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THE\\;TELDING Il-:STITL"TE

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WELD SPECIFICATIONS
Welds must be specified by clear instructions to ensure that the welder produces an acceptable result. .It may only be necessary to specify the weld size and electrode to be used.

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Or, the full details of a weld procedure may be needed. Three methods are commonly used to specify a weld: Written statement
Weld AZ321 is to be a single V butt welded from the outside of the vessel. The surface of the weld is to be ground flush. The root is to be sealed with a weld run deposited from inside the vessel. The completed weld is to be radiographed.' .

Symbols on a drawing

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WELDING TECHNOLOGY

Issue 0191

6.1

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THE WELDING IN"STITCTE

STANDARDS FOR WELD SYMBOLS
Althougff the main features of weld symbols are international, variations in detail occur from country to country. Symbols are specified by National Standards. UK USA . France Germany
Italy

8S 499 Pt2: 1980 AWS2.4-79 NFE 04-021- 1978
DIN 1912 NS1421 69-10

In this text. symbols are in accordance with 8S 499. Indicating Joint Position .The position of the [olnt is indicated by an arrow.

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The arrow points to one side . of the joint. . This is called the ARROW·SIDE. The side remote from the arrow is the OTHER SIDE.

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WELDING TECHNOLOGY
0191

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WELD DETAILS Information about the weld is given on a reference line attached to the arrow. The reference line is aJways horizontal.

THE \VELDING I"STITCTE

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Details of the weld on the arrow side of the joint are given below the line. Other side information is abovethe line. (:
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A fillet weld is indicated by a triangle placed on the reference line.

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A triangle above the line calls for
a fillet weld on the other side of the [oint.

6.3

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WELDING TECHNOLOGY
Issue 0191

'\ Ii . I' 6.V preparation {' Double V preparation \. 1= / 1\ I ~ I!. Using symbols it is not necessary to draw the shape of the edge preparation.4 WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 i .TWI VOI _ TYPES OF BUTT WELD The common types of edge preparation associated with a butt weld are indicated as follows: Square edge preparation THE \X'ELDNG I"STITCTE Single. { ! \' ~ l Single U preparation Double U preparation l ~ l / . The joint is shown as a single line.: X 1\ ~ I \ ! .

f SURFACE ) The surface profile can be indicated by an extra symbol placed on the top of the weld symbol.welding alone or by subsequent Srinding).I Ii TWI _ PREPARATIONS THE W'ELDIKG I. Usually by grinding).· . e. Single V butt weld with a flat surface. (May be a~hieved by . r I \ / Convex fillet weld.'STITt. l' \.DC] PROFILE o - ) A = Arrow side o = Other side In these cases the arrow points at the edge which is to be prepared. ~ I / } .-.5 ..q.TE 1 ASYMMETRtCAL In some joints. only one component is prepared._.. WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 6. (Flushed after welding. I'll Concave fillet weld. singie bevel butt or single J butt.VOOI.

. I. .nu.Iberof weld elements (n). . ! i / f\ ti x l ts i WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 .distance between weld elements (e). - v fillet weld with 7mm design throat thickness . opposite the weld symbol.\'ELDING I~STITCTE If the root of a butt weld is to be sealed the symbol is placed on the reference line. The dimension is in rnllllrnetres.. . DIfVIENSIONING FILLET WELDS The leg length of a miet weld is located in front of the weld symbol (triangle).len~th of weld element (I). b10 a7 \ i Intermittent fillet welds are dimensloned by giving: r .VOI SEALING RUN TWI ~ _ THE \. the dimension for the leg length is preceded by the letter 'b'. - 10mmleg leng th fillet weld Throat thickness is indicated in the same way but is preceded by the letter 'a'. When both leg length and throat thickness are given.

VOOI _ SUPPCEMENTARY SYMBOLS THE \\'ELDING I):"STITCTE Three supplementary symbols are in general use: Weld all round the component ~) I l Inspect by NOT Weld this joint on site WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 6.TWI -.7 .

QUESTIONS SYMBOLS FOR WELDING SPECIFICATION 01 Sketch/describe the weld shown below 6 02 Sketch/describe the weld shown below 03 Specify the weld shown below by means of symbols J l I J 04 Specify the weld shown below by means of symbols I4 l I 'a I 05 Describe the following: aS6 .

