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BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY

TIRUCHIRAPPALLI 620 024


INDIA

M.Phil. Microbiology
(AUTONOMOUS)

CURRICULUM (with effect from the academic year 2007-2008 onwards)

DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY REGULATIONS FOR M.Phil. Microbiology (UNDER AUTONOMY) 1. Name of the Course: M.Phil. Microbiology (Full Time) 2. Department offering the Course: The Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences will be offering the course since 2007.

3. Eligibility for admission: A candidate, who has qualified for the Masters Degree (through regular study / Distance Education mode / Open University System) with not less than 55% of marks or 5.51 in 10.00 grade point average scale under CBCS in Microbiology or other interdisciplinary subject(Botany, Zoology, Plant Science, Animal Sciences, Bio Chemistry, Biotechnology and M.Sc., Life Sciences. A candidate who has qualified for the Masters Degree prior to 19.09.1991, with not less than 50% of marks, is eligible to register for M.Phil. Programme in this University. The SC/ST candidates are given 5% relaxation from the prescribed minimum marks. 4. Duration of the course: The duration of the M.Phil.programme shall be one year consisting of two semesters. For the candidates course - I, course - II, course - III, will be covered in the first semester and course - IV and dissertation will be covered in the second semester. 5. Number of Course: A candidate has to take three course papers (course - I, course - II, course III) in the First Semester and one Course paper (course IV) and Dissertation in the Second Semester The M.Phil programme shall commence from July - August. The First Semester examinations shall be conducted in January / February. The Second Semester starts from March/April and the examinations shall be conducted in August / September (credits and workload for each course shall be as per the P.G. norms).

6. Board of Studies: The Board of Studies for academic programmes, syllabi etc., will consist of all the members of the faculty of the Department of Microbiology and two outside experts. The Head of the Department of Microbiology will be the Chairman. 7. Programme of Study: The syllabi for courses - I, II, III, and IV shall be prescribed by the respective Adhoc Course Committee. The syllabi for all the 4 courses shall consist of five units. The Question papers for Courses - I to IV shall be set externally and valued by both external Examiners and Course Teachers. The consolidated results passed by the Result Passing Board of the Microbiology Department. 8. Scheme of Examinations: (Credits and workload for the course shall be as per the P.G.norms) Semester - I Course I Course II Course III Semester II Course IV (Elective) Dissertation Marks 100 100 100 100 200 (150+50) Credit 4 4 4 4 8

Of the above four courses, one could be a course on Research Methodology and another(Course IV) shall be an elective from out of three or four major branches of the concerned discipline in which the research areas are likely to polarize. 9. Written examination

The examination for courses - I, II, & III shall be taken at the end of the first semester (January/February) and course IV (Elective) at the end of the second semester (August/ September). Each course shall have 75 marks for the Written Examination and 25 marks for Continuous Internal Assessment. The duration for each written examination shall be 3 hours. A candidate shall be declared to have passed course I, II, III and IV, if he/she secures not less than 40% of the marks in the University Examination and 50% of the marks in the aggregate (i.e. continuous internal assessment and the written Examination taken together). 10 Supplementary examinations The theory courses shall be conducted depending upon the exigency. 3

