11. 12. 13.







CHAPTER-1 SYNOPSIS The progress of automobiles for transportation has been intimately associated with the progress of civilization. An attempt has been made in this project. . The automobile of today is the result of the accumulation of many years of pioneering research and development. It is also good with regard to economical considerations and automobile applications. Our fore most aim in selecting this project is to use four wheel steering mechanism for motorized by using. the Automobile four wheels to be act as a steering so that the u turn is occur very easily when compare to ordinary vehicle.







RACK AND PINION STEERING:Rack-and-pinion steering is quickly becoming the most common type of steering on cars, small trucks and SUVs. It is actually a pretty simple mechanism. A rack-andpinion gear set is enclosed in a metal tube, with each end of the rack protruding from the tube. A rod, called a tie rod, connects to each end of the rack.

The pinion gear is attached to the steering shaft. When you turn the steering wheel, the gear spins, moving the rack. The tie rod at each end of the rack connects to the steering arm on the spindle (see diagram above). The rack-and-pinion gear set does two things:

It converts the rotational motion of the steering wheel into the linear motion needed to turn the wheels.

It provides a gear reduction, making it easier to turn the wheels. On most cars, it takes three to four complete revolutions of the steering wheel to

make the wheels turn from lock to lock (from far left to far right). The steering ratio is the ratio of how far you turn the steering wheel to how far the wheels turn. For instance, if one complete revolution (360 degrees) of the steering wheel results in the wheels of the car turning 20 degrees, then the steering ratio is 360 divided by 20, or 18:1. A higher ratio means that you have to turn the steering wheel more to get the wheels to turn a given distance. However, less effort is required because of the higher gear ratio. Generally, lighter, sportier cars have lower steering ratios than larger cars and trucks. The lower ratio gives the steering a quicker response -- you don't have to turn the steering wheel as much to get the wheels to turn a given distance -- which is a desirable trait in sports cars. These smaller cars are light enough that even with the lower ratio, the effort required to turn the steering wheel is not excessive.

2. . BACK WHEEL MECHANISM:The back wheel is coupled by the front wheel steering mechanism for motorized with the help of motorized joint.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter-3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I.C ENGINE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .

Its action is based on the principle that when a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field.C MOTOR WITH RACK AND PINION ARRANGEMENT:D. BACK WHEEL MECHANISM:1.CHAPTER 3 3. FLEMING’S LEFT HAND RULE: Keep the force finger. When a motor is in operation.C MOTOR:12 VOLT/40 RPM/90 WATTS PERMANENT MAGNET GEARED MOTOR:DESCRIPTION OF DC MOTOR An electric motor is a machine which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. then the thumb indicates the direction of the motion of conductor. it develops torque. This torque can produce mechanical rotation. D. . DC motors are also like generators classified into shunt wound or series wound or compound wound motors. middle finger and thumb of the left hand mutually perpendicular to one another. it experiences a magnetic force whose direction is given by Fleming’s left hand rule. If the fore finger indicates the direction of magnetic field and middle finger indicates direction of current in the conductor.

The conductor is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. In figure II the conductor is shown as carrying a current away from the viewer. but the field due to the N and S poles has been removed. Movement of Conductor N Magnetic flux S current carrying Conductor . but opposes the main field below the conductor. The field due to the current in the conductor supports the main field above the conductor. In figure III the current carrying conductor is placed in the magnetic field.PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF DC MOTOR: Figure I show a uniform magnetic field in which a straight conductor carrying no current is placed. There is no movement of the conductor during the above two conditions.

