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Total Quality Management

TABLE OF CONTENT Page PART I 1.0 1.1 Introduction Products and Services Main Customers and Challenges Order Qualifiers and Order Winners 3 3 3 4


PART II 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Operational processes Registration / Enrollment Process Lectures Process Career Service Consultancy Process 5 5 7 8

PART III 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Literature Review: Introduction Definition of Total Quality Management Leadership / Management Commitment Employee Empowerment Continuous Improvement / Training Future of Total Quality Management 10 10 11 12 12 14

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PART IV 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Implementation of TQM WySE Associate Limited Leadership / Management Commitment Employee Empowerment Continuous Improvement / Training Conclusion 15 15 16 16 17 18




Total Quality Management

WySE Associates Limited (WySE) was established in 1997 to close the vacuum in professional accountancy training in Nigeria. WySE offers various ranges of professional programmes having a vision of be reckoned with as the leading professional accounting tuition centre in Nigeria with students excelling in their professional examinations and also outstanding in the dynamic business world. (WySE Associates Limited, 2012). 1.1 Products and Services - Lectures for professional examinations.

Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN) Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) Association of Accounting Technicians of West Africa (ATSWA) Chartered Institute of Stockbrokers (CIS) Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria (CIBN) 1.2 Main Customers and Challenges

Students with passion to acquire both the business knowledge and professional skills. Challenges include;

Presence of heavy queen during students registration.

Delay payment of tuition fees.

Stationeries going out of stock. Lecturers turning up late for lectures.


Order Qualifiers - competitive features a company exhibits to be regarded

as potential and viable competitor in the market (APCIS Dictionary, 2008). For WySE, these are: 11424810 3

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Its unique expertise.
Practical diverse experience.

Diligence and exceptional commitment to the training and development of

business professionals throughout their careers. 1.4 Order Winners - competitive qualities a company possesses making their

customers to prefer their goods and services over its competitors; this can also be regarded as competitive advantages of a company (APICS Dictionary 2008). For WySE, these are:

Provision of tailor-made online study packs for students.

The tailored delivery and reliability of lectures. Flexible mode of payment for students.

Career service consultancy. The specialists skills of the lecturers. Easy access of location.



This is viewed as the organised set of activities or tasks that produces a specific service or product (Noah Gans, 2010). In the case of WySE, we have; 11424810 4

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Registration/Enrollment Process Lectures Process Career Service Consultancy Process

Registration/Enrollment of students is one of the main operational processes of WySE which every student is expected to pass through before starting or participating in their various choice of programme. Below are the input resources needed, transformation activities and the output of this operational process registration/enrollments of students.


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Input Resources Registration forms Office & furniture Air conditioner Staffs Telephones Internet connection Computers Electricity Stationeries Cabinets Students Information from students Transforming Activities Output/Servic e -Staffs attend to students telephone -Confirmed calls and email. -Students inform staffs of request. -Students get informed about various programmes details. studentship status. -Induction programme conducted for

-Staffs issue registration forms for Students. students to fill. -Issuance of students.

-Students return completed forms school ID card to with relevant documents.

-Staffs checklist the completed forms - Study packs and required documents submitted issued to by students. -Staffs enter students information to the computer system. - Staffs keep student file in the cabinet. -Registration completed. students.


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Lectures of students happen to be another main operational process within WySE which is conducted by very well qualified personnel in a conducive environment for learning. At WySE, the lecture process includes:


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Input Resources Lecturers Furniture (Desks and Chairs) Computers Projector Electricity Stationeries (note pads, pens, et al) Students White Board Board marker and duster Questions (both lecturers and students) Textbooks Fans Transforming Activities Output/Servic e -Lecturer introduces course scheme -High student to be undertaken by students. -Teaching students with pass rate.

question -Awards for students.

sessions at the end of each class and excellent lecturers answering accordingly.

-Lecturer gives assignment to test -Professional students level understanding. -Lecturer review assignments with student to make adequate corrections at the next class. -Set mock examination for students at the end of the whole lectures. -Mark and return students scripts. -Lecturer organise revision classes for students. -Lecturer reviews past questions qualification for students.

with students. -Lectures completed.