11. Part - II: Dissertation Candidates shall submit the two copies of dissertation to the Department through the Supervisor not earlier than 5 months but within 6 months from the date of start of the second semester. If a candidate is not able to submit his dissertation within the period stated above, he / she shall be given an extension time of 4 months in the first instance and another 4 months in the second instance with penalty fees. If a candidate does not submit his / her dissertation even after the two extensions, his /her registration shall be treated as cancelled and he / she have to reregister for the programme. However the candidate need not write the theory papers again, if he/she has already passed these courses. The dissertation shall be valued by both external examiner and concerned Supervisor for a Maximum of 150 marks and the average shall be taken. The external examiner shall be selected from a panel of 3 experts suggested by the Research Supervisor and who are working within/or nearby the respective University area. However, the Department may ask for another panel, if necessary. The valuation of M.Phil. Dissertations and viva shall be done on the same day at the place of the Research Supervisor (viva is to be conducted only if the student passes in the valuation of the dissertation) and the mark should be handed over to the chairman of examination on the same day. 12. Viva-voce Examination There shall be a viva-voce examination which shall be conducted by two examiners, one being the supervisor and the other who evaluated the dissertation. The maximum marks for the viva shall be 50 (joint evaluation). A candidate shall be declared to have passed Part - II Examination if he/she secures not less than 50% of the marks prescribed for the dissertation and 50% of the marks prescribed for the viva-voce Examination. If the examiner who values the dissertation makes a qualified recommendation such as revision of dissertation, the candidate shall be advised to revise the dissertation in the light of the suggestions made by the examiners and re-submit the dissertation, within a period of SIX months. A sum of Rs.1500/- shall be charged as fee for Re-submission of dissertation. The revised dissertation shall be sent to the same examiner who evaluated the dissertation in the first instance. 13. Classification of Successful Candidates: The candidate who passes written papers and dissertation in their first attempt shall be classified as follows.

Total Marks secured in written papers and dissertation 80% and above 60% to 79% 50% to 59%

Classification I Class with Distinction I Class II Class

A candidate who passes the programme in more than one attempt shall be declared to have completed the programme under the II Class. 14. Restriction in Number of Chances: No candidate shall be permitted to appear for the written Examination in any course on more than two occasions or to submit a dissertation or appear for the viva-voce examination more than twice. Resubmission of a dissertation shall be done with penalty fee, within 6 months from the first of the month which follows the month in which result of the first attempt is announced. The permitted attempts of semester-I & II Examinations shall be completed within a maximum period of 36 months from the first of the month which follows the month in which the registration was done. 15. Conferment of the Degree: No candidate shall be eligible for the conferment of the M.Phil. programme unless he/she is declared to have passed both written examinations and dissertation of the programme. Normally a person shall be allowed to guide not more than three candidates. Change of Supervisor may be permitted by the University based on the merit of the individual cases. The Research supervisors, serving as teachers, would be permitted to register candidates up to the age of 62 years. 16. Re-Registration: The candidates shall be permitted for Re-Registration based on the merit of individual cases. The Re-registered candidates are required to submit the dissertation not earlier than three months and not later than one year after the date of re-registration. No further extension of time shall be given 5

17. Fees Fees for M.Phil. Programme Tuition fee (per annum) 3500/Special fee 400/Laboratory fee 2000/Caution Deposit 1000/Alumni fee 200 Registration fee 500/Re-registration fee 750/Matriculation fee 50/Library fee 200/Library fee SC/ST only 100/(and other fees as decided by the University from time to time) Examination fee (4 x 250 papers I to IV) Dissertation fee Submission of revised dissertation Late Submission of Dissertation: 1. Fee for first extension 2. Fee for Second extension Cost of Application 1000 1500/1500/250/250/250/-

The candidates who intend to Re-register shall pay the following fees prescribed for Second semester / year

Particulars Tuition fee (per annum) Special fee Laboratory fee Special Laboratory fee Re-registration fee *********

Amount 1500/400/ 2000/ 1000/750/-

GRADING OF THE COURSES Marks 96 and above 91-95 86-90 81-85 76-80 71-75 66-70 61-65 56-60 50-55 Below 50 FINAL RESULT CGPA 9.51 and above 9.01 9.50 8.51 - 9.00 8.01 - 8.50 7.51 - 8.00 7.01 - 7.50 6.51 - 7.00 6.01 - 6.50 5.51 - 6.00 5.00 - 5.50 Below 5.00 Letter Grade S+ S D++ D+ D A++ A+ A B C F Classification of Final Result First Class Exemplary First Class Distinction First Class Second Class Fail Grade point 10 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 0 Letter Grade S+ S D++ D+ D A++ A+ A B C F

