ H ∩ K.
H2. As H is a subgroup, e ∈ H. Also, as K is a subgroup, it follows that e ∈ K as well.
Thus e ∈ H ∩ K.
H3. If a ∈ H ∩K, then a ∈ H and a ∈ K. Since H is a subgroup and a ∈ H, it follows
that a
−1
∈ H. Also, since K is a subgroup and a ∈ K, it follows that a
−1
∈ K.
Consequently a
−1
∈ H ∩ K.
So H ∩ K is a subgroup of G.
4. (a) We check that H1, H2, H3 hold:
H1. If f, g ∈ H
1
, then f and g are continuous on the interval [0, 1], and moreover,
f
_
1
2
_
= 0 and g
_
1
2
_
= 0. As f, g are continuous on the interval [0, 1], it follows
that f +g is also continuous on [0, 1]. Furthermore,
(f +g)
_
1
2
_
= f
_
1
2
_
+g
_
1
2
_
= 0 + 0 = 0.
Consequently, f +g ∈ H
1
.
104
H2. The constant function 0 : [0, 1] → R, deﬁned by 0(x) = 0 for all x ∈ [0, 1], is the
identity element in the group C[0, 1] with addition of functions. Moreover,
0
_
1
2
_
= 0,
and so 0 ∈ H
1
.
H3. If f ∈ H
1
, then f
_
1
2
_
= 0. The inverse of f in C[0, 1] is the function −f : [0, 1] →R,
deﬁned by (−f)(x) = −f(x) for all x ∈ [0, 1]. As
(−f)
_
1
2
_
= −f
_
1
2
_
= −0 = 0,
it follows that −f ∈ H
1
.
So H
1
is a subgroup of the group C[0, 1] with addition of functions.
(b) We check that H1, H2, H3 hold:
H1. If p, q ∈ H
2
, then p and q are continuous on the interval [0, 1], and moreover, there
exist n, m ∈ N ∪ ¦0¦ and real numbers a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
, b
0
, b
1
, . . . , b
m
, such that
p(x) = a
0
+a
1
x +a
2
x
2
+ +a
n
x
n
, for all x ∈ [0, 1], and
q(x) = b
0
+b
1
x +b
2
x
2
+ +b
m
x
m
, for all x ∈ [0, 1].
If n ≤ m, then for all x ∈ [0, 1],
(p +q)(x) = p(x) +q(x)
= a
0
+a
1
x +a
2
x
2
+ +a
n
x
n
+b
0
+b
1
x +b
2
x
2
+ +b
m
x
m
= a
0
+b
0
+ (a
1
+b
1
)x + (a
2
+b
2
)x
2
+ + (a
n
+b
n
)x
n
+b
n+1
x
n+1
+ +b
m
x
m
,
and so p +q ∈ H
2
.
On the other hand, if n > m, then for all x ∈ [0, 1],
(p +q)(x) = p(x) +q(x)
= a
0
+a
1
x +a
2
x
2
+ +a
n
x
n
+b
0
+b
1
x +b
2
x
2
+ +b
m
x
m
= a
0
+b
0
+ (a
1
+b
1
)x + (a
2
+b
2
)x
2
+ + (a
m
+b
m
)x
m
+a
m+1
x
m+1
+ +a
n
x
n
,
and so p +q ∈ H
2
.
H2. The constant function 0 : [0, 1] → R, deﬁned by 0(x) = 0 for all x ∈ [0, 1], is the
identity element in the group C[0, 1] with addition of functions. Clearly, 0 ∈ H
2
(with n = 0 and a
0
= 0).
H3. If p ∈ H
2
, then there exists an n ∈ N ∪ ¦0¦ and real numbers a
0
, a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
,
such that p(x) = a
0
+a
1
x+a
2
x
2
+ +a
n
x
n
, for all x ∈ [0, 1]. The inverse of p in
C[0, 1] is the function −p : [0, 1] →R, deﬁned by (−p)(x) = −p(x) for all x ∈ [0, 1].
As
(−p)(x) = −p(x)
= −(a
0
+a
1
x +a
2
x
2
+ +a
n
x
n
)
= −a
0
+ (−a
1
)x + (−a
2
)x
2
+ + (−a
n
)x
n
,
for all x ∈ [0, 1], it follows that −p ∈ H
2
.
So H
2
is a subgroup of the group C[0, 1] with addition of functions.
5. Let e denote the identity in the group G.
105
(a) Since e ∈ G, and for every a ∈ G, a ∗ e = a = e ∗ a, it follows that e ∈ Z(G). Thus
Z(G) is not empty.
(b) Clearly Z(G) ⊂ G.
Let z ∈ G. For every a ∈ G, z ∗ a = a ∗ z, since G is abelian. So z ∈ Z(G). Hence
G ⊂ Z(G).
Thus Z(G) = G.
(c) We check that H1, H2, H3 hold:
H1. If z
1
, z
2
∈ Z(G), then for every a ∈ G, we have
(z
1
∗ z
2
) ∗ a = z
1
∗ (z
2
∗ a) (associativity)
= z
1
∗ (a ∗ z
2
) (since z
2
∈ Z(G))
= (z
1
∗ a) ∗ z
2
(associativity)
= (a ∗ z
1
) ∗ z
2
(since z
1
∈ Z(G))
= a ∗ (z
1
∗ z
2
) (associativity).
Thus z
1
∗ z
2
∈ Z(G).
H2. e ∈ Z(G) since for every a ∈ G, e ∗ a = a = a ∗ e.
H3. Let z ∈ Z(G). Then for every a ∈ G, we have a
−1
∈ G, and so
z ∗ a
−1
= a
−1
∗ z.
Consequently (z ∗ a
−1
)
−1
= (a
−1
∗ z)
−1
, that is, (a
−1
)
−1
∗ z
−1
= z
−1
∗ (a
−1
)
−1
.
But a ∗ a
−1
= e = a
−1
∗ a, and from the uniqueness of inverses, it follows that
(a
−1
)
−1
= a. Thus we obtain a ∗ z
−1
= (a
−1
)
−1
∗ z
−1
= z
−1
∗ (a
−1
)
−1
= z
−1
∗ a.
Hence z
−1
∈ Z(G).
So Z(G) is a subgroup of the group G.
(d) If z =
_
α β
γ δ
_
∈ Z(GL(2, R)), then since
a =
_
1 1
0 1
_
∈ GL(2, R),
it follows that
_
α β
γ δ
_ _
1 1
0 1
_
=
_
1 1
0 1
_ _
α β
γ δ
_
.
Thus
_
α α +β
γ γ +δ
_
=
_
α +γ β +δ
γ δ
_
,
and so it follows that γ = 0 and α = δ. Also, since
b =
_
1 0
1 1
_
∈ GL(2, R),
it follows that
_
α β
0 α
_ _
1 0
1 1
_
=
_
1 0
1 1
_ _
α β
0 α
_
.
Thus
_
α +β β
α α
_
=
_
α β
α β +α
_
,
and so it follows that β = 0. Hence we have shown that
Z(GL(2, R)) ⊂
_
α I =
_
α 0
0 α
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
α ∈ R ¸ ¦0¦
_
. (2.29)
106
Let α ∈ R ¸ ¦0¦. Then α I ∈ GL(2, R), and for all
_
p q
r s
_
∈ GL(2, R),
we have
_
α 0
0 α
_ _
p q
r s
_
=
_
αp αq
αr αs
_
=
_
pα qα
rα sα
_
=
_
p q
r s
_ _
α 0
0 α
_
.
Hence α I ∈ Z(GL(2, R). Thus
__
α 0
0 α
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
α ∈ R ¸ ¦0¦
_
⊂ Z(GL(2, R). (2.30)
From (2.29) and (2.30), we conclude that
Z(GL(2, R)) =
__
α 0
0 α
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
α ∈ R ¸ ¦0¦
_
.
Solutions to the exercises on page 48
1. We know that S = ¦e, a, a
2
, a
3
, . . . , a
G
¦ ⊂ G, and that S has [G[ + 1 elements, while
G has [G[ elements. So from the pigeonhole principle, it follows that there exist distinct
k
1
, k
2
∈ ¦0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , [G[¦ such that a
k1
= a
k2
. We may assume that k
2
> k
1
(otherwise we
can interchange them), and so a
k2−k1
= e. As k
2
−k
1
∈ N, it follows that a has ﬁnite order.
Furthermore, as k
2
≤ [G[ and k
1
≥ 0, we obtain k
2
−k
1
≤ [G[. Thus
ord(a) = min¦m ∈ N [ a
m
= e¦ ≤ k
2
−k
1
≤ [G[.
So a has order at most equal to [G[.
2. Claim: For all m, n ∈ N, a
m
∗ a
n
= a
m+n
.
Proof We prove this in several steps.
Step 1. Let m ≥ 0. We show that a
m
∗ a
n
= a
m+n
for all n ≥ 0 by induction on n. Clearly
a
m
∗ a
0
= a
m
∗ e = a
m
= a
m+0
,
and so the result is true for n = 0. If a
m
∗ a
k
= a
m+k
for some k ≥ 0, then we have
a
m
∗ a
k+1
= a
m
∗ (a
k
∗ a) (deﬁnition of a
k+1
)
= (a
m
∗ a
k
) ∗ a (associativity)
= a
m+k
∗ a (induction hypothesis)
= a
(m+k)+1
(deﬁnition of a
(m+k)+1
)
= a
m+(k+1)
.
So by induction, we have a
m
∗ a
n
= a
m+n
for all n ≥ 0. But the choice of m ≥ 0 was
arbitrary, and so we have shown that
for all m ≥ 0, and all n ≥ 0, a
m
∗ a
n
= a
m+n
. (2.31)
Step 2. Let m < 0 and n ≥ 0. Then we have the following two cases:
107
1
◦
If n + m > 0, then from (2.31), we have a
−m
∗ a
n+m
= a
−m+(n+m)
= a
n
, and so
a
−m
∗ a
n+m
= a
n
. We observe that a
m
∗ a
−m
= (a
−m
)
−1
∗ a
−m
= e. So we obtain
a
n+m
= e ∗ a
n+m
= (a
m
∗ a
−m
) ∗ a
n+m
= a
m
∗ (a
−m
∗ a
n+m
) = a
m
∗ a
n
.
2
◦
If n + m ≤ 0, then from (2.31), we have a
n
∗ a
−n−m
= a
n+(−n−m)
= a
−m
, and so
a
n
∗ a
−n−m
= a
−m
. So by premultiplying by a
m
= (a
−m
)
−1
and postmultiplying by
a
n+m
= (a
−n−m
)
−1
, we obtain a
m
∗ a
n
= a
n+m
= a
m+n
.
Hence we have shown that for all m < 0, and all n ≥ 0, a
m
∗ a
n
= a
m+n
. Combining this
result with the result from Step 1, we obtain
for all m ∈ Z, and all n ≥ 0, a
m
∗ a
n
= a
m+n
. (2.32)
Step 3. Let m ∈ Z and n < 0. Then from Step 2, we have a
m+n
∗ a
−n
= a
(m+n)−n
= a
m
.
By postmultiplying both sides by a
n
= (a
−n
)
−1
, we then obtain a
m+n
= a
m
∗ a
n
. Hence we
have shown that for all m ∈ Z and all n < 0, a
m
∗a
n
= a
m+n
. Combining this result with the
result from Step 2, namely (2.32), we obtain that for all integers m and n, a
m
∗a
n
= a
m+n
.
Next we prove the following claim.
Claim: For all m, n ∈ N, (a
m
)
n
= a
mn
.
Proof First we show that for all m ∈ Z and all n ≥ 0, (a
m
)
n
= a
mn
, by induction on n.
Let m ∈ Z. We have (a
m
)
0
= e = a
0
= a
m0
, and so the statement holds with n = 0. If for
some k ≥ 0 there holds that (a
m
)
k
= a
mk
, then we have
(a
m
)
k+1
= (a
m
)
k
∗ a
m
= a
mk
∗ a
m
= a
mk+m
= a
m(k+1)
.
So by induction, we have that (a
m
)
n
= a
mn
for all n ≥ 0. But the choice of m ∈ Z was
arbitrary, and so it follows that for all m ∈ Z and all n ≥ 0, (a
m
)
n
= a
mn
.
If n < 0, then we have (a
m
)
n
=
_
(a
m
)
(−n)
_
−1
= (a
m(−n)
)
−1
= (a
−mn
)
−1
= a
mn
, where
the last equality follows from the following fact: for all k ∈ Z, (a
−k
)
−1
= a
k
(Indeed, for
k < 0, we know that a
k
= (a
−k
)
−1
, by the deﬁnition of a
k
for a negative k. If k ≥ 0,
then −k ≥ 0, and so a
−k
= (a
−(−k)
)
−1
= (a
k
)
−1
. Hence by taking inverses, we obtain
(a
−k
)
−1
= ((a
k
)
−1
)
−1
= a
k
.)
3. We have
_
1 1
−1 0
_
1
=
_
1 1
−1 0
_
,
_
1 1
−1 0
_
2
=
_
1 1
−1 0
_
1
_
1 1
−1 0
_
=
_
1 1
−1 0
_ _
1 1
−1 0
_
=
_
0 1
−1 −1
_
,
_
1 1
−1 0
_
3
=
_
1 1
−1 0
_
2
_
1 1
−1 0
_
=
_
0 1
−1 −1
_ _
1 1
−1 0
_
=
_
−1 0
0 −1
_
,
_
1 1
−1 0
_
4
=
_
1 1
−1 0
_
3
_
1 1
−1 0
_
=
_
−1 0
0 −1
_ _
1 1
−1 0
_
=
_
−1 −1
1 0
_
,
_
1 1
−1 0
_
5
=
_
1 1
−1 0
_
4
_
1 1
−1 0
_
=
_
−1 −1
1 0
_ _
1 1
−1 0
_
=
_
0 −1
1 1
_
,
_
1 1
−1 0
_
6
=
_
1 1
−1 0
_
5
_
1 1
−1 0
_
=
_
0 −1
1 1
_ _
1 1
−1 0
_
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
.
108
Thus
ord
__
1 1
−1 0
__
= min
_
m ∈ N
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1
−1 0
_
m
=
_
1 0
0 1
__
= 6.
4. If a ∗ b has ﬁnite order, say m, then (a ∗ b)
m
= e, that is,
(a ∗ b) ∗ ∗ (a ∗ b)
. ¸¸ .
m times
= e,
and so
a ∗ (b ∗ a) ∗ ∗ (b ∗ a)
. ¸¸ .
(m−1) times
∗b = e,
that is,
a ∗ (b ∗ a)
m−1
∗ b = e. (2.33)
Hence by premultiplying (2.33) by b, and postmultiplying by b
−1
, we obtain
(b ∗ a) ∗ (b ∗ a)
m−1
= e,
that is, (b∗a)
m
= e. So we see that b∗a has ﬁnite order, and ord(b∗a) ≤ m. By interchanging
the roles of a and b, we obtain that m ≤ ord(b ∗ a), and so ord(b ∗ a) = m.
So we have shown that
if a ∗ b has ﬁnite order m, then b ∗ a has ﬁnite order m.
By interchanging a and b, we obtain
a ∗ b has ﬁnite order m iﬀ b ∗ a has ﬁnite order m.
Hence if a ∗ b has inﬁnite order, then b ∗ a has inﬁnite order as well.
So the orders of a ∗ b and b ∗ a are the same.
5. Yes, since ¸1) = Z.
1 is a generator of Z with addition.
As ¸−1) = Z, we see that −1 is also a generator of Z with addition. So the cyclic group Z
with addition does not have a unique generator.
Solutions to the exercises on page 51
1. (a) For all a, b in G, we have
(ψ ◦ ϕ)(a ∗ b) = ψ(ϕ(a ∗ b)) (deﬁnition of ψ ◦ ϕ)
= ψ(ϕ(a) ∗
ϕ(b)) (since ϕ is a homomorphism)
= ψ(ϕ(a)) ∗
ψ(ϕ(b)) (since ψ is a homomorphism)
= (ψ ◦ ϕ)(a) ∗
(ψ ◦ ϕ)(b) (deﬁnition of ψ ◦ ϕ),
and so ψ ◦ ϕ : G → G
is a homomorphism.
(b) We have
ker(ψ ◦ ϕ) = ¦a ∈ G [ (ψ ◦ ϕ)(a) = e
¦
= ¦a ∈ G [ ψ(ϕ(a)) = e
¦
= ¦a ∈ G [ ϕ(a) ∈ ker(ψ)¦
= ϕ
−1
(ker(ψ)).
109
2. If a ∈ ker(ϕ), then ϕ(a) = e
. Thus for all b ∈ G,
ϕ(b∗a∗b
−1
) = ϕ(b)∗
ϕ(a)∗
ϕ(b
−1
) = ϕ(b)∗
e
∗
ϕ(b
−1
) = ϕ(b)∗
ϕ(b
−1
) = ϕ(b)∗
(ϕ(b))
−1
= e
,
and so b ∗ a ∗ b
−1
∈ ker(ϕ). Since the choice of a ∈ ker(ϕ) was arbitrary, it follows that
∀a ∈ ker(ϕ) and ∀b ∈ G, b ∗ a ∗ b
−1
∈ ker(ϕ),
and so ker(ϕ) is a normal subgroup of G.
3. For all a, b ∈ G, we have
ϕ(a ∗ b) = (a ∗ b)
−1
(deﬁnition of ϕ)
= b
−1
∗ a
−1
(Exercise 4c from the exercises on page 44)
= a
−1
∗ b
−1
(since G is abelian)
= ϕ(a) ∗ ϕ(b) (deﬁnition of ϕ),
and so ϕ : G → G is a homomorphism.
Let a, b ∈ G and a ,= b. Then a
−1
,= b
−1
(for otherwise, a = (a
−1
)
−1
= (b
−1
)
−1
= b). Hence
ϕ(a) = a
−1
,= b
−1
= ϕ(b), and so ϕ : G → G is onetoone. For all a ∈ G, we have a
−1
∈ G
and ϕ(a
−1
) = (a
−1
)
−1
= a, and so ϕ : G → G is onto. As ϕ : G → G is onetoone and
onto, it is a bijection.
Consequently ϕ : G → G is an isomorphism.
4. First we show that ϕ
−1
: G
→ G is a homomorphism.
Let a
, b
∈ G
. Since ϕ : G → G
is a bijection, it follows that there exist unique a, b ∈ G
such that ϕ(a) = a
and ϕ(b) = b
. We have
ϕ(a ∗ b) = ϕ(a) ∗
ϕ(b) = a
∗
b
,
and so ϕ
−1
(a
∗
b
) = a ∗ b = ϕ
−1
(a
) ∗ ϕ
−1
(b
). So ϕ
−1
is a homomorphism.
If a
,= b
, then clearly ϕ
−1
(a
) ,= ϕ
−1
(b
) (for otherwise a
= ϕ(ϕ
−1
(a
)) = ϕ(ϕ
−1
(b
)) = b
).
Thus ϕ
−1
: G
→ G is onetoone. For all a ∈ G, we have ϕ
−1
(ϕ(a)) = a, and so ϕ
−1
: G
→
G is onto. Hence ϕ
−1
: G
→ G is a bijection.
Consequently ϕ
−1
: G
→ G is an isomorphism.
5. Let us denote the homomorphism m → a
m
from Z to ¸a) by ϕ.
(a) For all m, n ∈ Z, we have ϕ(m+n) = a
m+n
= a
m
∗a
n
= ϕ(m)∗ϕ(n), and so ϕ : Z → ¸a)
is a homomorphism.
(b) If m ,= n, then ϕ(m) = a
m
,= a
n
= ϕ(n) (for otherwise, if m > n, then a
m−n
= e, and
if m < n, then a
n−m
= e; in either case we get a contradiction to the fact that a has
inﬁnite order). Hence ϕ is onetoone.
Furthermore, if b ∈ ¸a), then b = a
m
for some m ∈ Z. We have ϕ(m) = a
m
= b, and so
ϕ is onto.
So ϕ is a bijection and consequently, ϕ : Z → ¸a) is an isomorphism.
110
Solutions to the exercises on page 54
1. (a) FALSE.
For example, consider the group Z of integers with addition, and let H be the subgroup
of even integers. Then 0 ,= 2, but 0 +H = 2 +H (both these cosets are equal to H).
(b) TRUE.
Consider the function f : H → a ∗ H given by h → a ∗ h, for all h ∈ H. Then it
can be seen that f is a bijection as follows. If a ∈ G and h
1
, h
2
∈ H are such that
a ∗ h
1
= a ∗ h
2
, then by premultiplication with a
−1
, we obtain h
1
= h
2
. Thus f is
onetoone. Furthermore, if b ∈ a ∗ H, then there exists a h ∈ H such that b = a ∗ h.
Consequently f(h) = a ∗ h = b. Hence f is onto. So f is a bijection, and it follows that
the cardinalities of H and a ∗ H are the same.
(c) TRUE.
As in part 1b above, one can show that the function g : H → H∗a, given by h → h∗a,
for all h ∈ H, is a bijection. Thus a ∗ H, H and H ∗ a all have the same cardinalities.
2. (a) Matrix multiplication is a law of composition on G:
if A =
_
x y
0 1
_
and B =
_
x
y
0 1
_
belong to G, then x > 0 and x
> 0.
We have
AB =
_
x y
0 1
_ _
x
y
0 1
_
=
_
xx
xy
+y
0 1
_
and xx
> 0,
and so AB ∈ G. Moreover the group axioms are satisﬁed:
G1. As matrix multiplication is associative, it follows that in particular for elements
A, B, C from G, there holds (AB)C = A(BC).
G2. The identity matrix
I =
_
1 0
0 1
_
∈ G (x := 1 > 0, y := 0),
and furthermore, for all A ∈ G, clearly we have AI = A = IA.
G3. If
_
x y
0 1
_
∈ G,
then x > 0. Thus
1
x
> 0, and
_
1
x
−
y
x
0 1
_
∈ G.
Moreover,
_
x y
0 1
_ _
1
x
−
y
x
0 1
_
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
=
_
1
x
−
y
x
0 1
_ _
x y
0 1
_
.
So G is a group with matrix multiplication.
(b) Clearly H ⊂ G. We now check that H1, H2, H3 are satisﬁed:
H1. If
_
x 0
0 1
_
,
_
x
0
0 1
_
∈ H,
111
then x > 0 and x
> 0. We have
_
x 0
0 1
_ _
x
0
0 1
_
=
_
xx
0
0 1
_
and xx
> 0. So
_
x 0
0 1
_ _
x
0
0 1
_
∈ H.
H2. Clearly the identity element from G, namely the identity matrix
I =
_
1 0
0 1
_
,
also belongs to H.
H3. If
_
x 0
0 1
_
∈ H,
then x > 0. So
1
x
> 0, and the inverse of
_
x 0
0 1
_
in the group G, namely the matrix
_
1
x
0
0 1
_
,
also belongs to H.
Thus H is a subgroup of the group G.
(c) Let
a =
_
x
0
y
0
0 1
_
∈ G.
Then the corresponding left coset of H is
aH =
__
x
0
y
0
0 1
_ _
x 0
0 1
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
x ∈ R and x > 0
_
=
__
xx
0
y
0
0 1
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
x ∈ R and x > 0
_
.
Thus the left coset aH is a straight line parallel to the xaxis, and it passes through
the point (x
0
, y
0
). See Figure 2.7. The right coset of H corresponding to the element
a =
_
x
0
y
0
0 1
_
∈ G
is
Ha =
__
x 0
0 1
_ _
x
0
y
0
0 1
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
x ∈ R and x > 0
_
=
__
xx
0
xy
0
0 1
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
x ∈ R and x > 0
_
.
Thus the right coset Ha is a straight line passing through the origin and the point
(x
0
, y
0
). See Figure 2.8.
112
0
PSfrag replacements
a
x
y
aH
H
Figure 2.7: Partition of the group G (represented by the right half plane: x > 0, y ∈ R) by left
cosets aH, a ∈ G (represented by lines parallel to the xaxis).
0
PSfrag replacements
a
x
y
aH
H
Figure 2.8: Partition of the group G by right cosets Ha, a ∈ G.
3. H ∩ K is a subset of the group H. Furthermore, the following hold:
H1. If a, b ∈ H∩K, then a, b ∈ H and a, b ∈ K. As H and K are subgroups of G, it follows
that a ∗ b ∈ H and a ∗ b ∈ K. Hence a ∗ b ∈ H ∩ K.
H2. The identity element in the group H is the identity element e from G. As K is a
subgroup of G, it follows that e also belongs to K. Thus e ∈ H ∩ K.
H3. If a ∈ H ∩ K, then a ∈ H and a ∈ K. As H and K are subgroups, a
−1
∈ H and
a
−1
∈ K. Consequently a
−1
∈ H ∩ K.
So H ∩ K is a subgroup of H.
By interchanging the roles of H and K, it follows that H ∩ K is also a subgroup of K.
Thus by Lagrange’s theorem, we have that
[H ∩ K[ divides [H[ = 3, and [H ∩ K[ divides [K[ = 5.
As gcd(3, 5) = 1, it follows that [H ∩ K[ divides 1. So [H ∩ K[ = 1, and so it comprises just
one element. As e ∈ H ∩ K, it follows that H ∩ K = ¦e¦.
4. The cardinality of the group S
4
is 4! = 24. As 16 does not divide 24, it follows from Corollary
2.1.8 that S
4
cannot have an element of order 16.
5. (a) If p does not divide a, then [a] ,= [0], and so [a] ∈ Z
∗
p
. The set Z
∗
p
= ¦[1], . . . , [p − 1]¦
has cardinality equal to p − 1. As [1] is the identity element in the group Z
∗
p
with
multiplication modulo p, from Corollary 2.1.8 it follows that [a]
p−1
= [1].
113
(b) If p divides a, then p also divides a
p
, and hence it divides a
p
− a as well, that is,
a
p
≡ a(mod p).
If p does not divide a, then [a] ,= [0], and so by part 5a above, [a]
p−1
= [1]. Hence
[a
p−1
] = [1], and so [a
p−1
−1] = [0]. Thus p divides a
p−1
−1, and consequently, it also
divides a(a
p−1
−1) = a
p
−a. So a
p
≡ a(mod p).
(c) Note that 2222 = 317 7 + 3, so that in Z
7
,
[2222
5555
] = [2222]
5555
= [3]
5555
.
As [3] ,= [0] in Z
7
, from part (5b) above, it follows that [3]
7−1
= [3]
6
= [1]. Thus we
obtain
[2222
5555
] = [3]
5555
= [3]
925·6+5
= ([3]
6
)
925
[3]
5
= [1]
925
[3]
5
= [1][3]
5
= [3]
5
.
Proceeding in a similar manner, we can show that [5555
2222
] = [3
2
]. Indeed, 5555 =
793 7 + 4, so that
[5555
2222
] = [5555]
2222
= [4]
2222
.
Again, [4] ,= [0] in Z
7
, and so by part (5b), [4]
7−1
= [4]
6
= [1]. Hence
[5555
2222
] = [4]
2222
= [4]
370·6+2
] = ([4]
6
)
370
[4]
2
= [1][4]
2
= [4]
2
= [−3]
2
= [(−3)
2
] = [3
2
].
Finally,
[2222
5555
+ 5555
2222
] = [3
5
+ 3
2
] = [3
2
28] = [0],
which proves that 7[2222
5555
+ 5555
2222
.
114
Solutions to the exercises on page 58
1. (a) NO.
For instance the sum of two invertible matrices may not be invertible. The identity
matrix I is invertible, and so is its additive inverse, −I. However, I + (−I) = 0, which
is not invertible. So matrix addition, (A, B) → A + B is not a law of composition on
the set of invertible matrices, and so it does not form an abelian group. Consequently
it is not a vector space.
Alternately, we can observe that the scalar multiplication of the real number 0 with an
invertible matrix is the zero matrix, which is not invertible.
(b) NO.
The scalar multiplication of the real number 0 with an invertible matrix is the zero
matrix, which is not invertible.
2. Let α ∈ R and v ∈ V be such that
α v = 0. (2.34)
Then if α ,= 0, then we obtain
0 = α
−1
0 (Theorem 2.2.1)
= α
−1
(α v) (using (2.34))
= (α
−1
α) v (using V2)
= (1) v (since α
−1
α = 1)
= v (using V1).
This proves the claim.
3. First we check that R
∞
, with addition deﬁned by (2.4), is an abelian group. Clearly (2.4)
gives a law of composition on R
∞
. Moreover, we have:
G1. For all (a
n
)
n∈N
, (b
n
)
n∈N
, (c
n
)
n∈N
in R
∞
, we have
((a
n
)
n∈N
+ (b
n
)
n∈N
) + (c
n
)
n∈N
= (a
n
+b
n
)
n∈N
+ (c
n
)
n∈N
= ((a
n
+b
n
) +c
n
)
n∈N
= (a
n
+ (b
n
+c
n
))
n∈N
= (a
n
)
n∈N
+ (b
n
+c
n
)
n∈N
= (a
n
)
n∈N
+ ((b
n
)
n∈N
+ (c
n
)
n∈N
).
G2. The sequence (0)
n∈N
serves as the identity element: for all (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ R
∞
, we have
(a
n
)
n∈N
+ (0)
n∈N
= (a
n
+ 0)
n∈N
= (a
n
)
n∈N
= (0 +a
n
)
n∈N
= (0)
n∈N
+ (a
n
)
n∈N
.
G3. If (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ R
∞
, then (−a
n
)
n∈N
∈ R
∞
, and furthermore,
(a
n
)
n∈N
+(−a
n
)
n∈N
= (a
n
+−a
n
)
n∈N
= (0)
n∈N
= (−a
n
+a
n
)
n∈N
= (−a
n
)
n∈N
+(a
n
)
n∈N
.
G4. Finally, commutativity holds, since for all (a
n
)
n∈N
, (b
n
)
n∈N
∈ R
∞
, we have
(a
n
)
n∈N
+ (b
n
)
n∈N
= (a
n
+b
n
)
n∈N
= (b
n
+a
n
)
n∈N
= (b
n
)
n∈N
+ (a
n
)
n∈N
.
Next we check that V1, V2, V3, V4 are also satisﬁed:
V1. For all (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ R
∞
, 1 (a
n
)
n∈N
= (1a
n
)
n∈N
= (a
n
)
n∈N
.
115
V2. For all α, β ∈ R and all (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ R
∞
,
α (β (a
n
)
n∈N
) = α (βa
n
)
n∈N
= (α(βa
n
))
n∈N
= ((αβ)a
n
)
n∈N
= (αβ) (a
n
)
n∈N
.
V3. For all α, β ∈ R and all (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ R
∞
,
(α +β) (a
n
)
n∈N
= ((α +β)a
n
)
n∈N
= (αa
n
+βa
n
)
n∈N
= (αa
n
)
n∈N
+ (βa
n
)
n∈N
= α (a
n
)
n∈N
+β (a
n
)
n∈N
.
V4. For all α ∈ R and all (a
n
)
n∈N
, (b
n
)
n∈N
∈ R
∞
,
α ((a
n
)
n∈N
+ (b
n
)
n∈N
) = α (a
n
+b
n
)
n∈N
= (α(a
n
+b
n
))
n∈N
= (αa
n
+αb
n
)
n∈N
= (αa
n
)
n∈N
+ (αb
n
)
n∈N
= α (a
n
)
n∈N
+α (b
n
)
n∈N
.
So R
∞
is a vector space with addition deﬁned by (2.4) and scalar multiplication deﬁned by
(2.5).
Solutions to the exercises on page 62
1. (a) FALSE.
Consider the subspaces
U
1
= span
__
1
0
__
and U
2
= span
__
0
1
__
of R
2
. Then
v
1
:=
_
1
0
_
∈ U
1
⊂ U
1
∪ U
2
and v
2
:=
_
0
1
_
∈ U
2
⊂ U
1
∪ U
2
,
but
v
1
+v
2
=
_
1
1
_
,∈ U
1
∪ U
2
,
since
_
1
1
_
,∈ span
__
1
0
__
and
_
1
1
_
,∈ span
__
0
1
__
.
Thus S2 is not satisﬁed, and so U
1
∪ U
2
is not a vector space.
(Each vector
_
x
y
_
in R
2
can be represented by a point in the (x, y)plane, and the
above can be seen pictorially in Figure 2.9).
(b) TRUE.
Let U
1
, U
2
be susbpaces of the vector space V . We check that S1, S2, S3 hold for
U
1
∩ U
2
:
S1. As U
1
, U
2
are susbpaces, 0 ∈ U
1
and 0 ∈ U
2
. Thus 0 ∈ U
1
∩ U
2
.
S2. If v
1
, v
2
belong to U
1
∩U
2
, then v
1
, v
2
belong to U
1
and v
1
, v
2
belong to U
2
. As U
1
is a subspace, v
1
+ v
2
∈ U
1
. Moreover, as U
2
is a subspace, v
1
+ v
2
∈ U
2
. Hence
v
1
+v
2
∈ U
1
∩ U
2
.
S3. Let α ∈ R and v ∈ U
1
∩U
2
. Thus v ∈ U
1
and v ∈ U
2
. As U
1
is a subspace, it follows
that α v ∈ U
1
. Also, as U
2
is a subspace, it follows that α v ∈ U
2
. Consequently
α v ∈ U
1
∩ U
2
.
So U
1
∩ U
2
is a susbpaces of the vector space V .
116
PSfrag replacements
U
1
U
2
x
y
R
2
v
1
v
2
v
1
+v
2
Figure 2.9: The union U
1
∪ U
2
of subspaces U
1
and U
2
is not a subspace.
(c) TRUE.
Indeed,
_
_
1
2
3
_
_
= 1
_
_
1
3
4
_
_
+ (−1)
_
_
0
1
1
_
_
.
(d) FALSE.
We have
(3)
_
_
1
0
1
_
_
+ (−3)
_
_
1
2
1
_
_
+ (2)
_
_
0
3
0
_
_
=
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
.
(e) TRUE.
Suppose that there exist scalars such that α
1
v
1
+α
2
v
2
+α
3
v
3
= 0. Then we have
α
1
v
1
+α
2
v
2
+α
3
v
3
+0 v
4
= α
1
v
1
+α
2
v
2
+α
3
v
3
+0 = α
1
v
1
+α
2
v
2
+α
3
v
3
= 0,
and by the independence of v
1
, v
2
, v
3
, v
4
, it follows that α
1
= α
2
= α
3
= 0. So v
1
, v
2
, v
3
are linearly independent.
(f) FALSE.
For instance, in R
3
, the vectors
v
1
:=
_
_
1
0
0
_
_
, v
2
:=
_
_
0
1
0
_
_
, v
3
:=
_
_
0
0
1
_
_
, v
4
:=
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
,
are linearly dependent, since 1 v
1
+ 1 v
2
+ 1 v
3
+ (−1) v
4
= 0, while the vectors
v
1
, v
2
, v
3
are linearly independent.
2. (a) Clearly,
span
___
1
t
1
_
,
_
1
t
2
___
⊂ R
2
.
(In order to prove the reverse inclusion, observe that if
_
x
y
_
= α
_
1
t
1
_
+β
_
1
t
2
_
,
then we obtain the linear equations
α +β = x,
αt
1
+βt
2
= y,
117
which have the solution α =
y−xt2
t1−t2
and β =
xt1−y
t1−t2
.) We now complete the proof as
follows: suppose that
_
x
y
_
∈ R
2
.
As t
1
−t
2
,= 0, we have
_
x
y
_
=
y −xt
2
t
1
−t
2
_
1
t
1
_
+
xt
1
−y
t
1
−t
2
_
1
t
2
_
∈ span
___
1
t
1
_
,
_
1
t
2
___
.
So
R
2
⊂ span
___
1
t
1
_
,
_
1
t
2
___
.
Hence the claim follows.
(b) Suppose that U
1
, . . . , U
n
are subspaces of R
2
, such that U
1
∪ ∪ U
n
= R
2
. Since the
inﬁnite set
S :=
__
1
t
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
t ∈ R
_
is contained in R
2
= U
1
∪ ∪ U
n
, it follows that inﬁnitely many elements from S
belong to one of the subspaces, say U
k
for some k ∈ ¦1, . . . , n¦. Thus there exist real
numbers t
1
, t
2
such that
_
1
t
1
_
,
_
1
t
2
_
∈ U
k
.
As U
k
is a subspace of R
2
, it follows that
span
___
1
t
1
_
,
_
1
t
2
___
⊂ U
k
.
From the result of the part above, we obtain R
2
⊂ U
k
, and so U
k
= R
2
, that is U
k
is
not a proper subspace.
3.
∞
is a subspace of R
∞
. We have:
S1. The sequence (0)
n∈N
is the zero vector in R
∞
, and it belongs to
∞
, since it is bounded:
indeed for all n ∈ N, the nth term of the sequence (0)
n∈N
is equal to 0, and [0[ = 0 ≤ 1.
S2. If (a
n
)
n∈N
, (b
n
)
n∈N
belong to
∞
, then there exist M
1
, M
2
> 0 such that for all n ∈ N,
[a
n
[ ≤ M
1
and [a
n
[ ≤ M
2
. Hence for all n ∈ N, [a
n
+b
n
[ ≤ [a
n
[ +[b
n
[ ≤ M
1
+M
2
, and
so the sequence (a
n
+b
n
)
n∈N
is bounded, that is, (a
n
)
n∈N
+ (b
n
)
n∈N
belongs to
∞
.
S3. Let α ∈ R and (a
n
)
n∈N
∈
∞
. Then there exists an M > 0 such that for all n ∈ N,
[a
n
[ ≤ M. Thus for all n ∈ N, [αa
n
[ = [α[[a
n
[ ≤ ([α[ + 1)M, and so the sequence
(αa
n
)
n∈N
is bounded, that is, α (a
n
)
n∈N
belongs to
∞
.
So
∞
is a subspace of R
∞
.
c is a subspace of
∞
. Indeed, there holds:
S1. The sequence (0)
n∈N
is the zero vector in
∞
, and it belongs to c, since it is convergent.
S2. If (a
n
)
n∈N
, (b
n
)
n∈N
belong to c, then by Theorem 1.2.4, it follows that the sequence
(a
n
+b
n
)
n∈N
is also convergent, and so (a
n
)
n∈N
+ (b
n
)
n∈N
belongs to c.
S3. Let α ∈ R and (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ c. Then by Theorem 1.2.4, the sequence (αa
n
)
n∈N
is also
convergent, that is, α (a
n
)
n∈N
belongs to c.
Thus c is a subspace of
∞
.
c
0
is a subspace of c. We have:
118
S1. The sequence (0)
n∈N
is the zero vector in c, and it belongs to c
0
, since it is a convergent
sequence with limit equal to 0.
S2. If (a
n
)
n∈N
, (b
n
)
n∈N
belong to c
0
, then by Theorem 1.2.4, it follows that the sequence
(a
n
+b
n
)
n∈N
is also convergent and
lim
n→∞
(a
n
+b
n
) = lim
n→∞
a
n
+ lim
n→∞
b
n
= 0 + 0 = 0,
and so (a
n
)
n∈N
+ (b
n
)
n∈N
belongs to c
0
.
S3. Let α ∈ R and (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ c
0
. Then by Theorem 1.2.4, the sequence (αa
n
)
n∈N
is also
convergent and
lim
n→∞
αa
n
= α lim
n→∞
a
n
= α0 = 0,
that is, α (a
n
)
n∈N
belongs to c
0
.
Hence c
0
is a subspace of c.
c
00
is a subspace of c
0
. Indeed, there holds:
S1. The sequence (0)
n∈N
is the zero vector in c
0
, and it belongs to c
00
, since for all n > 1,
a
n
= 0.
S2. If (a
n
)
n∈N
, (b
n
)
n∈N
belong to c
00
, then there exist N
1
, N
2
∈ N such that
∀n > N
1
, a
n
= 0 and ∀n > N
2
, b
n
= 0.
Thus with N := max¦N
1
, N
2
¦ ∈ N, for all n > N, we obtain a
n
+ b
n
= 0 + 0 = 0.
Hence (a
n
)
n∈N
+ (b
n
)
n∈N
= (a
n
+b
n
)
n∈N
belongs to c
00
.
S3. Let α ∈ R and (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ c
00
. Then there exists an N ∈ N such that for all n > N,
a
n
= 0, and so αa
n
= α0 = 0. Thus (αa
n
)
n∈N
= α (a
n
)
n∈N
belongs to c
00
.
Hence c
00
is a subspace of c
0
.
(The examples
_
1
n
_
n∈N
∈ c
0
, (1)
n∈N
∈ c, ((−1)
n
)
n∈N
∈
∞
, (n)
n∈N
∈ R
∞
,
show that each of the inclusions are strict.)
4. If: Let y
1
= 0 = y
2
. Then we have:
S1. The zero function 0 ∈ S(0, 0), since 0 is continuous on [0, 1] and moreover, 0(0) = 0
and 0(1) = 0.
S2. If f, g ∈ S(0, 0), then f +g ∈ S(0, 0). Indeed, as f, g are continuous on [0, 1], so is f +g,
and also (f +g)(0) = f(0) +g(0) = 0 +0 = 0 and (f +g)(1) = f(1) +g(1) = 0 +0 = 0.
