This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Paul Jungwirth 13th March 2006
St. Maximus was born in 580 to a prosperous Christian family in Constantinople. His education included the quadrivium—arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy—along with grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy. Philosophical studies at the time focused on Plato and Aristotle, along with their commentators. He probably here read the Neoplatonist Proclus, who left a marked inﬂuence on his cosmology. He may have studied theology, but this was taught only in the patriarchal schools, not the imperial ones. Early in his life, Maximus was appointed protosecretary under Emperor Heraclius, whose reign began in 610. This was a high post for such a young man. Perhaps during this appointment he made the many court contacts that he would later use in the monothelite controversy—or perhaps it indicates that those contacts were already his. In any case, he did not hold his post for long. In 613–614 he left for the monastery of Chrysopolis across the Bosphorus Strait, driven by love for the solitary life. He was a devoted monk, and by only 618 he had a disciple, Anastasias, who remained by his side through all the persecutions to come. Although he became the abbot, he later moved to the monastery of St. Greorge at Cyzikos, present-day Erdek, across the Sea of Marmara. Here he wrote The Ascetical Life, Four Hundred Chapters on Love, On Pslam 59, and Questions and Doubts. He conceived the idea for the Ambigua, although he did not yet write them. Around 626, Maximus ﬂed before the Moslem invasion. He went ﬁrst to Crete, where he stayed some time. While there he disputed with the Severian bishops, indicating that already he was known as a theologian. He may have gone also to Cyprus, and by 628 he was in North Africa.2 During his ﬁrst years there, he wrote On the Lord’s Prayer, Mystagogy, Questions to Thalassius, Chapters on Knowledge, Questions to Theopemptus, and the Ambigua to Bishop John of Cyzicus. While in Africa he met St. Sophronius, abbot of Eucratas monastery, who convinced him of the danger of monoenergism and monothelitism. The doctrine of monoenergism began c. 616 when Patriarch Sergius of Constantinople suggested it to Bishop Theodore of Pharan. By 622 it promised reconciliation with the Armenian Monophysites. Although this proved unsuccessful at ﬁrst, Emperor Heraclius eventually found success in 630, sharing communion with the Catholicos. In 628 he also shared communion with the Nestorian Catholicos of Persia. In 633, Patriarch Cyrus of Alexandria forged the Pact of Union with the Monophysite Copts, against the appeals of St. Sophronius. But Sophronius that very year managed to convince Sergius of the error of monoenergism, who therefore in 634 issued a Psephos forbidding further discussion of one or two energies in Christ. He hinted that a more acceptable approach would be to discuss one will. Pope Honorius championed this doctrine, called monothelitism, which to Sophronius was no better than the ﬁrst heresy. Also in 634, Sophronius was elected Bishop of Jerusalem. Despite this position and his best eﬀorts, in 638 the Ekthesis was issued over the emperor’s signature, proclaiming monothelitism to be imperial doctrine. Maximus was aware of the controversy and argued against both monoenergism and monothelitism. The earliest marks of the controversy appear in his Ambigua to Abbot Thomas, composed in 634, and in some of his letters. Many of the Opuscula Theologica et Polemica, composed in the 630s and 640s, also refer to the monothelite controversy.
1 This account of Maximus’s life comes principally from the introductions to Berthold’s Selected Writings, Sherwood’s Ascetic Life, and Louth’s Maximus. 2 Louth writes that he went to Carthage in Maximus the Confessor 5.
and monothelitism was condemned. news of the Ekthesis reached Rome. In 654 Martin was convicted of conspiracy with the Arabs and exiled. The Golden Bough: A Study of Magic and Religion (Oxford: Oxford. hoping he would accept the Typos. Maximus traveled to Rome in 646 and joined Pope Theodore in opposing the new heresy.” according to James George Frazer. but 3 This is “about midway between Adrianople and Constantinople. to die within the year. Maximus convinced his adversary to renounce the monothelite teaching. PG 90. Martin succeeded Theodore as Pope in 649. Pyrrhus. arrested in 653 and taken to Constantinople. Maximus was present.128C. A year later. 2 . Pope Martin and Maximus paid for their intractability. the Patriarch Peter of Constantinople recalled him. 1959) 2. Honorius had died in 638.3 He was 75. trans. Louth.4 Anastasias the monk and Anastasius the Apocrisiarius were also exiled. perhaps only a few of the Opuscula. St. and in 645 he and Maximus held a debate in Carthage. Cf. The co-author of the Ekthesis. Rowley (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons. In 648 Emperor Constans II published the Typos. It was recorded as the Disputation with Pyrrhus. 1998) 402. and monothelitism received a cool welcome. Anastasius the Apocrisiarius. Hedlund and H. The Trial of Maximus records the accusations against Maximus and his answers.2. and ed. and that year he called the Lateran Council. Mary F. Maximus wrote very little after this date. succeeded Sergius in 638 as Patriarch of Constantinople. In 640. In 655 he was convincted of political crimes and exiled to Bizya in Thrace. who was a secretary in the church of Rome. forbidding further debate over the number of Christ’s wills and energies. But in 641 he was deposed and exiled due to palace intrigue. H.Figure 1: This map is modiﬁed from Atlas of the Early Christian World. Maximus the Confessor 199n. Perhaps this is where he acquired his second disciple. 4 Relatio Motionis 11 (numbering according to Allen).
without success. Cyrus of Alexandria with strong hand forges monoenergistic union with monophysite Copts. in council with Armenian monophysites. St. and with Anastasias the monk suﬀered the loss of tongue and right hand. 6 Taken without change from Michael McCormick’s “Chronology. Heraclius forges monoenergistic union with Nestorian catholicos of Persian. 1913) 80. St. St. Heraclius begins his war reclaiming Empire from Persians. True Cross (and Patr. Persians invade Egypt. Maximus receives the ﬁnest education.Maximus was adamant. Persians reach Chalcedon. Heraclius shares communion with the monophysite catholicos of Armenia. 628 630 631 632 633 634 5 I’m unable to locate this city. defense of city led (though not in battle) by Patr. Maximus visits Crete and probably Cyprus. . St. Sophronius—the ﬁrst recorded opposition to monoenergism. while in monoenergistic dialogue. Maximus begins stay in North Africa. Heraclius appoints Bp. Mohammed and followers ﬂee Mecca to Yathrib (Medina). Retrieval of True Cross. Monoenergism ﬁrst employed. the hijra—beginning of the Muslim calendar. Heraclius is victorious over the Persians. Monoenergism/monothelitism heresy born in correspondence between Patr. despite fervent pleas of St. “Let our mouths be ﬁlled. although it is also known as Perbera according to “Maximus of Constantinople. Heraclius becomes emperor. Syria conquered by the Persians. St. George at Cyzikos. St. Maximus born to an aristocratic family of Constantinople. Mohammed dies. Cilicia occupied by the Persians.” 3 . Mohammed receives calling. In 662 he was recalled. Timeline6 c. Maximus serves as imperial secretary. 626 628 c. this time to Perberis. 580 610 St. He was exiled again to Thrace. Pact of Union: Patr. Sinai). Theodore of Pharan (near Mt. Around this time St. Patr. ” Avar/Persian attack on Constantinople averted miraculously by Theotokos. Sophronius appeased for the time being. present day Erdek. prohibiting talk of one/two energies. Maximus becomes a monk at Chrysolopolis monastery outside capital. Sergius adds to the liturgy the troparion. Emp. St. . Sergius. Emp. 616 618 619 622 624 626 c. St. Byzantine (Chalcedonian) and Armenian churches unite under monoenergism. Sergius. sealed by eucharistic communion. abbot of Euchratas monastery. Jerusalem occupied by Persians. Before going to Africa.5 and his exile lasted six years. Sergius becomes Patriarch of Constantinople. Sometime in the years 610–614. Sergius and the Chalcedonian Bp.” The Catholic Encyclopedia 10 (New York: Encyclopedia Press. meets St. Maximus’ earliest literary output dated to this time. once again. Psephos issued by Patr. Maximus sojourns at the monastery of St. He was exiled to Lazica on the Black Sea and died 13 August 662. Cyrus of Lazica (present-day Georgia) as both Patriarch and Prefect in Alexandria. Anastasius. Maximus acquires his life-long disciple. soon taking Alexandria. 611 613 614 615 c. . As a young man. Zacharias) carried oﬀ. Sophronius. St. Maximus certainly in North Africa by this time. likely involved with this communion event. St. St. on the south coast of the Sea of Marmara.