M.Phil. Microbiology Semester - I MCP 1 Research Methodology


Unit I: Microscopy Bright field, Dark field, Phase contrast, Fluorescent and Polarization microscopes - Electron microscopy TEM & SEM principle structure and applications specimen preparation of electron microscope. Ultra thin sectioning of specimens using microtomes - Confocal microscope , Atomic force microscope (AFM). Unit II: Analytical instrumentations Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, NMR, Mass spectrometry, GC & MS, MALDI ToP, IR spectrum, X-ray crystallography. Measurement of radioactivity X ray film, GM counter & scintillation counting methods. sciences. Unit III: Separation techniques Centrifugation - preparative and analytical, ultra centrifugation, density gradient centrifugation. GC & HPLC - Electrophoresis Principle, types and applications - PAGE (proteins), Agarose (Nucleic acids), Pulse field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Two dimensional electrophoresis (IEF), DGCE, TGGE and TRFLP. Unit IV: rDNA techniques Restriction mapping - RFLP, Cloning strategies, DNA sequencing manual and automated methods. Southern, Northern, Western and Dot blotting & hybridization. Polymerase Chain Reaction principles, types and applications, Single locus and multi locus DNA finger printing, PCR based DNA finger printing - RAPD, AFLP, STRR and LTRR analysis. DNA sequencing manual and automated methods. Unit V: Bioinformatics Genbank sequence data bases NCBI, EMBL, DDBJ retrieving database entries. Sequence alignment and database searching FASTA, BLAST - Phylogenetic analysis - Secondary and 3D structure prediction using DNA and protein sequences. publishing. Guidelines in preparation of manuscripts & thesis. Data processing and Application of Radioisotopes in biological

References: 1. Arora PN & Malhon PK, (1996) Biostatistics. Imalaya Publishing House, Mumbai. 2. Sokal & Rohif, (1973) Introduction to Biostatistics Toppan Co. Japan. 3. Stanton A & Clantz, Primer of Biostatistics The McGraw Hill Inc., New York. 4. Baxevanis, A.D. & Ouellette, B.F.F. (2001). Bioinformatics: A practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins Wiley Interscience New York 5. Cynthia Gibas & Per Jambeck (2001) Developing Bioinformatics Computer Skills: Shroff Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd (OReilly), Mumbai 6. Des Higgins & Willie Taylor (2000) Bioinformatics: Sequence, structure and databanks. Oxford University Press 7. Zar, J.H. (1996). Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper saddle River, New Jersey, USA 8. John G Webster(2004).Bioinstrumentation .Student edition, John Wiley &sons, Ltd. 9. Keith Wilson& John Walker (2003) Practical Biochemistry Principles & techniques.5th edition,Cambridge university press. 10. Grumani N (2006) Research methadology for biological sciences.1st Edition , MJP Publishers, A unit of Tamilnadu Book House . 11. Jogdand SN (2004) Gene Biotechnology Published by Himalaya Publishing House,Mumbai. 12. Palanivelu P (2001)Analitical biochemistry and separation Techniques A Laboratory maual. 2nd edition ,Published by Tulsi Book Centre, Madurai, Tamilnadu. 13. Karp, G. 1999. Cell and Molecular Biology Concepts and experiments. 2nd edn. 14. Kleinsmith, L. J. & Kish, V.M. 1995. Principles of Cell and Molecular Biology. 2nd edn., McLaughlin, S., Trost, K., Mac Elree, E. (eds.)., Harper Collins Publishers, New York.