S3. Let f ∈ S(0, 0) and α ∈ R. Then α f is continuous on [0, 1], and furthermore,
(α f)(0) = αf(0) = α0 = 0 and (α f)(1) = αf(1) = α0 = 0.
Hence S(0, 0) is a subspace of C[0, 1].
Only if: Suppose that S(y
1
, y
2
) is a subspace of C[0, 1]. If f ∈ S(y
1
, y
2
), then 2 f ∈
S(y
1
, y
2
). Thus (2f)(0) = y
1
and (2f)(1) = y
2
, and so 2y
1
= y
1
and 2y
2
= y
2
. Consequently
y
1
= 0 = y
2
.
119
Solutions to the exercises on page 64
1. We have:
B1. If
_
_
x
y
z
_
_
∈ R
3
,
then
_
_
x
y
z
_
_
= (x−y)
_
_
1
0
0
_
_
+(y−z)
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
+z
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
∈ span
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
0
_
_
,
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
,
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
Thus
span
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
0
0
_
_
,
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
,
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
= R
3
.
B2. If α, β, γ are scalars such that
α
_
_
1
0
0
_
_
+β
_
_
1
1
0
_
_
+γ
_
_
1
1
1
_
_
=
_
_
0
0
0
_
_
,
then we obtain
α +β +γ = 0,
β +γ = 0,
γ = 0,
and so it follows that α = β = γ = 0. So B is linearly independent.
Since B1, B2 hold it follows that B is a basis.
2. Suppose that B = ¦v
1
, . . . , v
n
¦ is a basis of the vector space V , and let v ∈ V . As v ∈ V =
span(B), it follows that there exist scalars α
1
, . . . , α
n
such that v = α
1
v
1
+ + α
n
v
n
.
So v is a linear combination of vectors from V . In order to prove uniquness, suppose that
there exist scalars α
1
, . . . , α
n
such that
α
1
v
1
+ +α
n
v
n
= v = α
1
v
1
+ +α
n
v
n
.
So we obtain (α
1
−α
1
) v
1
+ +(α
n
−α
n
) v
n
= 0, and by the independence of v
1
, . . . , v
n
,
it then follows that α
1
−α
1
= = α
n
−α
n
= 0, that is α
1
= α
1
, . . . , α
n
= α
n
.
3. We prove this by contradiction. Suppose that C[0, 1] is a ﬁnite dimensional vector space
with dimension d, say.
Consider the d functions f
1
, . . . , f
d
deﬁned by
f
1
(x) = x
f
2
(x) = x
2
f
3
(x) = x
3
.
.
.
f
d
(x) = x
d
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
for all x ∈ [0, 1]. (2.35)
The functions f
1
, . . . , f
d
are all polynomials and so they are all continuous on [0, 1], that is,
f
1
, . . . , f
d
∈ C[0, 1]. Now we prove the following.
120
Claim: The functions f
1
, . . . , f
d
given by (2.35) are linearly independent in C[0, 1].
Proof Suppose that there exist scalars α
1
, . . . , α
d
, not all zeros, such that
α
1
f
1
+ +α
d
f
d
= 0.
Then for all x ∈ [0, 1], (α
1
f
1
+ +α
d
f
d
)(x) = 0(x), that is,
for all x ∈ [0, 1], α
1
x + +α
d
x
d
= 0.
Let k ∈ ¦1, 2, . . . , d¦ be the smallest number such that α
k
,= 0. Then we obtain
for all x ∈ [0, 1], α
k
x
k
+α
k+1
x
k+1
+ +α
d
x
d
= 0,
and so for all x ∈ [0, 1], x
k
(α
k
+ α
k+1
x + α
k+2
x
2
+ + α
d
x
d−k
) = 0. For all n ∈ N,
0 <
1
n
< 1, and so we have
for all n ∈ N,
_
1
n
_
k
_
α
k
+α
k+1
_
1
n
_
+α
k+2
_
1
n
_
2
+ +α
d
_
1
n
_
d−k
_
= 0,
that is,
for all n ∈ N, α
k
+α
k+1
_
1
n
_
+α
k+2
_
1
n
_
2
+ +α
d
_
1
n
_
d−k
= 0.
Hence
0 = lim
n→∞
0
= lim
n→∞
_
α
k
+α
k+1
_
1
n
_
+ α
k+2
_
1
n
_
2
+ +α
d
_
1
n
_
d−k
_
= α
k
+ 0 + + 0
= α
k
,
a contradiction. So f
1
, . . . , f
d
are linearly independent in C[0, 1].
Consequently, by Theorem 2.2.3, it follows that ¦f
1
, . . . , f
d
¦ is a basis of C[0, 1], and in
particular, they span the whole space C[0, 1].
The constant function 1 : [0, 1] →R, deﬁned by 1(x) = 1 for all x ∈ [0, 1] clearly belongs to
C[0, 1], and so, from the above, there must exist scalars β
1
, . . . , β
d
such that
1 = β
1
f
1
+ +β
d
f
d
.
Thus for all x ∈ [0, 1], 1(x) = (β
1
f
1
+ +β
d
f
d
)(x), that is,
for all x ∈ [0, 1], 1 = β
1
x + +β
d
x
d
.
In particular, with x = 0, we obtain 1 = 0, a contradiction. So C[0, 1] is not a ﬁnite
dimensional vector space.
4. (a) We have
B1. Let (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ c
00
. Then there exists an N ∈ N such that for all n > N, a
n
= 0.
Clearly
(a
n
)
n∈N
= a
1
e
1
+ +a
n
e
n
∈ span(¦e
k
[ k ∈ N¦).
So c
00
⊂ span(B).
121
On the other hand, suppose that k
1
, . . . , k
m
∈ N, and α
1
, . . . , α
m
be scalars. If
N := max¦k
1
, . . . , k
m
¦, then for all n > N, the nth term of the sequence
α
1
e
k1
+ +α
m
e
km
is α
1
0 + + α
m
0 = 0. Thus α
1
e
k1
+ + α
m
e
km
∈ c
00
. Consequently
span(B) ⊂ c
00
.
So span(B) = c
00
.
B2. Suppose that k
1
< < k
m
are natural numbers, and α
1
, . . . , α
m
be scalars, not
all zeros, such that
α
1
e
k1
+ +α
m
e
km
= (0)
n∈N
.
Let l ∈ ¦1, . . . , m¦ be the largest number such that α
l
,= 0. Then equating the
k
l
th term on both sides, we obtain that α
l
= 0, a contradiction. So B is linearly
independent.
(b) Indeed, if B were a basis for R
∞
, then the sequence (1)
n∈N
would be a linear combination
of elements from B. But as seen above, any linear combination of elements from B is
in c
00
, that is, it is a sequence that is eventually zero. Clearly (1)
n∈N
,∈ c
00
, and so it
is not a linear combination of elements from c
00
.
Solutions to the exercises on page 68
1. (a) We have
ker(T
A
) =
__
x
y
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
T
A
_
x
y
_
=
_
0
0
__
=
__
x
y
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x +y
y
_
=
_
0
0
__
=
__
x
y
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
x = y = 0
_
=
__
0
0
__
.
We depict this set in the (x, y)plane in Figure 2.10.
PSfrag replacements
R
2
x
y
ker(T
A
)
Figure 2.10: Kernel of T
A
.
Clearly im(T
A
) ⊂ R
2
. On the other hand, if
_
x
y
_
∈ R
2
, then
_
x
y
_
= T
A
_
x −y
y
_
,
and so R
2
⊂ im(T
A
). Hence im(T
A
) = R
2
. We depict this set in the (x, y)plane in
Figure 2.11.
122
PSfrag replacements
im(T
A
) = R
2
x
y
Figure 2.11: Image of T
A
.
(b) We have
ker(T
A
) =
__
x
y
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
T
A
_
x
y
_
=
_
0
0
__
=
__
x
y
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x +y
0
_
=
_
0
0
__
=
__
x
y
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
x +y = 0
_
.
We depict this set in the (x, y)plane in Figure 2.12.
PSfrag replacements
R
2
x
y
ker(T
A
)
Figure 2.12: Kernel of T
A
.
We have
im(T
A
) ⊂ S :=
__
x
0
_
∈ R
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
x ∈ R
_
,
since
for all
_
x
y
_
∈ R
2
, T
A
_
x
y
_
=
_
x +y
0
_
∈ S.
Conversely, since
_
x
0
_
= T
A
_
x
0
_
,
it follows that S ⊂ im(T
A
). Hence im(T
A
) = S. We depict this set in the (x, y)plane
in Figure 2.13.
123
PSfrag replacements
R
2
x
y
im(T
A
)
Figure 2.13: Image of T
A
.
(c) We have
ker(T
A
) =
__
x
y
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
T
A
_
x
y
_
=
_
0
0
__
=
__
x
y
_ ¸
¸
¸
¸
x ∈ R and y ∈ R
_
= R
2
.
We depict this set in the (x, y)plane in Figure 2.14.
PSfrag replacements
ker(T
A
) = R
2
x
y
Figure 2.14: Kernel of T
A
.
Clearly
im(T
A
) =
_
0
0
_
.
We depict this set in the (x, y)plane in Figure 2.15.
2. L1 is not satisﬁed, since
T
__
−1
0
_
+
_
0
1
__
= T
__
−1
1
__
=
_
(−1)
2
1
1
_
=
_
1
1
_
,
while
T
_
−1
0
_
+T
_
0
1
_
=
_
−1
0
_
+
_
0
1
_
=
_
−1
1
_
.
124
PSfrag replacements
R
2
x
y
im(T
A
)
Figure 2.15: Image of T
A
.
If α ∈ R ¸ ¦0¦ and
_
x
1
x
2
_
∈ R
2
, then we have
T
_
α
_
x
1
x
2
__
= T
_
αx
1
αx
2
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
α
2
x
2
1
αx2
αx
2
_
if x
1
x
2
,= 0
_
αx
1
αx
2
_
if x
1
x
2
= 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
α
_
x
2
1
x2
x
2
_
if x
1
x
2
,= 0
α
_
x
1
x
2
_
if x
1
x
2
= 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= α
_
T
_
x
1
x
2
__
.
If α = 0, and
_
x
1
x
2
_
∈ R
2
, we have
T
_
α
_
x
1
x
2
__
= T
_
0
0
_
=
_
0
0
_
= 0
_
T
_
x
1
x
2
__
.
Thus for all α ∈ R, and all
_
x
1
x
2
_
∈ R
2
,
T
_
α
_
x
1
x
2
__
= α
_
T
_
x
1
x
2
__
,
and so L2 holds.
3. (a) We verify that L1 and L2 hold:
125
L1. For all (a
n
)
n∈N
and (b
n
)
n∈N
in c, we have
T((a
n
)
n∈N
+ (b
n
)
n∈N
) = T((a
n
+b
n
)
n∈N
)
= lim
n→∞
(a
n
+b
n
)
= lim
n→∞
a
n
+ lim
n→∞
b
n
(Theorem 1.2.4)
= T((a
n
)
n∈N
) +T((b
n
)
n∈N
).
L2. For all α ∈ R, and all (a
n
)
n∈N
∈ c, we have
T(α (a
n
)
n∈N
) = T((αa
n
)
n∈N
)
= lim
n→∞
αa
n
= α lim
n→∞
a
n
(Theorem 1.2.4)
= α T((a
n
)
n∈N
).
So T is a linear transformation from c to R.
(b) We have
ker(T) = ¦(a
n
)
n∈N
∈ c [ T((a
n
)
n∈N
) = 0¦ = ¦(a
n
)
n∈N
∈ c [ lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0¦,
and so ker(T) is the set comprising all convergent sequences with limit 0, that is, the
subspace c
0
.
(c) Clearly, im(T) ⊂ R. Moreover, if L ∈ R, then the constant sequence L, L, L, . . . is
convergent with limit L. Thus T((L)
n∈N
) = L, and so L ∈ im(T). So R ⊂ im(T).
Consequently, im(T) = R.
126
Bibliography
[1] N.L. Biggs. Discrete Mathematics. Clarendon Press, 2002.
(Chapter 20 on Groups.)
[2] K.G. Binmore. Mathematical Analysis: A Straightforward Approach. Cambridge University
Press, 1982.
[3] V. Bryant. Yet Another Introduction to Analysis. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
[4] P.R. Halmos. Finite Dimensional Vector Spaces. Springer, 1996.
[5] W. Rudin. Principles of Mathematical Analysis. McGrawHill, 3rd Edition, 1976.
127
128 Bibliography
Index
kth power of a function, 31
abelian group, 42
absolute value, 5
absolute value of a function, 31
Archimedean property, 4
associativity, 40
basis of a vector space, 63
BolzanoWeierstrass theorem, 25
bounded above, set, 1
bounded below, set, 1
bounded function, 33, 34
bounded sequence, 14
bounded set, 1
Cauchy sequence, 13
center of a group, 47
commutativity, 42
continuity of a function at a point, 27
continuous function, 27
convergent sequence, 10
counting formula, 53
cyclic, 48
decreasing sequence, 15
dimension of a vector space, 64
distance, 5
distributive laws, 55
divergent sequence, 11
eventually zero sequence, 62
extreme value theorem, 33
Fermat’s little theorem, 54
ﬁnite dimensional vector space, 64
ﬁnite group, 43
ﬁnite order, group element with, 47
fractional part of a real number, 26
general linear group, 41
generator of a group, 48
greatest integer part of a real number, 26
greatest upper bound, 2
group, 40
group axioms, 40
group table, 43
identity element in a group, 40
iﬀ, 7
image of a homomorphism, 50
image of a linear transformation, 66
increasing sequence, 15
induced law of composition, 45
inﬁmum, 2
inﬁnite dimensional of a vector space, 64
inﬁnite group, 43
inﬁnite order, group element with, 47
intermediate value theorem, 34
interval, 5
inverse of an element in a group, 40
isomorphism, 51
kernel of a homomorphism, 50
kernel of a linear transformation, 66
Lagrange’s theorem, 53
law of composition on a set, 39
least upper bound, 2
least upper bound property, 3
linear combination of vectors, 60
linear transformation, 65
linearly dependent vectors, 61
linearly independent vectors, 61
linearly dependent set, 61
linearly independent set, 61
lower bound, 1
maximum, 3
minimum, 3
monotone sequence, 15
normal subgroup, 51
order of a group, 43
order of an element in a group, 47
partition, 52
periodic function, 34
polynomial function, 32
positive deﬁniteness, 6
product of functions, 31
129
130 Index
proper subspace, 59
rational function, 32
right cosets, 53
Sandwich theorem, 21
scalar multiplication, 55
seaview property, 25
sequence, 9
span of a subset of a vector space, 60
special linear group, 50
subgroup, 45
subsequence, 23
subspace of a vector space, 59
sum of functions, 31
supremum, 2
symmetric group, 44
symmetric matrix, 45, 59
symmetry, 6
triangle inequality, 6
upper bound, 1
upper triangular matrix, 46, 59
vector, 55
vector addition, 55
vector space, 55
zero vector, 55
ii
Contents
1 Analysis 1.1 The real numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Sequences and limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Limit of a convergent sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bounded and monotone sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Algebra of limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sandwich theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subsequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 8 8 10 14 17 21 23 26 27 30 32 34 39 39 39 45 49 52 55 55 59
1.3 Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 2 Algebra 2.1 Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 Deﬁnition of a Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Homomorphisms and isomorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cosets and Lagrange’s theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deﬁnition of continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Continuous functions preserve convergent sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extreme value theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intermediate value theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Vector spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 2.2.2 Deﬁnition of a vector space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subspaces and linear combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
. . . . . . . . . . Linear transformations . . 62 65 69 127 129 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . .2. . . . . . . .iv 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Solutions Bibliography Index Contents Basis of a vector space . . .3 2. . . .
Thus the set S = {q ∈ R  q 2 ≤ 2} has a largest element.Chapter 1 Analysis Analysis is the theory behind real numbers. If the set of all upper bounds of S is not empty. called the least upper bound property. for example. 1 . l ≤ x. have a good idea of what we mean by a ‘limit’ of a convergent sequence or the notion of a ‘continuous’ function. 1. So we see that the rational number system has certain holes. sequences. and the set S = {q ∈ Q  q 2 ≤ 2} does not have a largest element in Q. Examples. The set S is said to be bounded if it is bounded above and it is bounded below. −1) is a lower bound of S. 1. Any real number y satisfying 1 ≤ y (for instance 1. An element l ∈ R is said to be a lower bound of S if for all x ∈ S. and any real number z satisfying z ≤ 0 (for instance 0. An element u ∈ R is said to be an upper bound of S if for all x ∈ S. 100) is an upper bound of S. The word ‘theory’ is important. and functions. But before we state this property of R. You might. π. Deﬁnitions. The real number system R ﬁlls these gaps. The set S = {x ∈ R  0 ≤ x < 1} is bounded. 1. For instance. then S is said to be bounded below. we need a few deﬁnitions. there is no rational number q such that q 2 = 2. 2. This is a consequence of a very important property of the real numbers.1 The real numbers The rational number system is inadequate for many purposes. x ≤ u. 3. Let S be a subset of R. then S is said to be bounded above. but in this part of the course we try to formalize such notions. If the set of all lower bounds of S is not empty.
1). then u∗ ≤ u.1) 0≤u< 2 where the ﬁrst inequality is a consequence of the facts that u is an upper bound of S and 0 ∈ S. Analysis 2. In fact. More generally. Although it is bounded below (any real number x ≤ 1 serves as a lower bound). 3. Suppose not. then l ≤ l∗ . Let S be a subset of R. then the supremum of S is 1 and the inﬁmum of S is 0. there was a unique supremum and inﬁmum of the set S. It is bounded above by 1 and bounded below by −1. But 1 < u∗ is not possible as 1 is an upper bound. and so it belongs to S. 1}. it follows that the number u+1 2 satisﬁes 0 < u+1 < 1. then in particular u∗ is also an upper bound. that is. and the above argument shows that 1 ≤ u∗ . So it follows that u∗ = 1. The set S = {n  n ∈ N} is not bounded.1) above then shows 2 that u cannot be an upper bound for S. while the last two inequalities follow using u < 1. and 0 is a lower bound. 1 Note that this set is simply the ﬁnite set (that is. The sets Z and R are neither bounded above nor bounded below. Similarly one can show that the inﬁmum of S is 0. and In the above example. then 1 ≤ u. . and (a) u∗ is an upper bound of S. and as u∗ is a supremum. any ﬁnite set S is bounded. (Why?) ♦ We now introduce the notions of a least upper bound (also called supremum) and a greatest lower bound (also called inﬁmum) of a subset S of R. Hence 1 is a supremum. Indeed. it has no upper bound. The middle inequality in (1. 6. ♦ (a) l∗ is a lower bound of S. The set ∅ is bounded. 1 4. Clearly 1 is an upper bound of S. this is a consequence of the inequality z < z + 1. since if u∗ is another supremum. (1. the set has ﬁnite cardinality) {−1. Example. The set S = n n ∈ N is bounded. a contradiction. 1. 2. From (1. Any real number x satisfying 1 ≤ x is an upper bound. u < 1. and so it is not bounded above. Then we have u+1 < 1. An element u∗ ∈ R is said to be a least upper bound of S (or a supremum of S) if (b) if u is an upper bound of S.2 Chapter 1. An element l∗ ∈ R is said to be a greatest lower bound of S (or an inﬁmum of S) if (b) if l is a lower bound of S. Now we show that if u is another upper bound. this is always the case and we have the following result. The set1 S = {(−1)n  n ∈ N} is bounded. 5. Deﬁnitions. u∗ must be less than or equal to 1. Next we show that this is the only supremum. If S = {x ∈ R  0 ≤ x < 1}.
then inf S is called a minimum of S. ♦ In the above examples.1 If the least upper bound of a subset S of R exists. We show below (after Theorem 1. Proof Suppose that u∗ and u∗ are two least upper bounds of S. 1 4.3) 5. So min S does not exist. . then we give them special names: Deﬁnitions. inf. If S = {n  n ∈ N}. then sup S = 1 and max S = 1. 3. then sup S exists. If S = {(−1)n  n ∈ N}. From (1. Now since u∗ is a least upper bound of S and u∗ is an upper bound of S. In fact this is a fundamental property of the real numbers. For the sets Z and R. If sup S ∈ S. min do not exist. min S = −1. For the set ∅. then it is unique. If S = {x ∈ R  0 ≤ x < 1}. and so min S = 0. we note that if S is nonempty and bounded above. sup. max S = 1. max. we obtain u∗ = u∗ . since u∗ is a least upper bound of S and u∗ is an upper bound of S. Thus it makes sense to talk about the least upper bound of a set. denoted by max S. When the supremum and the inﬁmum of a set belong to the set.1. called the least upper bound property of the real numbers. Examples. inf S = 1. If inf S ∈ S. 1. Similarly.2) Furthermore. (1. the inﬁmum of a set S (if it exists) is also unique. it follows that u∗ ≤ u ∗ . But inf S = 0 ∈ S. 2. then sup S is called a maximum of S. and is denoted by inf S. and min S = 1. then sup S = 1 ∈ S and so max S does not exist. (1. Then in particular u∗ and u∗ are also upper bounds of S.2) and (1. which we state below: If S is a nonempty subset of R having an upper bound. The least upper bound of a set S (if it exists) is denoted by sup S (the abbreviation of ‘supremum of S’). then sup S = 1.2) that inf S = 0. min do not exist. denoted by min S. inf. then sup S does not exist. it follows that u∗ ≤ u ∗ . sup. 2. The real numbers 3 Theorem 1. then its supremum exists. max.1.1. max S does not exist. 6. 1. If S = n n ∈ N .3).1. inf S = −1.
Suppose that l is a lower bound of S such that l > 0. if q > r. Hence there exists a natural number m such that u∗ − x < mx. can then be shown to serve as the greatest lower bound of S (this is precisely the content of Exercise 6). Deﬁne u2 − 2 r = u∗ − ∗ .5) 2◦ Suppose that u2 = 2.4) u∗ + 2 Then we can check that r2 − 2 = We have the following cases: 1◦ Suppose that u2 < 2. 2(u2 − 2) ∗ (u∗ + 2)2 (1. and so by the least upper bound property of the reals. Thus any lower bound of S n must be less than or equal to 0. Note that the set of rational numbers do not possess this property. then there exists an n ∈ N such that y < nx. One can show that if a nonempty subset S of R is bounded below. From (1. and from (1. the set S = {q ∈ Q  q 2 ≤ 2} has an upper bound. Thus the real numbers also have the ‘greatest lower bound property’: If S is a nonempty subset of R having an lower bound. We now prove the following theorem. For instance. If S = n n ∈ N .5) we obtain r ∈ S. contradicting the fact that l is a lower bound of S.2 (Archimedean property. u∗ < (m + 1)x ∈ S. we deﬁne −S = {−x  x ∈ S}. But then u∗ − x < u∗ (since x is positive) and so it follows that u∗ − x cannot be an upper bound of S. In Exercise 6 on page 7 below. We see that r is an upper bound of S (indeed. But (1. 1 Example. then q 2 > 4 > 2. and so q ∈ S). Chapter 1.4 Remarks(∗).) If x. Proof If not. say 2 (indeed. Analysis 1. if q > 2. namely − sup(−S). This contradicts the fact that u∗ is an upper bound of S. ♦ 2 the last inequality follows from (1. by the least upper bound property. which is called the Archimedean property of the real numbers. The negative of this supremum. Hence 0 is the inﬁmum of S. then inf S exists. Assume on the contrary that u∗ ∈ Q is a supremum for S. given a nonempty set S of R. (1. since u∗ is a rational number. By the Archimedean property (with the real numbers 1 x and y taken as x = 1 (> 0) and y = 1 ). l l 1 and so < l. contradicting the fact that u∗ is the supremum. ∗ 2. 3◦ Suppose that u2 > 2. Theorem 1. y ∈ R and x > 0. there exists a n ∈ N such that = y < nx = n · 1 = n. and so q ∈ S).1. ∗ which contradicts the fact that u∗ is an upper bound of S. We know that 0 is a lower bound of S.5) . then −S is bounded above and so sup(−S) exists. that is. then the nonempty set S = {nx  n ∈ N} has an upper bound y.4) it follows that r > u∗ . This is impossible.4) implies that r < u∗ . then inf S = 0. it has a least upper bound u∗ . but we now show that it does not have a supremum in Q. then2 ∗ q 2 > r2 > 2.
to the point x0 .  − 1 = 1. b ∈ R: (a. Thus 1 = 1. I x0 x x0 + δ x0 − δ Figure 1. −x if x < 0. ∞) = {x ∈ R  a ≤ x} (−∞. We give the deﬁnitions below. and the distance between the real numbers −1 and 1 is equal to  − 1 − 1 =  − 2 = 2. See Exercise 9 on page 8 and Figure 1. This is provided by the absolute value  · . b] = {x ∈ R  a ≤ x ≤ b} PSfrag (a. 1) means the set of all real numbers x such that 0 ≤ x < 1. (Note that the use of the symbol ∞ in the notation for intervals is simply a matter of convenience and is not be taken as suggesting that there is a number ∞. by demanding that PSfrag points of the the distance of the replacements region.01 or δ = 0. b] = {x ∈ R  x ≤ b} (−∞.1. a a a a a a b b b b b b 2. and so on.0000001. in order to talk about notions such as convergence and continuity. ∞) = R In the above notation for intervals. or of all the real numbers on one side or the other of a given number. So an interval is a set of any of the following forms. The distance gives a notion of closeness of two points.1. Deﬁnitions. Thus [0. ∞) = {x ∈ R  a < x} [a. We can now specify regions comprising points close to a certain point x0 ∈ R in terms of inequalities in absolute values. The absolute value of a real number x is denoted by x. 1. a parenthesis ‘(’ or ‘)’ means that the respective endpoint is not included. and the distance between real numbers x and y is x − y. b) = {x ∈ R  a < x < b} [a. say δ = 0. An interval is a set consisting of all the real numbers between two given real numbers.1. that is. b] = {x ∈ R  a < x ≤ b} replacements [a. . x0 + δ) = {x ∈ R  x − x0  < δ} is the set of all points in R whose distance to the point x0 is strictly less than δ (> 0). where a. b) = {x ∈ R  a ≤ x < b} (a. b) = {x ∈ R  x < b} (−∞.1: The interval I = (x0 − δ. is less than a certain positive number δ. we will need a notion of ‘closeness’ between real numbers. 0 = 0.) In analysis. which is crucial in the formalization of the notions of analysis. The distance between two real numbers x and y is the absolute value x−y of their diﬀerence. and a square bracket ‘[’ or ‘]’ means that the endpoint is included. The real numbers 5 Deﬁnition. and it is deﬁned as follows: x = x if x ≥ 0.
This proves (1. and so x = −x > 0 > x. If x − y = 0 then x = y. First observe that from the deﬁnition of  · . and so it follows that x =  − x ≥ −x for all x ∈ R. Then x = x and y = y. y ∈ R. then is sup S in S? If inf S exists. Then x = x and y = −y. x ≥ x: indeed if x ≥ 0. Analysis (1.6 The following properties of the absolute value will be useful in the sequel. and so x y = (−x)(−y) = xy. Theorem 1.7). (Symmetry. From (1.1. On the other hand. then is inf S in S? max S min S where S is given by: . This follows from 3◦ above by interchanging x and y. 4◦ x < 0 and y > 0.7) 1◦ x = 0 or y = 0. while if x < 0. 3◦ x > 0 and y < 0. Provide the following information about the set S An upper bound A lower bound Is S bounded? sup S inf S If sup S exists. We have the following cases: 1◦ x + y ≥ 0. z ∈ R. 1. Proof We prove (1. It is easy to check that the distance satisﬁes the following properties: D1. Exercises. we obtain x + y ≥ x + y = x + y. it follows that xy > 0 and so xy = xy. as x > 0 and y > 0. This proves (1. Then x + y = x + y. 5◦ x < 0 and y < 0. for all x ∈ R. as x = 0 or y = 0. x − y = y − x. and so x y = xy. y ∈ R. As x ≥ x and y ≥ y. 2◦ x + y < 0. and so x y = 0.6).) For all x.7). and so x y = x(−y) = −xy. Then x + y = −(x + y). it follows that xy = 0 and so xy = 0. On the other hand. then x = x. On the other hand. it follows that x + y ≥ −x + (−y) = −(x + y) = x + y. Then x = −x and y = −y. D2.6). as x < 0 and y < 0.6) by exhausting all possible cases: Chapter 1. then xy = x y and x + y ≤ x + y. it follows that for any real x ∈ R.) For all x.3 If x. it follows that xy < 0 and so xy = −xy. Then x = 0 or y = 0. x − z ≤ x − y + y − z.6) (1. On the other hand. D3. 2◦ x > 0 and y > 0. we also have  − x =  − 1 · x =  − 1x = 1x = x. (Triangle inequality. as x > 0 and y < 0. then −x > 0. y are real numbers. it follows that xy > 0 and so xy = xy. y.) For all x. Since x ≥ −x and y ≥ −y. x − y ≥ 0. Next we prove (1. (Positive deﬁniteness.
1] (c) (0. (d) Every subset of R has a supremum. . (l) For every set S that is bounded. Prove that inf S exists and inf S = − sup(−S). (j) {x  x ∈ R} n∈N 2. Let A and B be nonempty subsets of R that are bounded above and such that A ⊂ B. prove that inf S ≤ sup S. 1] (b) [0. and then u∗ − is not an upper bound of S. show that sup S −1 = 1 inf S . For any nonempty bounded set S. (b) If u∗ is the least upper bound of a subset S of R. 2. and that the equality holds iﬀ3 S is a singleton set (that is a set with cardinality 1). 4.1. 6. (a) If u is an upper bound of a subset S of R. in case inf S > 0. Let S be a nonempty subset of real numbers which is bounded below. 5. then x ∈ S. Prove that sup A ≤ sup B. (c) Every subset of R has a maximum. (h) Every set that has a supremum is bounded above. then u is not an upper bound for S. if inf S < x < sup S. 5. S deﬁned by {x  x ∈ S} is bounded. Furthermore. where x belongs to S. (j) For every set that has a supremum. Let S be a nonempty set of positive real numbers. Let A and B be nonempty subsets of R that are bounded above and deﬁne A + B = {x + y  x ∈ A and y ∈ B}. the maximum belongs to the set. (e) Every bounded subset of R has a maximum. the supremum belongs to the set. 3. Prove that sup(A + B) exists and that sup(A + B) ≤ sup A + sup B. and u < u. 3 The abbreviation ‘iﬀ’ is standard in Mathematics. (m) For every bounded set S.1. S deﬁned by {x  x ∈ S} is bounded. and deﬁne S −1 = x x ∈ S . (i) For every set that has a maximum. Let −S denote the set of all real numbers −x. and it stands for ‘if and only if’. Show that −1 S is bounded above iﬀ inf S > 0. (k) For every set S that is bounded above. (g) Every bounded nonempty subset of R has a supremum. 1 7. The real numbers 7 (a) (0. is any positive real number. (f) Every bounded subset of R has a supremum. Determine whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE. 1) (d) (e) (f) 1 n 1 −n n n+1 n ∈ Z \ {0} n∈N n∈N (h) {0. 2005} (i) (−1)n 1 + 2 2 (g) {x ∈ R  x2 ≤ 2} 1 n x (k) { 1+x2  x ∈ R} .
2 1. the second number is 2 and so on. we envision one event causing another. . n 0. . a second event. n ∈ N. . etcetera. An = {x  ∀n ∈ N. An example is the phrase “an unfortunate sequence of events”. .8 8. . then it becomes clear that a sequence is a special type of function. Prove that (x0 − δ. y are real numbers. Show that a subset S of R is bounded iﬀ there exists a M ∈ R such that for all x ∈ S. Let An .2. Let x0 ∈ R and δ > 0. and so on. that is.1+ n n (b) {0} = n∈N (c) (0. 11. then x − y ≤ x − y. x ≤ M . 1. a2 as f (2). n ∈ N.) If we think of a1 as f (1). which in turn causes another event and so on. The notation n∈N Chapter 1. (There may not be a connection between the numbers appearing in a sequence. the second number (namely a2 ). n 1 1 . that is. where there is the ﬁrst number (namely a1 ). of real numbers. For example. The ﬁrst number is 1. 2 3 1 is a sequence. . − . x0 + δ) = {x ∈ R  x − x0  < δ}. Analysis An denotes the intersection of the sets An . . 1 .1− n+2 n+2 1 1 . 1 1 1. A sequence of real numbers is a list a1 . be a collection of sets. An = {x  ∃n ∈ N such that x ∈ An }. . 1] = n∈N 9. n∈N Prove that (a) ∅ = 0. In this case. n∈N and we use n∈N An to denote the union of the sets An . n ∈ N. . namely one with domain N and codomain R. a3 . n∈N 1 . Prove that if x.1 Sequences and limits Sequences The notion of a sequence occurs in ordinary conversation. 10. and so on. 1) = n∈N (d) [0. . We can identify a ﬁrst event. a2 . x ∈ An }.
. . + 2. 2 → a2 . (−1)n 1 + n is the sequence n∈N is a sequence with the nth term given by (−1)n 1 + 3 4 5 6 7 −2. 1. 11 11 2 1 2 3 ♦ . . This is the increasing sequence 1. (n)n∈N is a sequence with the nth term given by n. 1 n n∈N is a sequence with the nth term given by 1 n.2.) Examples. for n ∈ N. for n ∈ N. for n ∈ N. and 1 if n is even. . . for n ∈ N. Sequences and limits 9 Deﬁnition. . This sequence is simply −1. 5. n ∈ N. 3. . the ∞ symbol indicates that the assignment process 1 → a1 . 1 + 1 n n∈N 1 is a sequence with the nth term given by 1 + n .1. 1 + 21 + 31 + · · · + nn n∈N is a sequence with the nth term given by 2 3 for n ∈ N. This is the sequence 1 1 1. as in the example given above: 1 an = . with the nth term equal to −1 if n is odd. 1. . . 1. . . The nth term an of a sequence may be deﬁned explicitly by a formula involving n. 2. This is the sequence of ‘partial sums’ 1 11 1 11 1 1 + 22 + 33 +· · ·+ n1 . n 1 1 1 1 1 1 . −1. . (an )∞ . .. . The entire sequence is then written in any one of the following ways: (an )n∈N . . . 2 3 4 5 6 1 n . . . . 6. 2 3 2. n+1 (Write down the ﬁrst few terms of this sequence. For example. This is the constant sequence 1. .. . we write an . a1 = 1. Instead of writing f (n) for the value of f at a natural number n. for n ∈ N. −1. 1. . This is the sequence 3 4 5 6 7 2. (1)n∈N is a sequence with the nth term given by 1. − . 1.. . ((−1)n )n∈N is a sequence with the nth term given by (−1)n . (an )n≥1 . This 4. . (an ). 7. . . continues n=1 indeﬁnitely. 1 + 2 + 3. . A sequence is a function f : N → R. for n ∈ N.. n=1 In (an )∞ . . n It might also sometimes be deﬁned recursively. . Only the notation is somewhat unusual. . 2 3 4 5 6 1 3. . . − . . . 1. . . an+1 = n an for n ∈ N.
the terms of 1 + n n∈N get “closer and closer” to 0 (indeed the distance to 0 keeps decreasing).2 Limit of a convergent sequence 1 A sequence can be graphed.10 Chapter 1. how would one use the deﬁnition given in the preceding paragraph to prove theorems that involve sequences? Since sequences are used throughout analysis. but the sequence has no limit. Exactly what does it mean for the terms of a sequence to get “closer and closer”. then the sequence is said to diverge. Analysis 1. This is consistent with the idea of convergence that you might have encountered before: a sequence (an )n∈N converges to some real number L. This portion of the graph suggests that the terms of the sequence PSfrag replacements 1 1 2 3 4 1 n n∈N . this is represented using the notation lim an = L. 2 PSfrag replacements 1 1 2 3 4 1 n n∈N . Figure 1. but its limit is 1. 4 depending > 0.2. Symbolically. See Figure 1. If there is no such ﬁnite number L to which the terms of the sequence get arbitrarily close. or “arbitrarily close” to some number L? Even if we accept this apparent ambiguity. or “as close as we like”.3: First four points of the graph of the sequence 1 + 1 For example. the concepts of their convergence and divergence must be carefully deﬁned.4. 1 The terms of (−1)n 1 + n n∈N get “as close as we like” or “arbitrarily close” to 1. the ﬁrst 4 points of the graph of the sequence n n∈N are displayed in Figure 1.3. Figure 1. an − L < .2. if the terms an get “closer and closer” to L as n “increases without bound”. Th problem with this characterization is its imprecision. there exists4 an on . See Figure 1. Deﬁnition. The sequence (an )n∈N is said to converge to L if for every N ∈ N such that for all n > N .2: First four points of the graph of the sequence 1 n n∈N tend toward 0 as n increases. n→∞ where L denotes the limit of the sequence. For instance.
Then one can ﬁnd a N ∈ N. 1. L + ). Examples. Sequences and limits PSfrag replacements 11 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 −1 −2 Figure 1.5: Convergence of a sequence with limit L. then the sequence (an )n∈N is said to n→∞ be divergent.1. Note that an − L < iﬀ an ∈ (L − . Then we say that (an )n∈N is convergent (with limit L) and write n→∞ lim an = L.4: First eight points of the graph of the sequence (−1)n 1 + 1 n n∈N . as illustrated in Figure 1. such that all the terms an of the sequence. L L+ L L− PSfrag replacements L+ L L− N N +1 N +2 N +3 Figure 1. If there does not exist a number L such that lim an = L. large enough. and consider the shaded strip of width around the horizontal line passing through L. for n > N lie in the shaded strip. Hence pictorially.5: Pick any > 0. . for a convergent sequence with limit L.2. this deﬁnition means the following. 1 n n∈N is a convergent sequence with limit 0.
Now we need to prove ∀L ∈ R ∃ > 0 such that ∀N ∈ N ∃n > N such that an − L ≥ . Then we have an − L = (−1)n 1 + 1 n −L = 1+ 1 1 −L =1+ −L>1= . n n N an − L = Hence lim 2. we have to show that that is. an − L < ] . n n (such a N exists by the Archimedean property!). there exists a > 0 (namely = 1) such that for all N ∈ N. an − L = If we choose N ∈ N such that N > 1 1 for n > N (⇔ n < N ). n is a convergent sequence with limit 1. So let N ∈ N. that is. n N an − L = Hence lim n→∞ 1+ 1 n n 1 n = 1. is a divergent sequence. Then we have an − L = (−1)n 1 + 1 n − L = −1 − 1 1 −L =1+ +L>1= .12 Given > 0. Thus the sequence is divergent. we need to ﬁnd a N such that for all n > N . n n Thus we have shown that for all L ∈ R. 1 + n→∞ 1 = 0. ♦ . n n 1 n n∈N Given > 0. we have 1 Chapter 1. If L ≥ 0. we need to ﬁnd a N such that for all n > N . but it has been found by trial and ∀N ∈ N ∃n > N such that an − L ≥ . and any even number > N if L < 0) such that an − L ≥ . Let = 1. (−1)n 1 + n∈N Let an = (−1) 1+ for n ∈ N. then 1 1 1 −0 = < < . an − L = 1 + Again we choose a N ∈ N such that N > 1 and so for n > N we have 1 1 < < . ∃ > 0 such that ∀N ∈ N ∃n > N such that an − L ≥ . (It is not obvious that error. ¬ [(an )n∈N is convergent] . there exists a n > N (namely any odd number > N if L ≥ 0.) Now we will show that = 1 would work. 1 n 3. then choose n to be any even number > N . ¬ [∃L ∈ R such that ∀ > 0 ∃N ∈ N such that ∀n > N. n n If L < 0. 1 1 −1 = < . In order to prove that (an )n∈N is divergent. then choose n to be any odd number > N . Analysis 1 1 −0 = < . Let L ∈ R.
6. Suppose that L = 1. Let (an )n∈N be a sequence such that for all n ∈ N. an ≥ 0. an − L < . Let S be a nonempty subset of R that is bounded above. an − L2  < . (b) There exists an 4. In each of the cases listed below. N2 }. Indeed this n→∞ is the case. an ∈ S for all n ∈ N) and which is convergent with limit equal to sup S. 1. there exists a N ∈ N such that Hint: an − am  = an − L + L − am  ≤ an − L + am − L. (a) Prove that the constant sequence (1)n∈N is convergent. ∃N1 ∈ N such that for all n > N1 . (b) Can the limit of a convergent sequence be one of the terms of the sequence? (c) If none of the terms of a convergent sequence equal its limit. give an example of a divergent sequence (a n )n∈N that satisﬁes the given conditions. Proof Consider a convergent sequence (an )n∈N and suppose that it has distinct limits L1 and L2 . . an − L1  < .2. m > N . Show that there exists a sequence (an )n∈N contained in S (that is. an − am  < . 5. Prove that if (an )n∈N is convergent with limit L. 2 = L1 − L2  = L1 − an + an − L2  ≤ L1 − an  + an − L2  = an − L1  + an − L2  < + = 2 . ∃N2 ∈ N such that for all n > N2 . A sequence (an )n∈N is said to be Cauchy if for every for all n. Prove that lim n→∞ 1 = 1. then prove that the terms of the sequence cannot consist of a ﬁnite number of distinct values. a contradiction. 2 where the positivity of the deﬁned above follows from the fact that L1 = L2 . (d) Prove that the sequence ((−1)n )n∈N is divergent. there exists an N such that for inﬁnitely many n > N . Since L2 is a limit. Consequently for n > max{N1 . Let L1 − L2  = > 0. and we prove this below. Show that every convergent sequence is Cauchy. (a) For every > 0. Exercises. Theorem 1. > 0. n 3. 2. Sequences and limits 13 The notation lim an suggests that the limit of a convergent sequence is unique. an − L < .2.1 A convergent sequence has a unique limit. then L ≥ 0.1. Since L1 is a limit. > 0 and a N ∈ N such that for all n > N .