If the current in the conductor is reversed. whereas the coil side B will be forced to move upwards. as shown in the diagram below. As the coil is wound on the armature core which is supported by the bearings. • • An armature or rotor A commutator . the strengthening of flux lines occurs below the conductor. It is found that a force acts on the conductor. A simplified model of such a motor is shown in figure VI. Therefore the armature will have a continuous rotation. The commutator periodically reverses the direction of current flow through the armature. in view of the reasons given above. The conductors are wound over a soft iron core. trying to push the conductor downwards as shown by the arrow. Now consider a single turn coil carrying a current as shown in the above figure. the armature will now rotate. The forces acting on the coil sides A and B will be of same magnitude. the coil side A will be forced to move downwards. A simple motor has 6 parts. The conductors are connected to the DC supply through brushes Let's start by looking at the overall plan of a simple 2-pole DC electric motor.The result is to increase the flux density in to the region directly above the conductor and to reduce the flux density in the region directly below the conductor. and the conductor will be pushed upwards (figure-IV). DC supply is given to the field poles for producing flux. But their direction is opposite to one another.

.• • • • Brushes An axle A field magnet A DC power supply of some sort An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: a motor uses magnets to create motion. If you have ever played with magnets you know about the fundamental law of all magnets: Opposites attract and likes repel.

the armature (or rotor) is an electromagnet. Rack and pinion gear system is used to transmit rotary motion into linear motion. This block converts linear motion into rotary motion. then the North end of one magnet will attract the South end of the other. Pinion: This is a gear wheel which is provided to get mesh with rack to convert the linear motion into rotary motion. On the other hand. The rack is a portion of a gear having an infinite pitch diameter and the line of action is tangent to the pinion. while the field magnet is a permanent magnet (the field magnet could be an electromagnet as well. the North end of one magnet will repel the North end of the other (and similarly south will repel south). but in most small motors it is not to save power). . They are made up of Cast iron. In the diagram above and below you can see two magnets in the motor.So if you have 2 bar magnets with their ends marked north and south. • RACK AND PINIAN ARRANGEMENT: The block is the impartent part of the unit as it houses the rack and pinion. Inside an electric motor these attracting and repelling forces create rotational motion.

It is necessary that the overall system be optimized with respect to available energy and local demand pattern. Since both the photo-voltaic system and batteries are high in capital costs. The only exceptions are isolated sunshine load such as irrigation pumps or drinking water supplies for storage. batteries are used for storage of excess solar energy converted into electrical energy.Rack: Rack teeth are cut horizontally about the required length. BATTERIES INTRODUCTION: In isolated systems away from the grid. Batteries seem to be the only technically and economically available storage means. This is made up of Cast iron. To be economically attractive the storage of solar electricity requires a battery with a particular combination of properties: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Low cost Long life High reliability High overall efficiency Low discharge . In fact for small units with output less than one kilowatt.

The electrolyte is a dilute solution of sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄). heat with excessive charge and discharge currents shortends the useful life to about 3 to 5 years for an automobile battery. The charge and discharge cycle can be repeated many times to restore the output voltage. which allows fewer cells for a specified battery voltage. However. the lead-acid type has the highest output voltage. the lead-acid cell is the type most commonly used. but lead-acid cells are often used in a series combination of three for a 6-V battery and six for a 12-V battery. One cell has a nominal output of 2. for example.1 LEAD-ACID WET CELL: Where high values of load current are necessary.(6) Minimum maintenance (A) (B) Ampere hour efficiency Watt hour efficiency We use lead acid battery for storing the electrical energy from the solar panel for lighting the street and so about the lead acid cells are explained below. The lead acid cell type is a secondary cell or storage cell. as long as the cell is in good physical condition. . Of the different types of secondary cells. the load current to the starter motor is typically 200 to 400A. In the application of battery power to start the engine in an auto mobile. which can be recharged. 2.1V.



CONTROL UNIT -89C52 . except for a pressure vent. a forming charge produces the positive and negative electrodes. consisting of 8 parts of water to 3 parts of concentrated sulfuric acid.2 CONSTRUCTION: Inside a lead-acid battery. the active material in the positive plate is changed to lead peroxide (pbo₂). Each plate is a grid or framework. little or no water need be added in normal service. In the forming process. With maintenance-free batteries. and then the battery is charged to from the plates. This construction enables the active material. made of a lead-antimony alloy. which is lead oxide. Some types are sealed. the positive and negative electrodes consist of a group of plates welded to a connecting strap. The negative electrode is spongy lead (pb). without provision for adding water. In manufacture of the cell. The construction parts of battery are shown in figure. The electrolyte is put in at the time of installation.2. Automobile batteries are usually shipped dry from the manufacturer. to be pasted into the grid. The plates are immersed in the electrolyte.