\ \\ J 1.l \ ~ ! I i' 0 / . Sketch in the weld position f\ . Describe sketch the weld shown below. ~ 7 biD r }. I 2. State the symbol for a seam weld.SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR ) r i SYMBOLS \ 'r'_ I I. !} 5. 4. 7. I 1.r . Describe/sketch the following 10 I [ro « (75) Welding Tectmoloqy Issue-0191 QS6A . Describe/sketch the following symbol 3. Describe/sketch the following weld - \ J 6. State the symbol for a spot weld.

/ I' Welding Technology Issue 0191 .8. Describe the following 10. Comment on the following 9. What information may be placed at the end of the reference line.

1 i (' \ SECTION 7 I . ) .~ ( ..~ I I r !.

silicon and chromium.45%C Composition O. \_ - \1 WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 7.09%C O. manganese. Weldabi!ity LOW CARBON STEEL Composition O.1 . singly or in combination produce a range of metals with widely differing physical and mechanical properties as well as quite different weld ability .9%Mn + residuals Weldability The general weldability is good but the level of residuals (8) may cause weld metal/heat affected zone cracking. section size increases. MEDIUM CARBON STEEL 0. f' TWI THE'W'ELDING IXSTITCTE - 1 REVIEW OF STEELS AND MATERIAL DEFECTS The term 'steel' is used to describe many different metals. but the alloying additions. etc.9%Mn + residuals The weld pool will require to have added deoxidant via a filler rod. .. such as carbon. they are all alloys based on iron.2%C O.: r IRON CARBON MANGANESE SILICON Fe C Mn SI ALUMINIUM CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM TITANIUM NIOBIUM VANADIUM SULPHUR NICKEL AI Cr Mo 11 Nb V S Ni Cu COPPER RIMMING STEEL Composition O.90%Mn + residuals J ) I i I Weldability The high carbon content induces hydrogen cracking in the HAl as the.VOl .

Weldability The hi9hJ Ni 'are subject to solidification \ \ r cracking. Weldability These high Mn steels have good toughness. and defect free welds with good mechanical properties are only attained by using the greatest care. II.2%C 1.2S-3%Mo etc. Nb and V grades. Weldability The weldability of the low Cr is difficult. STEEL / Composition 3.B%Cr O.VlJOI --- TWI iIIIIII THE \VELDING I)'.STITCTE HIGH CARBON STEEL Composition O.5%Mn + residuals may also contain Tl. LOW TEMP.2 Issue 0191 .0%Mn O.9%Mn + residuals Weldability The weld pool is subject to solidification the HAZ suffers hydrogen cracking. WELDING TECHNOLOGY 7. etc.B%C O. and the main weldability problem is to maintain these. particularly the Ti. ( HIGH TEMP. QUENCHED AND TEMPERED STEEL Composition OA%C 1.2S-9%Cr Composition O.S-9%Ni ' l. type cracking and CARBON-MANGANESE STEEL Composition O. Nb and V.3%Mo + Ti or AI + residuals Weldability These steels are difficult to weld. STEEL O.

55 (NB NON-MAGNETIC) 18-27%Cr 8-22%Ni O. STAINLESS STEELS 1. AUSTENITIC Composition \ I I Weldability ) WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 7.003%Ti ) Weldability THE\x'ELDING I!'STITCTE These steels may suffer hydrogen cracking in the weld metal. STEEL (HS'LA) O.2S%C 1..08%C + residuals Poor due to cracking. MARTENSITIC SS Composition 11%Cr O.08%C + residuals We Idability 2.002%V ) O. FERRITIGSS Composition Poor due to hydrogen cracking. brittleness and temper embrittlement.TWI VOI _ MICRO ALLOYED Composition . 12-27%Cr O.005%Nb ) min.08%C + residuals Problems with solidification cracking and weld decay.3 . Weldability 3. O.5%Mn O.

