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Using knitR (R + L A T E X) in R Studio: A Demo

Pairach Piboonrungroj 1,2,

1. Logistics Systems Dynamics Group, Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University, United Kingdom

2. Chiang Mai School of Economics, Chiang Mai University, Thailand

1. Show only R source code

1 +

1

2. Show only output

##



2

3. Show both source code and output

 1 + 1 ##  2

4. Show source code in grey shade but the output

1 +

1

 2

 5. Now, testing a linear model # generating value for x variable from 1 to 100 x <- c(1:100) # creat error term e <- rnorm(100, mean = 5, sd = 10000) # computing y equal to 3 plus five times x plus random number y = 10 + 100 * x + e

Set the format of all object called pdf()

 my_pdf = function(file, width, height) { pdf(file, width = 5, height = 5, pointsize = 10) } 6. See the scatter plot

plot(x,

y)

30000

10000

y 0

−10000

−30000    0

20

40

60

80

100

x

7. Let’s build a linear model by regressing y on x # creating
a
linear
model
by
regressing
y
on
x
as
'lm1'
object
lm1
<-
lm(y ˜
x)
#
calling
a
summary
of
linear
model
result
summary(lm1)
##
##
Call:
##
lm(formula
=
y
˜
x)
##
##
Residuals:
##
Min
1Q
Median
3Q
Max
##
-27498
-5830
-323
6265
24228
##
##
Coefficients:
##
Estimate
Std.
Error
t
value
Pr(>|t|)
##
(Intercept)
-3457.7
2027.2
-1.71
0.09124
.
##
x
132.8
34.9
3.81
0.00024
***
##
---
##
Signif.
codes:
0
' *** '
0.001
' ** '
0.01
'
* '
0.05
'.'
0.1
'
'
1
##
##
Residual
standard
error:
10100
on
98
degrees
of
freedom
##
Multiple
R-squared:
R-squared:
0.12
##
F-statistic:
14.5
on
1
and
98
DF,
p-value:
0.000242
##

Standardized residuals

3

2

1

−1

−3

8. Now we can create a post-hoc plots to check assumptions of regression

#

Creating

post-hoc

plot

for

lm1

 par(mfrow = c(2, 2)) plot(lm1)

Residuals vs Fitted 98
46
2
−2000
4000
8000
Residuals
−30000
0
20000

Fitted values

Normal Q−Q 98
46
2
−2
−1
0
1
2

Theoretical Quantiles Scale−Location
Residuals vs Leverage
2
98
98 7
46
Cook's distance
2
−2000
4000
8000
0.00
0.02
0.04
Fitted values
Leverage
Standardized residuals
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
Standardized residuals
−3
−1
1
3