parallel port or serial port for communicating with an external system. ROM or EPROM). Timer/Counter(s). Digital to Analog Converter (DAC). which can be used to store a sequence of program codes (by using special EPROM / PROM programmers). baud rate for the serial port. timer/counter for control purposes like generating time delays. Interrupt controller. Depending on the need and area of application for which it is designed. the on-chip features present in it may or may not include all the individual sections said above. It does not mean that any micro controller should have above said features on-chip. INTRODUCTION ABOUT MICRO CONTROLLER: A microcontroller consists of a powerful CPU tightly coupled with memory (RAM. parallel port(s). It can only be read from and not written into.In our project 89C52 Microcontroller is used as a control unit. . everything integrated onto a single silicon chip. under normal operating conditions. Data Acquisition interfaces-Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). apart from the controlling unit called the Central Processing Unit. MEMORY ASSOCIATED WITH AT-89C52: PROGRAM MEMORY: A program memory is a block of memory. Any micro computer system requires memory to store a sequence of instructions making up a program. various I/O features such as serial port(s).

Hence. Figure shows a map of the AT-89C52-program memory FFFF 1000 0FFF 0000 60K Bytes Internal 4 K Bytes Internal FFFF OR 0000 64 K Bytes External DATA MEMORY: Data memory is the Read/Write memory. where EA* is grounded. the CPU begins execution from address location 0000 of the program memory. FF 80 7F 00 SFRS DIRECT ADDRESS DIRECT SING AND ONLY INDIRECT ADDRESSI NG FFFF AND 0000 64 K Bytes External . In ROM and EPROM versions of this device. AT-89C52 has got 128 bytes of internal data memory and 64K of external data memory. it can be both read from and written into.There can be up to 64 k bytes of program memory in AT-89C52. The program fetch will be from external memory. After reset. and then program fetches to addresses 0000 to 0FFF are directed to the internal ROM. if the special control signals EA (External Access enable) is strapped off Vcc. the lower 4K are provided on-chip whereas in ROM fewer versions. in ROM and EPROM versions of the MCS-351 family of devices. all program memory is external.

. since register instructions are shorter than instructions that use direct addressing. Bytes 30 through 7F are available to the user as data RAM. in order to use more than one register bank. Hence. which is register R0 of second register bank. which can also byte addressed. enough number of bytes should be left a side to prevent stack overflow. The 128 bytes of RAM can be accessed either by direct addressing (MOV data address) or by indirect addressing (MOV @ Ri). The next 16 bytes (20-2F) from a block of bit addressable memory space. Reset initializes the stack pointer register to 7 and its incremented once to start from locating 08.3 and PSW.INTERNAL DATA MEMORY: Internal data memory addresses are one byte wide.4) in register program status word (PSW) select which register bank is n use. which includes 128 bytes of onchip RAM plus a number of special Function Registers. The lowest 32bytes (00-1F) of on-chip RAM are grouped into 4 banks of 8 registers each. This allows more efficient use of code space. Program instructions call out these registers as R0 through R7 > Bits 3 and 4 (PSW. is the stack pointer has been initialized to this area. the stack pointer should be initialized to a different location of RAM if it is not used for data storage. However.

2 P3.5 P3.7 is the MSB (Most Significant Bit) of that port.1 P3.e. port 0 and port 2 are used in accesses to external memory.4 P3. port 1 (p1).0 is the LSB (least significant Bit) of port x and px. PX. Out of the four ports. Each line consists of a latch. an output driver and an input buffer. Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional with internal pull-ups Port pin P3. All four parallel ports are bi-directional.7 Alternate Functions RXD (Serial input port) TXD (Serial output port) INTO (External Interrupt 0) INT1 (External Interrupt 1) T0 (Timer 0 External input) T1 (Timer 1 External Input) WR (External Data memory write strobe) RD (External Data memory Read Strobe) .3 P3. All the port 3 pins are multifunctional. They are bit addressable and has to be represented in the form PX. port 2 (p2) and port 3(p3).I/O STRUCTURE OF AT-89C52: AT-89C52 has four 8-bit parallel ports (hence 8*4=32 I/O lines are available).Y is i.6 P3. The four ports are named as port 0 (po). bit Y of port X while using bit addressing mode.0 P3.