diameter flatness/ovality rust/palnt. safe for the inspector to identify materials by composition from mill sheet. length. if 100% inspection is not being employed. Quantity: Size Distortion Condition Defects Storage SPECIFICATION It is not. The procedure is for the mill sheet to be submitted for approval and then the inspector records and transfers the reference number. SIZE Sizes must be checked for secondary identification as well as conformance. laminations ' ') ( WELDING TECHNOLOGY 7. limited selectivity is permissible. Inspection points are: Specification/supplier .to mill sheet or reference number. heat treatment laps. as appropriate. However. breadth. be given tolerances on size which are perrnlsslble. such as % carbon maximum. The inspector will. bands. QUANTITY The quantity being inspected should always be noted as well as the sample size. or occasionally on packaging or even marked on the metal. in general.4 Issue 0191 . SUPPLIER This can be found on the Goods Inwards documents or the receipt documents. etc. since very small variations or additions to the metal may give rise to significant changes in properties and weldability.TWI VOI _ THE \X!ELDINGI~STITl:TE A gr~at variety of materials may require to be inspected with a view to satisfactory welding. thickness.

Guidance is normally given to the inspector regarding acceptable levels or the treatment which is required. DEFECTS In wrought products the most common defects are laps and laminations. 2. can be inspected. normalised etc. paint and grease on the surface of the metal are all harmful to welding . Heat treatment condition. annealed. Both these will normally be subsurface so unless NDE is being employed only.e. \.5 . Questions to be asked: 1.~ Rust. and particularly cut edges. i. 3. Carefully maintained specimens showing acceptable conditions are often the best method. to gradual changes. Flatness squareness straightness ovality consistent wall thickness THE W'ELDING I~STITCTE l I I \ CONDITION f . Protect from corrosion and mechanical damage. the edges of plate. such as increased corrosion. Do the markings on the material match those on the procedure sheet or drawing? Are the dimensions correct? Is the surface condition satisfactory for welding? / I] ! \ WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 7.TWI VOI _ DISTORTION A check is often required on the degree of distortion. STORAGE After inspection and approval for use it is essential that the metal is stored in such a way as to maintain its good condition. The lap/lamination will appear as a narrow black line parallel to the surface. An inspector should be alert. and must usually be removed at least near to the actual weld.

. 02 Give examples of composition a) b) c) A rimming steel A low carbon steel A tool steel 03 Give an example by composition of a stainless steel { 04 What is the purpose of the increased Mn content of a carbon-manganese steel / I 05 State the features/defects which S~Uld be noted when inspecting wrought plate II .! I· QS7 .QUESTIONS: REVIEW OF STEELS AND MATERIAL DEFECTS 01 Name two (2) wrought plate defects.

During an inspection audit. Why is it desirable to 'seal' in a lamination which is found to break into an edge preparation? Does wrought plate contain residual stresses due to manufacture? What is a LAP in a steel? State three (3) factors which contribute to or control the mechanical properties of wrought steel.What feature(s) of a steel determine its weldability? Ust six (6) different types of steel by type name and approximate composition. no material mill sheet can be found. . . r 1 09. / iI Welding Technology i Issue 0191 i OS7A . j "j Q2.~ QB. Q7. .SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR 1 Q1. QS. you proceed? How would 03.i ) 010. . Q4. Draw up a check tlst/scheoule. Long question: During preweld inspection you require an inspector to check the actual material. Q6. For each of the steels given in state the main weldabiJity problem. cause of lamellar tearing? 1 ). MATERIALS What is the metallurgical/production .

. I .i I I I I . ~ J f SECTION 8 ( \ I ~ / II fi .

The issue of electrodes to the welder for use and the procedures for recycling and scrap must often be dealt with care. This will be to a specified type but an additional requirement may be that only one or two suppliers/manufacturers are acceptable.1 . There are many codes in existence which cover the various consumables. Each consumable is critical in respect to Specification/supplier Condition Treatment (if any) J I ) . The only reasonable rule is to keep to what is specified unless (and only unless) a written order for variation is received.I ) Take as an example a common MMA covered electrode.J TWI VOI _ THE \X''ELDI~G r"STITCTE ? ) CONSUMABLES ) I I Welding consumables are the: Electrodes Wire (lengths or rolls) Fluxes Gases. Covered Electrodes BS 639 AWSA51 ISO 2560 BS 2493 BS 2926 Gas-shielded wires BS 2901. The electrode must be in good condition with regard to corrosion and mechanical damage and so storage and mechanical handling are important. time and oven' condition require attention. Part 1-5 I Gas1~ BS ~65· BS 4!105 WELDING TE¢HNOLOGY Issue 0191 8. If the electrode requires heat treatment for low hydrogen potential then the temperature.