Semester - I MCP 2 Microbial Biotechnology Unit I: Historical development of Microbial technology Introduction Contribution of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, Alexander Fleming, S.A. Wakesman and others in the development of microbiology and the early discoveries. Industrially important microorganisms. Products obtained from microorganism. Isolation, purification and preservation of microbes. Cell culture techniques aseptic transfer. Unit II: Microbes in Medicine Clinically important microorganisms and their effects on infection and immunity. Production of toxins by microorganism. Disease caused by pathogens and their control. Production of medicinally important substances by microbes. Production of useful nonmicrobial products produced through recombinant microbes insulin, vaccines, and antibiotics. Production of antibodies in E. coli. Unit III: Microbial Products and their bioprocesses Single cell protein Chlorella, Spirullina, Yeasts, Mushrooms SCP from wastes. Economic implications of SCP. Microbial production of enzymes cellulase, lipase, Taq polymerase, and restriction endonuclease. Production of wine, vinegar and alcohol. Biofertilizers cyanobacteria, Azospirillum, VAM and Azolla. Strategies applied for drug discoveries. Unit IV: Biodegradation and Bioremediation Microbes involved in biodegradation of organic wastes and xenobiotic compounds heavy metals, pesticides, insecticides. Bioinsecticides BT toxin. Microbial leaching Extraction of metals from ores. Biofuels, Microbial hydrogen production. biodegradation of oils and petroleum products. Unit V: IPR, Biosafety and bioethics World Trade Organization (WTO) with reference to biotechnology affairs Basic requirement of patentability, process of patenting, patenting biological materials. National & International patent laws. Biosafety regulations and assessment of biotechnology products drugs/vaccines & GMO. Biosafety protocols Biological weapons. Principles of bioethics ethical conflicts in biotechnology.

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References: 1. Raledge C and Kristiansen B Eds (2001) Basic Biotechnology, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press. 2. Balasubramanian D, Bryce CFA, Dharmalingam K, Green J, Jayaraman K. (1996). Concepts in Biotechnology, University Press, India. 3. Baxevanis AD and BFF Ouellette, Wiley O. (ed) (2001) Bioinformatics A practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins. Interscience, New York, 4. Borowitzka MA, Borowitzka LJ (1989) Microalgal Biotechnology, Cambridge University Press. 5. Alan T. Bull. Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM press. Washington, D.C 6. Brenden Wren and Nick Dorrell, Functional Microbial Genomics (Volume 33) (Methods in Microbiology), Academic Press 7. Alexander Hillisch and Rolf Hilgenfeld. Modern Methods of Drug Discovery, Birkhauser, Switzerland 8. Doolittle RF. (1990). Molecular evolution. Computer Analysis of Protein and Nucleic acid Sequences Methods in Enzymilogy. Academic Press, New York. 9. Gerbardt P, Murray RG, Wood WA , Kreig NR. (1994) Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology American Society for Microbiology Washington D.C. 10. Glick BR, Pasternak JJ (1998) Molecular Biotechnology - Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA, ASM Press, Washington DC. 11. Higgins D, Taylor W. (2000). Bioinformatics, sequence, structure and databanks A practical approach. Oxford University Press. 12. Glazer AN, Nikaido H. (1994) Microbial Biotechnology Fundamentals of Applied Microbiology WH Freeman and Company, New York. 13. Glick BR, Pasternak JJ. (1994) Molecular Biotechnology, ASM Press, Washingon DC. 14. Miyamoto MM, Cracraft JL. Phylogenetic Analysis of DNA sequences. Oxford University Press. Oxford. 15. Pnolella P (1998) Introduction to Molecular Biology, WCB Mc Graw Hill, Boston, Massacheutts.

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Semester - I MCP 3 Microbial Genomics UNIT I: Genome Mapping Genome size-complexity- structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome. Physical mapping of genome-Sequencing whole genome- Restriction mapping FISH STS mapping - Hybridization assays - Physical mapping without cloning- Mapping by genetic techniques DNA markers - RFLPs, SSLPs, SNPs Linkage analysis Cross breeding and pedigree analysis. UNIT- II: Sequencing methods and Strategies Basic DNA sequencing - Modifications of chain-terminator sequences- Automated DNA sequencing- DNA sequencing by capillary array electrophoresis- shotgun sequencing Overlapping clone contigs - High throughput sequencing- sequencing strategiesAlternative DNA sequencing EST sequencing and sequence skimming. UNIT III: Genome Analysis Overview of sequence analysis- Gene prediction- Tools for genome analysis. Detecting open-reading frames-using homology to find genes- software programs for finding genesIdentifying the function of a new gene- Analyses not based on homology-Genome annotation- Molecular phylogenetics. UNIT- IV: Comparative Genomics Comparative genomics of prokaryotes, organelles, Eukaryotes and other aspects. Representational difference Analysis of cDNA and Genome Comparisons-Gene Expression during Host-pathogen interactions- genomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis- Helicobacter pylori-Approaches to bacterial mRNA extraction and labeling for microarray Analysis. UNIT-V: Functional Genomics DNA micro array Construction and Design- Application of DNA micro array for comparative and Evolutionary Genomics. Gene silencing, RNAi, SiRNA, SHRNA-Proteome analysis Protein-protein Interactions. Application of Microbial Genomics Reverse Vaccinology: from genome to vaccine- Microbial genomics for Antibiotic Target Discovery.