December: Pyrrhus re-installed as Patr. the next great Eastern Father. succeeds him. succeeded by son Constantine IV (r. May: Pope St. 4 . vindicates St. Typos issued by Emp. Arabs turned back from Constantinople. Constans II wins back the monophysite Armenians to a monothelitic union. St.637 638 640 641 642 645 646 647 648 649 652 653 654 655 656 657 660 662 663 668 674 678 680 St. who will also break communion with Patr. Sixth Ecumenical Council convenes. causing St. Constans II murdered. Ex-Patr. Arab conquest begun by second caliph Omar. Maximus. St. Pope St. Pyrrhus dies. Maximus arrives in Rome. is succeed by Peter. Pyrrhus relapses into monothelitism and is excommunicated by Pope Theodore. convicted. succeeding Paul II. Sergius inspires use of monothelitism. Sometime after receiving Caliph Omar. Arabs win decisive battle against Persians. who (their empire a millennium old) never recover. of Constantinople. The Ekthesis at last reaches the West. Pope Vitalian welcomes Emp. Paul II succeeds as Patriarch. Pyrrhus won to Orthodoxy. publicly defrocked and humiliated. Arabs conquer Alexandria. eventually. sends him on a second exile. Peter of Constantinople tries various ways to tempt St. Arabs besiege Constantinople. St. will champion monothelitism with Constans II. Armenian Church. Patr. sparking ﬁve-year Arab civil war (the ﬁrst). holds Lateran Council. St. Constans II to Rome. again rejects Chalcedon. Maximus dies in exile at Lazica on the Black Sea. Anastasius wrongfully convicted of political crimes and exiled. thus protecting Ekthesis. Emp. co-author of Ekthesis. July: St. Patr. Patr. Pyrrhus. Heraclius dies. Maximus (though it does not name him. revising and reﬁning his terminology. joins Pope Theodore: a threshold in his extant literary corpus—Sherwood dates only three Opuscula after this time. Ekthesis issued. perhaps to avoid imperial embarrassment). St. Arab conquest of Egypt. Pope Honorius of Rome’s letter to Patr. lasting six years. He and his lifelong disciple are exiled with tongues and right hands cut oﬀ. Maximus recalled to Constantinople and tried once more. Paul II of Constantinople. Maximus present). established monothelitism as imperial doctrine. Martin I falsely accused of conspiracy with the Arabs. Paul II of Constantinople writes Typos (to be edited by Constans II). Maximus and Pope Martin I arrested and taken to Constantinople. John Damascene. in present-day Georgia. Martin I succeeds Theodore as Pope of Rome. Emp. Maximus’ Disputation with Pyrrhus in North Africa. grandson Constans II succeeds as emperor. Maximus and long-time disciple St. Sergius dies. lasts nearly a year. Arabs occupy Jerusalem. St. forbidding debate. Maximus to focus singly on combating the heresy. Patr. and exiled. Newly-elected Pope of Rome Vitalian does not condemn the Typos and re-establishes communion with Constantinople. Sophronius becomes Patriarch of Jerusalem. Pyrrhus deposed and exiled due to political intrigue (regarding “eventually”). Armenian/Byzantine union broken for good due to Arab conquest of Armenia. Constans II. under Moslem inﬂuence. causing the tyrannous Pact of Union to collapse. 668–685). Sophronius dies. June: Patr. the former to Bizya in Thrace. to Perberis in Thrace. Ss. Martin I dies on September 16 in exile at Cherson in the Crimea. St. Lateran Council in Rome condemns monothelitism (St. is born. Caliph Uthman murdered.
There is also a collection of scholia on St. 2003. Paul M. New York: Routledge. beginning in Cyzikos (except perhaps for one earlier epistle). Circa 626. Turnhout-Brepols: Leuven University.” Trans. c. This is the only letter available in English. His treatise on the date of Pascha appears in volume 19 with the works of Eusebius. Louth. CE: Liber asceticus. Louth. Trans.363–649. it is largely the work of the sixth-century scholar John of Scythopolis. Circa 626. 1996. Based on Migne. Ad Thalassium. The texts following appear in roughly the order of composition. Twenty-seven short works from throughout Maximus’ career. Ed.D. CE: C. PG 90. 8 “Kosmische 5 . Maximus the Confessor. Maximus the Confessor: The Ascetic Life. Catoosa. Four Hundred Chapters on Love. Dionysius the Areopagite. mostly in volumes 90 and 91. 2000. PG 91. Works from Throughout Maximus’ Career Epistolae (Letters). 626. and extending throughout Maximus’ life. 1955. Early Church Fathers. Vladimir’s Seminary. T: “Opuscula 3 and 7. Some important works remain untranslated. 7 Most of this bibliography comes from Michael McCormick. Bishop Photios (Joseph P. 9 Louth 83. Peter Van Deun. T: St. Polycarp Sherwood.912–956. Steel and B.” On the Cosmic Mystery of Jesus Christ: Selected Writings from St. Based on Migne. CE: Migne. dissertation. Maximus the Confessor. PG 91. CE: Migne. unpublished. but it is not published. Though attributed to St.Bibliography7 Primary Texts The complete works of St.9 T: “Opusculum 6. Maximus the Confessor: The Ascetical Life. 2001. Maximus the Confessor. Early Church Fathers. and Letters. with a few additions and annotations of my own. it was insigniﬁcant. Crestwood. If Maximus contributed anything to this work. But Balthazar calls John “the most profound thinker of the sixth century” and invites someone to make of him a doctoral dissertation. OK: Seven Councils. The ﬁrst English translation of Maximus appeared in 1955 as part of the Ancient Christian Writers series: Polycarp Sherwood’s St. Opuscula Theologica et Polemica (Theological and Polemical Minor Works). Maximus the Confessor. T: The Theological and Polemical Works of Our Father among the Saints. 626.” Trans. Ancient Christian Writers 21. T: “Letter 2: On Love. New York: Newman. Corpus Christianorum Series Graeca 40. Based on Migne.9–285. Works from Cyzikos The Ascetic Life. Since then. Trans. New York: Routledge. found in volume 4. 1996. Forty-ﬁve letters extant. either in full or in part: the Opuscula. Maximus.) Farrell. NY: St. based on Sherwood’s Date-List. Trans. Unpublished. Blowers. covering most of the saint’s writings. most of them falling in the crucial period of the 630s and 640s when monoenergism grew into monothelitism. Markesinis. A translation of Quaestiones et Dubia is available from UMI as a Ph. Maximus appear in Migne’s Patrologia Graeca.8 Modern critical editions exist for several works. various other works have appeared. CE: Migne. written from Cyzikos c. Based on Steel and Markesinis. the Four Centuries on Charity. of doubtful quality. Ambigua. the Four Centuries on Charity. These are important for understanding Maximus’ christology. Below each entry are listed any critical editions (CE) and translations (T). Liturgie” 359–387.