The sequence (an )n∈N deﬁned by an = 1 1 1 1 + 2 + 3 +···+ n. an  ≤ M. and so (n)n∈N is not bounded. Indeed this can be seen as follows: an  = an 1 1 1 1 + 2 + 3 +··· + n = 11 2 3 n 1 1 1 1 + 2 + 3 +··· + n < 11 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 1− + 2 1− + · · · + n−1 + 11 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 1 + − 2 + 2 − 3 + − · · · + n−1 − n 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 = 1+ − n 2 2 3 . since 1 + 1 n n∈N =1+ 1 n ≤ 2 for all n ∈ N. 1.) So all the terms are bounded by 2 . A sequence (an )n∈N is said to be bounded if there exists a M > 0 such that for all n ∈ N. given any M > 0. since (−1)n 1 + =1+ 1 n ≤ 2 for all n ∈ N. The sequence (an )n∈N given by an = n for n ∈ N. Examples. 5. n ∈ N 11 2 3 n is bounded. 6. then it is always convergent. Thus ¬[∃M > 0 such that for all n ∈ N. is not bounded. since 1 n = 1 n ≤ 1 for all n ∈ N. we will study a condition under which we can conclude that a sequence is convergent even without knowing its limit! We will prove that if a sequence is both ‘bounded’ as well as ‘monotone’. In this section. (1)n∈N is bounded. (−1)n 1 + is bounded. and so the sequence is bounded.8) Note that a sequence is bounded iﬀ the set S = {an  n ∈ N} is bounded. ♦ . 1 + 1 n n∈N is bounded. Deﬁnition.3 Bounded and monotone sequences It is cumbersome to check from the deﬁnition if a sequence is convergent or not. 2. 1 n n∈N is bounded.14 Chapter 1. since 1 = 1 ≤ 1 for all n ∈ N. there exists an N ∈ N such that M < N (Archimedean property with y = M and x = 1). (1. 1 n 3.2. Analysis 1. (See Exercise 11 on page 8). < 2 1− 1 2 3 (Write down a detailed proof using induction on n. an  = n = n ≤ M ]. 1 n 4. Indeed.
Then for all n ∈ N an  ≤ M and so (an )n∈N is bounded. Hence for all n > N . Theorem 1. then it is bounded. Thus (an )n∈N is increasing if a1 ≤ a 2 ≤ a 3 ≤ . 1 + L}. 1 + n n∈N are all convergent. Examples. an  = an − L + L ≤ an − L + L < 1 + L.2 If a sequence is convergent.2. Deﬁnitions. Proof Let (an )n∈N be a convergent sequence with limit L. . A sequence is said to be monotone if it is increasing or decreasing. .6. an ≤ an+1 . .2. See Figure 1. Thus (an )n∈N is decreasing if a1 ≥ a 2 ≥ a 3 ≥ . . . Sequences and limits 15 1 1 The sequences (1)n∈N . 1 11 + 1 22 (1)n∈N (n)n∈N + 31 + · · · + 3 1 nn n∈N Is it increasing? No No No Yes Yes Yes Is it decreasing? Yes Yes No Yes No No Is it monotone? Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes ♦ The following theorem can be useful in showing that sequences converge when one does not know the limit beforehand. n n∈N . convergent sequences bounded sequences PSfrag replacements L+ Figure 1. an ≥ an+1 .1. aN . := 1 > 0. This is not a coincidence. . Let that for all n > N an − L < = 1. . A sequence (an )n∈N is said to be increasing if for all n ∈ N.6: All convergent sequences are bounded. and in the next theorem we show that the set of all convergent sequences is contained in the set of all bounded sequences. . . and we have shown above that these are also bounded. Sequence 1 n n∈N 1 1 + n n∈N 1 (−1)n 1 + n n∈N A sequence (an )n∈N is said to be decreasing if for all n ∈ N. Then ∃N ∈ N such Let M = max{a1 . . .
 − an − (− inf S) < . then it is convergent. Proof 1◦ Let (an )n∈N be an increasing sequence. ∃N ∈ N such that for all n > N . where S = {an  n ∈ N} (see Exercise 6 on page 7). it is so far not even known if the limit L is rational or irrational.2. then since sup S − < sup S. n x n 0 x n=1 . 1. Furthermore if (an )n∈N is bounded. it follows that sup S − is not an upper bound for S and so ∃aN ∈ S such that sup S − < aN .2 Is every bounded sequence convergent? No ((−1)n )n∈N is bounded.2.3 n∈N is convergent. Theorem 1. it follows that (−an )n∈N is a convergent sequence with limit sup{−an  n ∈ N} = − inf{an  n ∈ N} = − inf S. Hence by the case considered above. then (−an )n∈N is bounded as well ( − an  = an  ≤ M ). Analysis Theorem 1.3 If a sequence is monotone and bounded.3 that this sequence 5 is convergent. 2◦ If (an )n∈N is a decreasing sequence. Thus (an )n∈N is convergent with limit inf S. 2.16 Chapter 1. (n)n∈N is not convergent. that is sup S − aN < . Indeed given > 0. ♦ it is known that this sequence is convergent to some limit L ∈ R. We show that in fact (an )n∈N converges to sup S. Since (an )n∈N is an increasing sequence. but not convergent. it is increasing since an+1 − an = (n+1)(n+1) > 0 for all n ∈ N) and bounded (see item 5 on page 14). the proof of which is beyond the scope of this course. then clearly (−an )n∈N is an increasing sequence. We have shown that the sequence (an )n∈N deﬁned by an = 1 1 1 1 + 2 + 3 +···+ n.2. Thus for n > N we obtain an − sup S = sup S − an ≤ sup S − aN < . Examples. So given > 0. and gives counterexamples to implications which are not true.2. Since sup S is an upper bound for S. The following table gives a summary of the valid implications. an ≤ sup S and so an − sup S = sup S − an . Is every convergent sequence monotone? Is every monotone sequence convergent? Is every bounded AND monotone sequence convergent? 5 Although No No Yes (−1)n n 1 1 but not monotone: −1 < 2 > − 3 . Since (an )n∈N is bounded. and this is still an open problem in mathematics! Also associated with this sequence Z 1 ∞ X 1 1 is the interesting identity = dx. that is. Thus it follows from Theorem 1. we have aN ≤ an . n ∈ N 1 1 2 3 n 1 is monotone (indeed. it follows that the set S = {an  n ∈ N} has an upper bound and so sup S exists. Question Answer Reason/Counterexample Is every convergent sequence bounded? Yes Theorem 1. an − inf S < . for n > N .
(un )n∈N are bounded and monotone. Let (an )n∈N be a sequence deﬁned by a1 = 1 and an = Prove that (an )n∈N is convergent. However. Sequences and limits 17 Exercises. 3 + n + n2 an = 9 where the terms n2 . 1.2. is again convergent. n ∈ N.4 Algebra of limits In this section we will learn that if we ‘algebraically’ combine the terms of convergent sequences. bn n n∈N 2n + 1 an−1 for n ≥ 2. it is simpler to observe that 9 n2 4 + n 2 7 11 n2 3 + n + n 2 9 4 + n2 7 11 . where a1 + · · · + a n . below. Thus. then prove that the sequence (sn )n∈N . then prove that limit 0. sn = n is also convergent with limit L. (∗) Recall the deﬁnition of a Cauchy sequence from Exercise 6 on page 13. 4. Show that the sequences (ln )n∈N . quotient of terms of simpler sequences with a known limit. 3+0+0 3 .2. In this manner we can sometimes prove the convergence of complicated sequences by breaking them down and writing them as an algebraic combination of simple sequences.4 given 9 n2 9 n2 n→∞ lim an = n→∞ lim 4+ n→∞ lim 3+ 11 7 + n n2 = n→∞ lim 4 + lim n→∞ 7 11 lim 3 + lim + lim 2 n→∞ n→∞ n n→∞ n = 4 4+0 = . n→∞ k ∈ N. one can show that the sequence (an )n∈N deﬁned by 4n2 + 9 an = 2 3n + 7n + 11 4 converges to 3 .1. (Their respective limits are denoted by lim inf an and lim sup an . then the new sequence which is obtained. deﬁne lk = inf{an  n ≥ k} and uk = sup{an  n ≥ k}. (∗) Given a bounded sequence (an )n∈N . we obtain 7 11 n .2. and conclude that they are convergent. If (bn )n∈N is a bounded sequence. 2. Prove that every Cauchy sequence is bounded. For instance. product. using the formal deﬁnition of a limit. we conveniently apply arithmetic rules to compute the limits of sequences if the terms are the sum. n2 = all have limit 0. 1. (a) (∗) If (an )n∈N is a convergent sequence with limit L. and by a repeated application of Theorem 1. (b) Give an example of a sequence (an )n∈N such that (sn )n∈N is convergent but (an )n∈N is divergent. and moreover the limit of this sequence is the same algebraic combination of the limits.) n→∞ 5. 3n is a convergent sequence with 3.
that is αan − αLa  = α an − La  < α Hence (αan )n∈N is convergent with limit αLa . n→∞ 2. (αan )n∈N is a convergent sequence and lim αan = α lim an . then n→∞ 1 bn is convergent and moreover. Analysis Theorem 1. an − La  < α . If α = 0. let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N . lim αan = αLa = α lim an . respectively. Given > 0. n→∞ n→∞ 2. that is. bn = 0 and lim bn = 0. n→∞ lim an  = La  = lim an .4 If (an )n∈N and (bn )n∈N are convergent sequences. Hence (an )n∈N is convergent with limit La . an − La  < 2 . let N1 ∈ N be such that for all n > N1 . then given > 0. Given > 0. Thus lim αan = 0 = 0La = α lim an . n→∞ bn lim bn lim n→∞ Proof Let (an )n∈N and (bn )n∈N converge to La and Lb . an − La  < . For all α ∈ R. (ak )n∈N is a convergent sequence and lim ak = n n n→∞ n→∞ lim an . . 1. k 5. let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N . 6. n→∞ n→∞ n→∞ 4.18 Chapter 1. (an + bn )n∈N is a convergent sequence and lim (an + bn ) = lim an + lim bn . then the following hold: 1. then αan = 0 for all n ∈ N and clearly (0)n∈N is a convergent sequence with limit 0. (an bn )n∈N is a convergent sequence and lim an bn = n→∞ n→∞ lim an n→∞ lim bn . that is. n→∞ n→∞ If α = 0. (an )n∈N is a convergent sequence and lim an  = lim an . n∈N 1 1 = . n→∞ 3.2. n→∞ α = . Then we have for all n > N : an  − La  ≤ an − La  < . If for all n ∈ N. For all k ∈ N. n→∞ n→∞ 3.
an bn − La Lb  < . Since (bn )n∈N is convergent. This can be done as follows. N2 }. 5.9) is less than for n > N . + M + La  2 2(La  + 1) 2(La  + 1) . then (ak )n∈N is convergent and n n→∞ lim ak = n k n→∞ lim an . . Hence by part 4 above applied to the sequences (an )n∈N and (ak )n∈N . that is. bn  ≤ M .2 it follows that it is bounded: ∃M > 0 such that for all n ∈ N. Given > 0. N2 }.2. So (an bn )n∈N is a convergent sequence with limit La Lb . bn − Lb  < Then for all n > N := max{N1 . It is trivially true with k = 1.1. Let N1 ∈ N be such that for all n > N1 . n→∞ 2 . Sequences and limits 19 Let N2 ∈ N be such that for all n > N2 .9) Step 1.2. Note that an bn − La Lb  = an bn − La bn + La bn − La Lb  ≤ an bn − La bn  + La bn − La Lb  = an − La  bn  + La  bn − Lb . 2 + 2 = . Let N2 ∈ N be such that for all n > N2 . 2 (1. we have an + bn − (La + Lb ) = an − La + bn − Lb  ≤ an − La  + bn − Lb  < Hence (an + bn )n∈N is convergent with limit La + Lb . This can be shown by using induction on k and from part 4 above. we have an bn − La Lb  ≤ an − La  bn  + La  bn − Lb  < = = 2M 2 . we need to ﬁnd a N such that for all n > N . an − La  < Step 2. Suppose that it holds for some k. n→∞ n→∞ 4. This can be achieved by ﬁnding a N such that each of the summands in (1. bn − Lb  < Thus for n > N := max{N1 . that is. n→∞ lim an bn = La Lb = n→∞ lim an n→∞ lim bn . by Theorem 1. we obtain that the n sequence (an · ak )n∈N is convergent and n n→∞ lim an ak = n n→∞ lim an n→∞ lim ak = n k n→∞ k+1 lim an n→∞ lim an = n→∞ lim an . lim (an + bn ) = La + Lb = lim an + lim bn . 2M .
and assume that the sequence (bn )n∈N is bounded. (b) Show that ( n2 + n − n)n∈N is a convergent sequence and ﬁnd its limit. an bn + 5n a2 + n n 2n + 1 an−1 for n ≥ 2. then choose N ∈ N large enough so that for n > N . = bn Lb bn  Lb  2 Lb  Lb  n→∞ is convergent and lim n∈N 1 1 1 = = . an ≤ bn . Suppose that the sequence (an )n∈N is convergent. Let > 0. then (an+1 )n∈N is also a convergent sequence with limit L. and ﬁnd its limit. 2 Lb  .  an − L an + L = an − L < L. Lb  . Prove that if (an )n∈N and (bn )n∈N are convergent sequences such that for all n ∈ N. with limit L. Prove that the sequence (cn )n∈N deﬁned by cn = is convergent. N2 }. 3. 2. . and let N2 ∈ N be such that for all n > N2 . Let N1 ∈ N be such that for all n > N1 . then√ − choose N ∈ N large enough so that √ √ √ for n > N . Prove that the sequence ( an )n∈N is also convergent. 2 Lb  − bn  ≤ Lb  − bn  ≤ bn − Lb  < and so bn  ≥ Lb  2 . an√ L = an < 2 . (a) Let (an )n∈N be a convergent sequence with limit L and suppose that an ≥ 0 for all √ √ n ∈ N. 1.20 Thus (ak+1 )n∈N is convergent and n n→∞ Chapter 1. √ Hint: ‘Rationalize the numerator’ by using n2 + n + n. bn − Lb  < Lb 2 . n→∞ n→∞ Hint: Use Exercise 5 on page 13. we have So 1 bn 1 Lb 2 2 1 bn − Lb  1 − < = . 6. If L = 0. Analysis lim ak+1 = n n→∞ lim an k+1 . bn − Lb  < Thus for all n > N1 . If L > 0. then lim an ≤ lim bn . Let > 0. 3n 4. Hint: First show that L ≥ 0. Recall the convergent sequence (an )n∈N from Exercise 1 on page 17 deﬁned by a1 = 1 and an = What is its limit? Hint: If (an )n∈N is a convergent sequence with limit L. 2 Hence for n > N := max{N1 . bn Lb lim bn n→∞ Exercises.
So for n > N2 .2. we have L − < a n ≤ cn ≤ bn < L + . n→∞ Given > 0. then the sandwiched sequence is also convergent with the same limit. . lim an = lim bn . that is.2. and so L − an < . . 1000 . Thus for n > N := max{N1 . n→∞ 10n 2 3 4 1 Thus the sequence 10 . an ≤ cn ≤ bn . that is. bn − L < . n2 < 10n .5 Sandwich theorem Another useful theorem that is useful in proving that sequences are convergent and in determining their limits is the socalled sandwich theorem. cn − L < This proves that (cn )n∈N is convergent with limit L. we have 0≤ n n 1 ≤ 2 = . Roughly speaking. L − an ≤ L − an  = an − L < . (bn )n∈N be convergent sequences with the same limit. Consequently. lim n = 0. bn − L < . that is. is convergent with limit 0. it says that if a sequence is sandwiched between two convergent limits with the same limit.1. then (cn )n∈N is also convergent with the same limit. Let N2 ∈ N be such that for all n > N2 . let N1 ∈ N be such that for all n > N1 . an − L < . 1. n→∞ lim an = lim cn = lim bn . n 10 n n n 10n n∈N L − < an . Hence for n > N1 . 10n It can be shown by induction that for all n ∈ N.5 (Sandwich theorem. N2 }.) Let (an )n∈N . 100 . 10000 .2. Examples. and so L − < cn < L + . Theorem 1. n→∞ 1 Since lim 0 = 0 = lim . n→∞ n→∞ If (cn )n∈N is a third sequence such that for all n ∈ N. n→∞ n→∞ Proof Let L denote the common limit of (an )n∈N and (bn )n∈N : n→∞ lim an = L = lim bn . that is. and so cn − L < . . and −(cn − L) < . bn < L + . from the Sandwich theorem it follows that the sequence n→∞ n→∞ n is convergent and n lim = 0. Sequences and limits 21 1. Consequently. .
we have n2 n2 and since n→∞ = 0. Let an := 2 n − 1 ≥ 0. Consequently. Prove that the sequence n! nn is convergent and lim n∈N n! = 0. lim 1 1 1 + 2 +···+ 2 n→∞ +1 n +2 n +n For all n ∈ N. 5 2. 1 1 n n n So using the Sandwich theorem. 4 2. For any a. it follows that lim (an + bn ) n = max{a. we have that lim (24n + 2005n ) n = 2005. the sequence 2.. b}) ≤ an + bn ≤ (max{a. is convergent with limit 2005. n→∞ nn 1 2 n 1 1 n! Hint: Observe that 0 ≤ n = · · · · · · ≤ · 1 · · · · · 1 ≤ . is convergent with limit 1. .. n n n n n n . it follows that 1 < 1 a and so h := 1 a − 1 > 0.22 2. 4. n→∞ n→∞ √ √ √ √ that is. b} ≤ (an + bn ) n ≤ 2 n max{a. 3 2. lim 2 n = 1. Analysis 2 > 1 and so 2 n > 1 (for otherwise 2 = (2 n )n ≤ 1. n 1 1 1 n ≤ 2 + 2 +···+ 2 ≤ 2 . . b}) max{a. lim (an + bn ) n = max{a. If a ∈ (0.001146260873. 1). ♦ Exercises. n→∞ 1 Chapter 1. lim 2 n = 1. nh Hence from the Sandwich theorem.1436. 2. (1 + x)n ≥ 1 + nx. . n→∞ 1 Since 0 < a < 1. b}. Then we have 1 = (1 + h)n ≥ 1 + nh ≥ nh an 1 . . then lim an = 0. 3. 1. b}. with a = 24 and b = 2005. that is. and so (max{a. 2005. b ∈ R. n→∞ 1 Clearly. 0 ≤ an ≤ n→∞ and so 5. n→∞ n + 1 n2 + n n→∞ it follows from the Sandwich theorem that lim 1 1 1 + +···+ 2 n2 + 1 n2 + 2 n +n = 0. n→∞ the sequence 2028. n→∞ 1 In particular. b}) + (max{a. 2005. it follows that lim an = 0. b}.) Hence 0 ≤ an ≤ 1 n 1 1 1 1 and so using the Sandwich theorem it follows that lim an = 0. +n n +1 n +2 n +n n +1 lim n n = 0 = lim 2 . Then 2 = (1 + an )n ≥ 1 + nan (It can be shown using induction that for all real x ≥ −1 and for all n ∈ N. a contradiction).
the sequence 1k + 2 k + 3 k + · · · + n k nk+2 is convergent and 1k + 2 k + 3 k + · · · + n k = 0. . 11. Then (ank )k∈N is called a subsequence of (an )n∈N . 5. Also the sequence an = 1 . 4. known as the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem. . n2 n∈N . p 1 n n∈N . 1. What is its limit? 1 Hint: Observe that − n + an < bn < an + 1 n 1 n for all n ∈ N. If (an )n∈N is convergent with limit L. 2 3 4 is not a subsequence of 1 n n∈N . Let (an )n∈N be a sequence and let (nk )k∈N be a sequence of natural numbers such that n1 < n2 < n3 < . b). Deﬁnition. . . . is a subsequence of The sequence 1 1 1 . Examples.10) √ n) n ≤ 2 1 1+ √ n 2 . b) (that is. . Give an example to show that L needn’t belong to (a. for all n ∈ N. Sequences and limits 23 2. n→∞ nk+2 lim 3. (an )n∈N deﬁned by 1 n! n∈N and 1 nn n∈N are all subsequences of 1 n n∈N . . (b) Show that for all n ∈ N. (a) Using induction. Prove that for all k ∈ N. . 3. prove that if x ≥ −1 and n ∈ N. where p is the nth prime in the inﬁnite sequence of increasing primes 2.2. Let (an )n∈N be a sequence contained in the interval (a. . which says that every bounded sequence has a convergent ‘subsequence’. 1 1 2n n∈N . then prove that L ∈ [a. 1. (c) Prove that (n )n∈N is convergent and ﬁnd its limit.10). for all n ∈ N. . . and let (bn )n∈N satisfy bn − an  < Show that (bn )n∈N is also convergent. then (1 + x)n ≥ 1 + nx. We begin this section by deﬁning what we mean by a subsequence of a sequence.6 Subsequences In this section we prove an important result in analysis. 1. Let (an )n∈N be a convergent sequence. 7. Hint: Use Exercise 5 on page 13. 5. . 1 ≤ n n < (1 + Hint: Take x = 1 n 1 n∈N (1. 1 √ n in the inequality (1.2.1. b]. a < an < b).
6. . and so on. Proceeding in this manner. 7 2. has limit 1. 8. Since the terms 2. 4. 1. . . 7. Then for all k > K. 4. and so the next two terms are 1. . Hence for k > K. ♦ Exercise(∗). 7. 4. 1. 8 2.or twodigit number. 7. 7. ank − L < . . 7 2. −1. 1. −1. 1. the constant sequence 1. 7. we get subsequent terms as follows: 2. 1. . . . has limit −1. 7. . while the subsequence −1. 7. 4. 8 . 7 2. 4 2. ) are subsequences of ((−1)n )n∈N . . . The sequences ((−1)2n )n∈N (that is. 8 are adjacent. 2. Theorem 1. 2. Thus we start with 2 and 7. Examples. 4 2. an − L < . Since the sequence n1 < n2 < n3 < . Prove that this sequence has the constant subsequence 6. . .2.7 Every sequence has a monotone subsequence. 7. 2. . 1. 2. 7. giving the product 14. . 1. 8. they give rise to the adjacent terms 1. 1. 8. 4. Given > 0. 4. 1. the sequence 2. . Hint: Show that 6 appears an inﬁnite number of times as follows. it follows that there exists a K ∈ N such that nK > N . . then any subsequence of (an )n∈N is also convergent with the limit L. 4. 7. 1. 1. 4. ) and ((−1)2n−1 )n∈N (that is the constant sequence −1. −1. 6. 1. 6 at some point. −1. 6 eventually. . Proof Let (ank )k∈N be a subsequence of (an )n∈N . 2. 4. 4. 2. 1. nk > nK > N . let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N . 7. which in turn give rise to the adjacent terms 6. 7.2. . The sequence ((−1)n )n∈N is divergent since the subsequence 1. . . 1. Proceeding in this way. 4. 7. . 2. 4 2.6 If (an )n∈N is a convergent sequence with limit L. 4. ﬁnd out if you get a loop containing the term 6.24 Chapter 1. Beginning with 2 and 7. is constructed by multiplying successive pairs of its terms and adjoining the result as the next one or two members of the sequence depending on whether the product is a one. ♦ Theorem 1. 1. 8. 8 2. 4 2. 6. . and so (ank )k∈N is convergent with limit L. . . 2. 7. Analysis 2. 1. 6. 1 n! n∈N and 1 nn n∈N are convergent sequences with limit 0. 1 2n n∈N . 7. 7. 1 n2 n∈N . 4.
2. From Theorem 1. Sequences and limits 25 We ﬁrst give an illustration of the idea behind this proof.8 (BolzanoWeierstrass theorem. and so on. two possibilities: 1◦ There are inﬁnitely many hotels with the seaview property.) Then (ank )k∈N is an increasing subsequence of (an )n∈N .3 that it is convergent. 2◦ S is ﬁnite.2. and then ﬁnding yet another that is at least as high as that one.2. Theorem 1.7... . 2◦ There is only a ﬁnite number of hotels with the seaview property.) Every bounded sequence has a convergent subsequence. Figure 1. 1◦ S is inﬁnite. Then their heights form a decreasing subsequence. since nk > max S.1.7 above. . and otherwise let n1 = max S + 1. The heights of these hotels form an increasing subsequence. it follows that the sequence (an )n∈N has a monotone subsequence (ank )k∈N . it follows from Theorem 1. and this is not possible if S was empty. Deﬁne inductively nk+1 = min{m ∈ N  m > nk and am ≥ ank }. one can start with any hotel and then always ﬁnd one that is at least as high. Now there are only . . Then after the last hotel with the seaview property. Proof Let (an )n∈N be a bounded sequence. then nk ∈ S. Then we have the following two cases. and also impossible if S was not empty. Then (ank )k∈N is a decreasing subsequence of (an )n∈N . 1 2 3 4 5 6 . . which is taken as the next hotel. If S empty.. A hotel is said to have PSfrag replacements the seaview property if it is higher than all hotels following it. (The minimum exists since the set {m ∈ N  m > nk and am ≥ ank } is a nonempty subset of N: indeed otherwise if it were empty. Proof Let S = {m ∈ N  for all n > m. Arrange the elements of S in increasing order: n1 < n2 < n3 < . See Figure 1..2. Then there exists a M > 0 such that for all n ∈ N. where at inﬁnity there is the sea. along an inﬁnite line. an < am }. ank  ≤ M and so the sequence (ank )k∈N is also bounded.7: The seaview property. which is followed by hotel n + 1. then deﬁne n1 = 1. An important consequence of the above theorem is the following result. Imagine that an is the height of the hotel with number n. and so on. Then clearly for all k ∈ N. Since (ank )k∈N is monotone and bounded. Assume that (an )n∈N is the given sequence. an  ≤ M .
3 Continuity A function f : R → R is a rule of correspondence that assigns to each real number a unique real number. √ 3 2 = 4. The sequence (an )n∈N is bounded: indeed. . 0 ≤ an < 1. .656854 . a4 = 0. a5 = 0.242640 . for n ∈ N.656854 . Using BolzanoWeierstrass theorem. Show that if a sequence is Cauchy. . √ 2 2 = 2.071067 . . then it is convergent.) The terms of the sequence (an )n∈N are as follows: √ 2 = 1. . a2 = 0. we need deﬁnitions and hypothesis of theorems to be stated carefully and clearly.485281 . . . Consider the sequence (an )n∈N of fractional parts of integral multiples of by √ √ an = n 2 − n 2 . Thus given any number L ∈ (0. Continuous functions play a prominent role in analysis since they possess some useful properties. . 6 In fact. there exist natural numbers n1 and n2 such that x < n1 and −x < n2 . a3 = 0. we can prove the converse. .414213 .414213 . it follows that (an )n∈N is bounded. . Prove (using the fact that (an )n∈N is Cauchy). Many bizarre functions make appearances in analysis. that is. Hint: Proceed as follows. Within the huge collection of functions.071067 . Hence the set {z ∈ Z  x < z} is a nonempty subset of Z (indeed. . n there exists a subsequence of the sequence (an )n∈N above that converges to L. . 1. deﬁned where for x ∈ R. . . where we had already seen that every convergent sequence is Cauchy. √ 2. 1). . it can be shown that these fractional parts a are “dense” in (0. . √ 5 2 = 7. . In this section we give the formal deﬁnition of continuous functions and prove two of the most important properties: the extreme value theorem and the intermediate value theorem. . 1). (∗) Recall the deﬁnition of a Cauchy sequence from Exercise 6 on page 13. n1 belongs to it!). . Analysis Example. and it is bounded below (by −n2 ∈ Z). say (ank )k∈N with limit L. √ 4 2 = 5.26 Chapter 1. . that then (an )n∈N is itself convergent with limit L. . .242640 . and so the minimum of the set {z ∈ Z  x < z} exists in Z. . a1 = 0. x denotes the greatest integer part of x. and in order to avoid falling into pitfalls with simplistic thinking. . . which is deﬁned as the largest integer less than or equal to x: x = min{z ∈ Z  x < z} − 1.828427 . Let (an )n∈N be a Cauchy sequence. it follows that (an )n∈N has a convergent subsequence. . there is an important subset: the continuous functions. (By the Archimedean property. a6 = 0. . By the Bolzano Weierstrass theorem. −n2 < x < n1 . So by the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem it has a convergent subsequence6 . From Exercise 5 on page 17.485281 . ♦ Exercise. √ 6 2 = 8.828427 . Consequently · is a welldeﬁned function. .
Deﬁnitions. See Figure 1. f (x) − f (c) < . that is. the graph of f has no breaks in it. What does it mean for a function f : R → R to be continuous? The common informal deﬁnition of this concept states that a function f is continuous if one can sketch its graph without lifting the pencil. then we can make f (x) as close as we like to f (c). If a function has a break at a point. say c. 1. that is. there exists a δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ I satisfying x − c < δ. Next. Examples. then even if points x are close to c. PSfrag replacements f (c) + f (c) f (x) f (c) + c−δ x c c+δ Figure 1.1 Deﬁnition of continuity In everyday speech. A function f : I → R is continuous at c if for every > 0. which guarantees that if a function is continuous at a point c. A function f : I → R is continuous (on I) if for every c ∈ I. f : R → R given by f (x) = 1 for all x ∈ R is continuous. x − c < δ). See Figure 1. we ﬁrst give the formal deﬁnition of the continuity of a function at a point below. by choosing x suﬃciently close to c. Continuity 27 1. a ‘continuous’ process is one that proceeds without gaps of interruptions or sudden changes. Let I be an interval in R and let c ∈ I. In other words. . if a function is continuous at each point. f is continuous at c.3. f (x) − f (c) < . If a break does occur in the graph.8. If x lies to the left of c. Thus (based on this visual view of continuity).9.3. then f (x) is not close to f (c). then f (x) satisﬁes f (c) − < f (x) < f (c) + . then it will be called continuous. then this break will occur at some point. then given any > 0 (which determines a strip around the line y = f (c) of width 2 ). the points f (x) do not get close to f (c). f (c) PSfrag replacements c Figure 1. there exists a δ > 0 (which determines an interval of width 2δ around the point c) such that whenever x lies in this width (so that x satisﬁes c − δ < x < c + δ. If the function is continuous at c. no matter how close x comes to c.8: A function with a break at c. This motivates the following deﬁnition of continuity.1.9: The deﬁnition of the continuity of a function at point c.
we have: f (x) − f (c) = x − c < δ = . This can be seen as follows. See Figure 1. f : R → R given by f (x) = x for all x ∈ R is continuous. 3. ∞). 0 if x = 0. Then if x ∈ R and x − c < δ. Then given = 2 > 0. 2 Thus x = 0 and so f (x) = 1. f : R → R given by f (x) = is not continuous at 0. Since the choice of c ∈ R was arbitrary. . Given > 0. See Figure 1. let δ = 1. Analysis Let c ∈ R = (−∞. Hence if x ∈ R and x − c < δ.10. 1 PSfrag replacements 0 x Figure 1.11. Then if x ∈ R and x − c < δ. 1 Suppose that it is continuous at 0. 2. Let c ∈ R. Since the choice of c ∈ R was arbitrary. So f is continuous at c. c > 0. Given let δ = c > 0.28 Chapter 1. it follows that f is continuous on R. δ δ δ 1 and so x = 2 = 2 < δ. Then if x ∈ R and x − c < δ = 1. Consequently f is continuous at c. 1 if x ∈ R \ {0}. for instance.10: The continuous constant function 1. Thus f (x) = f 2 = 1 = 1 > 2 = . f is continuous at c. let δ > 0 be such that if x ∈ R and 1 δ x = x − 0 < δ. for all c ∈ R \ {0}. But now take x = 2 ∈ R. However. we have 2 c − x ≤ c − x ≤ c − x = x − c < δ = and so x > c 2 > 0. we have: f (x) − f (c) = 1 − 1 = 0 = 0 < . Given > 0. we obtain f (x) − f (c) = 1 − 1 = 0 = 0 < . let δ = . So f cannot be continuous at 0. let δ be an arbitrary positive real number. 1 PSfrag replacements 0 x Figure 1. So f is continuous at c. then f (x) − f (0) = f (x) − 0 = f (x) < = 2 . it follows that f is continuous on R.11: A function continuous everywhere except at 0. a contradiction.
Let f : R → R be deﬁned by f (x) = 0 if x is rational. f : (0. c 2 c − x ≤ c − x ≤ c − x = x − c < δ ≤ c 1 2 < x. given > 0. Let the function f : R → R be given by f (x) = x2 . f is not continuous at c. ∃δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ R satisfying x − c < δ. 2. 1)). denoted by g ◦ f . then the composition of g with f . f (x) > 0. the function f is continuous at c by showing that the same δ works (for this ). 2 4. Hint: Since f is continuous at c. (b) Give an example of such a function. that is. it follows that f is continuous (on (0. if x ∈ (0. Prove that f is continuous on R. c + δ). 3. f (x) − f (c) < . . Prove that if for some c ∈ R. Hint: Use the fact that there are irrational numbers arbitrarily close to any rational number and rational numbers arbitrarily close to any irrational number. (a) Prove that f is continuous at 0. Since the choice of c ∈ (0. 5. f (c) > 0. Show that given any other point c ∈ R. Continuity 1 x 29 for all x ∈ R is continuous (on (0. Let f : R → R be a continuous function. c − x 1 1 x − c 2 1 2δ = − = <δ· · = 2 ≤ . Prove that f is continuous at 0. 1). Let f : R → R be a function that satisﬁes f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) for all x. Suppose that f : R → R and there exists a M > 0 such that for all x ∈ R. If f and g are functions on R.3. x ∈ R. Given we have and so > 0. 1)). < . (b) (∗) Suppose that c is a nonzero real number. Prove that for every c ∈ R. (a) Suppose that f is continuous at some real number c. we will give a slick proof of the fact that f is continuous on R.1. ♦ Exercises. c c2 2. 1) and x − c < δ. Hint: Find f (0). In Exercise 1 on page 31. Prove that f is continuous at c. f (x) ≤ M x. then there exists a δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ (c − δ. 1 if x is irrational. 1. is deﬁned (g ◦ f )(x) = g(f (x)). x c x c x c c c c So f is continuous at c. 1) → R given by f (x) = Let c ∈ (0. let δ = min (> 0). Then if x ∈ (0. 4. 1) and x − c < δ. by The following theorem implies that the composition of continuous functions is continuous. 2 x c Consequently. y ∈ R. 1) was arbitrary.
f (x) − f (c) < .3. Assume that f is not continuous at c. Theorem 1. f (x) − f (c) < δ. f (xn ) − f (c) < . Analysis Theorem 1. Since f is continuous at c ∈ I.11) Proof Only if: Suppose that f is continuous at c ∈ I and let (xn )n∈N be a convergent sequence contained in I with limit c. Proof Since g is continuous at f (c). (f (xn ))n∈N is convergent and lim f (xn ) = f (c).2 Let I be an interval in R and let c ∈ I. given > 0. So (f (xn ))n∈N is convergent with limit f (c).11) holds. . it follows that given satisfying y − f (c) < δ. ∃δ > 0 such that for all y ∈ R Since f is continuous at c. then g ◦ f is continuous at c. Then f is continuous at c iﬀ for every convergent sequence (xn )n∈N contained in I with limit c. f (x) − f (c) < ] that is. g(y) − g(f (c)) < . Since (xn )n∈N is convergent with limit c. Consequently for n > N . and so g(f (x)) − g(f (c)) < . Claim 1: The sequence (xn )n∈N is contained in I and is convergent with limit c. but f (xn ) − f (c) ≥ . Hence g ◦ f is continuous at c. then we can ﬁnd xn ∈ I such that xn − c < δ = 1 n. ∃δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ I satisfying x − c < δ. Suppose that f : I → R is a function. that is. ∃δ1 > 0 such that for all x ∈ R satisfying x − c < δ1 . n→∞ (1. xn − c < δ. ¬ [∀ > 0 ∃δ > 0 such that ∀x ∈ I such that x − c < δ. (g ◦ f )(x) − (g ◦ f )(c) < . ∃ > 0 such that ∀δ > 0 ∃x ∈ I such that x − c < δ but f (x) − f (c) ≥ .3. that is. If: Suppose that (1. ∃N ∈ N such that for all n > N . 1. Then we need to show that f is continuous at c and we prove this by contradiction. we have f (x) − f (c) < δ.1 Let c ∈ R.3.2 Continuous functions preserve convergent sequences We now give an alternative characterization of continuity.30 Chapter 1. If f : R → R is continuous at c and g : R → R is continuous at f (c). > 0. for all x ∈ R satisfying x − c < δ1 . Hence if δ = 1 n. Consequently.