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References:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

C. M. Fraser, T. D. Read and K. E. Nelson (Eds) Microbial Genomes, Humana Press, USA Principles of Genome Analysis: A Guide to Mapping and Sequencing DNA from Different Organisms by S. B. Primrose (Paperback - Jan 1998) Genome Mapping: A Practical Approach (Practical Approach Series) by Paul H. Dear , Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2. Principles of Gene Manipulation and Genomics - Page xviii by Richard M. Twyman, Sandy Blackadder Primrose - Science - 2006 - 644 pages Microbial Genome Methods by Kenneth W. Adolph (Hardcover - Oct 28, 1996) Genome Mapping and Sequencing by Ian Dunham (Hardcover - Sep 1, 2003). Brendan Wren (Editor), Nick Dorrell (2002) Functional Microbial Genomics (Volume 33) (Methods in Microbiology), Academic Press, UK. Sandy B. Primrose Richard M. Twyman (2005) Principles of Genome Analysis and Genomics, Blackwell Publishing, USA.

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Semester - II MEP 1 Microbial Biodiversity and Molecular Taxonomy Unit I: Biodiversity Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial diversity bacteria, cyanobacteria, prochlorales, cyanelles, microalgae, microfungi, zooplankton & protozoans. Habitats, nutition, ultrastructure and mode of reproduction. Isolation, cultivation and preservation of microorganisms. Unit II: Symbiosis Microbial symbiosis - bacterial Rhizobium & Frankia. Cyanobacterial symbiosis with Bryophytes (Anthoceros), Pteridophytes (Azolla), Gymnosperms (Cycas), Angiosperms (Gunnera). Lichens, VAM. Structure, nutrition and mode of reproduction of symbiotic microorganisms. Unit III: Classification Introduction, Haekels three kingdom concept. Whittakers five kingdom concept. Three domine concept of Carl Woese. Classification of bacteria according to Bergeys manual of determinative bacteriology. Criteria for classification and identification of microorganisms morphological, physiological & biochemical. Nomencalture bacteriological code. Unit IV: Molecular Taxonomy Introduction - DNA finger printing RFLP, Plasmid profiles, G+C content. Importance of 16S rRNA in taxonomy & phylogeny. PCR based finger printing RT PCR, 16S rDNA amplification, cloning, transformation, DNA sequencing. RAPD, STRR & LTRR, Blotting and hybridization. DNA Microarays/Chips. Unit V: Bioinformatics for genomics Genome sequence comparison, alignment and data base searching. GenBank NCBI, EMBL & DDBJ retrieving sequences. Tools used for phylogenetic analysis Ribosomal Database Project, FASTA, BLAST, Phylip. RNA structure prediction, Restriction enzyme patterns. Designing primers & probes. DNA barcoding. Submission of rDNA sequences Bankit & Sequin guidelines. Numerical taxonomy. Phage typing.