T: Maximus Confessor: Selected Writings. Corpus Christianorum Series Graeca 23. “A most unsystematic compilation of commentaries on obscure passages from Gregory of Nazianzus” with one on an epistle of St. 1991. version was discovered in the Vatican Library in the 1940s and it is an edition of this that was ﬁnally published in 1982. A much longer. the two sets are printed together.H. Vol. Circa 626. Trans. nos. London: Faber and Faber. 1955. the Four Centuries on Charity. Circa 626. Exegesis 53–54. 1981. with some use of an early draft of Ceresa-Gastaldo.15 31 chapters also appear excerpted in the ﬁfth century of Various Texts. Berthold.13 CE: Opuscula exegetica duo: Expositio in Psalmum LIX. New York: Paulist.872–910. PG 90.10 T: “Four Hundred Texts on Love. Jose H. Maximos the Confessor’s ‘Questions and Doubts’: Translation and Commentary. Philip Sherrard. Maximus the Confessor: The Ascetic Life. In this version there are 195 questions and answers (as opposed to 83 in the version printed in Migne). In Migne. CE: Opuscula exegetica duo: Expositio in Psalmum LIX. Trans. Incomplete. 6–71) and those written in 634 to Abbot Thomas (Ad Thomam. Works from North Africa On the Lord’s Prayer.14 There are two sets of Ambigua grouped together: those written c. New York: Paulist. Expositio orationis dominicae.” The Philokalia. “Recent Research” 68. On Psalm 59. 12 Louth. Ed. T: “On the Lord’s Prayer. Peter van Deun. Expositio orationis dominicae. Sherwood writes that in the Ambigua ad Joannem. London: Faber and Faber. 101. No English translation has yet made use of this edition. and ed. mostly from Scripture but occasionally from the Cappadocians or other holy Fathers. CE: Massimo confessore: Capitoli sulla carit`. a 1963.”12 T: Despina Prassas. Peter van Deun. 6 . Berthold.” Diss. a refutation of Origenist error with a 10 Sherwood 11 Blowers.CE: Migne. G. 1985. Declerck. 1981.11 CE: Migne. 2003. Ancient Christian Writers 21.785–856. Based on Ceresa-Gastaldo. “St. T: St. Corpus Christianorum Series Graeca 23.H. Based on Migne. 1991. Dionysius the Areopagite. Ed. 628–630 to Bishop John of Cyzicus (Ad Joannem. G. reprinted in Migne. TurnhoutBrepols: Leuven University. 15 Louth.” The Philokalia. 2. This is apparently Maximus’ own arrangement. Classicals of Western Spirituality. Ambigua (Diﬃculties).960–1080. Polycarp Sherwood. and Kallistos Ware. nos. CE: Migne. Turnhout-Brepols: Leuven University. Classicals of Western Spirituality. Trans. 2. Trans. 628–630. Aldo Ceresa-Gastaldo. Catholic University of America. This edition “reveals a much larger work than that printed in Migne. CE: Quaestiones et Dubia. PG 90. Quaestiones et Dubia (Questions and Doubts). This collection contains questions about diﬃcult texts. Maximus the Confessor 82. Vol. Corpus Christianorum Series Graeca 10. Ed. Trans. Nikodemos and St. PG 90. with the later before the earlier. Based on Migne. Based on Migne. Makarios. George C. Byzantine Theology 37. T: Maximus Confessor: Selected Writings.856–872. New York: Newman. and ed. Philip Sherrard. CE: Combeﬁs and Oehler. This work gives the fullest treatment of Origen by Maximus. with only 83 questions. George C. Rome: Editrice Studium. T: None. Palmer. perhaps alone in all Greek patristic literature. “one ﬁnds.E. which is based on a manuscript tradition that contains only a selection from Maximus’ own work. Palmer. though still incomplete. Based on Ceresa-Gastaldo. 13 Philokalia 51. This text is “on the whole more reliable” than the text used by St. and Kallistos Ware. PG 90. 1985. Turnhout-Brepols: Leuven University. The ﬁrst set predates the monoenergist controversy. UMI 3084441. Ed. 1982. 1–5). 14 Meyendorﬀ.E.
2003. Based on Laga and Steel. Charalambos Soteropoulos. Vol. 1990. 1–2. Origen’s name was not oﬃcially to be mentioned. Still River. They are considered authentic. 1980. Bede’s Publications. reprinted in Migne. New York: Paulist. Corpus Christianorum Series Graeca 18. 9. 8.19 CE: Combeﬁs and Oehler. Series Graeca 22. the Divine Economy. 60–61.H. and Kallistos Ware. Maximus the Confessor. and ed. Maximus’ discussion takes the form of exegesis of some controversial passages in Gregory of Nazianzus that were capable of being understood in an Origenist sense. T: Ch. Trans. Jeauneau. and 71. 630–634. 630–634. Blowers. Maximus the Confessor. Trans. T: “Various Texts on Theology. 41. George C. 1 and 5 are the ﬁrst and last of the Ambigua ad Thomam. T: Nos. Nos. TurnhoutBrepols: Leuven University. 6. and trans. 1981. 42. Turnhout-Brepols: Leuven University. 1981. G. T: Nos. but I have tried to write something people may enjoy reading in English. Capita Theologiae et Oeconomiae (Chapters on Knowledge). Early Church Fathers.”18 T: Maximus Confessor: Selected Writings. Based on Migne and Cantarella. 1981. Ed. Wilken (7) and Blowers (8 and 42). Dom Julian Stead. Vol. Byzantine Gospel 20–21. 17 Nichols. TurnhoutBrepols: Leuven University. 64. NY: St. Maximus the Confessor. T: “Two Hundred Texts on Theology and the Incarnate Dispensation of the Son of God. Trans. Justinian’s Council of Constantinople of 553. Turnhout-Brepols: Leuven University. T: “Various Texts on Theology. 1061–1417 (Ad Joannem). PG 90. Berthold.E. Vol. Ed. 18 Stead Date-List 32. una cum latina interpretatione Ioannis Scotti Eriugenae.” ch. 1988.E. 1996. Classicals of Western Spirituality. NY: St. 628–630. Philip Sherrard. and ed. in the wake of the Fifth Ecumenical Council.” The Philokalia. Vladimir’s Seminary. Crestwood.1032–1060 (Ad Thomam). Philip Sherrard. Trans. Quaestiones ad Thalassium (To Thalassios: On Various Questions Relating to the Holy Scripture). 7 . 10 is the longest of all the Ambigua. and 71 is the last of the Ambigua ad Joannem. CE: Quaestiones ad Thalassium I: Quaestiones I-LV. 10. Ed. The Philokalia. PG 91. 1. and Kallistos Ware. CE: Ambigua ad Thomam una cum Epistula secunda ad eundem. 1982. 2003.H.E. The bulk of this section consists of over 250 fragments from Ad Thalassium. and Virtue and Vice. No. Series Graeca 7. PG 91. MA: St. PG 90. which at times is more of a paraphrase.full understanding of the master. G. Trans. La Mistagogia ed Altri Scritti.244–785. London: Faber and Faber. and Kallistos Ware. Trans. this work appears as the ﬁrst two centuries of Various Texts.1084–1173. Corpus Christianorum. Vladimir’s Seminary. and 42. 17. “Scholars may ﬁnd much to criticize in my translation. Ed. CE: Quaestiones ad Thalassium II: Quaestiones LVI-LXV una cum latina interpretatione Ioannis Scotti Eriugenae. the Divine Economy. Ed. CE: San Massimo Confessore. Raﬀaele Cantarella. and ed.”17 CE: Migne. and the Soul of Man: The Mystagogia of St. On the Cosmic Mystery of Jesus Christ: Selected Writings from St. In Migne and the Philokalia. Only half of 42 is included here. E. 16 Sherwood. New York: Routledge.H. CE: Migne. 21–22. and Virtue and Vice.” The Philokalia. London: Faber and Faber. Janssens. “Since. Corpus Christianorum Series Graeca 48. Carl Laga and Carlos Steel. Palmer. 2. Carl Laga and Carlos Steel. T: The Church. Trans. Palmer. G. On the Cosmic Mystery of Jesus Christ: Selected Writings from St. 2002. 2. Maximus the Confessor. 19 Sherwood. Based on Soteropoulos. Athens: 1978. London: Faber and Faber. CE: Migne. CE: Ambigua ad Iohannem. Crestwood. Mystagogia (Mystagogy). Athens: 1993.”16 Nichols writes. Philip Sherrard. Paul M. Ed. CE: The Mystagogy of St. Florence: 1931. Maximus the Confessor. the Liturgy. Trans.657–717. 2. “Date-List” 35. Written for Thalassios. Palmer. 62–100. 2nd ed. Corpus Christianorum. Louth. 1985. 5. 7. B.