Thus for instance 2 > 0. Hence f is continuous at c. f k : I → R by f k (x) = (f (x))k .1. x ∈ I. 3. If α ∈ R. then we deﬁne the kth power of f .3. Theorem 1. 2. we can ﬁnd N ∈ N such 1 1 1 that ζ < N (Archimedean property). 1. for every divergent sequence (xn )n∈N . f g : I → R is deﬁned by (f g)(x) = f (x)g(x). x2 . . Hint: Given any real number c. Indeed for all n ∈ N. Prove that7 if f : R → R is continuous and f (x) = 0 if x is rational. x2 . x ∈ I. x ∈ I. N < ζ. 2. prove that f is continuous on R. f + g : I → R is deﬁned by (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x). that is.2. a contradiction. xn − c < N < ζ. Exercises. . The product of f and g. then we deﬁne the function αf : I → R by (αf )(x) = α · f (x). (f (xn ))n∈N is divergent as well. 7 See Exercise 4 on page 29. but it is not possible to ﬁnd a large enough N ∈ N such that for all n > N . If k ∈ N. x ∈ I. Suppose that f : I → R and g : I → R are continuous at c. f  : I → R by f (x) = f (x). . f  is continuous at c.3 Let I be an interval in R and let c ∈ I. If for all x ∈ I. we have f (xn ) − f (c) ≥ . x2 be distinct real numbers. then we would arrive at the contradiction ≤ f (xn ) − f (c) < 2 ).11) does not hold. 3. Let f : R → R be a function that preserves divergent sequences. then we deﬁne 1 g : I → R by 1 g (x) = 1 g(x) .3. We deﬁne the absolute value of f . For all α ∈ R. Let I be an interval in R.3. we deﬁne the following: 1. we have for all n ∈ N.3. Given functions f : I → R and g : I → R. 5. g(x) = 0. αf is continuous at c. Hence for n > N . x ∈ I. there exists a sequence of rational numbers (qn )n∈N that converges to c. we introduce some convenient notation. f (xn ) − f (c) < 2 (for if this were possible. and consider the sequence x1 . then f (x) = 0 for all x ∈ R. The Claims 1 and 2 show that (1. given any ζ > 0. Continuity 31 Indeed. 2. Using the above theorem. But before we state this result. f + g is continuous at c. 4. So (xn )n∈N is convergent with limit c. . Using the characterization of continuity provided in Theorem 1.3. xn ∈ I. x1 . Hint: Let x1 . we obtain the following useful Theorem 1. Prove that f is onetoone. that is. The sum of f and g. . Recall Exercise 1 on page 29: The function f (x) : R → R is given by f (x) = x2 . x ∈ I. Then: 1. 6. 3. Furthermore. Claim 2: The sequence (f (xn ))n∈N does not converge to f (c).
that is. (f (xn ))n∈N is convergent with limit f (c). . that is.2. 6. . b] attains its maximum and minimum values. ((f g)(xn ))n∈N is convergent with limit (f g)(c).2 . that is.3. it follows that f g is continuous at c.2 . So from Theorem 1.3. 1 g(xn ) n∈N is convergent with limit 1 g 1 g(c) n∈N (since for all x ∈ I. x2 . Hence from Theorem 1. 5. ((f (xn ))k )n∈N is convergent with limit (f (c))k . Consequently the polynomial function p : R → R deﬁned by p(x) = a0 + a1 x + · · · + aN xN . it follows that: 1. a1 · x. Exercise. it follows that f  is continuous at c. x ∈ R. .3.2 . that is. a1 . in particular g(xn ) = 0 is convergent with limit 1 g and g(c) = 0). So from Theorem 1. it follows that αf is continuous at c. aN in R. 5. Proof Suppose that (xn )n∈N is a convergent sequence contained in I. (f (xn )g(xn ))n∈N is convergent with limit f (c)g(c). f k is continuous at c.2 .2 . For all k ∈ N. it follows that the functions a0 · 1. (f (xn )+g(xn ))n∈N is convergent with limit f (c)+g(c).2 . Analysis is continuous at c. 3.3. f g is continuous at c. Since f : R → R given by f (x) = x for x ∈ R is continuous (see Example 3 on page 28). So from Theorem 1.3. (α · f (xn ))n∈N is convergent with limit α · f (c). So from Theorem 1.3. . aN · xN are continuous. . Example.2 . So from Theorem 1. . respectively. 2.3. with limit c. 1.32 4. 4. then 1 g Chapter 1.4. g(x) = 0. . from Theorem 1. . it follows that f k is continuous at c. If for all x ∈ I. Thus given arbitrary scalars a0 . 1 + x2 ♦ 1. Show that the rational function f : R → R deﬁned by f (x) = is continuous on R. it follows that for all k ∈ N. (f k (xn ))n∈N is convergent with limit f k (c). x ∈ R is continuous.3. it follows that f + g is continuous at c. ((αf )(xn ))n∈N is convergent with limit (αf )(c). Since f and g are continuous at c. that is. . (f (xn ))n∈N is convergent with limit f (c). it follows that 1 g (xn ) (c). that is. 6. See Figure 1. xk is continuous. ((f +g)(xn ))n∈N is convergent with limit (f + g)(c). g(x) = 0. it follows that (f (xn ))n∈N and (g(xn ))n∈N are convergent with limits f (c) and g(c).3 Extreme value theorem Below we show that a continuous function on an interval [a. So from Theorem is continuous at c.12.
and so ∃K ∈ N such that for all k > K. then a − L > 0. From Theorem 1. the supremum and inﬁmum in (1. M − n < M . Suppose that S is not bounded.13) Note that since c. if L < a.2. Theorem 1. If not. we get a sequence (xn )n∈N . Since a ≤ xn ≤ b for all n ∈ N. b]}. Similarly. From (1.2 it follows that (f (xnk ))k∈N cannot be convergent. b]} is bounded. Now we show that L ∈ [a.15).15) By the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem. we obtain L − xnk ≤ L − xnk  = xnk − L < L − b. we obtain xnk − L ≤ xnk − L < a − L. Step 2. b]. xnk − L < a − L. respectively. the set S = {f (x)  x ∈ [a.12) (1. it follows . we see that this contradicts the continuity of f . then either L > b or L < a. b] such that M− 1 < f (xn ) ≤ M. a contradiction). which contradicts (1.14).1. b]. and so S would be bounded.12: Extreme value theorem. (xn )n∈N has a convergent subsequence (xnk )k∈N with limit c ∈ [a. Continuity 33 PSfrag replacements d a c b Figure 1. then f (x) ≤ N for all x ∈ [a.3. that is. b] such that f (d) f (c) = sup{f (x)  x ∈ [a. But by Theorem 1. since it is not bounded (indeed. b].14). n (1. Then given n ∈ N. But then for all k > K. b]. b] such that 1 1 f (c) = M . and so M − n cannot be an upper bound for {f (x)  x ∈ [a. xnk − L < L − b. xnk > b. Since f is continuous (f (xnk ))k∈N is convergent with limit f (c).2. ∃xn ∈ [a. b] such that f (xn ) > n (for if this fails for some N ∈ N. So ∃xn ∈ [a. d ∈ [a. and so ∃K ∈ N such that for all k > K. If L > b. b]}. and = inf{f (x)  x ∈ [a. and so by the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem (Theorem 1. (1. So S must be bounded.8). In this way. Proof Step 1. We prove that there exists a c ∈ [a.13) are in fact the maximum and minimum. then L − b > 0.14) (xn )n∈N is bounded. f (xnk ) > nk !). that is.4 (Extreme value theorem). For each n ∈ N.3. b]}. We ﬁrst show that f is bounded. Thus L ∈ [a. b]}. b] → R is continuous. which contradicts (1. it follows that it has a convergent subsequence (xnk )k∈N that converges to some limit L. (1. that is. Let M := sup{f (x)  x ∈ [a.12) and (1. d ∈ [a. But then for all k > K. then there exist c. b]. xnk < a. If f : [a.2.3.
but these values are not attained. 1] → R that is not continuous on [0. if the height of a mountain is 1976 meters above sea level. 4. 1]} = 1 = f (d). Let f : [a. 3.3. say 399. See Figure 1. 1]. Thus the statement of Theorem 1. x]} if x ∈ (a. Theorem 1. 2. 1). 1. 1)}. b].34 Chapter 1. (c) If f : [−1. This proves the existence of c ∈ [a. If S = {x  x ∈ (0. b] → R is continuous and y is such that f (a) ≤ y ≤ f (b). 1) → R given by f (x) = x is continuous on (0. b]}.3. and is left as an exercise to the reader. that is.4 Intermediate value theorem We now prove one of the most fundamental (and obvious!) theorems on continuous functions: a continuous function cannot “hop over” intermediate values. 2. (b) (∗) Prove that f∗ is continuous on [a. b] is replaced by (a. A function f : R → R is periodic if there exists a T > 0 such that for all x ∈ R. 1] → R is given by f (x) = x − x2 . b].3. (a) Show that f∗ is a welldeﬁned function. b] such that f (c) = y.12) holds. The function f : (0. b] such that (1. b). there must exist a point on the mountain that is exactly 399 meters above sea level. d ∈ [0. b]. If f : [a. If f : R → R is continuous and periodic. then sup S = 1 and inf S = 0. The function f : [0. For instance. Step 3. Let m := inf{f (x)  x ∈ [a. and deﬁne f∗ as follows: f∗ (x) = f (a) if x = a. . 1] → R given by f (x) = 1 for all x ∈ [0.4. Analysis from the Sandwich theorem that f (c) = M . then given any number between 0 and 1976.4 does not hold if [a. Give an example of a function f : [0. then prove that f is bounded. but f satisﬁes the conclusion of Theorem 1. 1. 1] is continuous and for any c. b] such that f (d) = m is similar to Step 2 above. ♦ Exercises. The proof that there exists a d ∈ [a. 1]} = inf{f (x)  x ∈ [0. Complete the details in Step 3 of the proof of Theorem 1.5 (Intermediate value theorem). Examples. f (x + T ) = f (x).4.13. max{f (y)  y ∈ [a.3. 1] we have f (c) = 1 = sup{f (x)  x ∈ [0. then there exists a c ∈ [a. then ﬁnd f∗ . the set S = {f (x)  x ∈ R} is bounded. b] → R be continuous on [a.3. 1.
. Then x ∈ [a. then replace δ by δ N with N ∈ N large enough to guarantee δ c−a < N.5 to the continuous function −f (Theorem 1.3. 2 a≤ Furthermore. Thus we have y − f (c) ≤ f (x) − f (c) ≤ f (x) − f (c) < y − f (c). b] such that x − c < δ. Thus we obtain c≤x =c− a contradiction.3. 2 Hence f (c) − f (x) ≤ f (c) − f (x) = f (x) − f (c) < f (c) − y. we get the existence of c ∈ [a. b]  y ≤ f (x)}.1 with α = −1!). 8 If δ < c. Suppose that our claim is false. say c. c] ⊂ [a. 0 ≤ x − c = x − c < δ and y ≤ f (x). f (x) − f (c) < y − f (c).3. we have c ≤ x. Indeed. ∃δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ [a. then we have (−f )(a) ≤ −y ≤ (−f )(b). a contradiction. and applying the above Theorem 1. Proof Suppose that f (a) ≤ y ≤ f (b). ∃δ > 0 and moreover satisfying8 δ ≤ c − a . and so f (x) ≥ y. 1◦ Suppose that f (c) < y. ∃x ∈ S such that c ≤ x < c + δ. and since f is continuous at c. that is. x ∈ [a. x ∈ S and since c = inf S. Thus S has an inﬁmum. Note that in the above statement of the theorem. and deﬁne S = {x ∈ [a. that is. We claim that f (c) = y. b] such that (−f )(c) = −y. Consequently. 2 not. the order f (a) ≤ y ≤ f (b) can be reversed without changing the conclusion. and since f is continuous at c. Thus := f (c) − y > 0. b]. 2 2 δ 2 = δ < δ. Since c is the inﬁmum of S. b] such that x − c < δ. f (c) = y. Let x := c − δ . Continuity 35 f PSfrag replacements(b) y f (a) a c b Figure 1. 2◦ Suppose that f (c) > y.13: Intermediate value theorem. Then either f (c) < y or f (c) > y. x − c = c − x = c − c − c+a δ ≤ c − ≤ c ≤ b.1. f (x) − f (c) < y − f (c). if y ∈ R is such that f (b) ≤ y ≤ f (a). b]: indeed. such that for all x ∈ [a. S is not empty (since b ∈ S) and S is bounded below by a (since S ⊂ [a. Thus := y − f (c) > 0.3. b]).
Suppose that p is a polynomial with degree 2m + 1. Every odd polynomial with real coeﬃcients has at least one real root. The proof is long. 2m+1 n 2 Now we show that for n > N1 . that is. 1. N ]. Since a2m+1 = 0. n2m+1 n 2 2 a2m+1 p(n) < < 0. 2 n Thus p(n) is also positive for all n > N1 . p(−n) has the same sign as −a2m+1 . then for all n > N1 a2m+1  p(n) a2m+1 p(n) − a2m+1 ≤ 2m+1 − a2m+1 < =− . using the fact that n→∞ we now show that there exists N2 ∈ N such that for all n > N2 . we will choose a large enough N ∈ N such that p(N ) and p(−N ) have opposite signs. lim a1 a2m a0 + +··· + 2m+1 2m (−n) (−n) (−n) = 0. For large positive n. So it follows that for n > N1 . Analysis In order to show that p has a real root. Similarly. Step 2. Let p(x) = a0 + a1 x + · · · + a2m x2m + a2m+1 x2m+1 . n2m+1 2 Thus p(n) is also negative for all n > N1 . p(c) = 0. p(n) has the same sign as a2m+1 . If a2m+1 > 0. For large positive n. p(n) has the same sign as a2m+1 . then for all n > N1 a2m+1 − and so p(n) a2m+1  p(n) a2m+1 p(n) ≤ a2m+1 − 2m+1 = 2m+1 − a2m+1 < = . Then appealing to the intermediate value theorem. N ]. for some real c ∈ [−N. +···+ 2m n n it follows that there exists N1 ∈ N such that for all n > N1 . Examples. Let N2 ∈ N be such that for all n > N2 . and so Similarly. where a2m+1 = 0. n2m+1 n 2 . either a2m+1 > 0 or a2m+1 < 0. Chapter 1. and this completes the proof. if a2m+1 < 0. a1 a2m = 0. we can conclude that p must vanish at some point in this interval. and so we have divided it into a sequence of steps. n→∞ Since lim a0 2m+1 n + a2m+1  p(n) − a2m+1 < . p(−n) has the same sign as −a2m+1 .36 So f (c) = y. and then restrict our attention to an interval [−N. p(n) has the same sign as a2m+1 . p(−n) p(−n) a2m+1  + a2m+1 = − 2m+1 − a2m+1 < . m ∈ N ∪ {0}. 2m+1 n n n 2 2 0< p(n) a2m+1 < 2m+1 . Step 1.
Continuity 37 If a2m+1 > 0. p(−n) has the same sign as −a2m+1 . 1] such that f (c) = c. Application of the intermediate value theorem and the conclusion. So it follows that for n > N2 .1. (Note that Θ(0) = Θ(2π). . Suppose that f : [0.14. it follows that f must vanish at some point. At any given time. n2m+1 2 Thus p(−n) is negative for all n > N2 . See Figure 1. If f (0) = 0. by the intermediate value theorem. then for all n > N2 a2m+1  p(−n) a2m+1 p(−n) + a2m+1 ≤ 2m+1 + a2m+1 < = . and use the intermediate value theorem.) Assuming that Θ is a continuous function of Θ. and so the claim follows. 1.3. while p(−N ) has the same sign as −a2m+1 . then p(N ) has the same sign as a2m+1 . 1]: indeed p(1) = 1 and p(−1) = −2 + 399 < 0 and so ∃c ∈ [−1. then it follows that the temperatures at 0 and 180◦ longitude are the same. 1] → R is a continuous function such that for all x ∈ [0. If f (0) = 0. Prove that there exists at least one c ∈ [0. 2m+1 n 2 Thus p(−n) is positive for all n > N2 .14: The point on the equator with longitude Θ. 1]. Step 3. 1 399 >0 2. there exists a pair of diametrically opposite points on the equator which have the same temperature. then since f (0) and f (π) = −f (0) have opposite signs. N2 } + 1. n2m+1 n 2 2 p(−n) a2m+1 <− < 0. 1] such that p(c) = 0. Hence if N := max{N1 . 2m+1 n n 2 2 and so a2m+1 p(−n) >− > 0. if a2m+1 < 0. it follows that Θ PSfrag replacements Figure 1. Let T (Θ) denote the surface temperature at the point at longitude Θ. Similarly. N ]. then for all n > N2 − and so p(−n) p(−n) a2m+1 a2m+1  − a2m+1 ≤ 2m+1 + a2m+1 < =− . 1 The polynomial p(x) = x2005 − x1976 + 399 has a real root in [−1. Hint: Consider the continuous function g(x) = f (x) − x. 0 ≤ f (x) ≤ 1. ♦ Exercises. the function f : [0. π] → R deﬁned by f (Θ) = T (Θ) − T (Θ + π) is continuous as well. Thus the continuous function p must vanish a some point in the interval [−N.
38
Chapter 1. Analysis
2. At 8:00 a.m. on Saturday, a hiker begins walking up the side of a mountain to his weekend campsite. On Sunday morning at 8:00 a.m., he walks back down the mountain along the same trail. It takes him one hour to walk up, but only half an hour to walk down. At some point on his way down, he realizes that he was at the same spot at exactly the same time on Saturday. Prove that he is right. Hint: Let u(t) and d(t) be the position functions for the walks up and down, and apply the intermediate value theorem to f (t) = u(t) − d(t). 3. Show that the polynomial function p(x) = 2x3 − 5x2 − 10x + 5 has a real root in the interval [−1, 2]. 4. Let f : R → R be continuous. If S := {f (x)  x ∈ R} is neither bounded above nor bounded below, prove that S = R. Hint: If y ∈ R, then since S is neither bounded above nor bounded below, there exist x0 , x1 ∈ R such that f (x0 ) < y < f (x1 ). 5. (a) (∗) Show that given any continuous function f : R → R, there exists a x0 ∈ [0, 1] and a m ∈ Z such that f (x0 ) = mx0 . In other words, the graph of f intersects some line y = mx at some point x0 in [0, 1]. Hint: If f (0) = 0, take x0 = 0 and any m ∈ Z. If f (0) > 0, then choose N ∈ N satisfying N > f (1), and apply the intermediate value theorem to the continuous function g(x) = f (x) − N x on the interval [0, 1]. If f (0) < 0, then ﬁrst choose a N ∈ N such that N > −f (1), and consider the function g(x) = f (x) + N x, and proceed in a similar manner. (b) (∗) Prove that there does not exist a continuous function f : R → R such that assumes rational values at irrational numbers, and irrational values at rational numbers, that is, f (Q) ⊂ R \ Q and f (R \ Q) ⊂ Q. Hint: Note that for every m ∈ Z, there does not exist a x0 ∈ R such that f (x0 ) = mx0 .
Chapter 2
Algebra
In this part of the course, we study two important algebraic objects: groups and vector spaces. We begin with a discussion about groups.
2.1
Groups
In this section, we study one of the most basic algebraic objects, namely a group. A group is a set on which a law of composition is deﬁned, such that certain properties hold. The precise deﬁnition is given in the next subsection.
2.1.1
Deﬁnition of a Group
By a law of composition on a set S, we mean a rule for combining pairs a, b of S to get another element, say c, of S. We denote the set of all ordered pairs of elements from a set S by S × S, that is, S × S = {(a, b)  a, b ∈ S}. Deﬁnition. A law of composition on a set S is a function f : S × S → S. The functional notation c = f (a, b) is not very convenient for what is going to follow, and so instead, the element obtained by applying the law of composition to a pair (a, b) is usually denoted using a notation resembling that used for addition or multiplication: c = a ∗ b, or ab, or a ◦ b, or a + b and so on,
with a ﬁxed choice being made for the particular law in question. Examples. 1. The addition of integers is a law of composition on Z. Indeed, the sum of two integers is yet another integer, and addition is the function from the set Z × Z to the set Z that assigns a + b to the pair (a, b), denoted by (a, b) → a + b. 2. The multiplication of real numbers is a law of composition on R. 39
40
Chapter 2. Algebra
3. If a, b are rational numbers, then let a ∗ b = a + b − ab. The function from Q × Q to Q given by (a, b) → a ∗ b is a law of composition on Q. √ a 4. If a, b are real numbers, then deﬁne a ∗ b = √ 2 + b2 . Then (a, b) → a ∗ b is not a law of composition on Q, since 1 ∈ Q, but 1 ∗ 1 = 2 ∈ Q. However, (a, b) → a ∗ b is a law of composition on R. 5. Let n ∈ N, and let S denote the set of all matrices of size n × n with real entries. Then matrix multiplication is a law of composition on S. 6. Let n ∈ N, and let GL(n, R) denote the set of all invertible matrices of size n × n with real entries. Then matrix multiplication is a law of composition on GL(n, R). Indeed, if A, B ∈ GL(n, R), then the matrix AB is again a matrix of size n × n with real entries, and moreover, since A and B are invertible, it follows that AB is also invertible. 7. Let a, b be real numbers such that a < b. Let C[a, b] denote the set of all continuous functions on the interval [a, b]. Let addition of functions be deﬁned as follows: if f, g belong to C[a, b], then (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x), x ∈ [a, b]. Then addition of functions is a law of composition on C[a, b], since the sum of continuous functions is again continuous; see Theorem 1.3.3. 8. If a, b ∈ N, then let a∗b= a . b
1 2
∗ is not a law of composition on N, since 1 ∗ 2 =
∈ N.
♦
On a set there may be several diﬀerent laws of compositions that can be deﬁned. Some laws of compositions are nicer than others, that is, they possess some desirable properties. A group is a set G together with a law of composition on G that has three such desirable properties, and we give the deﬁnition below. Deﬁnition. A group is a set G together with a law of composition (a, b) → a ∗ b : G × G → G, which has the following properties: G1. (Associativity.) For all a, b, c ∈ G, (a ∗ b) ∗ c = a ∗ (b ∗ c). G2. (Identity.) There exists an element1 e ∈ G such that for all a ∈ G, a ∗ e = a = e ∗ a. G3. (Inverses.) For every a ∈ G, there exists an element2 a−1 ∈ G such that a∗a−1 = e = a−1 ∗a. G1, G2, G3 are called group axioms. Sometimes we use the notation (G, ∗) for the group. Remarks. Note that hidden in the deﬁnition of a group, is the following axiom G0: G0. For all a, b ∈ G, a ∗ b ∈ G. (That is, ∗ is actually a law of composition on G.) Hence when checking that a certain set G is a group with respect to a certain operation ∗ that combines pairs of elements from G, we have to check, ﬁrst of all, that for every a, b ∈ G, a ∗ b belongs to G.
1 Such 2 depending
an element e is called an identity element of the group G. on a, and such an element a−1 is called an inverse of the element a in the group G.
since matrix multiplication is associative. (AB)C = A(BC). Z with addition is a group. Let a. This group is called the general linear group. Indeed. matrix multiplication is a law of composition on GL(n. For all f. Indeed. G2. . If A ∈ GL(n. b. 0 1 . R with multiplication is a not a group. So there is no inverse of the element 0 ∈ R. now in each case G3 also holds. . 4. then −a ∈ Z and a + (−a) = 0 = −a + a. and moreover. AIn = A = In A. 2.. G3. and so it belongs to GL(n. . Indeed. . and let GL(n. or the set of positive real numbers are both groups with multiplication. serves as an identity element. G2. g. and so. 1 G3. Indeed. R). Let n ∈ N.1. In is an invertible matrix of size n × n with real entries. we should have 1e = 1. . Then GL(n. However. B. but the group axiom G3 does not hold: G1. And so if e is an identity element. but for all a−1 ∈ R. . . b] is a group with addition of functions. 3. 0 0 . Groups 41 Examples.. R).. although the multiplication of real numbers is a law of composition on R that satisﬁes G1 and G2. R) is group with matrix multiplication. since 0 ∈ R. then it must be equal to 1!) 1 serves as an identity element: for all a ∈ R. For all a. C ∈ GL(n. c ∈ Z. then we must have ae = a = ea for all a ∈ R. and so there exists a matrix A−1 such that AA−1 = In = A−1 A. . h ∈ C[a. G3. For all a. (ab)c = a(bc). the set of nonzero real numbers. with a = 1.. Then C[a. then A is an invertible matrix. R). the addition of functions is a law of composition on C[a. b] we have (f + (g + h))(x) = f (x) + (g + h)(x) = f (x) + (g(x) + h(x)) = (f (x) + g(x)) + h(x) (since addition is associative in R!) = (f + g)(x) + h(x) = ((f + g) + h)(x). and in particular.. R) and serves as an inverse of A. R) that satisﬁes the group axioms: G2.2. a1 = a = 1a.. b] that satisﬁes the group axioms: G1. 1. (If e is an identity element. Hence f + (g + h) = (f + g) + h. c ∈ R. If a ∈ Z. since in addition to G1 and G2. 0a−1 = a−1 0 = 0 = 1 = e. The identity matrix G1.. R) denote the set of all invertible matrices of size n × n with real entries. for all A ∈ GL(n. and any x ∈ [a. R). . e = 1. b. b]. the addition of integers is a law of composition on Z that satisﬁes the group axioms: G1. . The matrix A−1 ∈ GL(n. a + 0 = a = 0 + a. For all A. b be real numbers such that a < b. 0 serves as an identity element: for all a ∈ Z. . Does not hold. In = 1 0 . (a + b) + c = a + (b + c). 0 0 .
while the group in Example 3 (with n = 2) does not satisfy G4: 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 = 2 1 1 1 = 1 1 1 2 = 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 . The set of integers Z with addition is an abelian group. for x ∈ [a. b ∈ G. ♦ This gives rise to the following natural deﬁnition. We note that the groups in the above Examples 1 and 4. a ∗ b = b ∗ a . G3. for all f ∈ C[a. If f ∈ C[a. Hence f + (−f ) = 0 = −f + f . we have for all x ∈ [a. 0 is a continuous function on [a. b]. m ∈ N. b] and so 0 ∈ C[a.42 Chapter 2. b]. Moreover. R) with matrix multiplication is a group. Deﬁnition.) For all a. ♦ 3 after the Norwegian mathematician Abel . b]. a ∗ b = b ∗ a. Let n. we have for all x ∈ [a. The set matrices Rn×m of size n × m with entries in R with matrix addition is an abelian group. Let n ∈ N. also satisfy G4. serves as an identity element. but it is not an abelian group if n > 1. 1. A group (G. 4. b]: (f + (−f ))(x) = f (x) + (−f )(x) = f (x) + (−f (x)) = 0 = 0(x) = 0 = −f (x) + f (x) = (−f )(x) + f (x) = (−f + f )(x). Hence f + 0 = f = 0 + f . b]: (f + 0)(x) = f (x) + 0(x) = f (x) + 0 = f (x) (since 0 is an identity element for addition in R!) = 0 + f (x) = 0(x) + f (x) = (0 + f )(x). 3. Algebra G2. The set GL(n. Given f ∈ C[a. then deﬁne −f by (−f )(x) = −f (x). Examples. b ∈ G. b]. b]. The set of positive real numbers with multiplication is an abelian group. 2. b]. ∗) is said to be abelian3 if for all a. The constant function 0 deﬁned by 0(x) = 0 for all x ∈ [a. (Commutativity.
Proof Let the group have the identity e. A group (G. since e ∈ G and e is an identity. and so it follows that In − BA is invertible. 1} with multiplication is a ﬁnite group of order 2. Example. it is easy to check that (In − BA)(In + B(In − AB)−1 A) = In = (In + B(In − AB)−1 A)(In − BA).1. ∗). and (In − BA)−1 = In + B(In − AB)−1 A. Moreover. if the set G has ﬁnite cardinality. e = e . Since e ∈ G and e is an identity.2.2 Let (G. The order of a ﬁnite group (G. ∗) is said to be ﬁnite. The set Z with addition is an inﬁnite group.1. then we have a1 = a1 ∗ e (since a1 ∈ G and e is the identity) = a1 ∗ (a ∗ a2 ) (since a2 is an inverse of a) = (a1 ∗ a) ∗ a2 (associativity) = e ∗ a2 (since a1 is an inverse of a) = a2 (since a2 ∈ G and e is the identity). ♦ A ﬁnite group can be completely described by writing its group table.1 There is a unique identity element in a group. R). Proof Let e and e be identity elements in (G. A group is said to be inﬁnite if it is not ﬁnite. Examples. This is a table that displays the law of composition as follows: the elements of the group are listed in the ﬁrst row and the ﬁrst column. 1. we also have e∗e =e. the element a ∗ b is entered in the row corresponding to a and the column corresponding to b. as shown below. then In − BA is also invertible. ∗) is the cardinality of G.1. If a1 and a2 are inverses of a. we obtain e=e∗e. The set {−1. Theorem 2. If A. b ∈ G. Theorem 2. . ♦ Deﬁnitions. and then given a. it follows that (In − BA)−1 = In + B(In − AB)−1 A. Indeed. By the uniqueness of the inverse of the element In − BA in the group GL(n. Then a has a unique inverse. ∗) be a group and let a ∈ G. Groups 43 We now prove a few elementary theorems concerning groups. B are matrices of size n × n with real entries and In − AB is invertible. 2. Consequently.
. 1. . . then any r ∈ {1. . . . 1 · (−1) = −1. b ∈ G. .. (b) What is the order of Sn ? (c) If n = 3. (a) Show that if a. 1} with multiplication can be described by the group table given below. with addition modulo 6 is a group. .. 3. 2. Example. . Show that S with the operation of matrix multiplication forms a group. (b) Show that if a. we consider the set Z∗ of 6 nonzero integers modulo 6. and let Z∗ denote the set of nonzero integers m modulo m. The identity element is simply the identity map ι : {1. 3} such that f ◦ g = g ◦ f . . 3. while the inverse of an element f ∈ Sn is simply the inverse of that bijection.44 ∗ . give examples of bijections f and g on {1. instead. (a) Show that the set Z6 of integers modulo 6. . then is Z∗ a group with multiplication modulo 6? 6 (c) (∗) Let m be an integer such that m ≥ 2. b. ♦ Exercises. . . and so there exist integers s and t such that sm + tr = 1. The ﬁnite group {−1. m − 1} is coprime to m.. 2. Write down its group table. Prove that the set Sn with the composition of functions is a group. 3. . Chapter 2. 3. then (a ∗ b)−1 = b−1 ∗ a−1 . b a∗b . . . n}. Consider the set S= a b −b a a. . let Sn be the set of all bijections from the set {1. . (b) Is Z6 with multiplication modulo 6 also a group? If. b ∈ R and a2 + b2 = 0 . 2. 3. . 2. c ∈ G are such that a ∗ b = a ∗ c. n} given by ι(m) = m for all m ∈ {1. 2.. n} → {1. . then the equation a ∗ x = b has a unique solution. This is called the symmetric group Sn . (d) (∗) Show that Sn is abelian iﬀ n ≤ 2. Let (G. Prove that Z∗ is a group with multiplication modulo m iﬀ m is a prime m number. n} onto itself. · 1 −1 1 1 −1 −1 −1 1 The table completely describes the law of composition: 1 · 1 = 1. . 2. −1 · 1 = −1 and −1 · (−1) = 1. 4. Algebra We clarify this further by considering a simple example. . (a) Given n ∈ N. and composition of functions on a set is also associative. (c) Show that if a. Hint: Composition of bijections is again a bijection. . then b = c. Hint: If m is a prime number. a . b ∈ G. . . . ∗) be a group.
which is called the induced law of composition. is a group. then a−1 ∈ H. c ∈ H. Indeed. a ∗ e = a = e ∗ a. then {e} and G are both subgroups of G. has an identity element. Thus for all a ∈ H. H3. −2m = 2(−m) is even as well (and so H3 holds). H2. Indeed the identity element from G (which also belongs to H) serves as the identity element also in H: for every a ∈ H. namely. b ∈ H. H3.1. (Closure) If a. the function from H × H to H given by (a. A subset H of a group G is called a subgroup of G. which in turn is a subgroup of the group of real numbers with addition (R. 0 is even (and so H2 holds). b) → a ∗ b.2. H3 imply that the subset H. b. if it has the following properties: H1. the sum of even numbers is even (and so H1 holds). 4. Examples. Indeed. given any two symmetric matrices a b b d and a b b d . Thus. If G is a group with identity e. This shows that H. (Inverses) If a ∈ H. with the induced law of composition. +). Of course.2 Subgroups Deﬁnition. and ﬁnally. then a ∗ b ∈ H. But now H3 says that this inverse element is in H. The group of integers with addition (Z. and this is explained as follows: H1. 3. +) is a subgroup of the group of rational numbers with addition (Q. b. with the induced law of composition. we already knew that a possesses an inverse element a −1 ∈ G. it follows that the induced law of composition is associative as well: for all a. These conditions ensure that H is itself a group which is contained in the group G. d ∈ R with real entries is a subgroup of the set of all 2 × 2 matrices having real entries with matrix addition. given the even number 2m.1. The subset of even integers {2m  m ∈ Z} is a subgroup of the group of integers Z with addition. 2. +). ∃a−1 ∈ H such that a ∗ a−1 = e = a−1 ∗ a. H2. namely a b b d a. since G is a group. Finally this shows that every element in H possesses an inverse element in H. This condition tells us that the law of composition ∗ on the group G can be used to deﬁne a law of composition on H. (Identity) e ∈ H. H2. Thus the conditions H1. a subgroup is itself a group which sits in a larger group. a ∗ (b ∗ c) = (a ∗ b) ∗ c. The subset of symmetric matrices of size 2 × 2. . 1. Since ∗ is associative. Groups 45 2.
then H is abelian. U T (2. 1. The subset of upper triangular invertible matrices. (b) The odd integers form a subgroup of Z with addition. Algebra a b b d + a b b d = a+a b+b b+b d+d is also symmetric. if a b 0 d then a b 0 d a 0 b d .46 their sum Chapter 2. b. Clearly the identity element 0 0 0 0 is symmetric. Finally. What is H ∩ K? . R). R). b d is the element −a −b −b −d which is also symmetric. (a) The nonnegative integers form a subgroup of Z with addition. ♦ Exercises. Is there an inﬁnite group with a ﬁnite subgroup? 3. 5. and so H1 holds. (c) If G is abelian and H is a subgroup of G. 2. R). Suppose that H is the subgroup of Z comprising multiples of 4. R). and so H2 also holds. Finally. and so H2 also holds. Indeed. (a) Consider the group of integers Z with addition. a 0 b d aa 0 ∈ U T (2. R) = a b 0 d a. and let K be the subgroup of Z comprising multiples of 6. if a b 0 d ∈ U T (2. d ∈ R and ad = 0 is a subgroup of the group GL(2. Clearly ∈ U T (2. and so H3 holds. R) with matrix multiplication. then a b 0 d −1 = 0 1 a b − ad 1 d ∈ U T (2. and so H1 holds. R). Determine if the following statements are TRUE or FALSE. ab + bd dd = 1 0 0 1 ∈ U T (2. the inverse (with respect to matrix addition) of any symmetric matrix a b .
g belong to C[0. then determine Z(G). 0 1 1 1 (a) Let H1 = {f ∈ C[0. Let G be a group and suppose that a ∈ G. 5. (b) Let H2 denote the set of all polynomial functions. 1 0 ♦ . 0 1 0 0 is an element of order 3 in the group GL(3. If a has ﬁnite order. 1]  f 1 2 = 0}. for all x ∈ [0. Let G be a group and let a ∈ G. then show that H ∩ K is also a subgroup of G. (a) Show that Z(G) is not empty. The element 2 has 0 3. n ∈ Z.2. 2. The element −1 has order 2 in the group of nonzero real numbers with multiplication. If there exists an m ∈ N such that am = e. (Exercise!) Deﬁnitions. Let G be a group. 1] denote the group comprising the set of continuous functions on the interval [0. . (b) If G is abelian. Let C[0. R). z ∗ a = a ∗ z}. then the order of a. the set of all functions p : [0. 3. Examples. 1]. (d) (∗) If G is the group GL(2. am ∗ an = am+n and amn = (am )n . 1]. 1 1 1 0 Hint: Take a = . Prove that H1 is a subgroup of C[0. an such that p(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + · · · + an xn . 1] → R such that there exists an n ∈ N ∪ {0} and real numbers a0 . 1]. 1]. 1]. . a2 . then we deﬁne a−n = (an )−1 . (c) Show that Z(G) is a subgroup of G. denoted by ord(a). 1. It can be shown that the usual laws of exponents hold: for all m. then determine Z(G). (f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x). then for all x ∈ [0. Show that H2 is a subgroup of C[0. . then a is said to have ﬁnite order. The element 1 0 inﬁnite order in the group of integers with addition. . The center of G is the set Z(G) = {z ∈ G  ∀a ∈ G. Moreover. 1] with addition of functions deﬁned in the usual way: if f. if n ∈ N. is ord(a) = min{m ∈ N  am = e}. Groups 47 (b) If H and K are subgroups of a group G.1. then a is said to have inﬁnite order. We deﬁne a0 = e and an = an−1 ∗ a for n ∈ N. that is. . R) with matrix multiplication. If a does not have ﬁnite order. 4. 2. a1 . 1.
if n ∈ Z. Conversely. and n = q · m + r. . . H2. [2]. If a is an element with ﬁnite order m. . Exercises. . Clearly {e. am−1 } ⊂ a . Proof 1. a3 . . such that 0 ≤ r ≤ m − 1. then there exist integers q and r. . Such an element a is then called a generator of the group G. a3 . If G is a group and a ∈ G. . n ∈ Z. a3 . So an = aq·m+r = aq·m ∗ ar = (am )q ∗ ar = (e)q ∗ ar = e ∗ ar = ar ∈ {e. H3 hold. b in G. Is the group of integers with addition cyclic? What is a generator of this group? Is it unique? . H2. 5. −m ∈ Z and so (am )−1 = a−1·m = a−m ∈ a . a.3 Suppose that G is a group and a ∈ G. We prove that H1. a2 . 2. then a = {e. then consider the set S = {e. a. H1. 3. H3. . . which is at most equal to G. then show that for all m. a3 . The element [1] in the group Z5 with addition modulo 5 has ﬁnite order. the set of its powers form a subgroup of the group. [4]} is in fact the whole group. and use the pigeonhole principle. This example motivates the following deﬁnition. Algebra We now prove that given any element from a group. Hint: If a ∈ G. . Theorem 2. a. a. the orders of a ∗ b and b ∗ a are the same. then show that every element in the group has a ﬁnite order. 2. A group G is said to be cyclic if there exists an element a ∈ G such that G = a . Then: 1. am−1 }. . R).1. Given m. aG }. ∗).48 Chapter 2. . a2 . clearly m + n ∈ Z and so am ∗ an = am+n ∈ a . a2 . and for any a. a2 . So a is a subgroup of G. a is a subgroup of G. For any m ∈ Z. Deﬁnition. [1]. . am−1 }. [3]. If G is a ﬁnite group. and the subgroup [1] = {[0]. since [1] ⊕ [1] ⊕ [1] ⊕ [1] ⊕ [1] = [0]. Let a = {an  n ∈ Z}. n ∈ Z. 2. Prove that in any group (G. . e = a0 ∈ a . Determine the order of 1 1 −1 0 in the group GL(2. 4. . . am ∗an = am+n and (am )n = amn . 1.
ϕ(a−1 ) ∗ ϕ(a) = ϕ(a−1 ∗ a) = ϕ(e) = e and similarly. since for all 2 × 2 real matrices A. ∗ ) be groups. Theorem 2. 1] with addition. and 1 G be the group R with addition. then: 1. then (ϕ(a))−1 = ϕ(a−1 ). A homomorphism ϕ : G → G is a function such that for all a. 3. y. e = ϕ(e) = ϕ(a ∗ a−1 ) = ϕ(a) ∗ ϕ(a−1 ). and G be the group of nonzero real numbers with multiplication. ♦ Thus a homomorphism is a function between two groups that respects the law of composition. . 2. Indeed.1. In the next theorem we show that it preserves the identity element and the inverses of elements as well. ϕ(e) = e . and G be the set of positive reals with multiplication.2. Indeed. given by x → 2x . we obtain e = ϕ(e). G be groups and let ϕ : G → G be a group homomorphism. Then the function f → f 2 is a homomorphism. by the 2 2 2 deﬁnition of f + g. b ∈ G. Examples. If a ∈ G. Groups 49 2.1. and the trivial map ζ : G → G deﬁned by ζ(a) = e for all a ∈ G are homomorphisms.4 Let G be a group with identity e and G be a group with identity e . Let (G. is a homomorphism. Let G be the group C[0. ϕ(a ∗ b) = ϕ(a) ∗ ϕ(b). g are continuous functions on the interval [0. and so canceling ϕ(e) on both sides. Deﬁnitions. Let G be the group GL(2. then the identity map ι : G → G deﬁned by ι(a) = a for all a ∈ G. Next. Thus ϕ(a−1 ) ∗ ϕ(a) = e = ϕ(a) ∗ ϕ(a−1 ). Every group homomorphism ϕ determines two important subgroups: its image and its kernel. ∗) and (G . and by the uniqueness of the inverse of ϕ(a) in G . we have 2x+y = 2x 2y for all real x. The exponential function from G to G . Proof We have e ∗ ϕ(e) = ϕ(e) = ϕ(e ∗ e) = ϕ(e) ∗ ϕ(e). then (f + g) 1 = f 1 + g 1 . Let G be R with addition. B we have det(AB) = det(A) det(B). Then the determinant function det : G → G is a homomorphism. 1]. Let G. 1.3 Homomorphisms and isomorphisms Deﬁnition. if f. If ϕ : G → G is a homomorphism. R) with matrix multiplication. If G is a group. 1] of continuous functions on the interval [0. we obtain (ϕ(a))−1 = ϕ(a−1 ). 2.1. 4.
Then the determinant function det : G → G is a homomorphism. The image of this homomorphism is the whole group of nonzero reals: indeed. Hence ker(ϕ) is a subgroup of G. Finally. if a ∈ im(ϕ). Finally. since if a ∈ ker(ϕ). The kernel of ϕ is the set ker(ϕ) = {a ∈ G  ϕ(a) = e }. and H3 holds. Algebra 2. The image is the set of 2 all real numbers. Hence a −1 ∈ im(ϕ). G be groups and let ϕ : G → G be a group homomorphism. namely a∗b. 3. that is. since given any a ∈ R. given any real number a not equal to zero. b belong to ker(ϕ). and its kernel is the set of all continuous functions on the interval [0. Using Theorem 2. the constant function f (x) = a for all x ∈ [0. denoted by log2 y) such that y = 2log2 y . a ∗ b ∈ im(ϕ). it follows that e ∈ im(ϕ). We now also check that im(ϕ) is a subgroup of G . and so H1 holds. Chapter 2. we have that A := and det(A) = 1 · a − 0 · 0 = a. and 1 G be the group R with addition. Theorem 2.1. . Let G be R with addition. then ϕ(a ∗ b) = ϕ(a) ∗ ϕ(b) = e ∗ e = e . and G be the group of nonzero real numbers with multiplication. 1] of continuous functions on the interval [0. H3 holds. R). then there exist elements a. is a homomorphism with kernel the trivial subgroup comprising the element 0. Indeed if a. and f 1 = a.4. b belong to im(ϕ). 1. R) with matrix multiplication. R) = {A ∈ GL(2. Then the function f → f 2 is a homomorphism. there exists a unique real number (called the logarithm of y to the base 2. Thus H1 holds. ♦ 2 1 0 0 a ∈ GL(2. R). and we denote this subgroup by SL(2. 1] that have a root at 1 2 (for instance the straight line f (x) = x − 1 belongs to the kernel). and so a −1 = (ϕ(a))−1 = ϕ(a−1 ). ϕ(a∗b) = ϕ(a)∗ ϕ(b) = a ∗ b .5 Let G. ker(ϕ) is a subgroup of G. The image of ϕ is the set im(ϕ) = {a ∈ G  ∃a ∈ G such that ϕ(a) = a }. and so a−1 ∈ ker(ϕ).50 1. then ϕ(a−1 ) = (ϕ(a))−1 = (e )−1 = e . 2. Consequently. and the image is the whole group of positive reals with multiplication. Moreover. 1] is continuous. Examples. im(ϕ) is a subgroup of G . as ϕ(e) = e . we now prove the following result. Its kernel is the set of all invertible matrices with determinant equal to 1. Since ϕ(e) = e . R)  det(A) = 1}. 2. given by x → 2x .1. such that ϕ(a∗b) = a ∗ b . since it can be shown that given any y > 0. e ∈ ker(ϕ) and so H2 holds too. Then: 1. then there exists an a ∈ G such that ϕ(a) = a . If a . and G be the set of positive reals with multiplication. and it is called the special linear group: SL(2. So im(ϕ) is a subgroup of G . Let G be the group C[0. b in G such that ϕ(a) = a and ϕ(b) = b . Proof It is easy to check that ker(ϕ) is a subgroup of G. Let G be the group GL(2. The exponential function from G to G . and so there exists an element in G. 1] with addition.