Total Quality Management

This is yet another important operational process that is adopted by WySE in making sure their students become the best to be reckoned with in the business world by guiding the students in the right professional career path. This process includes the following: Input Resources Staffs (career consultants) Office and Furniture Computers Electricity Stationeries (note pads, pens, et al) Students Transforming Activities Output/Servic e - Students book appointment with the -Students career service consultancy team. - Students meet up with appointment date. Career consultant welcomes become better informed. -Students choose the right career path. -Enrollment for the professional programme by career and the

students. - Students inform Career consultant of his/her ambition.

- Career consultant advice students on students. the choice of professional programme that can be under taken accordingly. - Students asked further questions on other career options. Career Service Consultancy



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The current trend to Total Quality Management cannot be successive written without acknowledgements of these quality gurus; Edwards Deming, Ishikawa, Drucker, Philip B. Crosby, Feigenbaum, Joseph M. Juran who had various studies and teachings on the subject matter at one point or the other (Eskimo, 2001). Joseph M. Juran recognises the fact that the problem of a company can be dealt with the simple application of these three essential managerial processes (planning, control and improvement) which are also the basis upon which Total Quality Management is built (Martinez Lorente et al, 1998). 11424810 10

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Philip B. Crosby championed the zero-defects concept calling quality - the conformance to requirements. It has to be noted that work continues on quality improvement (Eskimo, 2001). The direction and visions of various companies over the years have changed; the significant reason for this is the trend of quality having a major effect on the policies, attitudes, and operations of these companies (Christine, 2004).



According to Cliffs Notes (2012) Total quality management is said to involve the coordination of activities in such a way to improve customer satisfaction, increasing employee involvement, enhancing supplier partnerships, and promoting the companys atmosphere of continuous quality improvement. Total Quality Management is also seen as a way of thinking about organisations and how people are expected to relate and work within the company.

Eskimo (2001) added that Total Quality Management is about the managements involvement stressing on staff empowerment for satisfying the customers. This is seen as a holistic approach of managing a company replacing the top-down management style with decentralised customer-focus decision making. Total Quality Management really produces outcomes which supersede the customer expectations.

Cliffs Notes (2012) noted that Total Quality Management is a conception upon which a long-term success depends with a constant commitment to quality in all division of a company and not just an ordinary routine. The following are some main concepts underlining Total Quality Management in most companies:

3.2 11424810


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One of the most important key to the implementation of Total Quality Management is for the leadership of any company to lead by examples. To this end, it is essential for the management of an organisation to show a high level of participation and commitment (Seyed - Mahmoud, 2002). Leadership according to Naagarazan and Arivalagar (2005) is expected to bring orderliness in a company, in other words coherent, consistent and controlled. In the same vein, leaders expected to be proactive in decisions making because these are skills to be used when implementing Total Quality Management. Seyed Mahmoud (2002) recognise the fact that the leadership style of top management staffs of any company is being watched by the subordinates as this is essential in implementing Total Quality Management. So the leaders have to be more conscious and decisive in taking responsibilities or else the subordinates go off the track of a Total Quality Management culture.



In time past, the percentage of success recorded in the implementation of Total Quality Management had been relatively low due to the fact that there was unsustainability of leadership and purpose, zero communication strategy, poor teamwork in achieving quality improvement and the lack commitment to the practice of Total Quality Management. In a nutshell, adequate attention was not paid to employee empowerment by the top management in ensuring the success of Total Quality Management in most of the organisations (Miflora, 1997).

According to Soltani and Wilkinson (2010) when personnel are empowered, there is high likelihood of them taking obligation for quality, as a result a lasting answer is provided to challenges quickly. Tan (1997) believes in employees been part of the overall organisational processes; this will make them see reasons why they have to work towards the companys 11424810 12

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corporate objectives and feels their input is felt in the overall achievement or success of the organisation.

In light of this, achieving the main goal of satisfying the customers in an organization, employees must therefore be in partnership with the management. This partnership has to be with a conscious effort in order to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills in solving the daily challenges and making fast and quality decisions (Miflora, 1997).