London: Faber and Faber. and Virtue and Vice.] 3. “The Greek Life” 48.1174–1461. Epistola Anastasii Apocrisiarii ad Theodosium Gangrensem. 2. [“Disputatio Bizyae. In Migne and the Philokalia. The source of about 5% of the texts is unknown. T: The Disputation with Pyrrhus of Our Father among the Saints Maximus the Confessor. centuries three through seven.”). Record of the Trial.” Journal of Eastern Christian Studies 55. his Disciple: Maximus’ letter dates to 19 April 658. 90.” PG 90. Philip Sherrard. Palmer. and John 20:17 (“I have not yet returned to my Father. 630–633. PG 90. and Kallistos Ware. 21 Neil.136–172. reprinted in Migne.132–134.21 Allen and Neil have published all seven in critical edition and English translation. Disputatio Bizyae. mostly from Ad Thalassium but also from Letters and Ambigua. These are letters and records of conversations. The ﬁrst four appear in PG 90. [“Relatio Motionis. Luke 6:29 (striking the cheek). Vol.] 2. Maximus. with Migne text added in brackets.” PG 90. and Contra Constantinopolitanos. Quaestiones ad Theopemptum. Bishop of Caesaria Bithynia.288–353. There is also a Greek Vita. especially his role in the monothelite controversy. Trans. 1990. Dispute between Maximus and Theodosius. Epistola Maximi ad Anastasium suum discipulum. T: “Various Texts on Theology. CE: Bram Roosen and Peter Van Deun.] 20 Blowers. G.1393–1400. Disputation with Pyrrhus. CE: Migne. while both he and Anastasius the monk were in exile in Perberis. and a recently-discovered Syriac Vita.E. They describe them as follows:22 1. South Canaan.” The Philokalia. centuries three through seven.T: Maximus Confessor: Selected Writings. A brief work of the same genre as Quaestiones ad Thalassium.1217–1280 (in the ﬁrst volume of Eusebius). The ﬁrst ﬁfteen fragments date from 630–634. An eleventh/twelfth-century compilation of fragments. Epistola Anastasii ad Monachos Calaritanos.20 CE: Migne. New York: Paulist. Grouped under Capita Theologiae et Oeconomiae.” PG 90. Divine Economy. and Virtue and Vice. Berthold. and was written within a year of the events described. largely consisting of reported dialogue between Maximus and his various accusers and calumniators. Trans. sometimes called the Vita et Certamen (Life and Combat). Hypomnesticon. although Neil calls the ﬁrst three paraphrases. 1981. On the calculation of Easter. Farrell. CE: Migne. PG 19. a word-for-word account of the debate between Maximus and Bishop Theodosius. which took place during Maximus’ exile in Bizya in August 656.H.1–2 (2003): 65–79. Joseph P. Classicals of Western Spirituality. Trans. Tikhon’s Seminary. 645. “A Critical Edition of the Quaestiones ad Theopemptum of Maximus the Confessor. 22 Taken verbatim from Allen. 1985. Various Texts on Theology. the Various Texts appear as part of the Capita Theologiae et Oeconomiae. [“Ad Anastasium monachum. including the saint’s ﬁrst trial. Letter of Maximus to Anastasius the Monk.109–130. an eyewitness account of the events of the trial of Maximus and his disciple Anastasius in Constantinople in 655. and ed. The assorted short works are seven: Relation Motionis. PG 91. PA: St. 8 . covering Luke 18:6 (the “unjust judge”). Exegesis 53. Computus Ecclesiasticus. T: None. but they are believed to be by Maximus. George C. T: None. Maximus and His Companions 21–22. Ancient Secondary Texts Several short texts exist that inform us about St. Divine Economy. 640–641. CE: Combeﬁs and Oehler.