1. given by x → 2x . 1. G be groups. there is no real diﬀerence between them. G be groups and let ϕ : G → G and ψ : G → G be group homomorphisms.2. If G is an abelian group. Let G be the subgroup of GL(2. and G be the set of positive reals with multiplication. Let G be R with addition. Let G. then ker(ϕ) is a normal subgroup of G. a ∈ G is a group homomorphism. The exponential function from G to G . given by 1 x 0 1 is an isomorphism. (a) Let G. We give a special name to such homomorphisms. Prove that the composition ψ ◦ ϕ : G → G deﬁned by (ψ ◦ ϕ)(a) = ψ(ϕ(a)). Exercises. → x. given by m → am . 5. (b) If a has inﬁnite order. G . 4. then b ∗ a ∗ b−1 ∈ N . 2. G are groups and ϕ : G → G is a homomorphism. then the identity function ι : G → G deﬁned by ι(a) = a for all a ∈ G is an isomorphism. Let G be a group and let a be an element of G. (a) Prove that the function from Z to a . given by a → a−1 is an isomorphism. G be groups and let ϕ : G → G be an isomorphism. R) comprising all matrices of the form 1 x . (b) Describe the kernel of ψ ◦ ϕ. A subgroup N of a group G is called a normal subgroup if for every a ∈ N and every b ∈ G. the homomorphism between the two groups was also bijective. in the sense that as far as algebraic properties go. then prove that it is an isomorphism. A homomorphism ϕ : G → G is said to be an isomorphism if it is bijective. 3. Let G. is a homomorphism from the group of integers Z with addition to the subgroup a . 2. Then the function from G to G . Let G be the group R with addition. 1. Examples. 3. Groups 51 In Example 1 above. then show that the function from G to G. Prove that if G. ♦ Isomorphisms are important because their existence between two groups means that the two groups are essentially the “same”. If G is a group. Deﬁnition. is an isomorphism. Prove that the inverse function ϕ−1 : G → G is also an isomorphism. . where 0 1 x ∈ R.
{4} form a partition of the {1. We know that the equivalence classes of an equivalence relation partition the set. and so aRc. 3}. the sets {1. E3.1). Thus bRa. aRa since e ∈ H and a = a ∗ e.1. . c in G. b. Since H is a subgroup. nonempty subsets of S. For example.1) c∗H a∗H =a ∗H PSfrag replacements (aRa ) Figure 2. Deﬁnition. Corollary 2. (Reﬂexivity) For all a ∈ G. form a partition of the set Z of all integers. Algebra 2. then the equivalence class of a.4 Cosets and Lagrange’s theorem Given a subgroup H of a group G. and h ∈ H. Since h1 . if aRb and bRc. E2. Then the left cosets of H partition the group G. deﬁne the relation R on G by aRb if b = a ∗ h for some h ∈ H. The two sets. namely the set {b ∈ G  aRb} = {b ∈ G  ∃h ∈ H such that b = a ∗ h} = {a ∗ h  h ∈ H}. b in G. we mean a subdivision of the set S into nonoverlapping subsets: S = union of disjoint. it follows that h−1 ∈ H. it follows that h1 ∗ h2 ∈ H. 3. 5}. of even integers. and of odd integers. If a ∈ G. is called a left coset of H. Let H be a subgroup of a group G. h2 in H such that b = a ∗ h1 and c = b ∗ h2 .52 Chapter 2. 4. {2. Then R is an equivalence relation: E1. (Recall that a by partition of a set S. h2 ∈ H and H is a subgroup.1: Distinct cosets partition the group. 2.1. then there exist elements h1 . and let R be the equivalence relation given by (2. and is denoted by a ∗ H. 5}. then there exists a h ∈ H such that b = a ∗ h and so b ∗ h−1 = a. if aRb. (Symmetry) For all a. (Transitivity) For all a.6 Let H be a subgroup of a group G. Hence we obtain c = b ∗ h2 = (a ∗ h1 ) ∗ h2 = a ∗ (h1 ∗ h2 ).) Hence we obtain the following result: G b∗H (2.
[5]} do form a partition of G: G = {[0]. with addition. and [1] ⊕ H = [3] ⊕ H = 5 ⊕ H = {[1].1. . . . . which we now denote by a ⊕ H are [0] ⊕ H = [2] ⊕ H = [4] ⊕ H = {[0]. . .1. Z6 . [3]. . 3. .6 says that if a ∗ H and b ∗ H have an element in common then they are equal. We now prove an important result concerning the order of a group G and the number of cosets of a subgroup H. . . we know that a ∗ H is the unique coset containing a. Examples. As with any equivalence relation. . The associated equivalence classes are called right cosets. 4. Since G is the union of the cosets of H.7 (Lagrange’s theorem) Let H be a subgroup of a ﬁnite group G. [3]. and since these cosets do not overlap. Note that in Example 1 above. .2. given by h → a ∗ h. One can also deﬁne the relation R on G by aR b if b = h ∗ a for some h ∈ H. In particular. . and so a ∗ H = b ∗ H iﬀ aRb. [3]. } = 3 + H = . [2]. we obtain the counting formula G = H · (number of cosets of H). Groups 53 Remarks. . . ♦ · · · = −2 + H = 0 + H = {2m  m ∈ Z} = {. 1. [4]} ∪ {[1]. [2]. 2. −3. −1. The left cosets. . In fact. [4]} and {[1]. which we now denote by a + H are · · · = −1 + H = 1 + H = {2m + 1  m ∈ Z} = {. Proof Note that there is a bijective function from the subgroup H to the coset a ∗ H. 0. −4. . [4]} ∩ {[1]. 3. [2]. −2. Corollary 2. diﬀerent notations may represent the same subset. . Theorem 2. [1]. and {[0]. . The notation a ∗ H denotes a certain subset of G. and let H be the subgroup [2] = {[0]. . and let H be the subgroup of even numbers {2m  m ∈ Z}. [3]. [5]} = {[0]. 2. . In particular the order of H (namely 3) divides the order of G (namely 6). 0. [5]} = ∅. [2]. Then the order of H divides the order of G.1. Consequently. . due to Lagrange. . . The left cosets. } do indeed partition the set of all integers. there are only two distinct cosets. . 2. −1. This is not a coincidence. [4]}. for h ∈ H. 1. −2. } and {. −4. . . −3. . each coset a ∗ H has the same number of elements as H does. Consider the group G of the integers modulo 6. [4]}. and G = 6 = 3 · 2 = H · (number of cosets of H). with addition modulo 6. [2]. 4. [5]}. Note that the cosets {. H divides G. . Note that the cosets {[0]. Consider the group G of the integers Z. [5]}. . [3]. . } = 2 + H = . [2]. 1. 1. [4]. 2.
1.1. (c) Any element of G can be represented by a point in the (x.9 If G is a group with prime order p. (b) (∗) Prove Fermat’s little theorem: for any integer a. Thus aG = am·k = (am )k = ek = e. Proof Let a have order m. Hint: Note that 2222 = 7 · 317 + 3. 4. Let H and K be subgroups of a group G of orders 3 and 5 respectively.3. Prove that H ∩ K = {e}. Exercise 1 on page 48. and so G is cyclic. Prove or disprove that the group S4 has an element of order 16. then for any a ∈ G. then (a ∗ H) ∩ (b ∗ H) = ∅. Hint: H ∩ K is a subgroup of H as well as K. then [a]p−1 = [1]. and let Z∗ denote the group of nonzero integers modulo p with p multiplication modulo p.1. then H has 4 elements. 4 By . Since m divides p. As G itself has order p. (c) If H is a subgroup of a ﬁnite group G. [a]p−1 = [1]. In particular aG = e. b ∈ G are such that a = b. it now follows that G = a . Hint: If a ∈ Z is not divisible by p. a is a subgroup of G. y ∈ R and x > 0 0 1 is a group with matrix multiplication. (a) Verify that x y x. Corollary 2. show that [55552222 ] = [32 ]. Proof If a = e. ap ≡ a(mod p). Hence p(ap−1 − 1). y)plane. (a) Let p be a prime. and so G = m · k for some k ∈ N. Algebra Corollary 2. so that in Z7 . (c) (∗) Show that 7 divides 22225555 + 55552222. Determine if the following statements are TRUE or FALSE. 1. 5. and from Theorem 2. then [a] = [0]. the left coset a ∗ H has the same number of elements as the right coset H ∗ a. it follows that  a  = m divides G. Show that if a is an integer such that a is not divisible by p. then G is cyclic. (b) Show that x 0 H= x ∈ R and x > 0 0 1 is a subgroup of G. 2. it follows that m = p. it follows that every element in a ﬁnite group has a ﬁnite order. (b) If H is a subgroup of G and a ∈ G is such that a ∗ H has 4 elements. The following theorem characterizes all groups whose order is a prime number. then a has order > 1. Now use the fact that [3]6 = [1] to conclude that [22225555 ] = [35 ]. [22225555] = [3]5555 . and so by part (5a) above. and so p(ap − a). (a) If H is a subgroup of G and a. G= 3. Proceeding in a similar manner. Then the order4 of a divides the order of G. Draw the partitions of the plane into left and into right cosets of H. and p is prime. Exercises. Hence we obtain [22225555 +55552222] = [35 +32 ] = [32 ·28] = [0]. and G = a for every a ∈ G \ {e}.54 Chapter 2.8 Let G be a ﬁnite group and let a ∈ G. say m.
2.2. For all v1 . . V3 and V4 are called the distributive laws. v + 0 = v = 0 + v. if α ∈ R and A = . αa1n . . 1 · v = v. +) is an abelian group. For every v ∈ V . . . amn αam1 . β ∈ R and all v ∈ V . For all α ∈ R and all v1 . 4. Let n. v2 ∈ V . . A vector space V is a set together with two functions. . ∈ Rn×m . v2 ∈ V . the zero vector is unique! a group. called a vector space.2) . such that (V. m ∈ N. For all v ∈ V . and any vector can be multiplied by an element from R so as to give a new vector. 3. We observe that since (V. The elements of a vector space are called vectors.1 Deﬁnition of a vector space Deﬁnition. there exists a unique6 element in V . (2. denoted by −v. V3. . αamn Then α · A ∈ Rn×m . V2. v1 + (v2 + v3 ) = (v1 + v2 ) + v3 . a1n αa11 . The set Rn×m of n × m matrices having real entries with matrix addition is an abelian group. and · : R × V → V . called scalar multiplication.2. There exists an element 0 ∈ V (called the5 zero vector) such that for all v ∈ V . α · (v1 + v2 ) = α · v1 + α · v2 . and moreover V1. . . called vector addition. β ∈ R and all v ∈ V . + : V × V → V . v1 + v2 = v2 + v1 . (α + β) · v = α · v + β · v. The precise deﬁnition is given in the next subsection. α · (β · v) = (αβ) · v. Vector spaces 55 2. V4 are satisﬁed: there is a unique identity element in a group. 1. +) is an abelian group. and the following hold: V1. For all v1 . Deﬁne scalar multiplication as follows: if α ∈ R and a11 . . every element has a unique inverse! 5 Since 6 In . For all α. For all α. . a vector space also has the following properties: 1. . V3. Roughly speaking it is a set of elements. Any two vectors can be “added”. V4. 2. am1 . . 2. . such that v + (−v) = 0 = −v + v. then α·A = . V2. resulting in a new vector. Examples.2 Vector spaces In this section we introduce a very important algebraic object. v3 ∈ V . v2 . . called “vectors”. . .
. . . . . . αamn + βamn αa11 . . . (α + β)a1n . . . . a1n 1a11 .56 V1. . . βam1 . . 1·A = 1· . . am1 . . . βam1 . . . . . . .. βamn a11 . a11 . . . α(βa1n ) . .. βa1n . . = + . . amn 1am1 . = α· . . = α· . . . . . a1n . amn = (αβ) · A. . .. a1n . . am1 . αam1 . . . then clearly a11 . . (α + β)am1 . (αβ)amn a11 . = A. . . a1n .. βa1n . . a1n . . . . . . . = . am1 . . . . . . . αamn a11 . β ∈ R and all A ∈ Rn×m . +β· .. 1amn am1 Chapter 2. βamn α(βa11 ) . . 1a1n a11 . . . (α + β) · A = (α + β) · . . . . amn βa11 . . α(βam1 ) . a1n . = α · β · . . . = .. . . amn (α + β)a11 . .. . amn . = . αam1 + βam1 . If A ∈ Rn×m . . = . αa1n + βa1n . am1 .. . V3. = . amn = α · A + β · A. am1 . . .. . αa1n βa11 .. Algebra . a1n . (αβ)am1 . . . . For all α. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . = . α · (β · A) a11 . α(βamn ) (αβ)a11 . = (αβ) · . .. (α + β)amn αa11 + βa11 . . . amn V2. . β ∈ R and all A ∈ Rn×m . (αβ)a1n .. . . . . am1 . . . . . . . . For all α. . . . . .
+ . . b]. . α(a11 + b11 ) . b1n . b]. . . . Let α.. . αa1n αb1n .2). bm1 amn . .. (2. bmn αamn + αbmn αb11 . bmn = α · A + β · B.. = α· . . . amn bm1 . = . α · (A + B) = α · . . V3. a1n b11 . αa11 + αb11 . . α(amn + bmn ) αa1n + αb1n .. . . Hence Rm×n is a vector space with matrix addition and with scalar multiplication deﬁned by (2. . β ∈ R and f ∈ C[a. . . . . . . .. For all x ∈ [a.. b]. . we have ((α + β) · f )(x) = (α + β)f (x) = αf (x) + βf (x) = (α · f )(x) + (β · f )(x) = (α · f + β · f )(x). +β· .3) Then α · f ∈ C[a. . . αam1 . amn + bmn b1n . For all x ∈ [a. . . am1 a11 + b11 . b]. b be real numbers with a < b. . . . . V3. b11 a1n . For all x ∈ [a.. . .. V2. If n = 1. αbmn a11 .2. . For all α ∈ R and all A. α(a1n + b1n ) . Vector spaces 57 V4. α(am1 + bm1 ) . b]. . . = . .. . Let scalar multiplication be deﬁned as follows: if α ∈ R and f ∈ C[a. . αam1 + αbm1 . then we denote the vector space of column vectors Rm×1 by Rm . . b] of continuous functions on the interval [a. B ∈ Rn×m . . b]. . β ∈ R and f ∈ C[a. a1n + b1n . . . b] with addition of functions is an abelian group. . = α· . we have (1 · f )(x) = 1f (x) = f (x). and so 1 · f = f . . .. 2. . . then (α · f )(x) = αf (x). am1 + bm1 αa11 . . = . x ∈ [a. . and moreover V1. b]. .. . b]. . Let f ∈ C[a. we have (α · (β · f ))(x) = α(β · f )(x) = α(βf (x)) = (αβ)f (x) = ((αβ) · f )(x). . . V2.2. αamn αbm1 . am1 .. Let α. . . . . . . . V4 are satisﬁed: V1.. The set C[a. Let a. . b].. . and so (α · (β · f ) = (αβ) · f . a11 . + .
α · 0 = 0. Hence (−1) · v is an inverse of v. and hence α · 0 = 0. For all α ∈ R. and which refer to the zero vector 0 ∈ V .2) a vector space? . and so (−1) · v = −v. Algebra V4. For all v ∈ V . g ∈ C[a. Chapter 2. 1. α · 0 + α · 0 = α · (0 + 0) = α · 0. 3. Exercises. Now add −(0 · v) on both sides. and so v + (−1) · v = 0 = (−1) · v + v. 2. (a) Is the set of invertible n × n matrices having real entries with matrix addition and with scalar multiplication deﬁned by (2. Proof Please go through the entire proof carefully. 3. Theorem 2. Similarly. we have (α · (f + g))(x) = α(f + g)(x) = α(f (x) + g(x)) = αf (x) + αg(x) = (α · f )(x) + (α · g)(x) = (α · f + α · g)(x). then (−1) · v = −v. we use the distributive law to write 0 · v + 0 · v = (0 + 0) · v = 0 · v. ♦ We now prove a few elementary properties of vector spaces. But the inverse of an element from a group is unique. To see this. For all x ∈ [a. Let α ∈ R and f. and so α · (f + g) = α · f + α · g. b]. b] with addition and scalar multiplication is a vector space.58 and so (α + β) · f = α · f + β · f . to obtain 0 · v = 0. b]. we have v + (−1) · v = 1 · v + (−1) · v (since 1 · v = v) = (1 + (−1)) · v (distributive law) = 0 · v (since 1 + (−1) = 0) = 0 (since 0 · v = 0).1 Let V be a vector space. Then the following hold: 1. 0 · v = 0. Hence C[a.2. If v ∈ V . Let n ∈ N. 2. 1. Finally. noting which symbols refer to the number 0 ∈ R.
Let V be a vector space. the entire vector space. that is U = V . If v ∈ U and α ∈ R. (∗) Consider the set R∞ of all sequences with addition deﬁned as follows: if (an )n∈N . d ∈ R . Premultiply both sides of α · v = 0 by α−1 . If a subspace U of V is neither {0} nor V .2. Examples. a subspace of a vector space is itself a vector space with the same addition and scalar multiplication as with V (this is easy to check). 2. S3. Also. If v1 .2.2. S2. So a subspace is really a smaller vector space sitting inside a larger vector space. namely U = {0}. is a subspace of V .5) (2. b. Hint: If α = 0. and scalar multiplication deﬁned as follows: if α ∈ R and (an )n∈N ∈ R∞ . A subset U is called a subspace of V if S1. then α−1 ∈ R.2). then either α = 0 or v = 0. then the subset U comprising only the zero vector. that is. Then the set of upper triangular matrices U1 = is a subspace of R2×2 . (bn )n∈N ∈ R∞ . 3. Subspaces of a vector space are just like subgroups of a group. Prove that R∞ is a vector space with the above addition and scalar multiplication. 0 ∈ U . then α · (an )n∈N = (αan )n∈N . then α · v ∈ U .4) 2. Let V be a vector space. Vector spaces 59 (b) Is the set of invertible n × n matrices having real entries with matrix multiplication and with scalar multiplication deﬁned by (2. Prove that if α ∈ R and v ∈ V are such that α · v = 0. v2 ∈ U .2) a vector space? 2. If V is a vector space.2 Subspaces and linear combinations Deﬁnition. Also. Consider the vector space R2×2 with matrix addition and scalar multiplication deﬁned by (2. a b b d a. (2. then it is called a proper subspace of V . d ∈ R a b 0 d a. b. then (an )n∈N + (bn )n∈N = (an + bn )n∈N . then v1 + v2 ∈ U . the set of symmetric matrices U2 = is a subspace of R2×2 . is a subspace of V . 1.
. . vn ∈ S. . . Let v ∈ S. . b ∈ R and a < b. v1 . . . . Then span(S) is the smallest subspace of V that contains S. . . 1. If v1 . x2 . . . is always a linear combination of a ﬁnite set of vectors from S. . . . 1 0 Hence span({v1 . . . ♦ Deﬁnitions. . Let a. b] in the vector space C[a. . 1. }. . The span of S. . . β1 . un . b ∈ R with a < b. . v ∈ span(S). a linear combination. ♦ The span of a set of vectors turns out to be a special subspace of the vector space. Consider the set of all polynomial functions P [a.2 Let V be a vector space and S be a nonempty subset of V . . denoted by span(S). . 1] with addition of functions and scalar multiplication deﬁned by (2. . . vm = . vm }) = Rm . . .60 3. 2. Proof We ﬁrst show that span(S) is a subspace of V . . . . b] Then U = P [a. . αn belong to R. . . . b] = p : [a. Any vector in the vector space Rm is a linear combination of the vectors 0 1 0 0 v1 = . a2 . αn . vn are vectors in V and α1 . α1 . x. is deﬁned as the set of all possible linear combinations7 of vectors from S: span(S) = {α1 · v1 + · · · + αn · vn  n ∈ N. . . b] → R Chapter 2. then the vector α1 · v1 + · · ·+ αn · vn is called a linear combination of the vectors v1 . . 7 Note that although S might be inﬁnite. βm ∈ R. . v1 . . b] is a subspace of the vector space C[0. b] is a linear combination of the functions from the set S = {1. . Algebra ∃n ∈ N ∪ {0} and a0 . vm ∈ S and scalars α1 . . vn . . . Any polynomial p on the interval [a. b]. a1 . Hence span(S) = P [a. Let a. . . Consequently.3). .2. . by deﬁnition. . 2. . . . then we know that u = α1 · u1 + · · · + αn · un and v = β1 · v1 + · · · + βm · vm for some vectors u1 . αn ∈ R}. u + v = α1 · u1 + · · · + αn · un + β1 · v1 + · · · + βm · vm ∈ span(S). . Let m ∈ N. Examples. Theorem 2. If u. . . an ∈ R such that p(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + · · · + an xn for all x ∈ [a. Then 0 = 0 · v ∈ span(S). . Let S be a nonempty subset of a vector space V . . Let V be a vector space.
♦ . The vectors 1 0 . . . and suppose that v1 . . . Examples. b]. . vn are called linearly dependent if they are not linearly independent. α · 1 + β · x = 0(x). 1. αn ∈ R. . . . 2. Let a. Vector spaces 61 Finally. b ∈ R with a < b. + · · · + αm · . and so for any β ∈ R. m v1 = if α1 · v1 + · · · + αm · vm = 0. = . The vectors v1 . . .2. αm 0 and so α1 = · · · = αm = 0. . An arbitrary subset S of vectors from V is said to be linearly independent if every nonempty ﬁnite set of vectors from S is an independent set of vectors. not all zeros. vm 3. Deﬁnitions. Hence span(S) is the smallest subspace of V containing S. x on the interval [a. αn ∈ R such that α1 · v1 + · · · + αn · vn = 0. . So span(S) satisﬁes S1. . then from S2 and S3 it follows that it certainly contains all linear combinations of vectors from S belong to U . vn are vectors that belong to V . 1. . vn ∈ V and vk = 0. . . Then any ﬁnite set of vectors from V containing the zero vector is linearly dependent. . . Let V be a vector space. An arbitrary subset S of vectors from V is said to be a linearly dependent if there exists a nonempty ﬁnite set of dependent vectors from S. The vectors v1 . The functions 1. vn ∈ S and scalars α1 . then v = 1 · v ∈ span(S). Indeed if v1 . it follows that α = β = 0. . . . . = . if v ∈ span(S). . . If U is another subspace that contains the vectors from S. we have α + βa = 0 and α + βb = 0. . .2. . . and so span(S) ⊂ U . . then we know that v = α1 · v1 + · · · + αn · vn for some v1 . 2. . Let V be a vector space. . . . . = α1 · . .S2. . then 0 0 . 0 0 1 . . Indeed 1 α1 0 . Indeed. . . vn are called linearly independent if the following condition holds: if ∃α1 . if for all x ∈ [a. . αn ∈ R. and since a = b. then in particular. . 0 1 are linearly independent in R . Thus span(S) contains S. then α1 = · · · = αn = 0. . and so S ⊂ span(S). .S3. . b] are linearly independent. and so it is a subspace of V . we have β ·v = β ·(α1 ·v1 +· · ·+αn ·vn ) = β ·(α1 ·v1 )+· · ·+β ·(αn ·vn ) = (βα1 )·v1 +· · ·+(βαn )·vn ∈ span(S). if v ∈ S. then 0 · v1 + · · · + 0 · vk−1 + 1 · vk + 0 · vk+1 + · · · + 0 · vn = 0. such that α1 · v1 + · · · + αn · vn = 0. ∃α1 . . . 0 0 . . that is. Moreover.
Show that S(y1 . v2 . respectively.5). Then a set of vectors B is said to be a basis of V if B1. 4. v2 . v3 .2. then v1 . 1 in the vector space R3 . v2 . 1 t2 = R2 is the set of all bounded sequences. 1] with addition of functions and scalar multiplication deﬁned by (2. v3 . . v3 are linearly dependent. t 3. Consider the vector space C[0. 1 0 1 (c) 2 ∈ span 3 . 1. v4 are linearly independent.4) and (2. Let V be a vector space. (c) c0 is the set of all convergent sequences with limit 0. Let S(y1 . then v1 . (f) If v1 . 3 are linearly independent in the vector space R3 . is the set of all sequences that are eventually zero. an = 0}. 2. y2 ) is a subspace of C[0. v2 . 1 Hint: Consider the inﬁnite subset S = t∈R .62 Exercises. We deﬁne the following subsets of R∞ : (a) ∞ 1 t1 .3 Basis of a vector space Deﬁnition. y2 ) = {f ∈ C[0. v4 are linearly dependent. v3 are linearly independent. 1] iﬀ y1 = 0 = y2 . (d) c00 = {(an )n∈N ∈ R∞  ∃N ∈ N such that ∀n > N. 0 1 1 (e) If v1 . Algebra (b) The intersection of two subspaces of a vector space V is a subspace of V . (b) (∗) Prove that R2 is not the union of a ﬁnite number of proper subspaces. (b) c is the set of all convergent sequences. and that each is a subspace of the next one. span(B) = V . B is linearly independent.3). 2 . and B2. then span in the vector space R2 . Chapter 2. 3 4 1 0 1 1 (d) The vectors 0 . with addition and scalar multiplication deﬁned by (2. Prove that c00 ⊂ c0 ⊂ c ⊂ ∞ ⊂ R∞ . (a) Prove that if t1 and t2 are distinct real numbers in R. Determine if the following statements are TRUE or FALSE: (a) The union of two subspaces of a vector space V is a subspace of V . 2. 1]  f (0) = y1 and f (1) = y2 }. (∗) Let R∞ be the vector space of all sequences.
the next result says that the cardinality of the basis is unique for any given vector space. . For k = 0. . . . So the spans of the sets Sk Sk+1 = {v1 .2. for k = n. . we obtain that Sn has n elements. vj−1 . This is proved as follows: we claim that for each k ∈ {0. 1.3 Let V be a vector space and B be a basis of V such that B has n elements. there is a set Sk with n elements such that it has n − k elements from B and the other k elements belong to S. Vector spaces 63 Example. . ur . 2◦ Hence there must exist an αj = 0. vn−k . . . . . there exist numbers α1 . . . . vn−k from B and the other k elements. . . . and the other elements (namely. . Hence by induction. say u1 . n − k − 1 of these belong to B. . .4 If a vector space V has a basis with n elements. . . and so Sn = S. Then any linearly independent set S of n vectors is also a basis of V . Sk+1 has n elements. . However. then we get that 1 · ur − β1 · u1 − · · · − βk · uk = 0. βk ∈ R such that ur = α1 · v1 + · · · + αn−k · vn−k + β1 · u1 + · · · + βk · uk . Then we have the following two cases: 1◦ If α1 = · · · = αn−k = 0. and such that span(Sn ) = V . vj . . . ur . Then S0 is a set with n elements such that it has n − 0 = n elements from B and the other 0 elements belong to S. . Now suppose that ur is an element from S such that it does not belong to {u1 . . αn−k . v1 = 1 0 . . β1 . We prove this claim by induction on k. . which contradicts the linear independence of S. such that 0 of these are in B. . vm = 0 0 . and since B is a basis. But S has n elements. 1 ♦ Theorem 2. Suppose that the claim is true for some k. 0 . . u1 . u1 .2. V = span(B) = span(S0 ). .2. . . . Thus span(S) = V . . . . uk . . uk ) belong to S. . there are of course many bases. . . Proof Suppose that B is a basis of V with n elements and suppose that B is another basis of V . and such that span(Sk ) = V .2. . . (Why?) Moreover. Since span(Sk ) = V . . . . . Corollary 2. Thus Sk is a set with n elements such that it has n − k elements v1 . The vectors form a basis of Rm . and such that span(Sk ) = V . belong to S. . . . u1 . vj+1 . vj−1 . we simply deﬁne S0 = B. uk }. . uk } are the same. vn−k . . . . vj+1 . then every basis of V has the same number of elements. . n}. uk }. Given a vector space. . So this case is not possible. Proof We simply prove that span(S) = V . . . and := {v1 . . . and the other n − 0 elements are in S. .
Algebra Let B have > n elements. 1. Let C[0. Prove that B is a basis for the vector space c00 . B is a basis for C[0. vn }. If B has < n elements. 1 1 0 0 is a basis for R3 . and so the constant function 1 should be a linear combination of the functions from B. then it is called an inﬁnite dimensional vector space. . then n is called the dimension of V . . it can be written as a linear combination of {v1 . then every element v ∈ V can be written as a unique linear combination of the vectors from B. Then take any n distinct elements v1 . Let V be a vector space. . . . and it is denoted by dim(V ). Prove that if B is a basis of a ﬁnite dimensional vector space V . Exercises. . . 1]. and let B = {ek  k ∈ N}. 3. . 1 . (b) (∗) Is B = {ek  k ∈ N} also a basis for the vector space R∞ ? Hint: Consider the constant sequence (1)n∈N . . say. and so if v ∈ B \ {v1 . then it is called a ﬁnite dimensional vector space. and all other terms equal to zero: ek = (an )n∈N . where an = 1 if n = k.3.2. Derive a contradiction. (a) (∗) For k ∈ N. Then by Theorem 2. vn }. we once again arrive at a contradiction. If a vector space is not ﬁnite dimensional. . From the previous theorem. (∗) Show that C[0. 1] be a ﬁnite dimensional vector space with dimension d. . 4. 1] is inﬁnite dimensional. x2 . . . . . it follows that these span V . 0 if n = k. . The above result motivates the following natural deﬁnitions. 3. . let ek denote the sequence with the kth term equal to 1. 1. If a vector space has a basis with a ﬁnite number of elements.64 Chapter 2. . xd } is linearly independent. which contradicts the independence of B . If there exists a basis B of V such that B has n elements. Hint: One can prove this by contradiction. Deﬁnition. then by interchanging the roles of B and B and proceeding as above. comprising all sequences that are eventually zero. First show that the set B = {x. Prove or disprove that 1 1 1 B = 0 . 2. 2. vn from B .
u2 ∈ U . xn y1 . Thus just like group homomorphisms that are functions that respect group operations. .2. . = TA . xn .6) k=1 = k=1 n (a1k xk + a1k yk ) . Indeed.. we have n x1 . A function T : U → V is called a linear transformation if it satisﬁes the following two properties: L1. . . L2. . Let U. . .2. .. . am1 . xn amk xk (2. ∈ Rm×n . ∈ Rn . . V be two vector spaces. T (u1 + u2 ) = T (u1 ) + T (u2 ). A . TA . am1 x1 + · · · + amn xn xn k=1 n k=1 a1k xk x1 . = TA = . T (α · u) = α · T (u). . . . = . Let m. . A= . amk yk a1k yk amk yk y1 . Vector spaces 65 2. yn x1 . +T . amk (xk + yk ) n k=1 n n a1k xk + . . amk xk n k=1 n a1k (xk + yk ) . For all u1 . . + . xn + y n = n k=1 n k=1 n a11 x1 + · · · + a1n xn x1 . Let Then the function TA : Rn → Rm deﬁned by a11 .. linear transformations are functions that respect vector space operations. + .4 Linear transformations Deﬁnition. yn x1 + y 1 . . and all α ∈ R. n ∈ N. . . For all u ∈ U . = = . a1n . TA . k=1 n amk xk + k=1 k=1 k=1 n k=1 k=1 a1k yk . .. . . Examples. for all . 1. . amn n is a linear transformation from the vector space Rn to the vector space Rm . . (amk xk + amk yk ) a1k xk .2.
xn and so L2 holds as well. . . . . Deﬁnitions. 2. ∈R . n . = . .66 for all Chapter 2. . . . 1] → R given by Tf = f 1 2 for all f ∈ C[0. . yn n x1 αx1 . . and so L1 holds. we have T (f + g) = (f + g) 1 2 =f 1 2 +g 1 2 = T (f ) + T (g). x1 . Algebra and so L1 holds. Moreover. there are two important subsets associated with a linear transformation between vector spaces. 1]. n amk xk amk αxk α k=1 n x1 . = T A . The function T : C[0. Thus T is a linear transformation. 1. 1]. . for all α ∈ R and all f ∈ C[0. The image of T is deﬁned to be the set im(T ) = {v ∈ V  ∃u ∈ U such that T (u) = v}. 2. for all f. . ∈ Rn . . . Hence TA is a linear transformation. . The kernel of T is deﬁned to be the set ker(T ) = {u ∈ U  T (u) = 0V }. whose deﬁnitions are given below. xn y1 . Indeed. 1] to the vector space R. ♦ and so L2 holds too. x1 . . 1]. = . where 0V denotes the zero vector in V . TA α · . V be vector spaces and T : U → V a linear transformation. = α · TA . . amk xk a1k xk a1k αxk α k=1 . Just as in the case of homomorphisms between groups. Furthermore T (α · f ) = (α · f ) 1 2 = αf 1 2 = αT (f ). xn is a linear transformation from the vector space C[0. g ∈ C[0. Let U. xn αxn = α· n k=1 n k=1 n k=1 k=1 for all α ∈ R and all vectors a1k xk .
= 0 . . .5 Let U.6). The range of T is the 2 whole vector space R.5 for homomorphisms between groups. Let A ∈ Rm×n . 1] → R given by T f = f 1 for all f ∈ C[0. The range of TA is the set of all vectors y1 . im(T ) is a subspace of V . x = . ym x1 . = ym . Theorem 2. with kernel equal to the set of continuous functions on the interval [0. 2. = 0 such that there exists a vector such that 2. ker(T ) is a subspace of U . ∈ Rn .2. is a linear transfor2 mation from the vector space C[0. y = . . x = . The kernel of the linear transformation is the set of all vectors x1 . 1] to the vector space R. ∈ Rm . S3 hold. V be vector spaces and T : U → V a linear transformation. . . xn such that the system of linear equations a11 x1 + · · · + a1n xn am1 x1 + · · · + amn xn is simultaneously satisﬁed. 1.2. S2. ∈ Rn . The function T : C[0. Proof In each of the cases. we now prove the following result. 1]. we check that S1. ♦ Analogous to Theorem 2. and let TA : Rn → Rm be the linear transformation deﬁned by (2. Then: 1. 1] that vanish at the point 1 . Vector spaces 67 Examples.1. xn a11 x1 + · · · + a1n xn am1 x1 + · · · + amn xn = y1 .2.
Since T (0U ) = 0V . Consider the vector space R2 with matrix addition and the usual scalar multiplication deﬁned by (2. Thus S1 holds. Consequently. If v1 . but not L1. that is. x2 Show that T satisﬁes L2. then there exist elements u1 . In each of the y cases. and so α · v = α · T (u) = T (α · u).68 Chapter 2. as T (0U ) = T (0U + 0U ) = T (0U ) + T (0U ). Indeed. and so there exists an element in U . then there exists a u ∈ U such that T (u) = v. Finally. Algebra Let 0U . and so S2 holds as well. then T (α · u) = α · T (u) = α · 0V = 0V . and S3 holds. it follows that 0V ∈ im(T ). if α ∈ R and v ∈ im(T ). (∗) Let c denote the vector space of all convergent sequences. We now also check that im(T ) is a subspace of V . respectively. Deﬁne the function T : R2 → R2 as follows: x2 1 x2 if x1 x2 = 0. . S3 holds. since if α ∈ R and u ∈ ker(T ). If u1 . for all sequences (an )n∈N ∈ c. Hence α · v ∈ im(T ). Hence ker(T ) is a subspace of U . x2 x1 x1 2 if ∈ R . where A ∈ R2×2 is given by: (a) A = (b) A = (c) A = Each vector 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 . Thus S2 holds. 2. and so 0U ∈ ker(T ). Exercises. V . it follows that T (0U ) = 0V . then T = x2 x2 x1 if x1 x2 = 0.2). and hence it is not a linear transformation. n→∞ (a) Prove that T is a linear transformation from the vector space c to the vector space R. draw a picture of the subspaces ker(TA ) and im(TA ) in the plane. v1 + v2 ∈ im(T ). 0V denote the zero vectors in the vector spaces U. u2 belong to ker(T ). Find the kernel and image of the linear transformations TA : R2 → R2 . y)plane. So im(T ) is a subspace of V. T (u1 + u2 ) = T (u1 ) + T (u2 ) = v1 + v2 . 1. Consider the function T : c → R given by T ((an )n∈N ) = lim an . x in R2 can be represented by a point in the (x. . namely u1 + u2 . then T (u1 + u2 ) = T (u1 ) + T (u2 ) = 0V + 0V = 0V . . and so S1 holds. 3. such that T (u1 + u2 ) = v1 + v2 . v2 belong to im(T ). u2 in U such that T (u1 ) = v1 and T (u2 ) = v2 . Finally. It is easy to check that ker(T ) is a subspace of U . (b) What is the kernel of T ? (c) Show that im(T ) = R.
inf S = 0 ∈ (0. First of all. min S does not exist since inf S = 0 ∈ S. since 1 is an upper bound of S. —————————————————————————————————————— Inﬁmum of S. then is inf S ∈ S? No. We prove that l ≤ 0. —————————————————————————————————————— Is S bounded? Yes. Hence l ≤ 0. max S = 1. 0 is a lower bound. 1] = S. sup S = 1. we have 0 < x. if u is also an upper bound. —————————————————————————————————————— A lower bound of S. Indeed. then 0 < 2 . 1]. —————————————————————————————————————— An upper bound of S. 1 is an upper bound. then we will see that l the average of 0 and l. —————————————————————————————————————— 69 . since for all x ∈ S = (0. But since l > 0. (a) S = (0. The contradiction is obtained as follows: if l > 0. S is also bounded below. since 0 is a lower bound. 1] = S. —————————————————————————————————————— Minimum of S. which is a contradiction to the deﬁnition of a lower bound!) If l > 0. —————————————————————————————————————— If inf S exists. then 1 ≤ u (since 1 ∈ S). we have x ≤ 1. it follows that 2 < l.Solutions Analysis Solutions to the exercises on page 6 1. 1]. it is bounded. inf S = 0. then is sup S ∈ S? Yes. l 1 Moreover. since l ≤ 1 (l is a lower bound of S and 1 ∈ S) it follows that 2 ≤ 2 ≤ 1. Let l be a lower bound of S. 0 is a lower bound. In fact any real number l ≤ 0 is a lower bound. S is bounded above. a contradiction. namely 2 . Since S is bounded above as well as bounded below. is an element in S that is less than the lower bound l l. since sup S = 1 ∈ S. —————————————————————————————————————— If sup S exists. —————————————————————————————————————— Maximum of S. sup S = 1 ∈ (0. 1 is an upper bound. (We do this by supposing that l > 0. l l Thus 2 ∈ S. In fact any real number u ≥ 1 is an upper bound. and moreover. 1]. —————————————————————————————————————— Supremum of S. and arriving at a contradiction. since for all x ∈ S = (0.
