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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 1 1.1 1.2 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 1 OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................................................... 2

CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................... 3 2.1 2.2 2.3 APPARATUS ..................................................................................................................... 3 PROCEDURES ................................................................................................................... 3 FLOW CHART ................................................................................................................... 4

CHAPTER 3: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .......................................................................................... 5 3.1 3.2 RESULTS ........................................................................................................................... 5 DISCUSSIONS ................................................................................................................... 6

CHAPTER 5: RECOMMENDATION .................................................................................................... 8 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................... 9 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................. 10 APPENDIX ...................................................................................................................................... 11

ECV 3603

HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II

Laboratory Report Los Angeles Abrasion Test

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 INTRODUCTION Aggregate is coarse particulate material such as sand, gravel, crushed stone and slag that often used for road pavement. This aggregate formed composite materials with binding material such as asphalt or Portland cement to increase the strength of the overall composite materials. Since roads pavement performance depends largely on the properties of aggregates used, a proper selection of aggregate is necessary for attaining desired performance. Researchers have come out with many tests to characterize the aggregate properties such as abrasion resistance and durability that are related to the performance of asphalt concrete pavement. In this laboratory experiment, Los Angeles abrasion (L.A.A) test is used to test the abrasion resistance of aggregates. This test method is done in accordance with the ASTM C131. In short, this Los Angeles abrasion test method is commonly used to indicate aggregate toughness and abrasion characteristics. It measures the degradation of aggregate sample that of standard grading under combination of abrasion and grinding action in a rotating drum with steel spheres. In the LA abrasion test machine, a self-plate is found in the test machine that picks up the sample and steel spheres as the drum rotate and drop it to the opposite site of the drum creating an impact-crushing effect. The contents are then rolled within the drum with an abrading and grinding action of certain revolutions. The percent loss of the aggregate can be determined by measuring the total aggregate weight that has broken down and passed through the No.12 sieve. In highway project, selection of suitable aggregate is important as it affect the overall performance of the pavement. This Los Angeles abrasion test is used to determine the adequacy of the aggregate to use as pavement to resist abrasion and impact under traffic loading before transmitting the loads from the pavement surface to the underlying layers.
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Laboratory Report Los Angeles Abrasion Test

Figure 1.1: Schematic diagram of Los Angeles test machine

1.2

OBJECTIVES To ascertain the degradation of aggregates by abrasion and impact.

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Laboratory Report Los Angeles Abrasion Test

CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY
2.1 APPARATUS

The apparatus used in this test are: 2.2 1. Los Angeles abrasion machine Sieves (19mm, 12.5mm, 9.5mm, 1.7mm and Pan) Sieve Shaker Balance PROCEDURES 5000 g of aggregates including 2500 10 g of 19 mm to 12.5 mm sizes and 2500

10 g of 12.5 mm to 9.5 mm sizes are used in this test. 2. The aggregates which have been sieve are washed and dried. The weight of the dried sample is then weighed and recorded. 3. 4. 5. 6. The sample is then placed in the Los Angeles abrasion machine. Ten solid steel balls are added in the machine. The drum is rotated for about 500 revolutions at 30 33 rpm for about 16 minutes. The sample is removed from the drum after being rotated and is sieved on No. 12 sieve. 7. After being sieved, the sample retained on the pan is weighed and recorded.

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Laboratory Report Los Angeles Abrasion Test

Start 5000 g of aggregates including 2500 mm to 12.5 mm sizes and 2500 10 g of 19 10 g of 12.5

mm to 9.5 mm sizes are used in this test.

The aggregates are sieved and weighed. The sample is then placed in the Los Angeles abrasion machine. Ten solid steel balls are added in the machine. The drum is rotated for about 500 revolutions at 30 33 rpm for about 16 minutes. The sample is removed from the drum after being rotated and is sieved on No. 12 sieve. The sample retained on the pan is weighed and recorded. The percent loss of aggregate is calculated.

End

ECV 3603

HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II

Laboratory Report Los Angeles Abrasion Test

CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1

RESULTS Table 3.1: Summary of result from Los Angeles abrasion test

Aggregate size (mm) 14 12.5 12.5 9.5

Weight of sample before (g) 2500 2500

Total (g)

Weight of sample after (g) 3950

Loss (g)

5000

1050

Percent wear (Ave)

Sample calculation Weight loss = Weight of sample before Weight of sample after = 5000 3950 = 1050 g Percent loss = = = 21 % Thus, Los Angeles loss (%) = 21 %

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Laboratory Report Los Angeles Abrasion Test

From the experiment, the Los Angeles loss for the tested aggregate is 21%. This tested aggregate which is granite passed the aggregate physical property requirement by JKR where the Los Angeles loss is lesser than 30%. Hence, this type of aggregate is suitable to be used for road works.

2.