2 WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 ( \ \ I I . horizontal vertical any position or combination of positions not classified above circultvottace. Not suitable for use on AC V - -40 Temperature for impact value of 47J. N/mm1 COVERING Minimum yield stress. ·C Not specified 0 Second digit t 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + or+ + or+ + or+ SO SO SO 70 70 70 80 80 o 4 t 2 3 5 S 7 8 +20 0 -20 -30 -40 -50 9 80 -60 -70 8.. N/mml 330 380 EFFICIENCY % recovery to nearest 10% (~ '10) (HI Indicates hydrogen controlled (" 15mlll00g) ) C B BB 43lr55O 510-650 0 R RR S basic high efficiency cellulosic oxidising rutile (medium coated) rutile (heavy coated) other types t l.DIGIT Code Direct current Recommended electrode polarity Polarity as' recommended by manufacturer Alternating Minimum current open- f ( 28J. The summary sheet gives details. for filiet welds.TWI VOI _ of covered electrodes THE WELDI~G I~STITCTE 'I Identiiication In the BS system for carbon and carbon manganese steels the electrode may be partially or completely specified by a letter/number. ·C o 3 4 Not specified 1 2 5 +20 -20 -30 0 9 all position s all positions except vertical down flat and.1986 FIRST GROUP Electrode designation E43 E51 Tensile strength. " British Standards System BS specification: BS 639:. vertical down and. for fillet welds. i j ! B 160 2 0 i SECOND GROUP First digit Temperature for impact value of POsmON 1 2 3 4 5 DIGIT ELECTRICAl. horizontal vertical flat flat. 'j 'I.

WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 8......3 . ..lTWI I 'VllJI ---BRITISH STANDARD 639 1986 MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING CONSUMABLES FOR C..... POSITIONALCAPABILITY ------------ELECTRICAL CAPABILITY --------------- ..... ......C/Mn STEELS THEWELDINGI~STITCTE E 51 33 B 160 2 0 (H) COVEREDELECTRODE ---~ STRENGTH-----~~--------~ ( TOUGHNESS------~------------~ I COVERING ------------------EFFICIENCY(%)---------------...

ClMn STEELS E 70 1 8 G WELDING POSITION -----------1 = ALL POSITIONAL 2 = FLAT & HV FILLETS ! { '\ I I AS. 8. 1-81 C.4 WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 I .\'ELDING Ir\"STITCTE AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY AS.S-81 LOW ALLOY STEEL (ALLOY CONTENT) --- 1 / I.VOl MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING CONSUMABLES FOR TWI THE\. ii .

State the meaning of the following: a) b) c) d) R AR 0 C B = = = = = = basic e) f) RR 04. ~ ..... When an electrode specification terminates with an (H) I what is usually required in order to give the specified results? l 05..QUESTIONS: THE BRITISH STANDARD C~SSIFicATION OF MMA ELECTRODES 03... Whatiis the meaning of: "S· \i J.. "TN ·C· . ass .

An electrode is specified as E51 32B 160 20H Write out a description of the requirements of this electrode. Comment. Q4.. Q7. QS.8. I Q6... would you expect it to be an acid or basic type of flux? How are the wires classified in respect to composition using AWS AS. Review your course of action. What is the effect of increasing the percentage of fines' in a submerged arc flux? After hydrogen control treatment some MMA electrodes are suffering flux flaking. VV~atwould be the manganese content of an 82 wire-specified to What is the significance of the prefix letter'S' in the following wire specification: S2? If your wire!flux specification indicates a basicity number of 2. Q2.80? Basic electrodes are to be.. b) Draw up an inspection schedule c) Draw up a quality control schedule d) Draw up a workshop method of ensuring that the electrodes are fully hydrogen controlled.o. Q10.SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR CONSUMABLES I as 4165? i Q1.... Q8~ Qg. Some rolls of MIG/MAG wire consumable shows incomplete copper cover. r.""" Welding Technology n..17. Draw up a check list. used for a fabrication and hydrogen control to 1... Q3.Sml/100g of weld metal as-deposited is called for a) Generally comment. ! I. OS8A . A very high quality TIG weld is to be made.