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Reference Books 1. Groombridge, B (Ed.) 1992. Global Biodiversity Status of the Earths Living Resources. Chapman & Hall, London. 2. UNEP, 1995, Global Biodiversity Assessment , Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. 3. Virchow, D. 1998. Conservation & Genetic Resources , Springer Verlag, Berlin. 4. Gary K.Meffe & .Ronald Carroll ,C.1994. Principles of Conservation Biology, Sinauer Associates, Inc., Massachusetts. 5. Danial Lim ,1998, Microbiology, McGrawHill Companies , New York. 6. Edward A. Birge ,1992, Modern Microbiology Principles and application. Wm.C. Brown Publishers , Inc. U.S.A. 7. HH Rashidi & LK Buehler (2002). Bioinformatics Basics: Applications in Biological Science and Medicine, CRC Press, London 8. Gibas, C and P. Jambeck (2000). Developing bioinformatics Computer skills. Shroff Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta 9. Brige EA (1992) Modern Microbiology, WmC, Brown Publishers, Dubugue, USA. 10. Bryant DA (1994) The Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London. 11. Gerherdt P, Murray RG, Wood WH. Kreig NR (1994) Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC. 12. Landecker EM (1996) Fundamentals of Fungi Prentice Hall International Inc. 13. Pelczar Jr. MJ, Chan ECS, Krieg NR (1993). Microbiology Mc Graw Hill. Inc, New York. 14. Des Higgins & Willie Taylor (2002). Bioinformatics: Sequence, structure and databanks, Oxford University Press 15. Baxevanis AD & Ouellette BEF (2001) Bioinformatics: A practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins, Wiley Interscience New York

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Semester - II MEP 2 Microbial Metagenomics Unit I: History of the Culture divide Early Microbiology and Microscope- Pure culture rRNA analysis and culturing Metagenomics Culture independent insight Microbial diversity Uncultivables Archaea. Unit II: Bioprospecting Population genetics and microheterogeneity- Symbiosis Competition Communication role of small molecules Sequence based screening for small molecules Antibiotics as signal molecules Chemical ecology Sargasso sea explorations. Unit III: Community Genome Analysis Methods Microarray Functional gene arrays Community genome arrays Tags Environmental genomics. Unit IV: Metagenomic approaches Marine drug discovery platform Sequence based analysis Functional metagenomics Heterologous expression Identifying active clones Screens, Selections, Functional anchors Search for potential producers Polyketide synthases. Unit V: Industrial applications White biotechnology Novelty Diversity Elusive metabolites screening Bioactive molecules synthons Putative gene products. References: 1. Board on Life Sciences, The New Science of Metagenomics:Revealing the Secrets of Our Microbial Planet, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC 2. Alan T. Bull. Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM press. Washington, D.C 3. Brenden Wren and Nick Dorrell, Functional Microbial Genomics (Volume 33) (Methods in Microbiology), Academic Press 4. Alexander Hillisch and Rolf Hilgenfeld. Modern Methods of Drug Discovery, Birkhauser, Switzerland 5. James N. Kyranos. High throughput Analysis for Early Drug Discovery. Esevier Academic Press High throughput - Multiparameter footprint analysis screening for industrial enzymes Phylogenetic oligonucleotide arrays Whole genome ORF arrays- Environmental Gene

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Semester - II MEP 3 Rhizoremediation Technology Unit - I: Rhizosphere Definition and characteristics features of the rhizosphere: Physical, chemical and biological processes. Methods of rhizosphere research related with sustainable in modern agriculture. Applications to environmental technologies, soil protection and remediation. Unit - II: Rhizospheres microorganisms Distinguishing features; Soil Monera (Prokaryotic), Soil protista, Soil fungi and Viruses. Distinct attributes of procaryotes. Individual groups of soil microorganisms. Types of interaction; plant-microbe interactions, microbe-microbe interaction, uncultivable microorganisms, gene expression at rhizosphere. Unit - III: Xenobiotic nature of rhizosphere Source and types of xenobiotic compounds, organisms involved in degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons, substituted simple aromatic compounds, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, agrochemicals and surfactants. Unit - IV: Bioremediation Definition and concepts bioremediation, biogeochemical cycles, Isolation and screening bioremediations microbes, organic compound contaminants bioremediation, heavy metal and xenobiotic compounds bioremediation. Engineering and molecular biological techniques used in bioremediation. Unit-V: Bioinoculants Microbial association: Symbiosis, asymbiosis, associate symbiosis bacteria; actinomycetes; BGA; mycorrhizae: Nitrogen fixers, phosphate solubilizers and mobilizers application of biofertilizers in agriculture. Out line of biopesticide, bioinsecticides, bioherbicides and its application to the agriculture. Enhancement of novel microbes.