He concludes: 1.” 30 Neil. a Studite monk. but Neil in 51 says the second recension is missing it. all martyrs for the dyothelite cause. 9 . Neil gives a good summary of the scholarly opinions in “The Greek Life.28 although the imperial service has independent corroboration. the third recension is not independent. Maximus. 27 Louth. 26 Neil. a record of the terrible trials in exile of Pope Martin I. Against the People of Constantinople. The second recension is also published in Patrologia Graeca 90.4. including all three recensions of the Vita. not in paraphrase but verbatim. Allen says the ﬁrst recension is missing the “additamentum” mentioned by Devreesse. until his second trial and exile. in that (apparently correct) order. Letter of Anastasius the Apocrisiarius to Theodosius of Gangra. and syllogisms.29 The ﬁrst and second recensions include paraphrases of the Relatio Motionis and Disputatio Bizyae. 31 Devreesse seems to be the most inﬂuential. as though its events occured during the trial of 655. Maximus Confessor 12n.”26 Louth remarks27 that the original author. Theodore the Studite.6 says that PG contains rather the ﬁrst recension.25 In all recensions. In 2001. “The Greek Life” 46. in the opposite order. a later piece of colourful invective “short on facts but long on rhetoric”. There are also a couple paragraphs. written not long before his death in exile in Lazica on 11 October 666. 3. and dates from the eleventh century or earlier. no edition is forthcoming. “The Greek Life” 53. 28 Lackner. Commemoration. in better condition. and Euprepius. Allen says Devreesse’s “ﬁrst” recension derives from his “second.30 Older scholars attributed the Greek Vita to Anastasius the Apocrisiarius or other contemporaries of St. 24 Allen 23 Allen.623–626. bishop of Portus Romanus. in “Blue-Print” 12n. “The Greek Life” 47–48. made the long trek to the Caucasus to visit the exiled pontiﬀ. “witnesses”) falsely attributed to Hippolytus. the ﬁrst recension dates from the late tenth or eleventh centuries. Neil still expected to publish the third recension.68–109. 2. and focuses in detail on events from the time of his arrival in Constantinople for his ﬁrst trial at the imperial palace in 655. His work is cited by Sherwood.3. Maximus the Confessor. only to ﬁnd that he had arrived too late: the pope was already dead. and Blowers in 2003 called it “forthcoming” in Cosmic Mystery 14n. who. By comparing her description in 12n. published by Devreesse. Anastasius Apocrisiarius. The ﬁrst and second recensions also contain the Epistola Maximi ad Anastasium suum discipulum almost verbatim. in all recensions. 6. Theodore. and subsequent death in Lazica in August 662. 25 Allen gave a list of works she hoped to edit in “Blue-Print” 20–21. But according to my correspondence with CCSG and Blowers. the second recension is derived from the ﬁrst. and accompanied by testimonia (lit. contrived the details of Maximus’ early life by copying from the Vita of St.6 with Neil. The third recension contains these texts. “Der Amtstitel” 296ﬀ. “the Vita gives a brief account of Maximus’ early life. together with his brother Theodosius of Gangra. 7. written against the imperial monothelite party by an anonymous monk who was a vehement supporter of Maximus. and oﬀers them encouragement in their continued resistance to the monothelite party. Ascetic Life 5 and Berthold. “Zu Quellen. Although this letter was written in 658. Some of these works appeared in Scripta in 1999. based on the Epistola Anastasii Apocrisiarii ad Theodosium Gangrensem.8. This was written in late 668 or early 669 by the fervent but poorly educated Theodore Spoudaeus.31 but Neil demonstrates that all recensions are much later. but this plan appears to be abandoned. The Greek Vita exists in three recensions. Also in PL 129. 29 Lackner. Letter of Anastasius to the Monks of Cagliari: Anastasius (either the disciple or the Apocrisiarius) seeks the monks’ help in Rome. Anastasius the Disciple.” 32 Neil. using the numbering of Devreesse.24 The third was to be published by Allen and Neil in Corpus Christianorum Series Graeca. both recensions place it immediately after the Relatio Motionis. probably from the hand of Anastasius himself.23 ] 5.32 Maximus 40.” whereas Neil in 47n.133–136.6 and 56 says the second recension derives from the ﬁrst. Maximus the Confessor 4. it is evident that Neil has renamed these two recensions so their numbering matches the chronological order. [PG 90. as it has been demonstrated by Pauline Allen.
159C ﬀ. although they too include sections not found in the Greek. probably by a monophysite opponent. This Life was translated from Russian and checked against the texts collected in PG 90 and 91. St. 3 expected a “forthcoming” second volume. “La vie de s. this is the closest thing in English to a translation of the Vita. 2002. 1982. but without critical apparatus. Maximus the Confessor and His Companions: Documents from Exile.34 Modern Secondary Texts These are readily-available or otherwise important secondary sources on St. Maximus.” Analecta Bollandiana 91 (1973): 299–346. a leader of a spiritual community in Switzerland. Note that Sherwood’s introduction was written before this document appeared. Maximus the Confessor 222n. Birchall. The texts ﬂow into one another with little indication of their source. For more recent ones. According to Louth. Sebastian. seem more exact.11. Corpus Christianorum Series Graeca 39 (Leuven: Brepols. Brock published the Syriac Life in this article. R. 33. in PG 90. Thunberg’s Microcosm and Mediator provides the best bibliography. and at 73 are fragments of this council. Pauline and Bronwell Neil. 1960. Ed. called Documenta ad vitam sancti Maximi Confessoris spectantia. consult Daley’s 2003 translation of von Balthazar’s Cosmic Liturgy and 2003’s On the Cosmic Mystery. 34 Sherwood. Unlike the Greek Vita. Later parts. The latter is reprinted. The early part is a very brief paraphrase. Graz. Von Balthazar is a Jesuit. For a judicious treatment. He has written a powerful Roman Catholic interpretation of Maximus and has contributed valuable research on textual authenticity.35 The three big names in Maximian scholarship are listed in bold. An English translation of the texts in Scripta. either in critical edition or English translation: Allen. Maximus the Confessor 6. an American Benedictine. Devreesse. Two documents in this collection give details of the ﬁnal Trial and exile of St. Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio. It contradicts the Greek account of Maximus’s early life.” if you know Italian. taken from Relatio Motionis and Diputatio Bizyae. with Greek text. but it was never published. His work Microcosm and Mediator is an excellent introduction to the important terminology and distinctions in Maximus. given at the Sixth Ecumenical Council.33 I think actually it uses volume 90 only. with no imperial service. 33 See xvii–xviii. But as far as I know. 11. He is well-known for his research on Maximus’ refutation of Origenism. Lars Thunberg is a Swedish Lutheran. the bastard child of a Samaritan man and a Persian slave-girl.The Syriac Vita came to light only in the 1970s. 14 n.” Analectica Bollandiana 46 (1928): 5–49. ———. Gatti is “a more or less complete annotated bibliography . Blowers in Cosmic Mystery p. 10 . Many other articles exist. active in the ecumenical movement.107. up to 1986. Contains critical editions of the seven contemporary texts described above. Austria: Akademische Druck. Scripta saeculi VII uitam Maximi Confessoris illustrantia. Boston: Holy Transﬁguration Monastery. Christopher. . . Maximus: at 357C is the deposition of Macarius of Antioch. “An Early Syriac Life of Maximus the Confessor. The Life of Our Holy Father Maximus the Confessor. it was composed during Maximus’s lifetime. Maxime le Confesseur et ses recensions. Dom Polycarp Sherwood is also Catholic. The following are sources for the primary documents described above. 199n. Brock. Oxford: Oxford University. His description of Maximus’ doctrine in the introduction to Selected Writings is a typical Catholic interpretation along scholastic lines. Joannes Dominicus Mansi. Includes the original Greek or Latin also. 1999). 35 Maximus the Confessor 222. who was ﬁrst interested in Maximus by his mentor Paul Evdokimov. calling him uneducated. Vol. see Louth. ———. though ten years old.