J SECTION 9 . -'- \ .\ I J ..

4. SSENTIAL FACTORS FOR ESTABLISHING E A WELD 1 1 Welding is usually regarded as a joining process in which the work pieces are in atomic contact often with a filler metal of broadly similar properties. The process must remove any oxide and other contamination from the joint faces." . Hence soldering and brazing are excluded but both solid-state welding are included. 3.-. The welded join~ must possess adequate properties.. 2. / i WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 9.STITLTE THE FOUR .-' Fusion welding factors 1.VOOI TWI THE'W'ELDI~GI}\. Forge welding Friction welding Fusion welding processes include: Oxy-acetylene Manual metal arc (MMA) Metal lnert/actlve gas (MIG/MAG) Submerged arc welding (SAW)' Electro-slag welding (ESW) • ~ • 'c. Fusion (melting) The metal must be melted which requires a high intensity heat source. ( 1 . Contamination by the atmosphere must be avoided.. Solid state processes include: and. fusion I 1 . ..1 .

State the four (4) factors which must be satisfied for good welds. 04. os. 03. What ar the mechanical tests which are usually used to ensure compliance with adequate mechanical properties.QUESTIONS: FOllR FACTORS IN WELDING II i 01. Name three (3) methods of protecting the molten metal from contamination. QS9 . I' I. Describe the metal cleaning requirements required when making high class stainless steel welds. I Name two methods of protecting the arc from contamination. 02.

06. 08. State the welding process which is often used to avoid metallurgical problems that will achieve high quality transition joints. where would you expect the corrosion (if any) a to occur. 03. I Ii . 05. State the method of atmospheric protection for submerged arc welding. 04. How can the high chrome plus high carbon of stainless steel and carbon steel transition joints be prevented. 09. State two (2) possible problems.I 02. What isa transition joint? Give one factor which makes transition joints between 3mm and SOmm difficult (assume MMA welding) A transition joint is to be made between stainless steel and carbon steel. 010. Long question: Prepare a general checklist for the various items to . What is meant by the term 'pick up'. What is meant by the term 'dilution'.be considered when marking transition joints between carbon and stainless steel. 07.SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR 4 FACTORS 1 01. I· Welding Technology Issue 0191 aS9A . . In__ siml!ar joint to question 4. .

1 .! I SECTION 10 .

THE WELDING INSTITUTE Welding inspection necessarily involves checking that the correct welding/cutting process is being used.VOl ---I EQUIPMENT TWI - .! j The conventional machine is known as the constant current machine (drooping characteristic) and has for many years been used fOJmanual metal arc and tungsten inert gas welding. You will notice that the arc processes are divided into two (2) typesf'drooplnq' and 'fIat'). By using drooping an alteration in arc length gives a very small change in current. that the equipment is-in workable condition and that the welding parameters of amperes and volts are being adhered to. The following pages outline the constant current process and list the types of defects which are associated with them. ' !' 1 1.1 . I' WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 10. . This refers to their volt-amp output characteristics.

Y. to keep arc length constant. Lack of fusion. Normally a small degree of penetration. The process caryalso be used to deposit metal to form a Isurface with alternative properties. Incomplete penetration. • I < Mode of Operation Arc melts parent plate and electrode to form a weld pool which is protected by flux cover. Stray flash. Slag must be removed after depositing each bead.TWI VOI _ THEWELDING INSTITCTE A IDROOPING ARC· PROCESS (CONSTANT CURRENT) MANUAL METAL-ARC (MMA) Shielded metal-arc arc welding (US). W. Me • Porosity. SolJdlflld slIp \ . Crater cracks. f • Excessive spatter. hand movement. Operator adjusts electrode feed rate. i. requiring plate edge preparation. Stick. -----. :' 10.ld pool 0 f((((((((\~~.2 WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 . • Slag inclusions.e.~ Type of Operation Manual. Excess penetration. • Undercut. Electric Typical defects associated with this process: Overlap.__. \. Butt welds in thick plate or large fillets are deposited in a number of passes.

