Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................... 1 1.1 1.2 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 1 OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................................................... 2

CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................... 3 2.1 2.2 2.3 APPARATUS ..................................................................................................................... 3 PROCEDURES ................................................................................................................... 3 FLOW CHART ................................................................................................................... 4

CHAPTER 3: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .......................................................................................... 5 3.1 3.2 RESULTS ........................................................................................................................... 5 DISCUSSIONS ................................................................................................................... 6

CHAPTER 5: RECOMMENDATION .................................................................................................... 8 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................... 9 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................. 10 APPENDIX ...................................................................................................................................... 11

Researchers have come out with many tests to characterize the aggregate properties such as abrasion resistance and durability that are related to the performance of asphalt concrete pavement. this Los Angeles abrasion test method is commonly used to indicate aggregate toughness and abrasion characteristics. crushed stone and slag that often used for road pavement. gravel. In short. This Los Angeles abrasion test is used to determine the adequacy of the aggregate to use as pavement to resist abrasion and impact under traffic loading before transmitting the loads from the pavement surface to the underlying layers.ECV 3603 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II Laboratory Report – Los Angeles Abrasion Test CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. In the LA abrasion test machine. selection of suitable aggregate is important as it affect the overall performance of the pavement.A) test is used to test the abrasion resistance of aggregates. Los Angeles abrasion (L. It measures the degradation of aggregate sample that of standard grading under combination of abrasion and grinding action in a rotating drum with steel spheres. This aggregate formed composite materials with binding material such as asphalt or Portland cement to increase the strength of the overall composite materials.A. a proper selection of aggregate is necessary for attaining desired performance. Since roads pavement performance depends largely on the properties of aggregates used. The contents are then rolled within the drum with an abrading and grinding action of certain revolutions. In this laboratory experiment. a self-plate is found in the test machine that picks up the sample and steel spheres as the drum rotate and drop it to the opposite site of the drum creating an impact-crushing effect. 1 . The percent loss of the aggregate can be determined by measuring the total aggregate weight that has broken down and passed through the No. In highway project.12 sieve.1 INTRODUCTION Aggregate is coarse particulate material such as sand. This test method is done in accordance with the ASTM C131.

2  OBJECTIVES To ascertain the degradation of aggregates by abrasion and impact.1: Schematic diagram of Los Angeles test machine 1. 2 .ECV 3603 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II Laboratory Report – Los Angeles Abrasion Test Figure 1.

The drum is rotated for about 500 revolutions at 30 – 33 rpm for about 16 minutes. 7. 9. 3 . 4.5mm.ECV 3603 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II Laboratory Report – Los Angeles Abrasion Test CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY 2. The sample is removed from the drum after being rotated and is sieved on No. 12 sieve. the sample retained on the pan is weighed and recorded. Los Angeles abrasion machine Sieves (19mm. 1.2 1. The sample is then placed in the Los Angeles abrasion machine.7mm and Pan) Sieve Shaker Balance PROCEDURES 5000 g of aggregates including 2500 10 g of 19 mm to 12. 12. After being sieved.1 APPARATUS The apparatus used in this test are:     2.5 mm sizes are used in this test.5mm. Ten solid steel balls are added in the machine. The weight of the dried sample is then weighed and recorded.5 mm sizes and 2500 10 g of 12. 3. 5. 6.5 mm to 9. 2. The aggregates which have been sieve are washed and dried.

The sample retained on the pan is weighed and recorded. Ten solid steel balls are added in the machine. The sample is removed from the drum after being rotated and is sieved on No. The drum is rotated for about 500 revolutions at 30 – 33 rpm for about 16 minutes.3 FLOW CHART HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II Laboratory Report – Los Angeles Abrasion Test Start 5000 g of aggregates including 2500 mm to 12. The aggregates are sieved and weighed. The sample is then placed in the Los Angeles abrasion machine. End 4 . The percent loss of aggregate is calculated.5 mm to 9.ECV 3603 2.5 mm sizes are used in this test.5 mm sizes and 2500 10 g of 19 10 g of 12. 12 sieve.

1: Summary of result from Los Angeles abrasion test Aggregate size (mm) 14 – 12.5 12.ECV 3603 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II Laboratory Report – Los Angeles Abrasion Test CHAPTER 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 RESULTS Table 3.5 Weight of sample before (g) 2500 2500 Total (g) Weight of sample after (g) 3950 Loss (g) 5000 1050 Percent wear (Ave) Sample calculation Weight loss = Weight of sample before – Weight of sample after = 5000 – 3950 = 1050 g Percent loss = = = 21 % Thus.5 – 9. Los Angeles loss (%) = 21 % 5 .