The contradiction is obtained as follows: if u < 1. —————————————————————————————————————— A lower bound of S. it follows that 1 l 1 l l l ≤ 2 . inf S = 0. and moreover. since for all x ∈ S = [0. 1 is an upper bound. 1] = S. sup S = 1. since for all x ∈ S = (0. . 1). —————————————————————————————————————— Maximum of S. since 2 ∈ S and l is a lower bound of S. 0 is a lower bound. 2 2 2 2 Hence u+1 ∈ S. 1 is a upper bound. If 1 l l > 0. then we will see that the average of u and 1. since for all x ∈ S = (0. Indeed. inf S = 0. sup S = 1 ∈ (0. First of all.70 (b) S = [0. So if u < 1. it 2 follows that 0 < u (since 0 < 1 ≤ u). We prove that l ≤ 0. —————————————————————————————————————— If sup S exists. Let l be a lower bound of S. —————————————————————————————————————— Is S bounded? Yes. 1) = S. Thus we have 0 < 2 < l ≤ 2 < 1. Indeed. —————————————————————————————————————— If sup S exists. 1). —————————————————————————————————————— A lower bound of S. inf S = 0 ∈ (0. and so 2 ∈ S. and moreover. x < 1. sup S = 1 ∈ [0. then is sup S ∈ S? Yes. which is a contradiction to the deﬁnition of an upper bound!) Since u is an upper bound and since 1 ∈ S. since for all x ∈ S = (0. —————————————————————————————————————— An upper bound of S. —————————————————————————————————————— Inﬁmum of S. 1]. 1]. 0 is a lower bound. then 0 < u = u+u < u+1 < 1+1 = 1. (We do this by supposing that u < 1 and arriving at a contradiction. namely u+1 2 . 2 2 —————————————————————————————————————— Inﬁmum of S. we have x ≤ 1. since inf S = 0 ∈ S. 1 is an upper bound. since S is bounded above (1 is an upper bound) and it is bounded below (0 is a lower bound). then is inf S ∈ S? No. First of all. min S = 0. then 1 ≤ u (since 1 ∈ S). —————————————————————————————————————— Supremum of S. —————————————————————————————————————— If inf S exists. if u is also an upper bound. max S = 1. Let u be an upper bound of S. Moreover. —————————————————————————————————————— Is S bounded? Yes. then 0 < 2 . 1]. We prove that 1 ≤ u. —————————————————————————————————————— Minimum of S. 1 is an upper bound. —————————————————————————————————————— An upper bound of S. —————————————————————————————————————— If inf S exists. —————————————————————————————————————— Supremum of S. 1] = S. 0 < x. since sup S = 1 ∈ S. then is inf S ∈ S? Yes. if l is also an lower bound. is an element in S that is larger than the upper bound u. since S is bounded above (1 is an upper bound) and it is bounded below (0 is a lower bound). then is sup S ∈ S? No. 1) = S. 0 is a lower bound. inf S = 0 ∈ [0. But 2 < l contradicts the fact that l is a lower bound of S. 1). —————————————————————————————————————— (c) S = (0. 0 is an lower bound. then l ≤ 0 (since 0 ∈ S). we have 0 ≤ x. But u < u+1 contradicts the fact that u is an upper bound of S. sup S = 1.
since sup S = 0 ∈ S. Thus if u is an upper bound. —————————————————————————————————————— 1 1 1 (d) S = n  n ∈ Z \ {0} = n  n ∈ N ∪ − n  n ∈ N . inf S = −1. it follows that l ≤ −1. if u is also an upper bound. —————————————————————————————————————— Minimum of S. −1 is a lower bound. —————————————————————————————————————— If inf S exists. inf S = −1. —————————————————————————————————————— If sup S exists. since for all n ∈ N. and if l is another lower bound. max S does not exist. —————————————————————————————————————— 1 1 An upper bound of S. sup S = 1 ∈ S. −1 is a lower bound. since inf S = 0 ∈ S. then is inf S ∈ S? Yes. since for all n ∈ N. —————————————————————————————————————— 1 A lower bound of S. 1 is an upper bound. then since 1 = 1 ∈ S. it follows that l ≤ −1. min S = −1. since for all n ∈ N. —————————————————————————————————————— If sup S exists. then let N ∈ N be such that −u < N (Archimedean principle with y = −u 1 and x = 1!). —————————————————————————————————————— Maximum of S. 1 —————————————————————————————————————— Inﬁmum of S. max S = 1. inf S = −1 ∈ S. −1 is a lower bound. Moreover. 1 is an upper bound. if l is also a lower bound. —————————————————————————————————————— Minimum of S. since sup S = 1 ∈ S. since S is bounded above (1 is an upper bound) and it is bounded below (−1 is a lower bound). —————————————————————————————————————— If inf S exists. if u is an upper bound and 1 1 if u < 0. since for all n ∈ N. since inf S = −1 ∈ S. since S is bounded above (0 is an upper bound) and it is bounded below (−1 is a lower bound). sup S = 1. —————————————————————————————————————— 1 (e) S = − n  n ∈ N . −1 is a lower bound. —————————————————————————————————————— Is S bounded? Yes. then is inf S ∈ S? Yes. —————————————————————————————————————— 1 1 A lower bound of S. − n < 0. then is sup S ∈ S? No. then is sup S ∈ S? Yes. . —————————————————————————————————————— Supremum of S. —————————————————————————————————————— Supremum of S. n ≤ 1 and − n ≤ 0 ≤ 1. Moreover. 1 then since −1 = −1 ∈ S. —————————————————————————————————————— 1 An upper bound of S.71 —————————————————————————————————————— Maximum of S. min S does not exist. then 1 since −1 = − 1 ∈ S. then 0 ≤ u. —————————————————————————————————————— Inﬁmum of S. inf S = −1 ∈ S. a contradiction to the fact that u is an upper bound of S. 1 ≤ u. since sup S = 1 ∈ S. −1 ≤ − n . −1 ≤ 0 ≤ n and −1 ≤ − n . 0 is an upper bound. 0 is an upper bound. sup S = 0. Moreover. and so we obtain u < − N ∈ S. —————————————————————————————————————— Is S bounded? Yes.
2 is an upper bound of S. sup S = 2. since S is bounded above (1 is an upper bound) and it is bounded below ( 1 is a lower bound). and if l is a lower bound. 1 is a lower bound because for all n ∈ N. then x ≥ − 2. —————————————————————————————————————— n An upper bound of S. 1 is an upper bound. Thus u+ 2 ∈ S. we get x2 = (−x)(−x) > √ √ √ √ (−x) 2 > 2 2 = 2. then x ≤ 2. 2 2 that is. 1 ≤ n). (x < − 2 implies that −x > 2 > 1 > 0.) But 2 2 2 2 2 . 2 —————————————————————————————————————— Supremum of S. then since 2 2 1 1 1 2 = 1+1 ∈ S. inf S = 1 . then is inf S ∈ S? Yes. 2 is an upper bound. − 2 is a lower bound. Let u be an √ √ upper bound such that u < 2. since S is bounded above ( 2 is an upper bound) and it is bounded √ below (− 2 is a lower bound). then ac > bc. Then u < NN . and so √ − 2 is a lower bound. since inf S = 2 ∈ S. max S does not exist since sup S = 1 ∈ S. (As 0 ∈ S and u is an upper bound 2√ √ √ √ √ of S. —————————————————————————————————————— n (f) S = n+1  n ∈ N . —————————————————————————————————————— Maximum of S. Then u+ 2 ∈ S. n+1 < 1. that is.) —————————————————————————————————————— √ √ √ A lower bound of S. —————————————————————————————————————— n A lower bound of S. —————————————————————————————————————— √ √ Supremum of S. and so x ∈ S. sup S = 1. it follows that l ≤ 2 . First of all. If u < 1 is an upper bound. —————————————————————————————————————— Minimum of S. 2 is an upper bound of S. 1 is a lower bound. then is sup S ∈ S? No. x ∈ S. —————————————————————————————————————— If sup S exists. In other words. Hence we have 0 < u+ 2 < 2. √ > 2 implies x2 > 2. —————————————————————————————————————— √ √ (x An upper bound of S. —————————————————————————————————————— Is S bounded? Yes. —————————————————————————————————————— (g) S = {x ∈ R  x2 ≤ 2}. u then let N ∈ N be such that u−1 < N (Archimedean property). and 2 2 √ √ √ √ √ 2 √ √ √ u+ 2 = u+ 2 < u+ 2 so u+ 2 2 < 2 2 = 2.) —————————————————————————————————————— √ Is S bounded? Yes. if x ∈ S. 1 is an upper bound of S.72 —————————————————————————————————————— Maximum of S. and so. since sup S = 1 ∈ S. As u < 2. min S = −1 since inf S = −1 ∈ S. if x ∈ S. since for all n ∈ N. —————————————————————————————————————— Inﬁmum of S. 0 ≤ u. max S does not exist since sup S = 0 ∈ S. 1 ≤ n+1 (since n+1 ≤ 2n. min S exists since inf S = 2 ∈ S. —————————————————————————————————————— 1 If inf S exists. +1 contradicting the fact that u is an upper bound. √ In other words. u < u+ 2 < 2. —————————————————————————————————————— 1 Minimum of S. So using the fact that if a > b and c > 0.
5. —————————————————————————————————————— √ Minimum of S. that is. —————————————————————————————————————— √ If inf S exists. 2005}. But since x ∈ S. it follows that −l cannot be an upper bound of S. then is inf S ∈ S? Yes. inf S = 0 ∈ {0. √ Consequently. —————————————————————————————————————— Is S bounded? Yes. then l ≤ − 2. sup S = 2 ∈ S. inf S = − 2 ∈ S. Then we have −l < 2.73 u < u+ 2 contradicts the fact that u is an upper bound. 5 ≤ 2005 and 2005 ≤ 2005. we have (−x)2 = x2 ≤ 2. min S = − 2. Let l be a lower bound such that √ √ √ − 2 < l. l ≤ −x. inf S = − 2. 0 is a lower bound. since 0 ≤ 0. —————————————————————————————————————— Minimum of S. then is sup S ∈ S? Yes. 5 . —————————————————————————————————————— √ √ Inﬁmum of S. inf S = 0. and if l is also an lower bound. − 2 is a lower bound. 0 ≤ 2. So it follows that −x ∈ S. since 0 ≤ 2005. —————————————————————————————————————— √ Maximum of S. —————————————————————————————————————— An upper bound of S. So there exists an x ∈ S such that −l < x. —————————————————————————————————————— Maximum of S. . then (−1)n 1 + n = 1 + n ≤ 1 + 1 = 3 . —————————————————————————————————————— If inf S exists. then since 2005 ∈ S. then is inf S ∈ S? Yes. if l is a lower bound. 2 . . So if u is an upper bound of 2√ S. . max S = 2005 since sup S = 2005 ∈ S. —————————————————————————————————————— (h) S = {0. —————————————————————————————————————— √ If sup S exists. —————————————————————————————————————— If sup S exists. . 2 1 1 If n ∈ N and n is even.) 1 4 —————————————————————————————————————— An upper bound of S. —————————————————————————————————————— Inﬁmum of S. 2 ≤ 2005. 2 2 √ . 0 is an lower bound. 0 ≤ 5 and 0 ≤ 2005. then since 0 ∈ S. From −l < x and x ≤ −l. 2005 is an upper bound. − 3 . it follows that l ≤ 0. then 2 ≤ u. 3 is an upper bound. 5. —————————————————————————————————————— A lower bound of S. 2005} = S. 2. 2005 is an upper bound. 3 4 (This set has the elements − 2 . we arrive at the contradiction that −l < −l. 2. since S is bounded above (2005 is an upper bound) and it is bounded below (0 is a lower bound). max S = 2. —————————————————————————————————————— Supremum of S. As l is a lower bound. 5. and since sup S = 2. sup S = 2005. it follows that 2005 ≤ u. sup S = 2005 ∈ {0. then is sup S ∈ S? Yes. x ≤ −l. min S = 0 since inf S = 0 ∈ S. —————————————————————————————————————— 1 (i) S = (−1)n 1 + n  n ∈ N . 2. 2005} = S. and if u is also an upper bound.
since the set does not have an upper bound. then (−1)n 1 + n = −1 − n < 0 < 2 . inf S = 0 ∈ S. contradicting the fact that 2 u is an upper bound of S. then since −2 = (−1)1 1 + 1 ∈ S. Let u ∈ R be an 2 1 upper bound of S. sup S does not exist. 0 ≤ x2 . —————————————————————————————————————— Supremum of S. min S = 0. 1 1 If n ∈ N and n is odd. then since 0 = 02 ∈ S. then is inf S ∈ S? Yes. it follows that l ≤ −2. —————————————————————————————————————— Is S bounded? Yes. But since 2 2 1 1 u2 + 4 > 0. it follows that 2 ≤ u. 1 —————————————————————————————————————— If sup S exists. since inf S = 0 ∈ S.74 1 3 1 If n ∈ N and n is odd. Thus S does not have an upper bound. —————————————————————————————————————— 2 . −2 is a lower bound. −2 is a lower bound. it follows that u < u2 + u + 4 = u + 1 ∈ S. —————————————————————————————————————— Minimum of S. —————————————————————————————————————— Inﬁmum of S. —————————————————————————————————————— Inﬁmum of S. then is sup S ∈ S? Yes. —————————————————————————————————————— 3 Supremum of S. 2 3 1 3 2 then since 2 = (−1) 1 + 2 ∈ S. —————————————————————————————————————— If inf S exists. then (−1)n 1 + n = −1 − n ≥ −1 − 1 = −2. and if u is also an upper bound. (Recall that every least upper bound is an upper bound). and if l is also a lower bound. 2 —————————————————————————————————————— 3 Maximum of S. since S is bounded above ( 3 is an upper bound) and it is bounded 2 below (−2 is a lower bound). sup S = 3 ∈ S. —————————————————————————————————————— A lower bound of S. it follows that l ≤ 0. and so it cannot have a least upper bound. max S = 2 . —————————————————————————————————————— Maximum of S. —————————————————————————————————————— If sup S exists. since for all x ∈ R. —————————————————————————————————————— Is S bounded? No. —————————————————————————————————————— Minimum of S. then u + 1 ∈ R. inf S = 0. then is sup S ∈ S? sup S does not exist. inf S = −2. —————————————————————————————————————— A lower bound of S. then (−1)n 1 + n = 1 + n > 0 > −2. min S = −2. 1 1 If n ∈ N and n is even. 0 is a lower bound. since sup S does not exist. sup S = 3 . and if l is also a lower bound. 0 is a lower bound of S. —————————————————————————————————————— (j) S = {x2  x ∈ R}. since the set is not bounded above. max S does not exist. There does not exist an upper bound of S. 2 is an upper bound. and so u2 + u + 4 = u + 1 ∈ S. —————————————————————————————————————— An upper bound of S.
we have y = x for some x ∈ S. Let u be an upper bound and let 02 u u < 1. sup S = 1. a contradiction to the fact that u is an upper bound of S. 1 is an upper bound of S. u (= 2) is an upper bound of {1} = S). —————————————————————————————————————— Supremum of S.75 x (k) S = 1+x2  x ∈ R . (d) FALSE (N has no supremum). Then we have 2 2 N u < 1+N 2 ∈ S. 1) is bounded. —————————————————————————————————————— x2 An upper bound of S. since sup S ∈ S. (h) TRUE (the supremum itself is an upper bound). then 1 ≤ u. but 1 2 ∈ S). min S = 0. since for all x ∈ R. max S does not exist. (a) FALSE (if S = {1}. (f) FALSE (∅ is bounded. —————————————————————————————————————— If inf S exists. u}. inf S = 0. but 1 ∈ [0. u} and so max{−l. (b) TRUE (if (c) FALSE (N has no maximum). since S is bounded above (1 is an upper bound) and it is bounded below (0 is a lower bound). (k) FALSE (−N is bounded above since 0 is an upper bound. Since 0 = 1+02 ∈ S. 0 ≤ 1+x2 . and although u = 2 < 3 = u. —————————————————————————————————————— x2 A lower bound of S. and so y = x ≥ 0. since for all x ∈ R. 1}.) 1 2 (j) FALSE (the set [0. Hence if u is an upper bound of S. it follows that l ≤ 0. u} is an upper bound of S. 1)). u} and − x ≤ −l ≤ max{−l. then since 02 0 = 1+02 ∈ S. Thus 0 is a lower bound of S. but −N = N is not bounded). but it does not have a supremum). —————————————————————————————————————— Minimum of S. 1) has supremum 1. inf S = 0 ∈ S. 0 is a lower bound. since inf S = 0 ∈ S. and if l is also a lower bound. —————————————————————————————————————— Maximum of S. then is sup S ∈ S? No. then inf S = 0 < < 1 = sup S. (m) FALSE (if S = {0. —————————————————————————————————————— Is S bounded? Yes. and so we have x ≤ u ≤ max{−l. Moreover. sup S = 1 ∈ S. Let N ∈ N be such that 1−u < N . —————————————————————————————————————— 2. 0 is a lower bound of S. (i) TRUE (deﬁnition of maximum). Thus x ≤ max{−l. for every y ∈ S. 0 ≤ u. then is inf S ∈ S? Yes. then u∗ − < u∗ . then u = 3 is an upper bound of S. . but it does not have a maximum). (e) FALSE ([0. > 0. —————————————————————————————————————— If sup S exists. (l) TRUE (l ≤ x ≤ u implies x ≤ u and −x ≤ −l. 1+x2 < 1. —————————————————————————————————————— Inﬁmum of S. 1 is an upper bound. and so u∗ − cannot be an upper bound of S). (g) TRUE (least upper bound property of R).
So sup B is an upper bound of A. in particular. in other words. Let l be a lower bound of S: ∀x ∈ S. z ≤ sup A + sup B. by the least upper bound property of R. Since sup B is an upper bound of B.76 3. Let inf S = sup S. ∀y ∈ −S. and consequently. Clearly A + B is nonempty. Since A + B is bounded above and it is not empty. then we have inf S ≤ x ≤ sup S. and so by the deﬁnition of the least upper bound of A. −x ≤ −l. Moreover. Since B is bounded above. x + y ≤ MA + MB . it is bounded above. it follows that for all z ∈ A + B. and furthermore. So ∀x ∈ S.8). since it is nonempty. Let x ∈ S. B is nonempty implies that ∃y ∈ B. y ≤ sup B. Hence −S is nonempty. 4. inf S ≤ x. If l > x is also a lower bound. y ≤ MB . by the least upper bound property of R. So sup A + sup B is an upper bound of A + B. x ≤ sup A. since it is nonempty. inf S < sup S.7) and (2. sup S exists. ∃MB ∈ R such that ∀y ∈ B. since sup S is an upper bound of S. then clearly x is an upper bound. So for all x ∈ A and y ∈ B.8) (2. we obtain inf S ≤ sup S. Thus S is a singleton set. x ≤ sup S. Conversely. Since S is bounded. y ≤ −l. Consequently if x ∈ A and y ∈ B.9) (2. A is nonempty implies that ∃x ∈ A. ∀x ∈ A. and furthermore. then x > l ≥ x gives x > x. if S = {x}. So inf S = x = sup S. Since A is bounded above. and so A + B is not empty. If u < x is an upper bound. So sup S = x. in particular we obtain x ≤ sup B for all x ∈ A. Since sup B is an upper bound of B. z ≤ MA + MB . l ≤ x. Thus −S is bounded above because −l is an upper bound of −S. then x ≤ u < x gives x < x. x ≤ MA . x + y ≤ sup A + sup B. 5. ∀y ∈ B. and so MA + MB is an upper bound for A + B.9). and so we obtain that −x ∈ −S. So A + B is bounded above.7) and so inf S = x(= sup S) (for if inf S < x. ∃MA ∈ R such that ∀x ∈ A. we obtain sup A ≤ sup B. Since A ⊂ B. inf S exists. then from (2. Since inf S is a lower bound of S. 6. Since every z ∈ A + B is such that z = x + y with x ∈ A and y ∈ B. From (2. it follows that sup(A + B) exists. in particular it is bounded below. . Since S is bounded. it follows that ∃x ∈ S. Since S is nonempty. Clearly x is also a lower bound. If x ∈ S. Indeed. So ∀z ∈ A + B. thus x + y ∈ A + B. a contradiction). a contradiction. Since sup A is an upper bound of A. we have x ≤ sup B for all x ∈ B. a contradiction. (2. sup(A + B) ≤ sup A + sup B. by the deﬁnition of the least upper bound of A + B. by the greatest lower bound property of R.
we have ∀x ∈ S. ∀x ∈ S. (2.10). Since sup(−S) is an upper bound of −S. ∀x ∈ S. y ≤ So 1 inf S is an upper bound of S −1 .10) x 1 Since S is not empty. it follows that sup(−S) exists. inf S ≤ x. inf S is bounded above. y ≤ −l < sup(−S). 7. Then we have ∀x ∈ S. So −l is an upper bound of −S. which contradicts the fact that sup(−S) is the least upper bound of −S. But x∗ ∈ S implies that x∗ > 0. 1 ≤ u. and so by the greatest lower bound property of R. ∀y ∈ S −1 . −x ≤ sup(−S). inf S exists and inf S = − sup(−S). Consequently. that is. ∀x ∈ S. u . ∀y ∈ −S. and −l < sup(−S). ∀x ∈ S. that is. ∃x∗ ∈ S and so x∗ ≤ u. that is. inf S exists. and so 1 x∗ > 0. that is. Then ∀y ∈ S −1 y ≤ u. Next we prove that − sup(−S) is the greatest lower bound of S. 1 1 ≤ . Consequently u > 0. by the least upper bound property of R. Suppose that l is a lower bound of S such that − sup(−S) < l . ∀x ∈ S. we have: ∀y ∈ −S. −x ≤ −l < sup(−S). So − sup(−S) is a lower bound of S. Hence from (2. 1 ≤ x. Hence l ≤ − sup(−S). and so 1 ≤ inf S. − sup(−S) < l ≤ x.) If: Let inf S > 0. it follows that ∀x ∈ S. − sup(−S) ≤ x. that is. y ≤ sup(−S). Thus 1 u that is.77 As −S is nonempty and bounded above. say). (S is nonempty and bounded below (0 is a lower bound). that is. u is a lower bound of S. Thus S −1 Only if: Suppose S −1 is bounded above (with an upper bound u. Since inf S is a lower bound. x inf S 1 .
if x ∈ 0. n∈N 1 . 1 n = ∅. n∈N 0. n 1 N (2. we see 1 that u = sup1 −1 is a lower bound of S. Thus ¬ ∃x ∈ 0. then n for all n ∈ N. n∈N 1 n . 1 ≤ sup S −1 .16) n∈N 1 1 ⊂ (0. n for all n ∈ N and so {0} ⊂ Let x ∈ x∈ 0. 1). n n n∈N 0. 1 − . and hence 1 1 0. 1). n (2. If x > 0.12). sup S −1 that is. inf S From (2. then let N ∈ N be n such that n∈N 1 1 N (Archimedean property). inf S Furthermore. that is. inf S 8.11) 1 inf S 1 . since u := sup S −1 is an upper bound of S −1 . and so S 1 ≤ inf S. 1] and so x ≥ 0. n∈N 1 ⊂ {0}. Consequently. n∈N 1 .11) and (2.78 But u > 0 implies 1 u If inf S > 0. n (2. Hence (2. N < x. is an upper bound of S −1 and so we (2. n∈N 0.1− n n . that is. and so x ∈ (0. 0 < x < Let N ∈ N be such that dicts (2. If x ∈ 1 n. then x = 0.15) From (2. . . we see that obtain sup S −1 ≤ > 0. 1 (b) Clearly {0} ⊂ 0.12) 1 .14) and (2. and consequently inf S ≥ 1 u > 0. 1 n 1 = {0}. So 1 x (2. then as in the If part. Then x ∈ [0.15). as in the Only if part. (a) If x ∈ 0. that is. N . it follows that sup S −1 = 1 . n 1 n (c) Let n ∈ N. n∈N 1 x < 0.13).13) < x. then 0 < ≤x≤1− 1 n < 1. So x ∈ 0.14) 1 . which contra < N (Archimedean property). .
then for any n ∈ N. Consequently (x0 − δ. Adding x0 .20) n∈N (2. x > 1 + N2 .1+ n n . So {x ∈ R  x − x0  < δ} ⊂ (x0 − δ. and x ∈ {x ∈ R  x − x0  < δ}. If x ∈ (x0 − δ. a contradiction to (2. So x − x0 < δ.79 1 If x ∈ (0. and hence x ∈ [0. Then n n − 1 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 + for all n ∈ N. x ∈ 1 1 . 1] ⊂ 1 1 − .19). this yields x0 − δ < x < x0 + δ. (2. Hence −δ < x − x0 < δ. x0 + δ). x0 + δ). then x0 − δ < x < x0 + δ. So we have . N1 < x. Similarly. a contradiction to (2. 1) ⊂ n∈N From (2.1+ n n ⊂ [0. that is. x ∈ (x0 − δ. 1 x < 1 − N2 . then 0 < x < 1.1+ .16) and (2.1− n n (2. Hence [0. we have 1 1 1 1 ≤ <x < 1− ≤1− . Hence we see that neither x < 0 nor x > 1 are possible. Since for any real number r. 1].1− n n 1 1 . we obtain that x − x0 ≤ x − x0  < δ and −(x − x0 ) ≤ x − x0  < δ. . . that is. that is. 1]. x < − N1 . 1].19) We prove that this implies that 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Let N2 ∈ N be such that 1−x < N2 (Archimedean property). − 1 and so x ∈ − n . If x ∈ {x ∈ R  x − x0  < δ}. n n (2. and −(x − x0 ) < δ. For if x < 0. 1]. that is. r ≥ r and r ≥ −r. 1). Let N1 ∈ N be such that x < N1 (Archimedean property).1− N N ⊂ 1 1 .1+ n n = [0. 1 + 1 n 1 1 <0≤x ≤1<1+ . 1) = n∈N (d) If x ∈ [0. x0 + δ) = {x ∈ R  x − x0  < δ}.20) imply n∈N 1 1 − . n n . Thus with N := max{N1 .17) n∈N (0. Adding −x0 . then let N1 ∈ N be such that 1 1 − x < N1 . if x > 1. then x − x0  < δ.18) and (2. x0 + δ) ⊂ {x ∈ R  x − x0  < δ}. we obtain (0. N2 }.18). then let 1 1 N2 ∈ N be such that x−1 < N2 .1− n n 1 1 . . we obtain −δ < x − x0 < δ. Thus x − x0  < δ. x0 + δ).18) n∈N Let x ∈ n∈N 1 1 − .17). 9. Thus 1 1 − . (2. 1 1 that is. N N1 N2 N that is. Thus (x0 − δ.
we obtain x − y ≤ x − y for all x. So for all x ∈ S. and a lower bound.22) for all x. say l. say u. −(x − y) ≤ x − y (2. Thus S has an upper bound. If S is bounded. l ≤ x ≤ u.21). x ≤ M .7) on page 6. Thus x ≤ max{−l. x − y ≤ x − y for all x. we have −M ≤ x ≤ M . Thus S is bounded. So −M is a lower bound of S and M is an upper bound of S. then it is bounded above and it is bounded below. we have that x = x − y + y ≤ x − y + y. if there exists a M such that for all x ∈ S.80 10. Interchanging x and y in (2. that is. x ≤ u and −x ≤ −l. Conversely. that is. (2. u}.21) and (2. and so we have x ≤ u ≤ max{−l. 11. we obtain y − x ≤ y − x =  − (x − y) =  − 1x − y = 1 · x − y = x − y. y ∈ R. From the inequality (1.21) . u} and − x ≤ −l ≤ max{−l.22). and so. From (2. y ∈ R. u} =: M . y ∈ R.
from which we see that. . . (c) Suppose that the terms of the convergent sequence (an )n∈N (with limit. 1 1 −1 < = . but = 1 would. 1− 1 1 1 = −1 < . let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N . . For instance. . (a) We prove that (1)n∈N is convergent sequence with limit 1. let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N . that is. a contradiction. 1 2. then given any > 0. a contradiction. L must be one of the terms. say.81 Solutions to the exercises on page 13 1. > 0. . then given = 1 > 0. .) Then there exists a N∗ ∈ N such that 2 for all n > N∗ . the constant sequence (1)n∈N converges to 1. . n Let = 1 . for instance 2 = 1 won’t give us a contradiction. . . Let n be any even number > N . But aN +1 ∈ {v1 . vm }. we have aN +1 −L < . an −L < . . . . . Let n be any odd number > N . it follows that L = 1 or L = −1: indeed the terms of the sequence take ﬁnitely many values. . vm }. namely 1 and −1. let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N . . . vm − L} ≤ vk − L. vm }. . L is not equal to any of the terms =⇒ terms of the sequence cannot consist of ﬁnitely many values . So we have the following two cases: 1◦ If the limit is 1. Then we have 2 =  − 2 =  − 1 − 1 = (−1)n − 1 < = 1. So ((−1)n )n∈N is divergent. If L ∈ {v1 . . then given = 1 > 0. m}. there exists an N ∈ N such that for all n ∈ N such that n→∞ n n > N. L) lie in the ﬁnite set {v1 . vm − L} > 0. Then we have vk − L = aN +1 − L < = min{v1 − L. n n 2 . 1 −1 < . ◦ 2 If the limit is −1. (−1)n − (−1) < = 1. with n = N +1 > N . let N ∈ N.2. Then for all n > N = 1. vm }. (b) Yes. a contradiction. . (This choice is motivated by Figure 2. . Let aN +1 = vk for some k ∈ {1. Thus we have shown that terms of the sequence take ﬁnitely many values that is. we have an − L = 1 − 1 = 0 < . . So L ∈ {v1 . Then we have 2 = 2 = 1 + 1 = (−1)n − (−1) < = 1. then with := min{v1 − L. . . . Then from part 1c above. (−1)n − 1 < = 1. n 2 that is. . Given N = 1. =⇒ L must be one of the terms . . . In particular. . say (d) Suppose that ((−1)n )n∈N is a convergent sequence with limit L. If lim = 1. and so L must be one of these terms.
and so there exists a N ∈ N such that for all n > N . since n = N∗ + 1 > N∗ . a contradiction. − sup S − 1 1 < an ≤ sup S < sup S + . 2 that is. Given any > 0. let N ∈ N be such that N > 1 . n < 2. N∗ < 1.2: Consequently. that is. In this way we construct the sequence (an )n∈N . an − sup S < . Hence there must exist an element in S. for all n > N∗ . that is. n n Given 1 1 1 < an − sup S < . contradiction. we obtain N∗ + 1 < 2. that is. that is. 1 1 1 Given n ∈ N. n 2 that is. which we denote by an . we obtain 2 L aN +1 − L ≤ aN +1 − L < − . with = 4 > 0. it follows that sup S exists. aN +1 < L 2 < 0. As sup S is an upper bound of S and so we also have an ≤ sup S for all n ∈ N. we have n > 0. Then for all even n > N (there are obviously inﬁnitely many such n). Consequently. (a) We have seen that the sequence (−1)n 1 + n n∈N is divergent. we have an − L = (−1)n 1 + 1 n −1 = 1+ 1 n 1 1 1 −1 = < < . let 1 N ∈ N be such that < N . and so by the least upper bound property of R. ∀n ∈ N. 1 1 < .82 1 PSfrag replacements Figure 2. n n N . Hence with n = N + 1 (> N ). . and so lim n→∞ n 1− 1 3. Then for all n > N . 2 an − L < = − L . we have an − sup S < 1 1 < < . Then := − L > 0. In particular. But there does not exist any natural number N∗ that is less than 1. such that 1 1 ¬[an ≤ sup S − n ]. n n n > 0. ∀n ∈ N. for the divergent sequence (−1)n 1 + and all n > N . Hence we arrive at a 1 = 1. 4. S is nonempty and bounded above. Suppose L < 0. 1 n n∈N . an > sup S − n . we have n∈N an − L ≤ an  + L ≤ 2 + 1 = 3 < 4 = . Thus S − n is not an upper bound of S. n N Hence (an )n∈N is convergent with limit equal to sup S. for all N ∈ N (b) Again. and so sup S − n < sup S. 5.
Since n ≥ 1. N < M . We prove that the sequence is monotone and bounded. there exists a N ∈ N such that (2. an − L < . > 0. Hence for all n ≥ 2. Choose8 N ∈ N such that max N1 . it follows that 2n + 1 ≤ 3n. and so. then ak+1  = 2k + 3 2k + 3 ak = ak  = 3k + 3 3k + 3 2k + 3 3k + 3 ak  ≤ 1 · 1 = 1. let N ∈ N be such that bn bn  M M −0 = ≤ < <M· = . 2 Hence if n. note 3n that for all n ∈ N. bn  ≤ M . ∃N1 ∈ N such that ∀n > N1 . So the sequence is bounded. N > N1 and 8 This N1 (M + L) 2 < N. and so 2n+1 ≤ 1 for all n ∈ N. . n n n N M Hence bn n n∈N is convergent with limit 0. Let M > 0 be such that for all n ∈ N. and hence it must be convergent. Given 1 M < N . 2. = an − L + am − L (using r =  − r for all real r) Consequently (an )n∈N is a Cauchy sequence. 3n So (an )n∈N is decreasing. 3. that is. it is convergent. (a) Given > 0. Since (an )n∈N is convergent. and so the claim follows from induction. an − L < 2 .83 6. m > N . Solutions to the exercises on page 17 1. N 2 ˛ ˛ ˛ ˛ is arrived at by working backwards. N1 (M + L) < . an ≥ 0 (induction!). We prove this using induction.23)). Then for all n > N . As the sequence is bounded and monotone. an  ≤ M . then an − am  = an − L + L − am  ≤ an − L + L − am  (triangle inequality) < 2 + 2 (using (2. Furthermore. so we n manipulate this (as shown in the chain of inequalities that follow) to see if can indeed achieve this by choosing the N large enough. If k ∈ N is such that ak  ≤ 1. Let (an )n∈N be a convergent sequence with limit L¿ Given > 0.23) for all n > N. we wish to make ˛ a1 +···+an − L˛ less than for all n > N . it is bounded: ∃M > 0 such that ∀n ∈ N. We prove that an  ≤ 1 for all n ∈ N. We have a1  = 1 = 1. an = 2n+1 an−1 ≤ 1·an−1 = an−1 .
an  ≤ M . Since (an )n∈N is bounded. we obtain inf{an  n ≥ k + 1} = − sup{−an  n ≥ k + 1} ≥ − sup{−an  n ≥ k} = inf{an  n ≥ k}. then (an )n∈N is divergent. Using Exercise 6 on page 7. and so (uk )k∈N is a decreasing sequence. we have: a1 + · · · + aN1 + aN1 +1 + · · · + an −L n a1 + · · · + aN1 + aN1 +1 + · · · + an − nL n a1 + · · · + aN1 + aN1 +1 + · · · + an − nL n a1 − L + · · · + aN1 − L + aN1 +1 − L + · · · + an − L n (a1  + L + · · · + aN1  + L) + 2 + · · · + 2 n N1 (M + L) + (n − N1 ) 2 n N1 (M + L) N1 · + 1− n n 2 N1 (M + L) +1· N 2 2 . it follows that there exists a M such that for all n ∈ N. 4. and by Exercise 4 on page 7. n ∈ N. . By the least upper bound property of R. lk and uk are welldeﬁned. If k ∈ N. −M ≤ an ≤ M . and so we have sup{−an  n ≥ k + 1} ≤ sup{−an  n ≥ k}. and so we see that the sequences (lk )k∈N and (uk )k∈N are bounded. 0 if n is even if n is odd ≤ 1 1 < < . {−an  n ≥ k + 1} ⊂ {−an  n ≥ k}. for each k. 1 − n if n is odd 1 = = ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ < < = So (b) If a1 +···+an is a convergent sequence with n n∈N an = (−1)n . we then obtain that uk+1 = sup{an  n ≥ k + 1} ≤ sup{an  n ≥ k} = uk . −M ≤ an ≤ M . it then follows that inf{an  n ≥ k} and sup{an  n ≥ k} exist. n N is convergent with limit 0. a1 + · · · + a n (−1)1 + (−1)2 + · · · + (−1)n = = n n is convergent with limit equal to 0. we have an − 0 = an  = So a1 +···+an n n∈N 1 n < N. Indeed. but the sequence with nth term 0 if n is even . that is. Clearly {an  n ≥ k + 1} ⊂ {an  n ≥ k}. and so the set {an  n ≥ k} is bounded. then in particular. Furthermore. Similarly. given > 0. + 2 limit L. that is. let N ∈ N be such that Then for n > N .84 Then for n > N . for all n ≥ k. −M ≤ inf{an  n ≥ k} ≤ sup{an  n ≥ k} ≤ M.
Deﬁning M = max{a1 . . Let (an )n∈N be a Cauchy sequence. Consequently. an − am  < = 1. that is. As the sequences (uk )k∈N .85 that is. by Theorem 1. m > N . . Then given := 1 > 0. (lk )k∈N is a increasing sequence. aN . . . it follows that they are convergent. . we see that an  ≤ M for all n ∈ N. 5. In particular. lk+1 ≥ lk .2. there exists a N ∈ N such that for all n. with m := N + 1 (> N ). and so (an )n∈N is bounded.3. an − aN +1  < 1 for all n > N . an  = aN +1 + an − aN +1  ≤ aN +1  + an − aN +1  < aN +1  + 1 for all n > N. (lk )k∈N are both bounded and monotone. aN +1  + 1}.
and use Theorem 1. 3+ n is convergent with limit 0. We now apply this result to our sequence (an )n∈N . n the sequence bn n∈N is convergent with limit 0 (see Exercise 2 on page 17). it follows n 1 that a2 · n n∈N is convergent with limit L2 ·0 = 0. . Then ∃N ∈ N such that for all n > N .86 Solutions to the exercises on page 20 1. We have cn = N. say L. Hence n an · bn n∈N is convergent with limit L · 0 = 0. then (an+1 )n∈N is also convergent with limit L. The sequence (5)n∈N is convergent with n limit 5. as (1)n∈N is convergent with n limit 1. a2 n n D. Thus for all n > N . = 1 a2 + n an · an · n + 1 n +5 n∈N is convergent. we obtain L = = = = n→∞ n∈N is convergent with limit 2+3·0 3+3·0 = 2. The sequence +1 the nonzero limit 1. So lim an = 0. Proof Let > 0. L = 0. 3 lim an+1 lim 2+ 3+ 2+ 3+ 3 n 3 n 3 n 3 n n→∞ an lim an n→∞ lim n→∞ 2 L. 3 n→∞ 2.2. and so an+1 − L < . and so n + 1 = 0 for all n ∈ N. Since the sequence (an )n∈N is convergent with limit L. it follows that the sequence Again applying the theorem on algebra of limits. Since n n∈N is convergent with limit 0. 3 Hence 1 L = 0. by the theorem on 3 2+ n 3 3+ n algebra of limits. it follows that the sequence a2 n n n∈N has nonzero terms for all n ∈ N and it is convergent with +1 n∈N is convergent with limit 0+1 = 1(= 0). Since (bn )n∈N is bounded. an − L < . Alternately.6. observe that (an+1 )n∈N is a subsequence of (an )n∈N . it follows that the sequence 1 (a2 )n∈N is convergent with limit L2 . The sequence an · bn n n an · bn + 5 an bn + 5n for all n ∈ N. First we prove the Claim: (an )n∈N is convergent with limit L. which satisﬁes: an+1 = = for all n ∈ N. So the sequence an · bn + 5 n∈N is convergent with limit 0 + 5 = 5. Hence (an+1 )n∈N is convergent with limit L. that is. a2 a2 n n We have n + 1 ≥ 1 for all n ∈ N. Finally. The sequence (an )n∈N is convergent with limit. we have n + 1 > N + 1 > N . Since the sequence 1 n n∈N 2(n + 1) + 1 an 3(n + 1) 3 2+ n 3 an .
Then for all n > N . an + L L √ is convergent with limit L. Let only two possible cases. Let N ∈ N be such that 2 for all n > N . We consider the an − L = an − 0 = an  = an < 2 . If L < 0. 2 and so an < L 2 < 0 for all n > N . that is. So L ≥ 0. we have n2 +n−n = = = = = = +1 . we obtain > an − L √ √ √ √ = ( an − L)( an + L) √ √ √ √ =  an − L an + L) √ √ √ √ =  an − L( an + L) and so √ L L √ ≤ √ = .87 From the parts N and D above and the theorem on the algebra of limits. +1 1 1+ 1 n . √ Then for n > N . √ √  an − L < √ √ n2 + n + n + n − n) · √ ( n2 + n + n 2 2 n +n−n √ n2 + n + n n √ 2+n+n n n(1) √ 1 n n n2 + n + 1 1 n2 n2 +n n2 √ √ Hence ( an )n∈N (b) For all n ∈ N. √ 2◦ If L > 0. then let N ∈ N be such that for all n > N . then let N ∈ N be such that for n > N . an − L < = − L . Then we have 2 L an − L ≤ an − L < − . >). it follows that 5 (cn )n∈N is convergent with limit 1 = 5. 3. we have an < . (a) We begin by showing that L ≥ 0. an − L < L. a contradiction to the fact that an ≥ 0 for all n ∈ N. namely L = 0 and L > 0: 1◦ If L = 0. √ √ So ( an )n∈N is convergent with limit L. √ √ √ √ √ √  an − L =  an − 0 =  an  = an < . √ √ Now we show that ( an )n∈N is convergent with limit L. then := − L > 0.
If for some k ∈ N. nk+2 nk+2 n n 1 1k + 2 k + 3 k + · · · + n k ≤ nk+2 n 1 n n∈N for all n ∈ N. that is lim bn ≥ lim an . For all n ∈ N. Furthermore 1 + n ≥ 0 for all n ∈ N.88 1 As (1)n∈N is convergent with limit 1 and n n∈N is convergent with limit 0. we have 0≤ Thus 0≤ 1k + 2 k + 3 k + · · · + n k nk + n k + n k + · · · + n k n · nk 1 ≤ ≤ k+2 = . it follows that n∈N √ 1 1 = 1. n→∞ nk+2 3. Let k ∈ N. it follows that nn n∈N is convergent with the limit 0. we obtain n→∞ n→∞ lim bn − lim an ≥ 0. from the Sandwich n! theorem. Clearly (1 + x)1 = 1 + x = 1 + 1 · x. n∈N 1+ 1 n 4. the result follows. then we have (1 + x)k+1 = (1 + x)k (1 + x) ≥ (1 + kx)(1 + x) (by the induction hypothesis and since 1 + x ≥ 0) = 1 + kx + x + x2 = 1 + (k + 1)x + x2 ≥ 1 + (k + 1)x. nn n n n n n n 1 Since (0)n∈N and n n∈N are both convergent with the same limit 0. Let x ≥ −1. As an ≤ bn . it follows 1 1 that 1 + n n∈N is convergent with limit 1. Since the sequences (0)n∈N and the Sandwich theorem. we obtain that lim are both convergent with limit 0. it follows that the sequence (bn − an )n∈N is convergent (being the sum of the convergent sequence (bn )n∈N and the convergent sequence (−an )n∈N ). n→∞ n→∞ n→∞ n→∞ Solutions to the exercises on page 22 1. Also n∈N + 1 > 1 > 0. Thus by the theorem on algebra of limits. that is. we have 0≤ 1 2 n−1 n 1 1 n! = · · ···· · ≤ ·1· ···· 1·1 = . Consider the sequence (bn − an )n∈N . (a) We prove the claim using induction. its limit is lim bn − lim an . From the theorem on algebra of limits. From Exercise 5 on page 13. 2. Moreover. Hence by induction. we conclude that √ is convergent with limit 1 . from 1k + 2 k + 3 k + · · · + n k = 0. ( n2 + n − n)n∈N is the sequence √ 1 1 2 1+ n +1 1 convergent with limit 2 . . it follows that bn − an ≥ 0 for all n ∈ N. 1 is convergent with limit 1+ n and so by the previous part. (1 + x)k ≥ 1 + kx. For all n ∈ N. Hence 1+ n +1 is convergent with limit 1 + 1 = 2(= 0).