7phase at 240 volts for' small sets./ Coarse {~ Current Fine MMA welding set \ \----~~~~~--~~~--~--------~~--~~~Earth lead Manual metal arc sets are manufactured in a range of sizes. '. . ElectricalinputJ~~~ingl~. Engine powered generators allow operation away from mains supplies. .. or for accurate work on a meter. only sets need an open circuit voltage of SOV to run all electrodes.-h. the current is shown either on a simple scale.. WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 10./.3. and 415 volts (2 live phases of a thf~e-phciSe supply) for larger ones.:_ .'<:. usually distinguished by current: note the duty cycle at which the current is quoted when comparing sets. ".V!lOI _ THE WELDING INSTITUTE WELDING EQUIPMENT MANUAL METAL ARC Welding sets Electrode bolder On ~ Electrode Off arc ~· D ."-'\ .-. .::.. but is limited to general purpose rutile electrodes only.AC A control on the 'set adjusts current. Output is AC orOC. SOV lssater and allows more current to be drawn.:.:".TWI .

The function of the power source is to provide the voltage necessary to maintain an arc between the electrode and the workpiece and the end of the electrode..0mm (Va") . As a result of this the current continues to flow even when the gap is quite large. or made conductive. The arc is formed by momentarily touching the tip of the electrode onto the plate and then lifting the electrode to give a gap of 3. but transformer .0mm (%") between the tip and the plate. EQUIPMENT 1.TWI VOI _ THE W"ELD IN G I}. insulated flexible copper or aluminium cables. The heat generated is sufficient to melt the parent plate and also melt the end of the electrode. When the electrode touches the plate. 2. current commences to flow and as it is withdrawn the current continues to flow in the form of a small spark across the gap. Welding cables The welding current is conducted from the power source to the work by multi-strand. A return cable is required to complete the welding circuit between the work and power source. AC transformers and DC generators supply only one type of current. Power source may supply direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) to the electrode. which will cause the air in the gap to become ionized. The size of the cable must be sufficient for the maximum output of the welding power source.STITUTE MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING INTRODUCTION In manual metal arc welding the heat source is an electric arc which is formed between a consumable electrode and the parent plate. the molten metal so formed is transferred as small globules across the arc into the molten pool. 10. Power Source The welding machine consists of a power source with welding lead and an electrode holder.. The amount of current provided by the power source can be altered by a control to suit different welding conditions.4 WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 . . The earth lead is a third cable and acts as a safety device in the event of an electrical fault. 6.rectifiers can be switched between AC or DC output.

The arc is viewed through a filter which reduces the intensity of the radiation. WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 10. The surface clamped should be clean enough to allow good metal to metal contact. Electrode holder ~ _ THE WELDING I1'-:STITCTE The holder should be relatively light. and the spatter from the molten metal. but allows a safe amount of light to pass for viewing the. Return clamp This is fastened to the work or bench on which the work is placed and completes the welding circuit. weld pool and end of the electrode.I TWI VOI 3.5 . fully insulated and rated for at least maximum power source output. . 5. 4. Welding shield or helmet A welding-shield or helmet is necessary for protection from arc ray and heat.

correct rate of travel. correct welding conditions and technique. A high welding current gives a deposit that is flatter and wider than normal with excessive penetration into the parent metal. A fast rate of travel gives a narrower. too fast a rate of travel may prevent adequate interfusion with the parent metal. shorter than normal length. 2. J . with a neat finely rippled surface.~ " lrayel too slow I ~ I 5. ~~':7- Correct run 10. too high a welding current causes considerable spatter. 4. 7. With correct arc length. 3. Too Jongan arc length will cause the deposit to be coarse rippled and flatter than normal. free from porosity or any slag entrapment. A low welding current tends to cause the weld metal to pile up without adequate penetration into the parent metal.TWI VOI _ ~~ THE W"ELDING INSTITL'TE EFFECT OF VARIATION IN PROCEDURE 1. A slow rate of travel gives a wider thicker deposit. . the run deposited metal will be regular in thickness and width. longer than normal length. 6. too slow a rate of travel may allow the slag to flood the weld pool causing difficulty in controlling deposition. Too short an arc length will cause irregular piling of the weld metal. thinner deposit. too Iowa welding current makes the slag dtfficult to control.6 WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 .