see above on ancient secondary sources.” Gottes Sohn 24. Maximus has been an object of controversy. “Actes. Works devoted less to controversy and more to spiritual and pastoral wisdom include Staniloae and S. Allen. as pupils of the Dominican M.” After Chalcedon: Studies in Theology and Church History. making St. 123. Bishop. Gregory Palamas an innovator. Laga.37 which is criticized as unchristian by Gilson.J. but most concerned to draw the mind down into the heart. and L. Maximus the Confessor and His Companions: Documents from Exile. 43 “Recent Research” 83–84. expressed at the article’s close. and indeed from St. Van Rompay. along with the whole Fribourg Symposium in Heinzer. 11–21.41 According to Louth. 37 Heinzer. “Transﬁguration et th´ologie n´gative chez Maxime le Confesseur et Denys l’Ar´opagite. Paris: 1997. Paul through the rest of the eastern Fathers. and often relate what Maximus says to other saints. their ontology. e e 40 Perl 9–10. 36 My 11 . Artemy (Rantosavlievich). “Blue-print for the Edition of Documenta ad Vitam Maximi Confessoris spectantia. These scholars distance Maximus from the Neoplatonic and Dionysian theory of participation.36 See especially Riou and Garrigues.Since the 1970s. “Recent Research” 78–80. J. Paris. They are comments by an Orthodox theologian on an Orthodox saint: Fr.38 Instead. Louth writes of Staniloae’s commentaries: They are substantial. as the saint living in the presence of the Risen Lord. erudite but with especial pastoral usefulness. and their theories of mystical union. 21– e e e ´ 24 septembre 1994.7. He points to L´thel and Piret. Actes du Colloque International. Riou 55. not so much the early Byzantine monk and scholar.” e e e Denys l’Ar´opagite et sa post´rit´ en orient et en occident. They are concerned with what the Ambigua themselves are about. Munitiz. Garrigues. most notably (and favorably) to Thunberg.L. La charit´ 92n. 58. They are by no means devoid of scholarship—they occasionally refer to modern scholars. Ysabel de. along the lines of Gilson and Maritain. have apparently been revised. The latter is praised by Meyendorﬀ and used heavily by Sherwood. 1. le Guillou have sought to claim him as a proto-Thomist. Oxford: Oxford University. Epifanovich. see especially La divinisation.40 Doucet and Larchet criticize them for misconstruing the Greek and imposing foreign ideas on Maximus’ thought. e 38 Gilson 29–34. most often to St. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 18. 42 “Recent Research” 75. 39 Garrigou. Larchet defends the essence–energies distinction and banishes the confusion of Maximian creation–deiﬁction with Anselmian fall–redemption. including their diﬀerent approaches to apophatic and kataphatic theology. even though individually rarely more than a page or so. summary of this controversy owes much to Perl 8–12 and Louth. they describe him as an existential Thomist. in much smaller print than [Staniloae’s French] translation of the Ambigua themselves. 44 Louth.” Divine Ascent.3–4 (1999): 48–60. and often less: they run to nearly 200 pages. 1985. Dumitru is looking for wisdom and seeks to distil it in his commentaries. Pauline. not with dissecting the text itself of the Ambigua. Gregory Palamas—but that is not the point: they are indeed intended to feed the mind. Introduction. C. Leuven: Peeters. “La charit´” 121. It also provides a welcome corrective to certain comments made by Thunberg and Nellas. 95. Etudes Augustinniennes. Contrasts e e several themes in Dionysius and Maximus. Andia. They also deny the essence–energies distinction.39 Perl complains that these and later studies go awry because they largely ignore Maximus’ ontology. Allen’s hopes for which works to publish. S´rie “Antiquit´” 151. only two works by Larchet exist in English: a conference lecture given at Oxford and a translation of The Theology of Illness.” e 41 Among Larchet’s works. Sadly. “The Mystery of Marriage in a Dogmatic Light. A. Ed. Bradshaw also defends the essence–energies distinction in Maximus.”43 Vincent Rossi’s article is also a great treatment of the Confessor’s thought. “L’´nergie divine” 296. 293–328. “Recent Research. They help us to enter into the mind of Maximus. This begins with an excellent summary of the textual criticism to-date on Maximus’s Vita. Pauline and Bronwen Neil.44 Allen.”42 Most important. which occupy nearly 300 pages. 2002. “Very little is left after Larchet’s withering attack.
1: 57–85. and the Concept of ‘Perpetual Progress. On the Cosmic Mystery of Jesus Christ. IN: University of Notre Dame. Einsiedeln: 1962. not merely economic like Photius. “Original Sin According to St. The second edition accepts and interprets the counterarguments in Sherwood’s Earlier Ambigua. Aristotle East and West: Metaphysics and the Division of Christendom. a 2nd ed. “Maximus the Confessor. Vladimir’s Seminary. Einsiedeln: 1961. Gregory of Nyssa. Classics of Western Spirituality. Brieﬂy compares and in Maximus to Augustine’s posse non peccare and non posse peccare. ———. Boojamra. Nature.Balthasar. He assured his fellow Greeks that the Latins understood the ﬁlioque in this orthodox sense. Bradshaw. Birchall. “The World in the Mirror of Holy Scripture: Maximus the Confessor’s Short Hermeneutical Treatise in Ambiguum ad Joannem 37. II: F¨cher der Stile.1.1. Negative portrayal of Dionysius. Daley. The Byzantine Christ: Person. New York: Paulist. Father Christopher. 1: Klerikale Stile. 1997. 14–18. Hunter. Notre Dame. “Maximus the Confessor and the Filioque. George C. The Life of Our Holy Father Maximus the Confessor. Crestwood. ———. (1976): 19–30. Herrlichkeit: Eine theologische Asthetik. David G.” In Dominico Eloquio—In Lordly Eloquence: Essays on Patristic Exegesis in Honor of Robert Louis Wilken. Berthold.” Studia Patristica 18. 2002.” Studia Patristica 32. Hans Urs von. Exegesis and Spiritual Pedagogy in Maximus the Confessor: An Investigation of the Questions ad Thalassium. Blowers. Demonstrates that Maximus regarded “through the Son” as theological. ———. ———. 1985. Maximus the Confessor.” Origeniana Quinta. Paul M. This book is based on the ancient Greek Vita along with the ﬁrst three documents under “Anceint Secondary Sources. 258–263. Oxford: Pergamon. “The Analogy of Scripture and Cosmos in Maximus the Confessor. 2nd ed.1–2. San Francisco: Ignatius. 46 (1992): 151–171. Robert J. and Will in the Christology of St. Ed. considering the length of time Maximus spent in North Africa and Rome. 2005. 2005. “The Logology of Maximus the Confessor in His Criticism of Origenism. Daley as Cosmic Liturgy: The Universe According to Maximus the Confessor. Ed. 113–117. “Did Maximus the Confessor Know Augustine?” Studia Patristica 17. 1991. 2003. 1993. MI: Cistercian. Maximus Confessor: Selected Writings.” St. ¨ ———. 1993. Endnotes. “Realized Eschatology in Maximus the Confessor. Demetrios. Introduction. ———. Oxford: Oxford University. gn¸mh âleujerÐa ———. ———. More favorable presentation of Dionysius. though he urged them to ﬁnd language less oﬀensive to Greek ears. John.” taken from Migne. Leuven: Peeters. Kosmische Liturgie. NY: St. and Robin Darling Young. 145–149.” Studia Patristica 27. David. 4. Points out some similarities between Maximus and Augustine.’ ” Vigiliae Christianae. Boston: Holy Transﬁguration Monastery. Brian E. ———. Blowers. Powerful interpretation of Maximus as a last “synthesis” of East and West before the Schism. Kalamazzo. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Maximus. 20. An unfortunate title to a work devoted to tracing the word ânèrgeia 12 . Bathrellos. Ad Thalassium 22. Maximus the Confessor. Cambridge: Cambridge University. 1985. 1969. Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly. “Gentiles of the Soul: Maximus the Confessor on the Substructure and Transformation of the Human Passions.” Journal of Early Christian Studies. Trans. Leuven: Peeters. ———. Angela Russell Christman. The endnotes to Berthold’s translation are a treasury of references to the inﬂuences on St. 1982. Oxford Early Christian Studies. 2003. 1982. Louvain: Peeters. balancing that in Kosmische Liturgie.