Miflora (1997) recognises continuous improvement and training as a process which gives a high achievement to customer satisfaction and also added that by identifying, rectifying and correcting problems associated with quality leads to the continuous improvement and training witness in most companies.

Continuous improvement according to Managers Net (2012) is targeted at making sure the customers receive total satisfaction in addition with value for money on the goods and services provided for them at a meaningful cost to the company.
Continuous improvement and training should be ongoing as it stressed the importance of tutoring as a way of fulfilling continuous empowerment. Quality training at all stages in a company becoming crucial as the pursuit for empowerment mounts. It has to be stressed at this junction that continuous improvement and training of top management staffs about quality management cannot be overlooked because it provides empowerment as well (Miflora, 1997).

According to Rahman (2006) the lack of continuous improvement and training in

an organisation is one of the major factors militating against implementation of 11424810 13

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Total Quality Management being successive. Furthermore, the main reasons for

this could be attributed to the unsupportive culture as well as the lack of financial investment to training and development, as a result of the short-term corporate goals of the organisation.

Miflora (1997) beliefs that total Commitment and co-operation towards continuous improvement are expected to be the driving force for everybody from top-down in a company. This is a pointer to the fact that there is a need for a company to share its mission and vision with its staffs to be able to focus more to the overall goal. With this, a sustainable and continuous improvement will be achieved in the organisation. 3.5 FUTURE OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

According to Madhav (1999) most companies finding it difficult to differentiate between management and leadership are now are facing the reality of customers satisfaction through customers focus orientation service in order to remain relevant in the market place which is the aim of every business. To this end, the trend will be that companies will require their managers to be actively involved in the new accord happening between their customers and business connecting it with the corporate aim of the company. Again with the application of Total Quality Management in most companies presently, the future is certain and most definitely moving towards a direction where a high level of importance and necessity is attached to leadership, teamwork and continuous learning in this unique and dynamic business world (Madhav, 1999). With these facts, it is believed that WySE will take advantage of this and place itself in the forefront in terms of lecturing and mentoring students for professional programmes useful for them to be outstanding in the dynamic business world



Total Quality Management

through the successive implementation of Total Quality Management in the entirety of its operations.



TQM has now been considered as the bedrock of any companys success. For this fact, the above concepts will be applied to the operations of WySE Associate Limited because its not an exemption to the implementation of Total Quality Management.



There is no doubt that the success of TQM in a company is attached to the level of commitment of the management. The management of WySE must be aware of this fact so, the implementation of TQM by its leaders towards having a total quality environment for their programmes (Jaideep, 2001). According to Jaideep (2001) the management of WySE will have support the implementation TQM by ensuring there is adequate allocation of resources, good control through supervision and monitoring of staffs and lecturers as well as making sure there is good plan for change in the future. With this, the challenges of having stationeries going out of stock and lecturers turning up for lectures will be solve and



Total Quality Management

in turn the students can be sure of quality delivery of lectures and smooth running of their professional programme with an excellent pass rate. Also, the presence of heavy queue experienced by students during registration will be a thing of the past if the leaders of WySE will ecourage the training of its staffs the more which will give room for the culture of Total Quality Management to be built in the process at the long run (Naagarazan and Arivalagar, 2005).



WySE must recognise the fact that empowering its personnel will result in a high achievement of customers satisfaction and as such the administrative staffs will be able to treat students complaints as a matter of urgency without unnecessary delay. The problem of students waiting in queue for too long at the administrative block during registration will be solved if the management of WySE will motivate, empower its staffs in providing lasting solutions to the challenges quickly (Soltani and Wilkinson, 2010). Also, WySE should as a matter of importance allow its staffs and lecturers to be part of the overall organisational processes. This will provide them an opportunity to work towards the companys corporate objectives and feels their input is felt in the overall success of the centre (Tan, 1997).