This tested aggregate which is granite passed the aggregate physical property requirement by JKR where the Los Angeles loss is lesser than 30%. aggregates with high abrasion value will quickly turn to dust when load is acting on it. fresh igneous rock. In the Los Angeles abrasion test. granite is widely used for road pavement due to the high deposition of granite all over Malaysia and its high abrasion resistant. 6 . this type of aggregate is suitable to be used for road works. Smith. Hence. the steel balls are added to give severe impacts on the aggregate particles. 4. This type of aggregates may cause construction and performance problems when is used for highway project. the Los Angeles loss for the tested aggregate is 21%. gravel and crushed rock aggregates for construction purposes by M. 5. 6. This obtained abrasion value is important for the design of highway pavement. This process overshadowing interparticle abrasion which is probably the predominant process in pavement subjected to traffic loading. for example. 3.ECV 3603 3. From the book Aggregate: sand. As the drum rotates. This Los Angeles test method combines the process of abrasion and attrition not only give the estimation of actual wear of the aggregate under traffic loading but also the compressive and flexural strengths of the mixtures using the same aggregate. granite contains high free silica content that tend to resist better than basic rocks with high ferromagnesian content. aggregate is subjected to abrasion and impact due to the action of the steel balls in the drum. R. 2. Since the results indicate the hardness of the aggregate. In Malaysia. In contrast. DISCUSSIONS HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II Laboratory Report – Los Angeles Abrasion Test From the experiment. Aggregates with low abrasion value possess sufficient strength to retain load acting during road construction as well as to retain traffic loading. it provides information to engineers of the suitability of the tested aggregate for highway project.2 1.

The dust previously left on the drum can contributes to the inaccuracy of the results. The Los Angeles test machine is not clean before running the test. The results obtained may not accurate as the aggregate did not wash and dry before testing due to lack of time. the moist on the aggregate will cause the crushed dust stick on the drum. 9. Therefore. Besides.ECV 3603 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II Laboratory Report – Los Angeles Abrasion Test The hardness and lack of cleavage of the quartz in the granite stone contribute to the high abrasion resistant.A abrasion loss but perform sufficiently in the field. the loss obtained will be lesser than the actual loss. 8. This is because these type of aggregates tend to have high L. Dusts are sometimes found on the surface of the aggregate and if is not washed off. it will contribute to the higher weight loss at the final weigh. 7. This Los Angeles test method may not be satisfactory for some type of aggregates such as slag and some limestones. 7 .

there are many problems arise that contribute to the inaccuracy of the results. Make sure that the balance used is functioning properly and eliminate zero error before making any measurement. 8 . Wash and dry the sample aggregates properly before running the abrasion test to obtain accurate result. Therefore. This step is important to remove the dust sticking on the aggregate before the test and avoid loss of aggregate sticking on the drum due to moist during the rotation. inform lab assistant for repairing work. 6.ECV 3603 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II Laboratory Report – Los Angeles Abrasion Test CHAPTER 5 RECOMMENDATION During the experiment. Make sure that the shelf of the Los Angeles test machine is not bent or distorted. Make sure the sieve size used is according to the specification since the change in aggregate size will change the physical properties of the aggregates which in turn affect the performance. 2. 3. This is because different grading of aggregates has different testing specification. These include: 1. otherwise. 5. few recommendations have suggested to overcome these problems. Make sure that the machine is function properly as backlash or slip in the driving mechanism is very likely to results in inaccurate result. Make sure the rotating speed of the drum and the number of steel balls is as accordance to the lab manual. 4.

The Los Angeles loss of the tested aggregate which is granite is 21%. some aggregate possesses good properties that degrade lesser than other aggregates under certain loading. aggregate use for road pavement must be hard and tough in order to resist abrasion and impact done by traffic loading. However. students are able to understand the purpose of this testing method which is to determine the degradation of aggregate by abrasion and impact. From this test. This is rather important to increase the performance of the pavement. 9 . This type of aggregate is suitable to use for road works since the value obtained lies within the JKR requirement for Los Angeles abrasion test which is below 30%.ECV 3603 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II Laboratory Report – Los Angeles Abrasion Test CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION The objective of the experiment is achieved. All aggregates experience considerable wear and tear throughout their life. In highway design.

R.au/NR/rdonlyres/75092965-C864-4FFF-80DD542BC9F9EBEA/0/wa220_1. Los Angeles Abrasion test. Serdang.pavementinteractive. Retrieved March 3.org/article/los-angeles-abrasion/ Mansour. R.gov. A. from http://www2.com/Lab_rep/concrete/LA%20Abrasion%20test. 2012. Los Angeles Abrasion.ahm531..pdf Muniandy. Retrieved March 3.dot.pdf Los Angeles abrasion value. from http://www. 2012. Radin Umar. 2012. from http://www. Retrieved March 3. (2011).pdf Los Angeles Rattler. 10 . Selangor. Highway Materials: A Guide Book For Beginners. S. Retrieved March 3. from http://www.wa. Malaysia: University Putra Malaysia Press.mn. P. 2012. E.state.us/materials/manuals/laboratory/1210.ECV 3603 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II Laboratory Report – Los Angeles Abrasion Test REFERENCES Interactive. (2010).mainroads.

2: Steel ball Figure 7.1: Aggregate being sieved Figure 7.3: Los Angeles abrasion test machine 11 .ECV 3603 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING II Laboratory Report – Los Angeles Abrasion Test APPENDIX Figure 7.

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