1984. ———. Studi e testi. The Disputation with Pyrrhus of Our Father Among the Saints Maximus the Confessor. Kiev: 1915. . who coined the term. Brussels: Soci´t´ des Bollandistes. focusing on individual terms and concepts without showing how they all relate to a coherent whole. up to 1986. Pubblicazioni della Universit` Cattolica del Sacro Cuore [Metaﬁsica del Platonismo nel suo sviluppo storico e nella a ﬁlosoﬁa patristica. This work. PA: St. Turnhout: Brepols. Garrigues was a student of Le Guillou. Belmont. Stephen. 5 vol. a “more or less complete annotated bibliography . M. Wholy Deiﬁed.” e e e Science et Esprit.” The Byzantine Fathers of the Sixth to Eighth Century. Luke. Maximus the Confessor: Holy Flesh. Criticizes the attempt by some Roman Catholics to make a Scholastic or Existentialist of Maximus. Maximus is described as part of this tradition.3 (1979): 269–302. Epifanovich. Th´ologie 49 (Paris: Aubier. Paris: 1976.” Revue des e e e e sciences philosophiques et th´ologiques 36 (1952): 244–249. MA: B¨chervertriebsanstalt. through pagan philosophers and eastern Fathers up to Palamas. The Body in St. Novum Auctarium Bibliothecae hagiographicae graecae. Corpus Christianorum Series Graeca. “La th´orie des ‘logoi’ des cr´atures chez S. 1974–1987. Milan: Vite e Pensiero. Saggio di bibliograﬁa generale ragionata e contributi per una ricostruzione scientiﬁca del suo pensiero metaﬁsico e religioso. Praised by Perl. Tikhon’s Seminary Press. Oxford: Oxford University. Prepodobnyi Maksim Ispovednik i vizantiiskoe bogoslovie (Saint Maximus the Confessor and Byzantine Theology). Clavis Patrum Graecorum. Cooper. M. From Iamblichus to Eriugena. L. u Garrigues. Tikhon’s Seminary. contains 45 Meyendorﬀ 231. Jospeh P. Examines the metaphysics of Maximus in light of Dionysius. edited by Geerard and J. “The most complete and best-documented study on Maximus remains that of S. The study of Maximus within the framework of Byzantine tradition—which was really his own—constitutes [the book’s] great merit. 2001): 462–471. 1989. L. South Canaan.” Geerard. ———. Discusses the relation of e e Maximus to Origenism.” Istina 19 (1974): 272–296. but with an analytic rather than synthetic approach. 3rd ed. from which the West strayed by following the absolute divine simplicity of Augustine and Aquinas.” Studia Patristica 37 (Louvain: Peeters. “The Logoi of Providence and Judgment in the Exegetical Writings of Evagrius Ponticus. 2005. Doucet. Dysinger. Halkin. S. Presents Maximus as a scholastic e alternative to the Neoplatonism of Dionysius. Maximus the Confessor. Epifanovich. “Vues r´centes sur les ‘m´tamorphoses’ de la pens´e de saint Maxime le Confesseur. A supplement was published in 1998. . Georges. “Saint Maxime Confesseur et la crise de l’orig´nisme monastique.”45 Farrell. Gersh. 1987. Marcel. . . South Canaan. Leiden: 1978. According to Louth. Maxime le Confesseur. Maximus. Juan Miguel. Introduction. Oxford Early Christian Studies. L. e ———.from Aristotle. 1957. Dalmais. 13 . together with Halkin’s Bibliotheca. 31. 2]. Maximus the Confessor. Ir´n´e-Henri. Brussels: Soci´t´ des Bollandistes. Massimo il Confessore. Also published ee as Subsidia Hagiographica 8a. Florovsky. Noret. La charit´: avenir divin de l’homme. e a Gatti. Adam G. Bibliotheca hagiographica graeca. including ancient secondary sources pertaining to St. . 1961). especially the argument that Maximus evolved from a Neoplatonist intellectual to a Christian monk. “L’´nergie divine et la grˆce chez Maxime le Confesseur. Free Choice in St. F. ———. 1990. ee Also published as Subsidia Hagiographica 65.” Th´ologie de la vie monastique: e e ´tudes sur la tradition patristique. “St. An index into Greek texts. PA: St.
Court trait´ de l’existence et de l’existant. Felix. it seems to me. Crestwood. Severely criticizes the Thomist interpretation of Maximus. Leuven: Peeters. “Ancestral Guilt According to Saint Maximus the Confessor: A Bridge between Eastern and Western Conceptions. John and Michael Breck. An example of Catholic Maximian e c e scholarship. Felix and C. Larchet. 1959): 44–52. ———. Theosevia Centre. According to Perl.1 (1998) 67–84. Lossky.D.g. Heinzer. New York: Routledge. “Der Amtstitel Maximos des Bekenners. ———. Early Church Fathers. Louth.” Analecta Bollandiana 85 (1967): 285–316.hagiographic editions up to A. Maximus the Confessor. The two works are commonly treated as one and abbreviated BHG. 1997. I. Alban and St. ———. The Theology of Illness. Meyendorﬀ. Claude. Paris: Les Editions du Cerf. La divinisation de l’homme selon saint Maxime le Confesseur. Andrew. “Ignorance inﬁnie ou science inﬁnie. Vladimir’s Seminary. Vladimir. in its treatment of his metaphysics. Oxford. Collection of scholarship on Maximus. ed. Trans. Sch¨nborn. Dionysius the Areopagite and St. Maximus the Confessor: A Survey. “St. Hausherr. 166–174. Denys the Aeropagite and St. Fran¸ois-Marie. Phelan. 14 . “Neochalcedonian”). 2002. Maximus at the St.” Christ in Eastern Christian Thought. according to Perl. Given at a conference on St. “Composite Hypostasis in Maximus Confessor.” St. “The Cosmic Dimension of Salvation: Maximus the Confessor. This is the most recent and. This translation ﬁrst appeared in 1957. L´thel. Thomas Aquinas properly held the two together. focuses on theology to the exclusion of metaphysics. Nicholas. “St. strangely lacking. Vladimir’s Seminary.” Jahrbuch der Osterreichischen Byzantinistik 20 (1971): 63–65.” Sobornost 20 (1998) 26–48. 332–345.” Orientalia christiana periodica 2 (Rome. Trans. NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Quarterly 42.” Studia Patristica 32. UK: The Faith. ———. Follows Riou in his section on cosmology. along with occasional important manuscripts. Louth’s style is engaging. The Mystical Tradition of the Eastern Church. Heinzer. Maximus Confessor: Actes du symposium sur Maxime le Confessur o Fribourg: 1982. Sergius. ———. e 1948. 175–197.” Studia Patristica 27. Originally published in French in 1944. 1996. Praised by Louth. NY: St. Jacques. 1996. Th´ologie de l’agonie du Christ. Maximus the Confessor: A Question of Inﬂuence. Crestwood. “St. ¨ Lackner. 1963. Maximus the Confessor between East and West. Leuven: Peeters. ———. Available in English as e Existence and the Existent. “Zu Quellen und Datierung der Maximosvita (BHG3 1234). the best-written of the various introductions to Maximus. Madden. Argues that whereas thinkers like Descartes privilege essence over existence and thinkers like Sartre privilege existence over essence. Trans. “Recent Research on St. 1975. Bedfordshire. Crestwood. Gottes Sohn als Mensch. Vladimir’s Seminary. Introduction. 2002. Freiburg: 1980. John. Maritain. Fellowship of St. W.” Studia Patristica 27. Hartman: 1947. each identiﬁed by a number. Paris: 1979. and he explains many terms the others take for granted (e. 1993. 1500. Lewis Galanti`re and Gerald B. A series of lectures given at the Sorbonne 1945–1946. NY: St. 1993.” The Vision of God. 1997. Maximus the Confessor. ´ ———. New York: Pantheon. Leuven: Peeters.