26). n→∞ 1 n→∞ Using (2. a contradiction!). 1 Consider the sequence ( n )n∈N contained in (0. we have − n + an < bn < 1 n + an . that is a ≤ L. Consequently a ≤ L ≤ b. we know that n→∞ lim − 1 + an n 1 + an n = lim − n→∞ 1 + lim an n n→∞ 1 + lim an n n→∞ = 0 + lim an n→∞ = n→∞ n→∞ lim an n→∞ lim = lim n→∞ = 0 + lim an . that is L ≤ b. we have b − an ≥ 0. So by the sandwich theorem. we have − n < bn − an < n . b].27). that is. (2. b) for all n ∈ N. Moreover. n→∞ . 1 (2. 1 1 = 0. 2 (2. its limit is L − a. it follows that the sequence (b − an )n∈N is convergent (being the sum of the convergent sequence (−an )n∈N and the convergent sequence (b)n∈N ). By the theorem on algebra of limits.25). it follows that (bn )n∈N is convergent with the limit lim an . using Exercise 3a on page 20. we obtain L − a ≥ 0.26) Combining (2. it follows from the Sandwich theorem that (n n )n∈N is convergent and 1 lim n n = 1. its limit is −L + b.24) (for if n n < 1. n 1 1+ √ n n 2 n = ≥ (1 + √ n) n . For all n ∈ N. (2. 1). L ∈ [a. we obtain −L + b ≥ 0. Hence (c) Since lim n→∞ n→∞ n n lim 1 1+ √ n 2 n→∞ = (1 + 0)2 = 1 = lim 1. we have an − a ≥ 0. From Exercise 5 on page 13. and so by adding an . b) for all n ∈ N. 1 1+ √ n and so 1 1+ √ n 2 n √ 1 ≥ 1 + n · √ = 1 + n. 4.25) Finally. Next consider the sequence (b − an )n∈N . it follows that lim √ = 0. and (2. 1 1 1 5. 1 1 nn ≥ 1 √ 2 √ 2 1 √ 2 1 n n = ( n ) n = n n < (1 + n) n . Consider the sequence (an − a)n∈N .27) for all n ∈ N. From the theorem on algebra of limits. 1). As an ∈ (a. we obtain 1 ≤ n n < (1 + 1 √ n) n ≤ 2 1 1+ √ n 2 (2. From the theorem on algebra of limits. From Exercise 5 on page 13. then n = (n n )n < 1n = 1.24). it follows that the sequence (an − a)n∈N is convergent (being the sum of the convergent sequence (an )n∈N and the convergent sequence (−a)n∈N ). As an ∈ (a. Clearly for all n ∈ N. Moreover.89 (b) For all n ∈ N. It is convergent with limit 0 ∈ (0.
90 Solution to the exercise on page 24 Observe that the terms 2. 2. 6. 4. 8. 8. . Then for all n > N . we have an − L = an − anK + anK − L ≤ an − anK  + anK − L (triangle inequality) < 2 + 2 = . . 4. ank = 6. From Exercise 5 on page 17. 8. m > N . · · · → . . 8. 3. Thus we can choose indices n1 < n 2 < n 3 < . . 8 appear adjacently . . it follows that (an )n∈N is bounded. 8 appear adjacently and so the terms 1. 8. . · · · → . 8 appear adjacently 6. . 6. 6. 4. . Using the fact that (an )n∈N is Cauchy. . such that for all k ∈ N. say (ank ))k∈N with limit L. . 8 appear adjacently and and and and so so so so the the the the terms terms terms terms 8. 4. 2. . it follows that (an )n∈N has a convergent subsequence. 1. As (ank )k∈N is convergent with limit L. we now prove that (an )n∈N is itself convergent with limit L. . 4. 2. an − am  < 2 . 4 appear adjacently 2. 6. 6. Since (an )n∈N is Cauchy. which contains 6. 8. · · · → . 4. Let > 0. 8. Consequently. . 2. . · · · →. . . 8. Solution to the exercise on page 26 Let (an )n∈N be a Cauchy sequence. (an )n∈N is convergent with limit L. . Hence we get the loop . 8. 4 appear adjacently 8. 1. there exists a K ∈ N such that for all nK > N and anK − L < 2 . So (6)k∈N is a subsequence of the given sequence. 8. there exists a N ∈ N such that for all n. 6 appear adjacently and so the terms 1. and so 6 appears inﬁnite number of times. By the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem. 6. 6 appear adjacently and so the terms 6. 6 appear adjacently and so the terms 3.
1 . then we note that δ > 0. then we obtain x2 − c2  < δ(δ + 2c) ≤ (1 + 2c) = . (a) Let √> 0. it follows that f (0) = 0. we choose δ such that δ(δ + 2c) < : indeed. Consider = 1 > 0. Then for all x ∈ R satisfying x − c  < δ. f (x) − f (c) < . If δ := δ= . since (x − c + c) − c = x − c  < δ. if x ∈ R and x − 0 = x < 1. Given > 0. . that is. Thus if x ∈ R satisﬁes x − c < δ. it follows that f is continuous on R. 4. then x < δ + c. Hence it follows that −f (c ) = f (−c ). there exists a δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ R satisfying x − c < δ. since 0 = f (0) = f (c − c ) = f (c ) + f (−c ). If x ∈ R is such that x − c < δ. Moreover. we have9 f (x) − f (c ) = f (x) − f (c ) + f (c) − f (c) = f (x − c + c) − f (c) < . Then ∃δ > 0 such that 2 1 for all x ∈ R satisfying x − c < δ. First of all. So f is continuous at 0. Furthermore. Then for all x ∈ R satisfying x = x − 0 < δ. Since > 0. then x < c + δ ≤ c + δ ≤ c + δ = c + δ. if x ∈ R satisﬁes x − c < δ. Then f (x + y) = α(x + y) = αx + αy = f (x) + f (y). (b) Let c ∈ R and suppose that c = 0. (a) Let c ∈ R and > 0. f (0) = 0. So f is continuous at c . Finally we have f (x) − f (c ) + f (c) = f (x) + f (−c ) + f (c) = f (x − c ) + f (c) = f (x − c + c). let δ := min 2c + 1 . and let f : R → R be given by f (x) = αx. we deﬁne δ = M . Since f is continuous at c.91 Solutions to the exercises on page 29 √ . it follows that δ is positive. we have x2 − c2  = x − c · x + c < δ · (δ + 2c). 3. Suppose that f is continuous at c. We observe that as f (0) ≤ M 0 = M · 0 = 0. 2c + 1 2. Let c ∈ R. then x2 − c2  = (x − c)(x + c) = x − c · x + c. f (x) − f (c) < = 2 . Since the choice of c ∈ R was arbitrary. M = . f (0) = f (0 + 0) = f (0) + f (0). We have the following two cases: 9 Here we use the fact that f is ‘additive’. and so f (0) = 0. and −x < δ − c ≤ δ − c ≤ δ +  − c = δ + c. then we obtain √ √ x2 − 02  = x2  = x · x < δ · δ = · = . If x ∈ R. Let > 0. for all x ∈ R. and so x + c ≤ x + c < δ + c + c = δ + 2c. (b) Let α ∈ R. So if x − c < δ. Thus in order to make x2 − c2  less than . we have f (x) − f (0) = f (x) − 0 = f (x) ≤ M x = M x − 0 < M δ = M Hence f is continuous at 0.
92 1◦ c ∈ Q. there exists an N ∈ N such that Thus for n > N .3. the subsequence x1 . f (x2 ). f (x2 ). . Hence f is not continuous at c. f (x1 ). by Theorem 1. x1 . there exists a δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ R satisfying x − c < δ. and so by Theorem 1.3. is divergent. the function f is onetoone. 3. . So by Theorem 1. . f (x1 ). a contradiction. f (x1 ). then the sequence f (x1 ). x1 . Thus (f (xn ))n∈N is convergent with limit f (c). If x1 = x2 . Let (xn )n∈N be a convergent sequence with limit c. x2 . . 1 1 < . x2 . By the Archimedean principle. Then (x2 )n∈N is also convergent with limit n c2 . and so it is convergent with limit f (x1 ) (= f (x2 )). is divergent.) Thus the sequence f (x1 ). Then there exists x ∈ Q such that x − c < δ. f (x) − f (c) < f (c) . 5. . . If n ∈ N. converges to x1 . (Indeed.2. x1 .2. Since f (c) 2 But f (x) − f (c) = 1 − 0 = 1 = 1 > 1 . Solutions to the exercises on page 31 1. a contradiction. then the sequence x1 .2. So we have shown that if x1 = x2 . Proof Let > 0. . Consequently f (x1 ) = f (x2 ): for otherwise if f (x1 ) = f (x2 ). f is continuous. . is a constant sequence. < N.6. . 2 Thus for all x ∈ R satisfying x − c < δ (that is. converges to x2 . while the subsequence x2 . x2 . f (x1 ). x2 . qn − c < < n N This proves the claim. . . . . is divergent. x1 . 2. f (x1 ). . we have f (c) = lim f (qn ) = lim 0 = 0. n→∞ n→∞ 1 1 n. . . 2 > 0. it follows that the sequence x1 . that is. we have f (c) − f (x) ≤ f (c) − f (x) = f (x) − f (c) < and so f (x) > f (c) 2 f (c) . Since f is continuous at c. x2 . x2 . 2◦ c ∈ R \ Q. c − δ < x < c + δ). . . 2 But f (x) − f (c) = 0 − 1 =  − 1 = 1 > 1 . f (x2 ) . then f (x1 ) = f (x2 ). 2 > 0. . f (x1 ) . Then there exists x ∈ R \ Q such that x − c < δ. . f (x2 ). then there exists qn ∈ Q such that qn − c < Claim: (qn )n∈N is convergent with limit c.
that is. and so we obtain that the function x → 1 + x2 is continuous on R. we conclude that the function 1 x2 1 x → 1+x2 is continuous on R. f is continuous on R. . Moreover the function x → 1 is continuous on R. it follows that the function x → x2 is continuous on R as well. As 1 + x2 ≥ 1 > 0 for all real x.3 several times in order to prove this. Since the function x → x is continuous on R.93 Solution to the exercise on page 32 We apply Theorem 1.3. Hence the function x → x2 · 1+x2 = 1+x2 is continuous on R.
Since f is continuous at d. Consider the function g : [0. d ∈ [0. So far we have proved . So g is continuous at c. We prove that there exists a d ∈ [a.) Applying the extreme value theorem to g. 1} = 1 = f (1). b] such that m ≤ f (xn ) < m + 1 . that is. T ] such that g(d) = min{g(x)  x ∈ [0. and > 0. 1}. 1 1 For each n ∈ N. 1]} = sup{0. g(d) ≤ g(x) ≤ g(c). b]}. n (2. then there exists a positive δ such that for all x ∈ R satisfying x−c < δ. 1] that attains its extreme values.94 Solutions to the exercises on page 34 1. From (2. Then g is continuous on [0. Let m := inf{f (x)  x ∈ [a.28). b] such that f (d) = m. 1]} = {0. 2 for all 1 ≤ x ≤ 1. b]}. T ] is a trivial consequence of the continuity of f on R: If c ∈ [0. m < m + n . g(x)−g(c) = f (x)−f (c) < . (Indeed. the continuity of g on [0. and so g is continuous on [0. T ]}. However. using the Sandwich theorem. we conclude that f (d) = m. T ]. 2. But the choice of c was arbitrary.28) By the BolzanoWeierstrass theorem. T ] → R. g(c) = max{g(x)  x ∈ [0. 1] → R be deﬁned by f (x) = Then f is not continuous at 1 2: 0 1 for all 0 ≤ x < 1 . So there exists an xn ∈ [a. 2 1 2 indeed the sequence − 1 n+1 n∈N is contained in [0. and inf{f (x)  x ∈ [0. Let f : [0. 1]} = inf{0. 1} = 0 = f (0). 3. we conclude that there exist c. T ]. T ].3: A discontinuous function on [0. T ]} and So for all x ∈ [0. (xn )n∈N has a convergent subsequence (xnk )k∈N with limit d ∈ [a. T ]. f (x)−f (c) < . it follows that (f (xnk ))k∈N is convergent with limit f (d). 2 = lim 0 = 0 = 1 = f n→∞ n→∞ 1 1 − 2 n+1 1 2 . and so sup{f (x)  x ∈ [0. Hence for all x ∈ [0. b]. 1 PSfrag replacements 0 1 2 1 Figure 2. T ] satisfying x−c < δ. and so m + n cannot be a lower bound for {f (x)  x ∈ [a. T ]. f (d) ≤ f (x) ≤ f (c). and it is convergent with limit lim f 1 2 − 0 = 1 . But {f (x)  x ∈ [0. given by g(x) = f (x) for all x ∈ [0. 1].
it follows that if x < y. We now prove that f is bounded on R by using the periodicity of f . 4. If x = c.T ] . As f (d) ≤ f (r) ≤ f (c). x]} = max{f (y)  y ∈ [a. and so f∗ (x) − f∗ (c) = f∗ (x) − f∗ (c) ≤ . Then we have f∗ (x) = max{f∗ (c). 2◦ Let c − δ < x ≤ c. Choose δ > 0 such that for all x ∈ [a. Furthermore. then f∗ (y) ≤ max{f∗ (x). f (z) − f (x) = f (z) − f (c) + f (c) − f (x) ≤ f (z) − f (c) + f (c) − f (x) = 2 . We note that f [x. b]. Now if x is any real number. f (x) − f (c) < . b]. (b) First we observe that f∗ is an increasing function. deﬁned by f [x. f∗ (x) ≤ f∗ (y).b] is a continuous function. the fact that f is bounded on [0. Applying the intermediate value theorem to f [x.) Thus f (x) = f (nT + r) = f (r). 1). x]} exists. (a) If x ∈ (a. b] be such that x − c < δ. where n := T ∈ Z and r := T · Θ ∈ [0. respectively. b]. max{f (z)  z ∈ [x. and so it is bounded. If c − δ < x < c. we have x x +Θ = T T x where Θ ∈ [0. if x < y then. of the set {f (x)  x ∈ R}. we see that max{f [x. . 95 Figure 2. Let c ∈ [a.. c]}} ≤ max{f∗ (x).b](y)  y ∈ [a. x]}} ≤ max{f∗ (c). that is. Thus trivially.. we have and so f (z) ≤ f (x) + 2 . we obtain x = nT + r. f (c) + } ≤ max{f∗ (c). b]. then f∗ (x) − f∗ (c) = 0 < then for any z ∈ (c − δ. T ]. (Indeed. Let x ∈ [a. b] such that x−c < δ. T ). y]}. max{f (z)  z ∈ [c. c).b] . f (x) + 2 } ≤ max{f∗ (x). and so f∗ (x) − f∗ (c) = f∗ (c) − f∗ (x) ≤ 2 . max{f (z)  z ∈ [x. Then we have the following two cases: 1◦ Let c < x < c + δ. and let > 0. there exists a n ∈ Z such that x = nT + r. See Figure 2..4: A continuous periodic function is bounded. sup B} (why?). f∗ (c) = max{f∗ (x). since sup(A ∪ B) = max{sup A.4. Consequently. it follows that f (d) ≤ f (x) ≤ f (c).f (c) f (d) g = f [0. −T 0 c d T 2T 3T 4T . T ). f∗ (c) + } = f∗ (c) + .b] denote the restriction of f to [x.b] (y) = f (y) for all y ∈ [x. then let f [x. Since the choice of x ∈ R was arbitrary. where r ∈ R is such that r ∈ [0. f∗ (x) + 2 } = f∗ (x) + 2 . it follows that f (d) ≤ f (x) ≤ f (c) for all x ∈ R. So f (c) and f (d) are upper and lower bounds. and so f∗ is welldeﬁned..
Then f is also continuous. 1]. Let the weekend campsite be at altitude H. (c) f∗ is given by 1 x − x2 if 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 . it follows that also the function g : [0. 1 such that f (c) = 0. t ∈ 0. b]. 2 → R given by f (t) = u(t) − d(t).6. f (c) = c. 1]. Since 0 ≤ f (x) ≤ 1 for all x ∈ [0. that is. it follows that there exists a c ∈ 0. we have f∗ (x) − f∗ (c) < 2 . So at time c past 8:00. and g(1) = f (1) − 1 ≤ 0.5: f and f∗ . 1] → R deﬁned by g(x) = f (x) − x. 1] is continuous on [0. f∗ (x) = 1 1 if 2 < x ≤ 1. u(c) = d(c). Since the choice of c was arbitrary. .) Consider the function f : 0. while 1 1 1 1 1 f =u −d =u −0=u 2 2 2 2 2 1 .96 Hence for all x ∈ [a. that is. Solutions to the exercises on page 37 1. and moreover f (0) = u(0) − d(0) = 0 − H = −H < 0. 2 > 0. 1 4 f 0 PSfrag replacements 1 2 1 1 4 f∗ f (d) 0 1 2 1 Figure 2. 1] → R and the function x → x from [0. and d : 0. we have g(0) = f (0) − 0 = f (0) ≥ 0. it follows that f∗ is continuous on [a.5. 4 See Figure 2. 1]. Consequently f∗ is continuous at c. for all x ∈ [0. there exists a c ∈ [0. (We assume 1 that these are continuous functions. the hiker was 2 exactly at the same spot on Saturday and Sunday. 1] such that g(c) = 0. 1] → R be the position function for 1 the walk up. So by the intermediate value theorem. Hence by the intermediate value theorem. 2 → R be the position function for the walk down. 2. See Figure 2. Let u : [0. 1] to R are both continuous on the interval [0. Since the function f : [0. b] satisfying x − c < δ.
Choose a N ∈ N such that N > −f (1) (again the Archimedean property guarantees the existence of such a N ). since S is not bounded below. 2] → R is continuous on the interval [−1. and p(2) = 2 · (2)3 − 5 · (2)2 − 10 · (2) + 5 = 16 − 20 − 20 + 5 = −19 < 0. and g(1) = f (1) + N > 0. Then let x0 = 0 and let m ∈ Z. 2◦ f (0) > 0. The polynomial function p : [−1. This shows that S = R. a contradiction. 2◦ x0 ∈ Q. 2] such that p(c) = 0. while g(1) = f (1) − N < 0. p(−1) = 2 · (−1)3 − 5 · (−1)2 − 10 · (−1) + 5 = −2 − 5 + 10 + 5 = 8 > 0. 1] → R deﬁned by g(x) = f (x) − N x. and so by the intermediate value theorem. whereas mx0 is irrational. Applying the intermediate value theorem to this continuous function. So p has a real root in the interval [−1. Since p(−1) > 0 > p(2). 1] such that g(x0 ) = 0. Now consider the restriction of f to the interval with endpoints x0 and x1 with the endpoints included in the interval. 4. Choose N ∈ N satisfying N > f (1) (that such a N exists follows from the Archimedean property). while mx0 is rational. and consider the continuous function g : [0. Obviously S ⊂ R. Moreover. that is. From the part above. 5. But then f (x0 ) is rational. This completes the proof.6: The walks up and down. it follows that there exists a x0 ∈ [0. Applying the intermediate value theorem to g (with y = 0). 2]. Let y ∈ R. 1] such that g(x0 ) = 0. . y is not a lower bound of S. and so there exists a x1 ∈ R such that f (x1 ) > y. a contradiction. there exists a x0 ∈ R such that f (x0 ) < y. So f cannot be continuous.97 PSfrag replacements H d u(c) = d(c) u 0 c 1 2 1 Figure 2. We now show the reverse inclusion. y is not an upper bound of S. (a) The following three cases are possible: 1◦ f (0) = 0. it follows that there exists a x0 ∈ R and a m ∈ Z such that f (x0 ) = mx0 . 1] → R deﬁned by g(x) = f (x) + N x. We observe that g(0) = f (0) < 0. 3. Similarly. As the functions f and x → N x are continuous. Note that g(0) = f (0) − N 0 = f (0) > 0. it follows that there exists a x0 ∈ [0. We have the following two possible cases: 1◦ x0 ∈ Q. f (x0 ) = −N x0 . 1]. it follows that there exists a real number c such that f (c) = y. 2]. that is. Clearly f (x0 ) = f (0) = 0 = m0 = mx0 . we conclude that there must exist a c ∈ [−1. Consider the function g : [0. so is g. x ∈ [0. that is. As S is not bounded above. (b) Suppose that such a continuous function exists. 2]. f (x0 ) = N x0 . from the intermediate value theorem applied to the continuous function p on the interval [−1. ◦ 3 f (0) < 0. But then f (x0 ) is irrational.
[b]. [0] ∈ Z6 . G2. then it must be [1]. [0] ⊗ [a] = [a] ⊗ [0] = [0] = [1]. Moreover. [0] is the identity element: for all [a] ∈ Z6 . and [a] ⊕ [−a] = [a + (−a)] = [0] = [−a + a] = [−a] ⊕ [a]. If [a] ∈ Z6 . then ([a] ⊕ [b]) ⊕ [c] = [a + b] ⊕ [c] = [(a + b) + c] = [a + (b + c)] = [a] ⊕ [b + c] = [a] ⊕ ([b] ⊕ [c]). G3. So Z6 with addition modulo 6 forms a group. we verify below that the group axioms are satisﬁed. we have [0] ⊕ [a] = [0 + a] = [a] = [a + 0] = [a] ⊕ [0]. [a] ⊗ [1] = [a · 1] = [a] = [1 · a] = [a] ⊗ [a]. with [a] = [1] ∈ Z6 . multiplication modulo 6 is a law of composition on Z6 that satisﬁes G1 and G2. but for all [a] ∈ Z6 . [b]. [c] ∈ Z6 . since for all [a] ∈ Z6 . .98 Algebra Solutions to the exercises on page 44 1. then [−a] ∈ Z6 . since if [a]. For instance. then ([a] ⊗ [b]) ⊗ [c] = [ab] ⊗ [c] = [(ab)c] = [a(bc)] = [a] ⊗ [bc] = [a] ⊗ ([b] ⊗ [c]). We give its group table below: ⊕ [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [0] [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [1] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [0] [2] [2] [3] [4] [5] [0] [1] [3] [3] [4] [5] [0] [1] [2] [4] [4] [5] [0] [1] [2] [3] [5] [5] [0] [1] [2] [3] [4] (b) No. Addition modulo 6 is associative: if [a]. G3 is not satisﬁed. [b] ∈ Z6 . but G3 is not true: G1. (a) Addition modulo 6 is a law of composition on Z6 . (If e = [k] is the identity element for some integer k. In particular. So there does not exist an inverse of the element [0] in Z6 . then for all [a] ∈ Z6 . then [a] ⊕ [b] = [a + b] ∈ Z6 . Multiplication modulo 6 is associative: if [a]. G2. G1. we obtain e = [k] = [1k] = [1]⊗[k] = [1] ⊗ e = [1]. So if there is an identity element e.) Indeed [1] serves as an identity element. [a] ⊗ e = [a] = e⊗[a]. [c] ∈ Z6 .
99 Hence Z6 with multiplication modulo 6 is not a group. Z∗ with multiplication modulo 6 is also not a group, since multiplication modulo 6 is 6 not a law of composition on the set Z∗ : indeed, [2], [3] ∈ Z∗ , but [2] ⊗ [3] = [2 · 3] = 6 6 [6] = [0] ∈ Z∗ . 6
(c) If: Let m be a prime number. First we show that multiplication modulo m is a law of composition on Z∗ . Let m [a], [b] ∈ Z∗ . Then a and b are not divisible by m, and since m is prime, it follows that m ab is also not divisible by m. Thus [a] ⊗ [b] = [ab] = [0], and so [a] ⊗ [b] ∈ Z∗ . m Next we show that the group axioms are satisﬁed: G1. If [a], [b], [c] ∈ Z∗ , then m ([a] ⊗ [b]) ⊗ [c] = [ab] ⊗ [c] = [(ab)c] = [a(bc)]
= [a] ⊗ [bc] = [a] ⊗ ([b] ⊗ [c]). G2. [1] = [0] and so [1] ∈ Z∗ . Furthermore, For all [a] ∈ Z∗ , we have m m [a] ⊗ [1] = [a · 1] = [a] = [1 · a] = [1] ⊗ [a]. G3. If [a] ∈ Z∗ , then m does not divide a (for otherwise [a] = [0]). As m is prime, it m follows that gcd(a, m) = 1. (Indeed, gcd(a, m) divides m, and since m is prime, the only factors of m are 1, m, −1, −m. As gcd(a, m) ≥ 0, the only possible values are m and 1. Also, gcd(a, m) divides a, and since a is not divisible by m, it follows that gcd(a, m) = m. So the only possible value of gcd(a, m) is 1.) So there exist s, t ∈ Z such that as + mt = 1. Consequently [s] ⊗ [a] = [sa] = [as] = [a] ⊗ [s] = [as] = [1 − mt] = [1] ⊕ [m(−t)] = [1] ⊕ [0] = [1].
Hence Z∗ with multiplication modulo m is a group. m
Furthermore [s] = [0], since otherwise ms, and so mas + mt, that is m1, a contradiction. Hence [s] ∈ Z∗ , and so [s] is the inverse of [a]. m
Only if: Suppose that m = p · q, where p, q ∈ {2, 3, . . . , m − 1}. Clearly, as m does not divide p or q, it follows that [p] = [0] and [q] = [0]. So [p], [q] ∈ Z∗ . However, m [p] ⊗ [q] = [p · q] = [m] = [0] ∈ Z∗ , m and so multiplication modulo m is not a law of composition on Z∗ . Consequently, Z∗ m m with multiplication modulo m is not a group. 2. (a) Composition of functions gives a law of composition on the set Sn of all bijections from {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} onto itself. Indeed if f, g are bijections from {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} onto itself, then f ◦ g is again a bijection from {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} onto itself:
100 i. f ◦ g is onetoone. Let k1 , k2 ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n}. If (f ◦ g)(k1 ) = (f ◦ g)(k2 ), then f (g(k1 )) = f (g(k2 )), and since f is onetoone, we get g(k1 ) = g(k2 ). Furthermore, since g is onetoone, k1 = k2 . ii. f ◦ g is onto. If k ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n}, then since f is onto, there exists a k ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} such that f (k ) = k. Moreover, since g is onto, there exists a k ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} such that g(k ) = k . Thus (f ◦g)(k ) = f (g(k )) = f (k ) = k. So f ◦ g is onto.
Next we show that the group axioms are satisﬁed: G1. If f, g, h ∈ Sn , then for all k ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n},
((f ◦ g) ◦ h)(k) = (f ◦ g)(h(k)) = f (g(h(k))) = f ((g ◦ h)(k)) = (f ◦ (g ◦ h))(k). So (f ◦ g) ◦ h = f ◦ (g ◦ h). G2. The identity function ι : {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} → {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} deﬁned by ι(k) = k for all k ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n}, serves as the identity element in Sn . Indeed, for all f ∈ Sn , we have (f ◦ ι)(k) = f (ι(k)) = f (k) = ι(f (k)) = (ι ◦ f )(k), ∀k ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n}. Thus f ◦ ι = f = ι ◦ f . G3. If f ∈ Sn , then since f is a bijection, it follows that for all k ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n}, there exists a unique element k such that f (k ) = k. Deﬁne f −1 : {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} → {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} as follows: if k ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n}, then f −1 (k) = k , where k ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} is such that f (k ) = k. Then for all k ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n}, we have (f ◦ f −1 )(k) = f (f −1 (k)) = k = ι(k) = k = f −1 (f (k)) = (f −1 ◦ f )(k), Hence Sn with the composition of functions is a group. (b) The number of bijections from a set with n elements onto itself is n!, and so the order of Sn is n!. Indeed, in order to specify the bijection f , one needs to specify f (1), . . . , f (n). The number of ways of specifying f (1) is n (as it can be any one of the numbers 1, . . . , n). As f is onetoone, f (2) can be only be any one of the elements of the set {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} \ {f (1)} (which has n − 1 elements). Proceeding in this way, the number of distinct bijections we get are n · (n − 1) · · · · · 2 · 1 = n!. (c) Let f : {1, 2, 3} → {1, 2, 3} be the function f (1) = 2 f (2) = 1 f (3) = 3, and g : {1, 2, 3} → {1, 2, 3} be the function g(1) = 1 g(2) = 3 g(3) = 2. Then (f ◦ g)(1) = f (g(1)) = f (1) = 2 = 3 = g(2) = g(f (1)) = (g ◦ f )(1), and so f ◦ g = g ◦ f . and so f ◦ f −1 = ι = f −1 ◦ f .
101 (d) If: S1 has the only element ι : {1} → {1}, and so ι ◦ ι = ι = ι ◦ ι. Thus S1 is abelian. S2 has the two elements ι : {1, 2} → {1, 2}, and r : {1, 2} → {1, 2} given by r(1) r(2) Since ι ◦ r = r ◦ ι we see that S2 is abelian. So if n ≤ 2, then Sn is abelian. Only if: If n > 2, then consider the bijections f : {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} → {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} and g : {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} → {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} given by f (1) = 2 f (2) = 1 f (n) = n ∀n ∈ {3, . . . , n} Then (f ◦ g)(1) = f (g(1)) = f (1) = 2 = 3 = g(2) = g(f (1)) = (g ◦ f )(1), and so f ◦ g = g ◦ f . Thus Sn is not abelian. Hence Sn is abelian iﬀ n ≥ 2. 3. We note that if a b −b a a b −b a (aa − bb )2 + (ab + ba )2 a −b b a , a −b b a ∈ S, , g(1) = 1 g(2) = 3 g(3) = 2 g(n) = n ∀n ∈ {1, 2, 3, . . . , n} \ {1, 2, 3} = 2 = 1.
and
.
then
=
aa − bb ab + ba −(ab + ba ) aa − bb
and = a2 a 2 − 2aa bb + b2 b 2 + a2 b 2 − 2ab ba + b2 a 2 = a2 (a 2 + b 2 ) + b2 (b 2 + a 2 ) = (a2 + b2 )(a 2 + b 2 ) = 0. Hence matrix multiplication is a law of composition on S. Next we verify that the group axioms are satisﬁed: G1. Matrix multiplication is associative, and so for all A, B, C ∈ S, (AB)C = A(BC). G2. Let I denote the identity matrix. Then we have I= 1 0 0 1 = 1 0 −0 1
and moreover, 12 + 02 = 1 = 0. So I belongs to S. Furthermore, for every A ∈ S, AI = A = IA. G3. Let A= Then a2 + b2 = 0. If B := a b −b a
a a2 +b2 −b a2 +b2
∈ S.
b a2 +b2 a a2 +b2
,
and = a ∗ (e ∗ a−1 ) (since b−1 is the inverse of b) = a ∗ a−1 (since e is the identity element) (b−1 ∗ a−1 ) ∗ (a ∗ b) = ((b−1 ∗ a−1 ) ∗ a) ∗ b (associativity) = (b−1 ∗ (a−1 ∗ a)) ∗ b (associativity) = (b−1 ∗ e) ∗ b (since a−1 is the inverse of a) = b−1 ∗ b (since e is the identity element) = e (since b−1 is the inverse of b). Since a ∈ G. b. then a ∗ (a−1 ∗ b) = (a ∗ a−1 ) ∗ b = e ∗ b = b. If there are two solutions. a ∗ x1 = b = a ∗ x 2 . there exist elements a−1 . and furthermore. (b) Clearly and so x = a−1 ∗ b is a solution to a ∗ x = b.102 then a 2 + b2 a 2 + b 2 + b2 a 2 = a2 + b 2 1 = 2 = 0. c ∈ G. Since the inverse of a ∗ b is unique. where e denotes the identity element in G. Hence a ∗ x = b has the unique solution x = a−1 ∗ b. . and by part 4a above. 2 + b 2 )2 (a a + b2 So B ∈ S. say x1 and x2 . it follows that (a ∗ b)−1 = b−1 ∗ a−1 . it follows that x1 = x2 . b−1 ∈ G such that = e (since a−1 is the inverse of a). AB = I = BA. 4. and suppose that a ∗ b = a ∗ c. there exists a−1 ∈ G such that a ∗ a−1 = e = a−1 ∗ a. b ∈ G. We have (a ∗ b) ∗ (b−1 ∗ a−1 ) = a ∗ (b ∗ (b−1 ∗ a−1 )) (associativity) = a ∗ ((b ∗ b−1 ) ∗ a−1 ) (associativity) (c) Since a. a ∗ a−1 = e = a−1 ∗ a and b ∗ b−1 = e = b−1 ∗ b. Thus b−1 ∗ a−1 is an inverse of a ∗ b. (a) Let a. So S is a group with matrix multiplication. Then we have b = e ∗ b (since e is the identity element) = (a−1 ∗ a) ∗ b (since a−1 is the inverse of a) = a−1 ∗ (a ∗ b) (associativity) = a−1 ∗ (a ∗ c) (since a ∗ b = a ∗ c) = (a−1 ∗ a) ∗ c (associativity) = e ∗ c (since a−1 is the inverse of a) = c (since e is the identity element).
H2. For instance. 1]. 0. Proof If k ∈ H ∩K. . . 18. b ∈ H. H3 does not hold. Hence a ∗ b ∈ H ∩ K. 12. 4. Similarly. So H ∩ K is a subgroup of G. The subgroup {−1. then so is −m. Hence {12m  m ∈ Z} ⊂ H ∩ K. Consequently a−1 ∈ H ∩ K. 4.}. Thus e ∈ H ∩ K. For all a. (a) We check that H1. b belong to both H and K. 8. 0. we know that a ∗ b = b ∗ a. 1 2 =f 1 2 +g 1 2 = 0 + 0 = 0. e ∈ H. 3. Although H1 and H2 hold. As H is a subgroup and a. it follows that a ∗ b ∈ H. H3 hold: H1. we have that a. then k = 12m for some m ∈ Z. 12. H3. −12. If f. Thus 4k1 = 6k2 and so 2k1 = 3k2 . b ∈ H ∩ K. Since H is a subgroup and a ∈ H. H2. 1 f 1 = 0 and g 2 = 0. (b) We check that H1. . and moreover. the sum of the odd integers 1 and −1 is 0. and as G is abelian. then k ∈ H and k ∈ K. 1 is a nonnegative integer. . f + g ∈ H1 . it follows that a−1 ∈ K. Consequently k belongs to H as well as K. k2 = 2k2 . So there exist integers k1 and k2 such that k = 4k1 and k = 6k2 . −6. since K is a subgroup and a ∈ K. So we have shown that H ∩ K ⊂ {12m  m ∈ Z}. −12. (a) FALSE. which is not an odd integer. . 6. it follows that 2k2 . g ∈ H1 . (b) FALSE. }. −8. . and K = {6m  m ∈ Z} = {. 2. . Conversely. −4. . and so k is a multiple of 4 and 6. . 12. As f. Indeed. Indeed. So H1 and H2 do not hold. . 1]. Since integers possess a unique factorization into primes. it follows that a−1 ∈ H. Yes. Also. but its inverse −1 is not a nonnegative integer. Hence k ∈ {12m  m ∈ Z}. b also belong to G. −12. . and so k = 6k2 = 6(2k2 ) = 12k2 . Thus k = 4(3m) = 6(2m). as K is a subgroup.}. . 1} of the set of nonzero real numbers with multiplication is another example. it follows 2 that f + g is also continuous on [0. b ∈ H. 0. . since if m is an odd integer. then a. . then f and g are continuous on the interval [0. (c) TRUE. . 1]. . g are continuous on the interval [0. −18. If a. But H3 is true. if k ∈ {12m  m ∈ Z}. it follows that a ∗ b ∈ K as well. b ∈ K. then a ∈ H and a ∈ K. H2. H1 and H2 are not true. as K is a subgroup and a. Consequently. given any inﬁnite group G. . Thus {0} is a ﬁnite subgroup of the inﬁnite group Z of integers with addition. Hence 4k and 6k. (a) We note that H = {4m  m ∈ Z} = {. If a ∈ H ∩ K. the set {e} comprising the identity element e is a subgroup of the group G. . Claim: H ∩ K = {12m  m ∈ Z} = {. Furthermore. . it follows that e ∈ K as well. (f + g) Consequently. As H is a subgroup. Also. H3 hold: H1.103 Solutions to the exercises on page 46 1.
then for all x ∈ [0. and so p + q ∈ H2 . 1]. . . such that q(x) = b0 + b1 x + b2 x2 + · · · + bm xm . an . 1] → R. On the other hand. 1]. if n > m. an . Let e denote the identity in the group G. So H1 is a subgroup of the group C[0. 0 ∈ H2 (with n = 0 and a0 = 0). The inverse of p in C[0. . it follows that −p ∈ H2 . b0 . deﬁned by (−p)(x) = −p(x) for all x ∈ [0. 1]. bm . and moreover. . a2 . The constant function 0 : [0. . for all x ∈ [0. then there exists an n ∈ N ∪ {0} and real numbers a0 . 1] with addition of functions. is the identity element in the group C[0. 1] → R. The constant function 0 : [0. 1] with addition of functions. deﬁned by 0(x) = 0 for all x ∈ [0. is the identity element in the group C[0. H2. then f 1 = 0. . 1]. 1]. H2. such that p(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + · · · + an xn . 1] with addition of functions. 1]. . (b) We check that H1. a1 . Moreover. 1]. . As (−p)(x) = −p(x) = −(a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + · · · + an xn ) p(x) = a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + · · · + an xn . then p and q are continuous on the interval [0. (p + q)(x) = p(x) + q(x) = a 0 + a 1 x + a 2 x2 + · · · + a n xn + b 0 + b 1 x + b 2 x2 + · · · + b m xm = a0 + b0 + (a1 + b1 )x + (a2 + b2 )x2 + · · · + (am + bm )xm + am+1 xm+1 + · · · + an xn . and so 0 ∈ H1 . . for all x ∈ [0. for all x ∈ [0. . As (−f ) it follows that −f ∈ H1 .104 H2. 2 deﬁned by (−f )(x) = −f (x) for all x ∈ [0. . m ∈ N ∪ {0} and real numbers a0 . 1] → R. for all x ∈ [0. and = a0 + b0 + (a1 + b1 )x + (a2 + b2 )x2 + · · · + (an + bn )xn + bn+1 xn+1 + · · · + bm xm . there exist n. deﬁned by 0(x) = 0 for all x ∈ [0. 1]. b1 . If p. . 1]. 0 1 2 = 0. The inverse of f in C[0. 1 2 = −f 1 2 = −0 = 0. a2 . 1] with addition of functions. a1 . So H2 is a subgroup of the group C[0. 5. (p + q)(x) = p(x) + q(x) = a 0 + a 1 x + a 2 x2 + · · · + a n xn + b 0 + b 1 x + b 2 x2 + · · · + b m xm and so p + q ∈ H2 . If f ∈ H1 . = −a0 + (−a1 )x + (−a2 )x2 + · · · + (−an )xn . q ∈ H2 . Clearly. If n ≤ m. If p ∈ H2 . 1]. 1] is the function −f : [0. H3 hold: H1. 1] → R. 1] is the function −p : [0. 1]. H3. . then for all x ∈ [0. H3.
Then for every a ∈ G. then for every a ∈ G. since b= it follows that 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 α+β α β α ∈ GL(2. Thus Z(G) is not empty. = 1 0 1 1 α β α β+α α 0 . So z ∈ Z(G). and for every a ∈ G. H2. (associativity) (since z1 ∈ Z(G)) Thus z1 ∗ z2 ∈ Z(G). a ∗ e = a = e ∗ a. and so z ∗ a−1 = a−1 ∗ z. we have a−1 ∈ G. Thus we obtain a ∗ z −1 = (a−1 )−1 ∗ z −1 = z −1 ∗ (a−1 )−1 = z −1 ∗ a. H2.105 (a) Since e ∈ G. . (c) We check that H1. H3. Thus Z(G) = G. it follows that (a−1 )−1 = a. e ∗ a = a = a ∗ e. β α . since G is abelian. But a ∗ a−1 = e = a−1 ∗ a. (a−1 )−1 ∗ z −1 = z −1 ∗ (a−1 )−1 . Also. H3 hold: H1. R)). For every a ∈ G. then since a= it follows that 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 = ∈ GL(2. R). we have (z1 ∗ z2 ) ∗ a = z1 ∗ (z2 ∗ a) = z1 ∗ (a ∗ z2 ) = (z1 ∗ a) ∗ z2 = (a ∗ z1 ) ∗ z2 (associativity) (since z2 ∈ Z(G)) = a ∗ (z1 ∗ z2 ) (associativity). that is. Let z ∈ Z(G). (d) If z = α γ β δ Thus α α+β γ γ+δ and so it follows that γ = 0 and α = δ. z ∗ a = a ∗ z. R)) ⊂ α·I = α 0 0 α α ∈ R \ {0} . α 0 β α Thus = and so it follows that β = 0. it follows that e ∈ Z(G). Hence z −1 ∈ Z(G). z2 ∈ Z(G). So Z(G) is a subgroup of the group G. α β γ δ ∈ Z(GL(2. Hence we have shown that Z(GL(2. = 1 1 0 1 α+γ γ α γ β+δ δ β δ . (b) Clearly Z(G) ⊂ G. If z1 . R). Let z ∈ G. Hence G ⊂ Z(G). e ∈ Z(G) since for every a ∈ G. and from the uniqueness of inverses. Consequently (z ∗ a−1 )−1 = (a−1 ∗ z)−1 . (2.29) .