Manual arc weld on steel base plate with a covered electrode. ) .Pool / I 1 i !. WELDING TECHNOLOGY Issue 0191 10.VOl TWI THE WELDING INSTITUTE The shielded arc.7 . ~-- Electrode Covering Core Wire Electrode 1 [Weld..

M A 111 WELDING POSITION PIPE AXISI VER HORIZONTAL D01lll INTERPASS TEMPERATURE 200QC INTER RUN CLEANING OR GOUGING CHIP & BRUSH 4 5.0 450 DC+ 190/250 20-22 -4-5mm 6 5.8 .0 450 DC+ 190/250 20-22 -4-5mm NOT REQUIRED PREHEAT TEMPERATURE 50 VOLTS MINIMUM OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE RUN NO ELECTRODE DIA ELECTRODE LENGTH AC DC +/CURRENT ARC VOLTAGE WEAVE WIDTH RUN OUT LENGTH BURN OFF TIME ENERGY INPUT sees 1 4.mrn 0.Orrun 5. DETAILS FLEETWELD 5P THICKNESS CONSUMABLE TRADE NAMES f BS 639 1986 E5143C 4.Omm & 450mm 150 C .1 one 90 125/165 98 as run one 125/165 98 as run one 125/165 98 fiB r-un one 125/165 98 CU:i r-un one as run one POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT POST WELD INSPECTION METHOD ADDITIONAL INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED VISUAL.0 450DC+ 190/250 20-22 -4-5mm 7 4.0 450 DC+ 3 5..5' ----I ~ PROCEDURE NO. 1 COMPOSITION 4".0 450 DC+ 190/250 20-22 -4-5mm 5 5.5mm.0 450 DC+ 190/250 20-22 2-3mm 125/165 58 150/210 -180/240 20-22 2-3mm 20-22 -4-5mm 99/138 118/158 90 as run 2. RADIOGRAPHY I Form PW 3/1 COMPILED BY .0K.0 450 DC-2 5.._ AS SPECIFIED 12. 10. 0-00-00 SWI 1 PARENT MATERIAL DETAILS SPECIFICATION API 5L -t- j \ Sd j ~Oi(fS .WELDING PROCEDURE SHEET MANUAL METAL ARC JOB TITLE DATE REFERENCE NO.5mm max I N/A BACKING N/A ROOT RUN PROCESS WELDING CONDITIONS S.Omm max ROOT GAP 2. EDGE PREPARATION INCLUDED ANGLE 0 --80 ROOT FACE 2. AND TIME STORAGE TEMP.2 hrs AMBIEN'J' 0-- S$ I FLAME CUT LAND l RADIUS N/A 1 SPECIFICATIONS DIAMETERS LENGTHS DRYING TEMP.

State the main three (3) welding parameters of the process. Explain two types of electrical supply and an advantage of each type. 03. What type of power source characteristics is considered MMA? a) Constant current ? Constant voltage ? essential for b) 04.QUESTIONS: MANUAL METAL ARC Q1. a) Amperes b) c) 02. What is the usual COmpOSiti~hf the core wire of an MMA electrode? o \. Give six functions of an electrode coating. aS10i . I 05. i) ii) Provides a gas shield iii) iv) v) vi) I .

Long question: Prepare a checklist for open-site MMA welding. 05. 03. Welding Technology Issue 0191 QS10A . State four (4) causes of undercut State four (4) causes of porosity -- State the effects of the following: Excessive current Excessive voltage Excessive travel speed 07. Q6. 09. Q2.SENIOR WELDING INSPECTOR MANUAL METAL ARC Q1. 04. Q10. using the stove-pipe technique. State six (6) causes of lack of penetration. State the types of power sources required for a) b) DC welding AC welding and why each tYpe is used. How can the weld metal composition be controlled in manual metal arc? State two possible causes of stray arcing (arc strikes). Explain why DC-ve is used on open root joints and why it should not be used on fillet welded joints. 08. What polarity gives highest deposition.

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