He imposes a division between negative theology and revealed theology (such as the Trinity). Rossum. “The Dilemma of Being and Unity. Argues that Neoplatonism. 213–217. Alexei V. Evagrius. 1955. lìgoi Nichols. Norman Russell.” Essays in Thomism. Pelikan. Eric David. St. is very thorough. Vincent. and the Eastern Orthodox Tradition. Piret. Introduction. 1942. Classics of Western Spirituality. New York: Paulist. Maximus the Confessor: The Ascetic Life. Ancient Christian Writers 21. 37 48 Sherwood 29–30. Deiﬁcation in Christ: The Nature of the Human Person.47 He claims that Maximus. Studia Anselmiana 36. Sherwood is largely responsible for the scholarship connecting Maximus and Origen. Rome: Herder. Pierre. this book treats St. 47 Sherwood 15 . Le Christ et la Trinit´ selon Maxime le Confesseur. lìgoi Sherwood. 1985. Yale University. Minneapolis: Fortress. Argues against Gilson that this position is sound and Christian. 1993. Trans. too scattered to be an introduction except to those already introduced. Maximus the Confessor and His Refutation of Origenism. Leuven: Peeters. The Earlier Ambigua of St. however. Introduction. His doctrinal chapter.” Diss. Incarnation. Maximus’ take on the .4 (1993): 37–50. 1991. Whereas this is an inevitable consequence of Neoplatonism. medieval view of nature and grace. Describes Maximus’ teaching on creation and participation as a development of Neoplatonism. Gregory the Theologian. 1987. “An Annotated Date-List of Maximus’ Works. Anton C. Maximus Confessor: Selected Writings. Nellas.” Studia Patristica 27. Service. especially as refutations of Origenism. Nesteruk. Aquinas avoids it by making God Being and putting in Him all perfections. 1952. ———. by teaching that what is one is unintelligible. Byzantine Gospel: Maximus the Confessor in Modern Scholarship. 25–64. 33–35. and Dionysius all teach the same absolute divine simplicity as Aquinas. Light from the East: Theology. “Methexis: Creation. Rome: Herder.1 (1998): 91–109. Maximus the Confessor vii. Perl complains that he imposes a foreign. Polycarp. creation is unintelligible. Maximus.”46 Pegis.” Studia Patristica 36. Check the “Index of Patristic Texts” for commentary on St. 2001: 46–53. An extremely useful anaylsis of all Maximus’ works. Maximus the Confessor. Includes a signiﬁcant and valuable excerpt of Ambigua 21. 2003. a good introduction if you remember his bias. Paris: 1983. “The Lives of Pope Martin I and Maximus the Confessor: some Reconsiderations of Dating and Provenance. New York: Newman. Perl. results in Ockham’s position that any single existence is unintelligible.” Byzantion 68. Crestwood. Aidan. Ed. Bronwen. Joost van.” Studia Anselmiana 30. and hence there are no transcendent essences in creation. 1955. He labors to make Maximus a scholastic. Examines metaphysical doctrines in their historical and literary context. Panayiotis. “There is even an introduction to other people’s thinking about Maximus. An important new application of patristic thought to modern science. focuses on theology to the exclusion of metaphysics. Brennan. Jaroslav.Neil. “The of Creation and the Divine ‘energies’ in Maximus the Confessor and Gregory Palamas. Rossi. 1993. Vladimir’s Seminary. ———.48 46 Louth. New York: Sheed & Ward. An example of Catholic e Maximian scholarship. Leuven: Peeters. Sherwood’s “Life” seems piecemeal to me. Deiﬁcation in Saint Maximus Confessor. “Clash of Paradigms: The Doctrine of Evolution in the Light of the Cosmological Vision of St. Edinburgh: T&T Clark. UMI 9136181. not elsewhere translated.” Epiphany 13. the Four Centuries on Charity. Robert E. with estimates of their date and place of composition. NY: St. “The Greek Life of Maximus the Confessor and Its Three Recensions. ———. According to Perl.
Wells. but very brief. in opposition to Balthasar and Sherwood.” Riou. Festschrift E.und fragten nach Jesus. Though it would behoove one to read the whole book. this book is inﬂuenced above all by him. Encyclopedic study of Maximus’ anthropology. PA: St.4 (1987) 349–376. Crestwood. students of Maximus might begin with chapter 24. – (1995–1996). Christos and Eugenia Tzouramani. “Commentaire des Ambigua. Thunberg. “The Argument to Design in Athanasius and Maximus. Riou was a student of Le Guillou. St. A. Sadly there is no index. Jonathan. Ed. “Recent Research” 71. Staniloae. 2nd ed. 1985. “Still the best and most comprehensive introduction to Maximus’ theology in English. Veniamin.1–4 (1999): 329–339. 49 Louth. M. and Fr. Walther. Wiesbaden: 1965.” Trans. ———. Presents Maximus as a e scholastic alternative to the Neoplatonism of Dionysius. ———. 2002. ———. Moscow: 1982. Summary of Maximus’ entire cosmic vision. “The Dialectical Relationship between God and Human Beings in Origen and Maximus the Confessor.” Saint Maxime le Confesseur: Ambigua.” Contacts 142 (1988): 112–120. Crestwood. V. “Survey of Recent Work on St. “La christologie de saint Maxime le Confesseur. Orthodox Spirituality. Staniloae treats him more directly even than in his Dogmatic Theology (published in English as Experience of God ). 108–127. “The Contemplation of God in Creation. Karpushkin. ———. “The Mystagogia of Maximus the Confessor and the Development of the Byzantine Theory of the Image. Tikhon’s Seminary. e ´ Paris: Les Editions de l’Ancre. Microcosm and Mediator: The Theological Anthropology of Saint Maximus the Confessor. Maxime le Confesseur. Maximus Confessor als Meister des geistlichen Lebens. Trans. A' B' V¨lker. P`re Aurel Grigoras. Terezis.” . ———.” Greek Orthodox Theological Review 44. “The Transﬁguration of Christ and the Deiﬁcation of Man in Saint Maximus the Confessor. V.” The Patristic & Byzantine Review 8. Dumitru. Ann Shukman. 1994. Le monde et l’´glise selon S. NY: St. Barnikol Berlin: 1964. “Der Einﬂuß des Pseudo-Dionysius auf Maximus Confessor. Paris: 1973.” Traditio 20 (1964): 428–437.———. Alain. Christopher. Lars. Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly 31. Zhivov. Vladimir’s Seminary. demonstrate the Neoplatonic character of Maximus’ work. This work and the following two.”49 The lack of an index is a severe blemish in this otherwise very useful work.. Archimandrite Jerome (Newville) and Otilia Kloos. Originally published in Russian in Khudozhestvennyi yazyk srednevekov ’ya.. “Zur Ontologie des Maximus Confessor.” Antupon âk t¨c “KlhronomÐac” 27. Trans. Maximus the Confessor. Maximus. 16 . South Canaan. New York: 1985. Though not about St.1 (1989) 45–54. Man and the Cosmos: The Vision of Saint Maximus the Confessor.” Texte und Untersuchungen o 77 (1961): 331–350.