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References: 1. Environmental Biotechnology by Alan Scragg; Longman. 2. An Introduction to Environmental Biotechnology by Milton Wainwright: Kluwer, Academic Press. 3. Environmental Biotechnology by C. F. Forster and D. A. J. Wase. 4. Principles & Applications of Soil Microbiology by M. Salvia David. 5. Soil Microbiology: An Exploration by Mark Coyne. 6. Environmental Microbiology by Raina M. Maier. 7. Bio-remediation Technologies, Technomic Publishing Co., USA. S.K. Sikdur & R.L. Irvine. 8. Environmental Bio-monitoring: The Biotechnology Ecotoxicology Interface, Cambridge University Press, James M., Lynch & Alan Wiseman. 9. Phytoremediation & Rhizoremediation: Springer; Mackova, Martina; Dowling, David; Macek, Tomas (eds). 10. Subbha Rao, N.S. Soil Microbiology. IV edition. 2000. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. 11. Motsara, Bhattacharya, P Beena Srivastava. Biofertilisr Technology, Marketing and Usage. FDCO, New Delhi. 12. Schulze, E.Beck, K.Muller-Hohenstein. Plant Ecology. 2002. Springer Publications. 13. Gillings, M and Holmes, A. Plant Microbiology. 2004. BIOS Scientific Publishers London and New York.

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Semester - II MEP 4 Applications of Nanobiotechnology Unit I: Introduction History of nanobiotechnology; Terminologies of nanobiotechnolgy; Nanoparticals; Nanotubes; Nanowires; Silver nanoparticles. Unit II: Nanobiotechnology in Cell biology. Cellular structures in all three dimensions to generate an accurate three-dimensional map of the interior of the cell; molecular structures in relation to the cellular architecture; cytoskeleton and the cell organelles; Protein functions at the cellular level. Unit II: Nanobiotechnology in Tissue engineering Surface characterization methodology; modification of biomaterials surfaces; quantitative assays of cell behavior in culture; biosensors and microarrays; bulk properties of implants; and acute and chronic response to implanted biomaterials; General topics include biosensors; drug delivery, and tissue engineering. Unit - IV : Nanotechnology in Therapeutics Stimulation of antigens on macrophage using on-chip micro cultivation system; Virus particles used as a novel nanomaterial for tumor targeting; Microbial growth response to inorganic nanoparticles; Nanoparticle internalization and cytotoxicity; Nano curcumin (Polymeric nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin) a novel strategy for human cancer; Therapeutic application of gold nanoparticles. Unit V: Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages of scaffolds for bone tissue restoration; Protein nanopatterning advantages and disadvantages; Social and ethical implication of nanoscale sciences; Nanobiotechnology: Responsible action on Issues in ethics and society.

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References: 1. 2. 3. Nanobiotechnology II: More Concepts and Applications (2007) by Mirkin, Christof M. Niemeyer 1st edition Wiley-VCH Publisher. Chad A.

NanoBiotechnology Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology) (2005) by Sandra J Rosenthal, David W. Wright Humana press publisher. Nanobiotechnology Molecular Diagnostics: Current Techniques and Applications (Horizon Bioscience) (2006) by K.K. Jain Taylor & Francis 1st edition. Taylor & Francis Publication. Nanobiotechnology of Biomimetic Membranes (Fundamental Biomedical Technologies) (2006) by Donald Martin 1st edition, Springer Publication. Nano-Bio-Ethics: Ethical Dimensions of nanobiotechnology (2007) by Johann Ach, Ludwig Siep 1st edition Lit verlag publication. NanoBioTechnology: BioInspired Devices and Materials of the (2007) by Oded Shoseyov, Ilan Levy 1st edition Humana Press Publisher. Future

4. 5. 6. 7.

Building Biotechnology: Starting, Managing, and Understanding Biotechnology Companies - Business Development, Entrepreneurship, Careers, Investing, edition Science, Patents and Regulations (2006) by Yali Friedman; 2nd Thinkbiotech Publisher.

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