WySE Associate Limited must realise the fact that Total Quality Management begins with the training as well as continuous development and improvement of its staffs 11424810 16

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and lecturers in order to be up to date with the current happenings in the business, professional and academic world and forming a viable competition in the market place (Naagarazan and Arivalagar, 2005). Also, WySE must allow its staffs and lecturers to go through the orientation programme about the centre's philosophy of commitment to never-say-die improving attitude, be informed of its corporate goals, and be made part of the team. In that way, a sound implementation of Total Quality Management is assured as well as adequate training with explanations about the companys overall operations and services quality specifications would have been made known to the staffs and lecturers (Jaideep, 2001). The effect continuous improvement and training of staffs and lecturers will have on the image of WySE is that it places the centre in a position where students now prefer its lectures and services over that of its competitors because of the unparallel and quality delivery of lectures and services rendered.



It is obvious that for WySE Associate Limited to be reckoned with and continually be regarded as the foremost and leading professional accounting tuition centre in Nigeria, Total Quality Management has to be implemented. This cannot be possible without the support and a committed attitude of its management. To this end, the management of WySE Associate Limited as to take a clue from the fact that for the successive implementation of Total Quality Management will not happen without some setbacks at the initial stage but if the principles and concepts such as, unparallel leadership style, continuous improvement and developments of its personnel, empowerment of its personnel, rendering more customer - focus services, encourage more training and education to its staffs are followed strictly, the vision of be reckoned with as the leading professional accounting tuition centre in Nigeria with students having an excellent performance in their professional 11424810 17

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examinations and also outstanding in the dynamic business world will be in their hands.

REFERENCES: Bowman, J. S. and Wittmer, D. L. (2000) The Unfashionable Drucker: Ethical and Quality Chic. Journal of Management History. 6 (1), 13 - 29.

Christine, K. (2004) History of the Origins of Total Quality Management [online] Available from: [Accessed 20th March 2012].

Cliffs Notes. (2012) Major Contributors of TQM [online] Available from:,articleId-8932.html [Accessed 15th March 2012].

Eskimo. (2001) Total Quality Management - TQM [online] Available from: [Accessed 15th March 2012].

Gans, N. (2010) Knowledge @ Wharton High School - Operational Process [online] Available from: [Accessed 5th March 2012].



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Gummesson, E. (1999) Total Relationship Marketing. London. Butterworth-Heinemann:

Karl Knapp. (2008) Order Winners & Order Qualifiers [online] Available from: ualifiers.html [Accessed 5th March 2012].

Lagrosen, S. (2001) Strengthening the Weakest Link of TQM from Customer Focus to Customer Understanding. The TQM Magazine. 13 (5), 348 - 354. Lagrosen, S. (2002) Quality Management in Europe: a Cultural Perspective. The TQM Magazine. 14 (5), 275 - 283. Madhav, N. S. (1999) Gaining Perspectives: the Future of TQM in Public Sectors. The TQM Magazine. 11 (6), 414 418.

Managers - Net. (2012) Total Quality Management (TQM) [online] Available from: [Accessed 21st March 2012].

Martinez-Lorente, A. R., Dewhurst, F and Dale, B. G. (1998) Total Quality Management: Origins and Evolution of the Term [online] Available from: [Accessed 25th March 2012].

Miflora, M.G. (1997) People Empowerment: the Key to TQM Success. The TQM Magazine. 9(6), 429 433.

Naagarazan, R. S. and Arivalagar, A. A. (2005) Total Quality Management. 1st ed. New Age International Publishers: Delhi.

Rahman, S. (2006) Quality Management in Logistics: An Examination of Industry Practices. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal. 11 (3), 233-240. 11424810 19

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Seye Mahmoud, A. (2002) Implementation of TQM in the Care Industry. The TQM Magazine. 14 (2), 79 91.

Soltani, E. and Wilkinson, A. (2010) Stuck in the Middle With You: The Effects of Incongruency of Senior and Middle Managers Orientations on TQM Programmes. International Journal of Operations and Production Management. 30 (4), 365 - 397. Tan, P. K. L. (1997) An Evaluation of TQM and The Techniques for Successful Implementation. Training for Quality. 5 (4), 150 - 159.

Whitney, G. and Pavett, C. (1998) Total Quality Management as an Organizational change: Predictors of Successful Implementation. Quality Management Journal. 5 (4), 9 - 21.

WySE Associates Limited. (2012) About WySE Associates Limited [online] Available from: [Accessed 4th March 2012].