This obtained abrasion value is important for the design of highway pavement. Since the results indicate the hardness of the aggregate, it provides information to engineers of the suitability of the tested aggregate for highway project.

3.

Aggregates with low abrasion value possess sufficient strength to retain load acting during road construction as well as to retain traffic loading. In contrast, aggregates with high abrasion value will quickly turn to dust when load is acting on it. This type of aggregates may cause construction and performance problems when is used for highway project.

4.

This Los Angeles test method combines the process of abrasion and attrition not only give the estimation of actual wear of the aggregate under traffic loading but also the compressive and flexural strengths of the mixtures using the same aggregate.

5.

In the Los Angeles abrasion test, the steel balls are added to give severe impacts on the aggregate particles. As the drum rotates, aggregate is subjected to abrasion and impact due to the action of the steel balls in the drum. This process overshadowing interparticle abrasion which is probably the predominant process in pavement subjected to traffic loading.

6.

In Malaysia, granite is widely used for road pavement due to the high deposition of granite all over Malaysia and its high abrasion resistant. From the book Aggregate: sand, gravel and crushed rock aggregates for construction purposes by M. R. Smith, fresh igneous rock, for example, granite contains high free silica content that tend to resist better than basic rocks with high ferromagnesian content.

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The hardness and lack of cleavage of the quartz in the granite stone contribute to the high abrasion resistant. 7. This Los Angeles test method may not be satisfactory for some type of aggregates such as slag and some limestones. This is because these type of aggregates tend to have high L.A abrasion loss but perform sufficiently in the field. 8. The results obtained may not accurate as the aggregate did not wash and dry before testing due to lack of time. Dusts are sometimes found on the surface of the aggregate and if is not washed off, it will contribute to the higher weight loss at the final weigh. Besides, the moist on the aggregate will cause the crushed dust stick on the drum. Therefore, the loss obtained will be lesser than the actual loss. 9. The Los Angeles test machine is not clean before running the test. The dust previously left on the drum can contributes to the inaccuracy of the results.

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CHAPTER 5 RECOMMENDATION
During the experiment, there are many problems arise that contribute to the inaccuracy of the results. Therefore, few recommendations have suggested to overcome these problems. These include: 1. Wash and dry the sample aggregates properly before running the abrasion test to obtain accurate result. This step is important to remove the dust sticking on the aggregate before the test and avoid loss of aggregate sticking on the drum due to moist during the rotation. 2. Make sure the sieve size used is according to the specification since the change in aggregate size will change the physical properties of the aggregates which in turn affect the performance. 3. Make sure that the balance used is functioning properly and eliminate zero error before making any measurement. 4. Make sure that the machine is function properly as backlash or slip in the driving mechanism is very likely to results in inaccurate result. 5. Make sure that the shelf of the Los Angeles test machine is not bent or distorted, otherwise, inform lab assistant for repairing work. 6. Make sure the rotating speed of the drum and the number of steel balls is as accordance to the lab manual. This is because different grading of aggregates has different testing specification.

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Laboratory Report Los Angeles Abrasion Test

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION
The objective of the experiment is achieved. From this test, students are able to understand the purpose of this testing method which is to determine the degradation of aggregate by abrasion and impact. The Los Angeles loss of the tested aggregate which is granite is 21%. This type of aggregate is suitable to use for road works since the value obtained lies within the JKR requirement for Los Angeles abrasion test which is below 30%. All aggregates experience considerable wear and tear throughout their life. However, some aggregate possesses good properties that degrade lesser than other aggregates under certain loading. In highway design, aggregate use for road pavement must be hard and tough in order to resist abrasion and impact done by traffic loading. This is rather important to increase the performance of the pavement.

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Laboratory Report Los Angeles Abrasion Test

REFERENCES
Interactive, P. (2011). Los Angeles Abrasion. Retrieved March 3, 2012, from http://www.pavementinteractive.org/article/los-angeles-abrasion/ Mansour, A. E. Los Angeles Abrasion test. Retrieved March 3, 2012, from http://www.ahm531.com/Lab_rep/concrete/LA%20Abrasion%20test.pdf Los Angeles abrasion value. Retrieved March 3, 2012, from http://www2.mainroads.wa.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/75092965-C864-4FFF-80DD542BC9F9EBEA/0/wa220_1.pdf Los Angeles Rattler. Retrieved March 3, 2012, from http://www.dot.state.mn.us/materials/manuals/laboratory/1210.pdf Muniandy, R., Radin Umar, R. S. (2010). Highway Materials: A Guide Book For Beginners. Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia: University Putra Malaysia Press.

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Laboratory Report Los Angeles Abrasion Test

APPENDIX

Figure 7.1: Aggregate being sieved

Figure 7.2: Steel ball

Figure 7.3: Los Angeles abrasion test machine

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