2. As k2 − k1 ∈ N. Claim: For all m. we have am ∗ an = am+n for all n ≥ 0. and all n ≥ 0. Then α · I ∈ GL(2. So a has order at most equal to G. Furthermore. it follows that a has ﬁnite order. then we have am ∗ ak+1 = am ∗ (ak ∗ a) = (am ∗ ak ) ∗ a = am+k ∗ a = a(m+k)+1 (deﬁnition of ak+1 ) (associativity) (induction hypothesis) (deﬁnition of a(m+k)+1 ) = am+(k+1) .31) . as k2 ≤ G and k1 ≥ 0. 2. . Hence α · I ∈ Z(GL(2. k2 ∈ {0.30). Proof We prove this in several steps. . R). am ∗ an = am+n . am ∗ an = am+n . Step 1. R). R). and so we have shown that for all m ≥ 0. while G has G elements.29) and (2. ∈ GL(2. . 1. aG } ⊂ G. R)) = α 0 0 α α ∈ R \ {0} . Solutions to the exercises on page 48 1. But the choice of m ≥ 0 was arbitrary. . it follows that there exist distinct k1 . a3 . We know that S = {e. G} such that ak1 = ak2 . 3. and so ak2 −k1 = e. Clearly am ∗ a0 = am ∗ e = am = am+0 . So by induction. Thus ord(a) = min{m ∈ N  am = e} ≤ k2 − k1 ≤ G. we conclude that Z(GL(2. .106 Let α ∈ R \ {0}. (2. a. Thus α 0 0 α α ∈ R \ {0} ⊂ Z(GL(2. Then we have the following two cases: (2. Let m < 0 and n ≥ 0. a2 . So from the pigeonhole principle. and for all p q r s we have α 0 0 α p q r s = αp αq αr αs = pα qα rα sα = p q r s α 0 0 α . Step 2. . Let m ≥ 0. We may assume that k2 > k1 (otherwise we can interchange them).30) From (2. and that S has G + 1 elements. We show that am ∗ an = am+n for all n ≥ 0 by induction on n. If am ∗ ak = am+k for some k ≥ 0. . we obtain k2 − k1 ≤ G. n ∈ N. R). and so the result is true for n = 0. .
and so a−m ∗ an+m = an . we obtain (a−k )−1 = ((ak )−1 )−1 = ak . We have (am )0 = e = a0 = am0 . namely (2. We observe that am ∗ a−m = (a−m )−1 ∗ a−m = e. we have an ∗ a−n−m = an+(−n−m) = a−m . then from (2. by induction on n. If for some k ≥ 0 there holds that (am )k = amk . and so it follows that for all m ∈ Z and all n ≥ 0. (a−k )−1 = ak (Indeed. . (am )n = amn . Hence we have shown that for all m < 0. . If k ≥ 0. Hence by taking inverses. So by premultiplying by am = (a−m )−1 and postmultiplying by an+m = (a−n−m )−1 . . for k < 0. we then obtain am+n = am ∗ an . We have 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 −1 = 2 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 . Proof First we show that for all m ∈ Z and all n ≥ 0. by the deﬁnition of ak for a negative k. Let m ∈ Z. So by induction. and so the statement holds with n = 0.32) Step 3. Then from Step 2. then from (2. Combining this result with the result from Step 1. 1 = 3 2 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 = = = = = 1 1 −1 0 0 1 −1 −1 −1 0 0 −1 −1 −1 1 0 0 −1 1 1 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 1 1 −1 0 = = = = = 0 1 −1 −1 −1 0 0 −1 −1 −1 1 0 0 −1 1 1 1 0 0 1 . we have that (am )n = amn for all n ≥ 0. Combining this result with the result from Step 2. By postmultiplying both sides by an = (a−n )−1 . Hence we have shown that for all m ∈ Z and all n < 0. Let m ∈ Z and n < 0. we know that ak = (a−k )−1 . and so a−k = (a−(−k) )−1 = (ak )−1 . 2◦ If n + m ≤ 0. and all n ≥ 0. then −k ≥ 0. = 4 3 = 5 4 = 6 5 = .31). am ∗ an = am+n . (2. where the last equality follows from the following fact: for all k ∈ Z. we obtain that for all integers m and n. . then we have (am )k+1 = (am )k ∗ am = amk ∗ am = amk+m = am(k+1) . Next we prove the following claim. am ∗an = am+n . (am )n = amn . and all n ≥ 0. But the choice of m ∈ Z was arbitrary.32).31). If n < 0. Claim: For all m. am ∗ an = am+n .107 1◦ If n + m > 0. we have am+n ∗ a−n = a(m+n)−n = am . then we have (am )n = (am )(−n) = (am(−n) )−1 = (a−mn )−1 = amn . am ∗ an = am+n . So we obtain an+m = e ∗ an+m = (am ∗ a−m ) ∗ an+m = am ∗ (a−m ∗ an+m ) = am ∗ an . we obtain am ∗ an = an+m = am+n . (am )n = amn . and so an ∗ a−n−m = a−m . we have a−m ∗ an+m = a−m+(n+m) = an .) 3. n ∈ N. we obtain for all m ∈ Z.
Hence by premultiplying (2. As −1 = Z. By interchanging a and b.108 Thus ord 1 1 −1 0 = min m ∈ N 1 1 −1 0 m = 1 0 0 1 = 6. since 1 = Z. b in G. then b ∗ a has ﬁnite order m. and ord(b∗a) ≤ m. By interchanging the roles of a and b. a ∗ (b ∗ a)m−1 ∗ b = e. then (a ∗ b)m = e. (a) For all a. (a ∗ b) ∗ · · · ∗ (a ∗ b) = e. we see that −1 is also a generator of Z with addition. (m−1) times that is. we obtain a ∗ b has ﬁnite order m iﬀ b ∗ a has ﬁnite order m. we have (ψ ◦ ϕ)(a ∗ b) = ψ(ϕ(a ∗ b)) (deﬁnition of ψ ◦ ϕ) = ψ(ϕ(a) ∗ ϕ(b)) (since ϕ is a homomorphism) = ψ(ϕ(a)) ∗ ψ(ϕ(b)) (since ψ is a homomorphism) = (ψ ◦ ϕ)(a) ∗ (ψ ◦ ϕ)(b) (deﬁnition of ψ ◦ ϕ). So we have shown that if a ∗ b has ﬁnite order m. that is. (b∗a)m = e. So the cyclic group Z with addition does not have a unique generator. 1 is a generator of Z with addition. that is. . So the orders of a ∗ b and b ∗ a are the same. Yes.33) −1 . we obtain that m ≤ ord(b ∗ a). If a ∗ b has ﬁnite order. (2. So we see that b∗a has ﬁnite order. 5. 4.33) by b. we obtain Solutions to the exercises on page 51 1. ker(ψ ◦ ϕ) = {a ∈ G  (ψ ◦ ϕ)(a) = e } = {a ∈ G  ψ(ϕ(a)) = e } = {a ∈ G  ϕ(a) ∈ ker(ψ)} = ϕ−1 (ker(ψ)). then b ∗ a has inﬁnite order as well. and postmultiplying by b (b ∗ a) ∗ (b ∗ a)m−1 = e. and so ord(b ∗ a) = m. Hence if a ∗ b has inﬁnite order. m times and so a ∗ (b ∗ a) ∗ · · · ∗ (b ∗ a) ∗b = e. say m. (b) We have and so ψ ◦ ϕ : G → G is a homomorphism.
it follows that there exist unique a. Thus for all b ∈ G. As ϕ : G → G is onetoone and onto. b ∈ G and a = b. we have ϕ(a ∗ b) = (a ∗ b)−1 = b−1 ∗ a−1 (deﬁnition of ϕ) (Exercise 4c from the exercises on page 44) (since G is abelian) (deﬁnition of ϕ). then b = am for some m ∈ Z. and so ϕ : G → G is onetoone. and so ϕ−1 (a ∗ b ) = a ∗ b = ϕ−1 (a ) ∗ ϕ−1 (b ). n ∈ Z. ϕ(b∗a∗b−1 ) = ϕ(b)∗ ϕ(a)∗ ϕ(b−1 ) = ϕ(b)∗ e ∗ ϕ(b−1 ) = ϕ(b)∗ ϕ(b−1 ) = ϕ(b)∗ (ϕ(b))−1 = e . 3. If a = b . Hence ϕ−1 : G → G is a bijection. then ϕ(m) = am = an = ϕ(n) (for otherwise. b ∈ G such that ϕ(a) = a and ϕ(b) = b .109 2. For all a ∈ G. and so ϕ is onto. then an−m = e. b ∈ G . Let a . . For all a ∈ G. and so ϕ : G → G is onto. then ϕ(a) = e . (a) For all m. b ∈ G. Consequently ϕ : G → G is an isomorphism. So ϕ−1 is a homomorphism. we have ϕ−1 (ϕ(a)) = a. (b) If m = n. Hence ϕ is onetoone. Thus ϕ−1 : G → G is onetoone. First we show that ϕ−1 : G → G is a homomorphism. Since the choice of a ∈ ker(ϕ) was arbitrary. and if m < n. then clearly ϕ−1 (a ) = ϕ−1 (b ) (for otherwise a = ϕ(ϕ−1 (a )) = ϕ(ϕ−1 (b )) = b ). a = (a−1 )−1 = (b−1 )−1 = b). we have ϕ(m+n) = am+n = am ∗an = ϕ(m)∗ϕ(n). = a−1 ∗ b−1 = ϕ(a) ∗ ϕ(b) and so ϕ : G → G is a homomorphism. Let a. it is a bijection. in either case we get a contradiction to the fact that a has inﬁnite order). and so b ∗ a ∗ b−1 ∈ ker(ϕ). 4. and so ϕ : Z → a is a homomorphism. b ∗ a ∗ b−1 ∈ ker(ϕ). For all a. Let us denote the homomorphism m → am from Z to a by ϕ. Then a−1 = b−1 (for otherwise. ϕ : Z → a is an isomorphism. We have ϕ(m) = am = b. we have a−1 ∈ G and ϕ(a−1 ) = (a−1 )−1 = a. it follows that ∀a ∈ ker(ϕ) and ∀b ∈ G. if b ∈ a . and so ϕ−1 : G → G is onto. We have ϕ(a ∗ b) = ϕ(a) ∗ ϕ(b) = a ∗ b . 5. Furthermore. then am−n = e. So ϕ is a bijection and consequently. and so ker(ϕ) is a normal subgroup of G. Consequently ϕ−1 : G → G is an isomorphism. if m > n. Since ϕ : G → G is a bijection. Hence ϕ(a) = a−1 = b−1 = ϕ(b). If a ∈ ker(ϕ).
We now check that H1. = 1 0 0 1 = 0 1 x y −x 1 x 0 y 1 . (c) TRUE. . Thus 1 x > 0. G2. consider the group Z of integers with addition. So G is a group with matrix multiplication. then there exists a h ∈ H such that b = a ∗ h. and let H be the subgroup of even integers. y := 0). So f is a bijection. As matrix multiplication is associative. for all A ∈ G. For example. If a ∈ G and h1 . clearly we have AI = A = IA. Thus a ∗ H. Thus f is onetoone. The identity matrix I= 1 0 0 1 ∈ G (x := 1 > 0. for all h ∈ H. Then it can be seen that f is a bijection as follows. we obtain h1 = h2 . Moreover the group axioms are satisﬁed: and furthermore. h2 ∈ H are such that a ∗ h1 = a ∗ h2 . one can show that the function g : H → H ∗ a. Consider the function f : H → a ∗ H given by h → a ∗ h. x y 0 1 and B = x 0 y 1 belong to G. and 1 x y −x 1 0 Moreover. is a bijection. it follows that in particular for elements A. B. given by h → h ∗ a. and it follows that the cardinalities of H and a ∗ H are the same. Hence f is onto. (b) Clearly H ⊂ G. but 0 + H = 2 + H (both these cosets are equal to H). Furthermore. there holds (AB)C = A(BC). C from G. H and H ∗ a all have the same cardinalities. If x y ∈ G. and so AB ∈ G. Then 0 = 2.110 Solutions to the exercises on page 54 1. if b ∈ a ∗ H. H3 are satisﬁed: H1. (a) FALSE. G1. x 0 0 1 ∈ H. G3. If x 0 0 1 . 2. then x > 0 and x > 0. (b) TRUE. for all h ∈ H. As in part 1b above. 0 1 then x > 0. H2. then by premultiplication with a−1 . x y 0 1 0 1 x y −x 1 ∈ G. Consequently f (h) = a ∗ h = b. (a) Matrix multiplication is a law of composition on G: if A = We have AB = x y 0 1 x 0 y 1 = xx 0 xy + y 1 and xx > 0.
namely the matrix 0 also belongs to H. H2. The right coset of H corresponding to the element a= is Ha = = x 0 xx0 0 0 1 xy0 1 x0 0 y0 1 x ∈ R and x > 0 x0 0 y0 1 ∈G x ∈ R and x > 0 .111 then x > 0 and x > 0. If 1 0 0 1 . Thus H is a subgroup of the group G. So 1 x > 0. See Figure 2. then x > 0. x 0 0 1 ∈ H. Clearly the identity element from G. H3. . y0 ).7. So 0 1 x 0 0 1 x 0 0 1 x 0 = xx 0 0 1 0 1 ∈ H. and the inverse of x 0 0 1 in the group G. Thus the right coset Ha is a straight line passing through the origin and the point (x0 . We have x 0 and xx > 0. (c) Let a= x0 0 y0 1 ∈ G. 1 x 0 1 . Thus the left coset aH is a straight line parallel to the xaxis. See Figure 2. and it passes through the point (x0 . Then the corresponding left coset of H is aH = = x0 0 xx0 0 y0 1 y0 1 x 0 0 1 x ∈ R and x > 0 x ∈ R and x > 0 . namely the identity matrix I= also belongs to H. y0 ).8.
If a ∈ H ∩ K. H3. then a ∈ H and a ∈ K. it follows that H ∩ K divides 1. Furthermore.1. b ∈ H ∩ K. it follows that H ∩ K = {e}. Consequently a−1 ∈ H ∩ K. By interchanging the roles of H and K. The cardinality of the group S4 is 4! = 24. it follows that H ∩ K is also a subgroup of K. As K is a subgroup of G. As H and K are subgroups of G. 3. So H ∩ K = 1. The set Z∗ = {[1]. then a. a ∈ G (represented by lines parallel to the xaxis). it follows from Corollary 2. H ∩ K is a subset of the group H. So H ∩ K is a subgroup of H. . we have that H ∩ K divides H = 3.8: Partition of the group G by right cosets Ha. then [a] = [0].8 it follows that [a]p−1 = [1]. . and so [a] ∈ Z∗ .1. As 16 does not divide 24. the following hold: H1. (a) If p does not divide a. b ∈ K. y aH a PSfrag replacements0 H x Figure 2.8 that S4 cannot have an element of order 16. Thus by Lagrange’s theorem. and so it comprises just one element. If a. . . Hence a ∗ b ∈ H ∩ K. Thus e ∈ H ∩ K. As H and K are subgroups. The identity element in the group H is the identity element e from G. As [1] is the identity element in the group Z∗ with p multiplication modulo p. y ∈ R) by left cosets aH. As e ∈ H ∩ K. H2. a ∈ G. [p − 1]} p p has cardinality equal to p − 1. 5) = 1. it follows that a ∗ b ∈ H and a ∗ b ∈ K. . and H ∩ K divides K = 5.112 y a PSfrag replacements0 aH H x Figure 2. 5. b ∈ H and a. it follows that e also belongs to K. 4. As gcd(3. from Corollary 2.7: Partition of the group G (represented by the right half plane: x > 0. a−1 ∈ H and a−1 ∈ K.
If p does not divide a. [4] = [0] in Z7 . and hence it divides ap − a as well. it follows that [3]7−1 = [3]6 = [1]. [22225555 + 55552222 ] = [35 + 32 ] = [32 · 28] = [0]. 5555 = 793 · 7 + 4. [4]7−1 = [4]6 = [1]. it also divides a(ap−1 − 1) = ap − a. so that in Z7 . ap ≡ a(mod p). Thus p divides ap−1 − 1. [22225555] = [2222]5555 = [3]5555 . Proceeding in a similar manner. which proves that 722225555 + 55552222. we can show that [55552222 ] = [32 ]. and so by part 5a above. . [a]p−1 = [1]. from part (5b) above. Again. Thus we obtain [22225555 ] = [3]5555 = [3]925·6+5 = ([3]6 )925 [3]5 = [1]925 [3]5 = [1][3]5 = [3]5 . (c) Note that 2222 = 317 · 7 + 3. that is. Indeed. then p also divides ap .113 (b) If p divides a. and so by part (5b). As [3] = [0] in Z7 . so that [55552222] = [5555]2222 = [4]2222 . Hence [55552222 ] = [4]2222 = [4]370·6+2 ] = ([4]6 )370 [4]2 = [1][4]2 = [4]2 = [−3]2 = [(−3)2 ] = [32 ]. and consequently. Hence [ap−1 ] = [1]. So ap ≡ a(mod p). Finally. and so [ap−1 − 1] = [0]. then [a] = [0].
with addition deﬁned by (2. Finally. 1 · (an )n∈N = (1an )n∈N = (an )n∈N .4). The identity matrix I is invertible. Alternately. Moreover. Let α ∈ R and v ∈ V be such that Then if α = 0. The scalar multiplication of the real number 0 with an invertible matrix is the zero matrix. V2. we have (an )n∈N + (0)n∈N = (an + 0)n∈N = (an )n∈N = (0 + an )n∈N = (0)n∈N + (an )n∈N . V3. then (−an )n∈N ∈ R∞ . 3.114 Solutions to the exercises on page 58 1. (cn )n∈N in R∞ . and furthermore. and so is its additive inverse. Next we check that V1. which is not invertible. G2. which is not invertible. For all (an )n∈N . However. α · v = 0. G4. we have (an )n∈N + (bn )n∈N = (an + bn )n∈N = (bn + an )n∈N = (bn )n∈N + (an )n∈N . 2. and so it does not form an abelian group.2. (an )n∈N +(−an )n∈N = (an +−an )n∈N = (0)n∈N = (−an +an )n∈N = (−an )n∈N +(an )n∈N . For instance the sum of two invertible matrices may not be invertible. The sequence (0)n∈N serves as the identity element: for all (an )n∈N ∈ R∞ . (2.4) gives a law of composition on R∞ . . (bn )n∈N . −I. First we check that R∞ .34) This proves the claim. V4 are also satisﬁed: V1.34)) = (α−1 α) · v (using V2) = (1) · v (since α−1 α = 1) = v (using V1). (bn )n∈N ∈ R∞ . Consequently it is not a vector space. (a) NO. Clearly (2. If (an )n∈N ∈ R∞ . (A. B) → A + B is not a law of composition on the set of invertible matrices. we have ((an )n∈N + (bn )n∈N ) + (cn )n∈N = (an + bn )n∈N + (cn )n∈N = ((an + bn ) + cn )n∈N = (an + (bn + cn ))n∈N = (an )n∈N + (bn + cn )n∈N = (an )n∈N + ((bn )n∈N + (cn )n∈N ). since for all (an )n∈N . G3.1) = α−1 · (α · v) (using (2. then we obtain 0 = α−1 · 0 (Theorem 2. commutativity holds. For all (an )n∈N ∈ R∞ . we have: G1. (b) NO. is an abelian group. I + (−I) = 0. So matrix addition. we can observe that the scalar multiplication of the real number 0 with an invertible matrix is the zero matrix. which is not invertible.
As U1 . y)plane. Consider the subspaces U1 = span of R2 . v2 belong to U2 . (bn )n∈N ∈ R∞ . 0 ∈ U1 and 0 ∈ U2 . S3 hold for U1 ∩ U 2 : So U1 ∩ U2 is a susbpaces of the vector space V . and so U1 ∪ U2 is not a vector space. If v1 . Thus v ∈ U1 and v ∈ U2 . As U1 is a subspace. V4. v2 belong to U1 ∩ U2 . α · (β · (an )n∈N ) = α · (βan )n∈N = (α(βan ))n∈N = ((αβ)an )n∈N = (αβ) · (an )n∈N . For all α. (a) FALSE. U2 are susbpaces. as U2 is a subspace. Solutions to the exercises on page 62 1. S2. For all α. β ∈ R and all (an )n∈N ∈ R∞ . β ∈ R and all (an )n∈N ∈ R∞ . Let α ∈ R and v ∈ U1 ∩U2 . We check that S1. S3.115 V2. ∈ span Thus S2 is not satisﬁed. then v1 . v2 belong to U1 and v1 .5). Then v1 := but v1 + v 2 = since 1 1 1 0 1 0 ∈ U1 ⊂ U1 ∪ U2 and v2 := 1 1 and 0 1 ∈ U2 ⊂ U 1 ∪ U2 . v1 + v2 ∈ U2 . it follows that α · v ∈ U2 . as U2 is a subspace. For all α ∈ R and all (an )n∈N . it follows that α · v ∈ U1 . U2 be susbpaces of the vector space V . Consequently α · v ∈ U 1 ∩ U2 . α · ((an )n∈N + (bn )n∈N ) = α · (an + bn )n∈N = (α(an + bn ))n∈N = (αan + αbn )n∈N = (αan )n∈N + (αbn )n∈N = α · (an )n∈N + α · (bn )n∈N . So R∞ is a vector space with addition deﬁned by (2. x in R2 can be represented by a point in the (x.4) and scalar multiplication deﬁned by (2. (b) TRUE. V3. v1 + v2 ∈ U1 . Also. S2. 1 1 ∈ span 0 1 . . 1 0 and U2 = span 0 1 ∈ U1 ∪ U2 .9). S1. Moreover. Thus 0 ∈ U1 ∩ U2 . As U1 is a subspace. and the (Each vector y above can be seen pictorially in Figure 2. (α + β) · (an )n∈N = ((α + β)an )n∈N = (αan + βan )n∈N = (αan )n∈N + (βan )n∈N = α · (an )n∈N + β · (an )n∈N . Let U1 . Hence v1 + v 2 ∈ U 1 ∩ U 2 .
0 0 are linearly dependent. Suppose that there exist scalars such that α1 · v1 + α2 · v2 + α3 · v3 = 0. (f) FALSE. v2 . and by the independence of v1 .116 y R2 PSfrag replacements U1 x v1 v2 v1 + v 2 U2 Figure 2. . span . v2 := 1 . We have 1 1 0 2 = 1 · 3 + (−1) · 1 . Indeed. (c) TRUE. (a) Clearly. observe that if x y =α· 1 t1 +β· . since 1 · v1 + 1 · v2 + 1 · v3 + (−1) · v4 = 0. v3 are linearly independent. (In order to prove the reverse inclusion. For instance. v3 . while the vectors v1 . v3 are linearly independent. 1 1 v4 := 1 . v4 . 3 4 1 1 1 0 0 (3) · 0 + (−3) · 2 + (2) · 3 = 0 . So v1 . (d) FALSE. v2 . 1 t1 1 t2 ⊂ R2 . v2 . in R3 . the vectors 0 1 v1 := 0 . 1 2. Then we have α1 · v1 + α2 · v2 + α3 · v3 + 0 · v4 = α1 · v1 + α2 · v2 + α3 · v3 + 0 = α1 · v1 + α2 · v2 + α3 · v3 = 0. 1 1 0 0 (e) TRUE.9: The union U1 ∪ U2 of subspaces U1 and U2 is not a subspace. then we obtain the linear equations α+β αt1 + βt2 = x. 1 t2 0 v3 := 0 . it follows that α1 = α2 = α3 = 0. = y.
2. t1 t2 As Uk is a subspace of R2 . . we obtain R2 ⊂ Uk . 1 t2 ⊂ Uk . . We have: S2. (an )n∈N + (bn )n∈N belongs to ∞ . we have x y So R2 ⊂ span Hence the claim follows. Let α ∈ R and (an )n∈N ∈ ∞ . that is. (bn )n∈N belong to c. αan  = αan  ≤ (α + 1)M . . If (an )n∈N . the sequence (αan )n∈N is also convergent. n}. t2 such that 1 1 .2. From the result of the part above. an  ≤ M . 1 t2 . and so the sequence (an + bn )n∈N is bounded. it follows that the sequence (an + bn )n∈N is also convergent. ∞ c is a subspace of . The sequence (0)n∈N is the zero vector in R∞ . As t1 − t2 = 0. an + bn  ≤ an  + bn  ≤ M1 + M2 . So ∞ S1. the nth term of the sequence (0)n∈N is equal to 0. S3. then there exist M1 . Then by Theorem 1.4. that is.) We now complete the proof as ∈ R2 . = y − xt2 · t1 − t 2 1 t1 + xt1 − y · t1 − t 2 1 t1 1 t2 ∈ span 1 t2 1 t1 . that is Uk is not a proper subspace. 3. since it is bounded: indeed for all n ∈ N. S2. M2 > 0 such that for all n ∈ N. (b) Suppose that U1 . and it belongs to ∞ . ∞ is a subspace of R∞ . . that is. is a subspace of R∞ . it follows that inﬁnitely many elements from S belong to one of the subspaces. then by Theorem 1. . say Uk for some k ∈ {1. such that U1 ∪ · · · ∪ Un = R2 . Thus for all n ∈ N. (bn )n∈N belong to ∞ . α · (an )n∈N belongs to c.4. there holds: ∞ S1. Un are subspaces of R2 . . . and so Uk = R2 . Since the inﬁnite set 1 S := t∈R t is contained in R2 = U1 ∪ · · · ∪ Un . ∈ Uk . . Let α ∈ R and (an )n∈N ∈ c. and so the sequence (αan )n∈N is bounded. Thus there exist real numbers t1 . We have: . Hence for all n ∈ N. . an  ≤ M1 and an  ≤ M2 . Then there exists an M > 0 such that for all n ∈ N. Thus c is a subspace of ∞ . S3. and so (an )n∈N + (bn )n∈N belongs to c. and it belongs to c. If (an )n∈N . .117 which have the solution α = follows: suppose that y−xt2 t1 −t2 and β = x y xt1 −y t1 −t2 . and 0 = 0 ≤ 1. The sequence (0)n∈N is the zero vector in . α · (an )n∈N belongs to ∞ . Indeed. it follows that span 1 t1 . c0 is a subspace of c. since it is convergent.
n∈N (n)n∈N ∈ R∞ . c00 is a subspace of c0 . ((−1)n )n∈N ∈ ∞ . 0(0) = 0 and 0(1) = 0. S2. bn = 0.2. y2 ) is a subspace of C[0. then by Theorem 1. so is f + g. S3. an = 0.4. (The examples 1 n ∈ c0 . we obtain an + bn = 0 + 0 = 0. (bn )n∈N belong to c00 . since it is a convergent sequence with limit equal to 0.2. . 0). since 0 is continuous on [0. Thus with N := max{N1 . n→∞ n→∞ that is. Let α ∈ R and (an )n∈N ∈ c0 . (1)n∈N ∈ c. an = 0 and ∀n > N2 . 1] and moreover. Let f ∈ S(0. y2 ). 1]. Hence S(0. then f + g ∈ S(0. y2 ). If (an )n∈N . 1]. there holds: S1. Then we have: S1. 0). the sequence (αan )n∈N is also convergent and lim αan = α lim an = α0 = 0. If f ∈ S(y1 . N2 ∈ N such that ∀n > N1 . Only if: Suppose that S(y1 . Then by Theorem 1. as f. and furthermore. N2 } ∈ N.4. then 2 · f ∈ S(y1 . Indeed. it follows that the sequence (an + bn )n∈N is also convergent and n→∞ lim (an + bn ) = lim an + lim bn = 0 + 0 = 0. Consequently y1 = 0 = y 2 . Hence c0 is a subspace of c. Then there exists an N ∈ N such that for all n > N . S2. The sequence (0)n∈N is the zero vector in c. for all n > N . Then α · f is continuous on [0. The sequence (0)n∈N is the zero vector in c0 . Thus (αan )n∈N = α · (an )n∈N belongs to c00 . and so αan = α0 = 0. If (an )n∈N . and so 2y1 = y1 and 2y2 = y2 . S2. 0) is a subspace of C[0. Thus (2·f )(0) = y1 and (2·f )(1) = y2 . S3. Hence c00 is a subspace of c0 . If f. and it belongs to c00 . an = 0. show that each of the inclusions are strict. The zero function 0 ∈ S(0. 1]. g ∈ S(0. and also (f + g)(0) = f (0) + g(0) = 0 + 0 = 0 and (f + g)(1) = f (1) + g(1) = 0 + 0 = 0. 0) and α ∈ R. 0). (bn )n∈N belong to c0 .) 4. then there exist N1 . α · (an )n∈N belongs to c0 . g are continuous on [0. and it belongs to c0 . (α · f )(0) = αf (0) = α0 = 0 and (α · f )(1) = αf (1) = α0 = 0. Let α ∈ R and (an )n∈N ∈ c00 . S3. Indeed. If: Let y1 = 0 = y2 . 1]. Hence (an )n∈N + (bn )n∈N = (an + bn )n∈N belongs to c00 .118 S1. n→∞ n→∞ and so (an )n∈N + (bn )n∈N belongs to c0 . since for all n > 1.
vn . fd are all polynomials and so they are all continuous on [0. 1]. it follows that there exist scalars α1 . . . . . . Consider the d functions f1 . fd deﬁned by f1 (x) = x f2 (x) = x2 3 f3 (x) = x for all x ∈ [0. B2 hold it follows that B is a basis. = 0. Suppose that C[0. . and by the independence of v1 . 1]. . So we obtain (α1 − α1 ) · v1 + · · · + (αn − αn ) · vn = 0. that is α1 = α1 . Now we prove the following. . it then follows that α1 − α1 = · · · = αn − αn = 0. . γ are scalars such that 0 1 1 1 α · 0 +β · 1 +γ · 1 = 0 . As v ∈ V = span(B). 1] is a ﬁnite dimensional vector space with dimension d. 0 1 0 0 then we obtain α+β+γ β+γ γ = 0. αn = αn . . fd ∈ C[0. and let v ∈ V . . . . 2. . z then 1 1 1 1 1 x 1 y = (x−y)· 0 +(y−z)· 1 +z· 1 ∈ span 0 . fd (x) = xd (2. If α. 1 . So B is linearly independent. We have: B1. . . . In order to prove uniquness. . We prove this by contradiction. . 1 . that is. So v is a linear combination of vectors from V .35) The functions f1 . If x y ∈ R3 . . . say. vn } is a basis of the vector space V . . . 3. . 1 . = 0. . 1 0 0 1 0 0 z Thus 1 1 1 span 0 . αn such that α1 · v 1 + · · · + α n · v n = v = α 1 · v 1 + · · · + α n · v n . . . f1 . β. . suppose that there exist scalars α1 . 1 = R3 . αn such that v = α1 · v1 + · · · + αn · vn . . Since B1. . .119 Solutions to the exercises on page 64 1. 1 0 0 B2. . and so it follows that α = β = γ = 0. . . . 1]. Suppose that B = {v1 . .
120 Claim: The functions f1 , . . . , fd given by (2.35) are linearly independent in C[0, 1]. Proof Suppose that there exist scalars α1 , . . . , αd , not all zeros, such that α1 · f1 + · · · + αd · fd = 0. Then for all x ∈ [0, 1], (α1 · f1 + · · · + αd · fd )(x) = 0(x), that is, for all x ∈ [0, 1], α1 x + · · · + αd xd = 0.
Let k ∈ {1, 2, . . . , d} be the smallest number such that αk = 0. Then we obtain for all x ∈ [0, 1], αk xk + αk+1 xk+1 + · · · + αd xd = 0,
and so for all x ∈ [0, 1], xk (αk + αk+1 x + αk+2 x2 + · · · + αd xd−k ) = 0. For all n ∈ N, 1 0 < n < 1, and so we have for all n ∈ N, that is, for all n ∈ N, Hence 0 = =
n→∞
1 n
k
αk + αk+1
1 n
+ αk+2
1 n
2
+ · · · + αd
1 n
d−k
= 0,
αk + αk+1
1 n
+ αk+2
1 n
2
+ · · · + αd
1 n
d−k
= 0.
lim 0 lim αk + αk+1 1 n + αk+2 1 n
2
n→∞
+ · · · + αd
1 n
d−k
= αk ,
= αk + 0 + · · · + 0
a contradiction. So f1 , . . . , fd are linearly independent in C[0, 1]. Consequently, by Theorem 2.2.3, it follows that {f1 , . . . , fd } is a basis of C[0, 1], and in particular, they span the whole space C[0, 1]. The constant function 1 : [0, 1] → R, deﬁned by 1(x) = 1 for all x ∈ [0, 1] clearly belongs to C[0, 1], and so, from the above, there must exist scalars β1 , . . . , βd such that 1 = β 1 · f1 + · · · + β d · fd . Thus for all x ∈ [0, 1], 1(x) = (β1 · f1 + · · · + βd · fd )(x), that is, for all x ∈ [0, 1], 1 = β 1 x + · · · + β d xd .
In particular, with x = 0, we obtain 1 = 0, a contradiction. So C[0, 1] is not a ﬁnite dimensional vector space. 4. (a) We have B1. Let (an )n∈N ∈ c00 . Then there exists an N ∈ N such that for all n > N , an = 0. Clearly (an )n∈N = a1 · e1 + · · · + an · en ∈ span({ek  k ∈ N}). So c00 ⊂ span(B).
121 On the other hand, suppose that k1 , . . . , km ∈ N, and α1 , . . . , αm be scalars. If N := max{k1 , . . . , km }, then for all n > N , the nth term of the sequence α 1 · e k1 + · · · + α m · e km is α1 0 + · · · + αm 0 = 0. Thus α1 · ek1 + · · · + αm · ekm ∈ c00 . Consequently span(B) ⊂ c00 . So span(B) = c00 . B2. Suppose that k1 < · · · < km are natural numbers, and α1 , . . . , αm be scalars, not all zeros, such that α1 · ek1 + · · · + αm · ekm = (0)n∈N .
Let l ∈ {1, . . . , m} be the largest number such that αl = 0. Then equating the kl th term on both sides, we obtain that αl = 0, a contradiction. So B is linearly independent. (b) Indeed, if B were a basis for R∞ , then the sequence (1)n∈N would be a linear combination of elements from B. But as seen above, any linear combination of elements from B is in c00 , that is, it is a sequence that is eventually zero. Clearly (1)n∈N ∈ c00 , and so it is not a linear combination of elements from c00 .
Solutions to the exercises on page 68
1. (a) We have ker(TA ) = = = = x y x y x y 0 0 . TA x y = = 0 0 0 0
x+y y x=y=0
We depict this set in the (x, y)plane in Figure 2.10. y R2
x PSfrag replacements ker(TA )
Figure 2.10: Kernel of TA . x x−y x = TA , ∈ R2 , then y y y and so R2 ⊂ im(TA ). Hence im(TA ) = R2 . We depict this set in the (x, y)plane in Figure 2.11. Clearly im(TA ) ⊂ R2 . On the other hand, if
122 y
im(TA ) = R2
x PSfrag replacements
Figure 2.11: Image of TA . (b) We have ker(TA ) = = = x y x y x y TA x y = = 0 0 0 0
x+y 0
x+y =0 .
We depict this set in the (x, y)plane in Figure 2.12. y R2
x PSfrag replacements ker(TA )
Figure 2.12: Kernel of TA . We have im(TA ) ⊂ S := since for all Conversely, since x 0 = TA x 0 , x y ∈ R2 , x 0 TA
∈ R2 x y =
x∈R , x+y 0 ∈ S.
it follows that S ⊂ im(TA ). Hence im(TA ) = S. We depict this set in the (x, y)plane in Figure 2.13.
y)plane in Figure 2. (c) We have ker(TA ) = = = R2 .15. . since T while T −1 0 + 0 1 =T −1 1 −1 0 = (−1)2 1 1 = 1 1 .13: Image of TA .14. −1 0 +T 0 1 = + 0 1 = −1 1 . We depict this set in the (x. 2. Clearly im(TA ) = 0 0 . L1 is not satisﬁed.14: Kernel of TA . We depict this set in the (x. y ker(TA ) = R2 x y x y TA x y = 0 0 x ∈ R and y ∈ R x PSfrag replacements Figure 2.123 y R2 im(TA ) x PSfrag replacements Figure 2. y)plane in Figure 2.
(a) We verify that L1 and L2 hold: .124 y R2 x PSfrag replacements im(TA ) Figure 2. and all ∈ R2 . if x1 x2 = 0 x1 x2 If α = 0. 3. and x1 x2 T ∈ R2 . we have α· x1 x2 x1 x2 T α· =T 0 0 = 0 0 =0· T x1 x2 . Thus for all α ∈ R. and so L2 holds. If α ∈ R \ {0} and T x1 x2 α· ∈ R2 . x1 x2 =α· T x1 x2 . then we have x1 x2 αx1 = T αx2 α2 x2 1 αx2 αx2 = αx1 αx2 x2 1 α · x2 x2 = α · x1 x2 = α· T if x1 x2 = 0 if x1 x2 = 0 if x1 x2 = 0 .15: Image of TA .
So T is a linear transformation from c to R. is convergent with limit L. . .4) = α · T ((an )n∈N ). n→∞ and so ker(T ) is the set comprising all convergent sequences with limit 0. Consequently. (b) We have ker(T ) = {(an )n∈N ∈ c  T ((an )n∈N ) = 0} = {(an )n∈N ∈ c  lim an = 0}.4) = T ((an )n∈N ) + T ((bn )n∈N ).2. Thus T ((L)n∈N ) = L.2. and so L ∈ im(T ). For all α ∈ R. Moreover. the subspace c0 . So R ⊂ im(T ).125 L1. (c) Clearly. and all (an )n∈N ∈ c. that is. im(T ) ⊂ R. if L ∈ R. we have T ((an )n∈N + (bn )n∈N ) = T ((an + bn )n∈N ) = = n→∞ lim (an + bn ) lim an + lim bn n→∞ n→∞ (Theorem 1. . we have T (α · (an )n∈N ) = T ((αan )n∈N ) = n→∞ lim αan n→∞ = α lim an (Theorem 1. L. im(T ) = R. . For all (an )n∈N and (bn )n∈N in c. L. then the constant sequence L. L2.
126 .
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61 lower bound. 50 image of a linear transformation. 26 general linear group. 53 law of composition on a set. 34 interval. 1 Cauchy sequence. 52 periodic function. 39 least upper bound. 64 inﬁnite group. 31 Archimedean property. set. 40 group axioms. 65 linearly dependent vectors. 66 increasing sequence. 55 divergent sequence. 47 commutativity. 47 fractional part of a real number. 31 abelian group. 32 positive deﬁniteness. 60 linear transformation. 25 bounded above. set. 54 ﬁnite dimensional vector space. 1 bounded function. 48 greatest integer part of a real number. 43 ﬁnite order. 41 generator of a group. 48 decreasing sequence. 51 order of a group. 11 eventually zero sequence. 3 linear combination of vectors. 5 absolute value of a function. 61 linearly dependent set. 27 continuous function. 61 linearly independent set. 10 counting formula. 15 induced law of composition. 42 absolute value. 43 identity element in a group. 15 normal subgroup. 51 kernel of a homomorphism. 26 greatest upper bound. 40 basis of a vector space. 33 Fermat’s little theorem. 40 isomorphism. 3 minimum. 15 dimension of a vector space. 2 inﬁnite dimensional of a vector space. 53 cyclic. 33. 43 inﬁnite order. group element with. 62 extreme value theorem. 2 group. 47 partition. 7 image of a homomorphism. 1 maximum. 40 iﬀ. 34 polynomial function. 63 BolzanoWeierstrass theorem. 4 associativity. 43 order of an element in a group. 2 least upper bound property. 3 monotone sequence. 27 convergent sequence. 64 distance. 1 bounded below.Index kth power of a function. 61 linearly independent vectors. 6 product of functions. group element with. 5 inverse of an element in a group. 34 bounded sequence. 31 . 50 kernel of a linear transformation. 5 distributive laws. 14 bounded set. 40 129 group table. 45 inﬁmum. 47 intermediate value theorem. 66 Lagrange’s theorem. 64 ﬁnite group. 42 continuity of a function at a point. 13 center of a group.
23 subspace of a vector space. 6 triangle inequality. 2 symmetric group. 55 Index . 6 upper bound. 25 sequence. 46. 44 symmetric matrix. 59 symmetry. 59 vector. 32 right cosets. 50 subgroup. 21 scalar multiplication. 55 seaview property. 55 vector addition. 59 sum of functions. 60 special linear group. 1 upper triangular matrix. 55 zero vector. 9 span of a subset of a vector space. 45 subsequence. 59 rational function.130 proper subspace. 31 supremum. 45. 55 vector space. 53 Sandwich theorem.
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