It also receives.PORT 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bi-directional I/O port. It emits the high order address byte during accesses to external memory. Port 0 can sink (and operation and source) eight LS TTL input. these high-order address bits during EPROM programming Verification. RST: . Port 2 can sink/source four LS TTL inputs. (External pull-ups are required during verification). It also receives the instruction bytes during EPROM programming and outputs instruction bytes during program verification. PORT 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional with internal pull-ups. It is also the multiplexed low order address and data bus during access to external memory. The port-1 output buffers can sink/source four LS TTL inputs. PORT 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional with external pull-ups. It receives the low order address byte during EPROM program verification.

ALE can sink/source eight LS TTL inputs. When EA is held low. during access 10 external memory.While the oscillator is running a high on this pin for two machine cycles resets the device. the AT-89C52 execute out of internal program memory (Unless the program counter exceeds OFF (H)). A small external pull down resistor (8. PSEN: Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. This pin also receives the 21 Volts programming. ALE is activated at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency except during an external data memory access at which time one ALE pulse is skipped. Supply Voltage (Vpp) during EPROM programming. ALE/PROG: Address latch enable is the output for latching low byte of the address. . PSEN can sink/source 8 LS TTL inputs. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during EPROM programming. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. This pin should not be floated during normal. PSEN is not activated during fetches from internal program memory. during fetches form external program memory. the AT-89C52 H executes only out of external program memory. EA/Vpp: When external access enable (EA) is held high.2k) from RST to Vss permits power on reset when a capacitor (10 micro frequencies) also connected from this pin to Vcc.

XTAL1 should be grounded when an external oscillator is used. Vss Vcc Operation. which are selected by bit-pars (m1. Mode 3 is different.XTAL1: It is inputs to the inverting amplifier that forms the oscillator. and input to the internal clock generator. 0) in register TMOD (Timer/counter Mode control). . - Circuit ground potential Supply Voltage during Programming Verification and normal TIMERS/COUNTERS: AT-89C52 has two 16-bit timer/counter 0. and timer/counter 1. 1 and 2 are the same for the timer/counters. Modes 0. They can be configured in any of the four operating modes. XTAL 2: It is Outputs to the inverting amplifier that forms the oscillator. receives the external oscillator signal when an external oscillator is used.

called addressing modes. external memory or on the I/O ports. • A full duplex serial port • On chip Oscillator and clock circuitry. These Modes are: • Immediate . There are a number of methods (modes) in which these registers. Its special features are summarized as:• 4k Bytes of Flash • 128 Bytes of RAM • 32 I/O lines • A five vector two level interrupt architecture.FEATURES OF AT-89C52: Now a days an 8-bit AT-89C52/8031/8751 and 16 bit 8097 micro controllers available in the form of kits. memory (internal or external) and I/O Ports (Internal / External) can be addressed. ADDRESSING MODES: The AT-89C52 instructions operate on data stored in internal CPU registers. This section gives a brief summary of the various types of addressing modes available in AT-89C52.

INC 20 . For example. the operand is specified by an 8-bit address field in the instruction. For example. the data to be operated upon is in the location immediately following the opcodes. ‘//’ Signifies IMMEDIATE ADDRESSING. DIRECT ADDRESSING: In direct addressing.• Direct • Indirect • Register • Register Specific • Indexed IMMEDIATE ADDRESSING: In this mode. # 41 -Loads the accumulator with the hex value 41. MOV A. the instruction. the instruction.

the instruction. the instruction specifies a register. Both internal and external RAM can be indirectly addressed. R0 -Copies the contents of the resistor R0 (of the selected bank) to the accumulator. Instructions that access the registers this way are code efficient. the instruction. DPTR.Increments the contents of the On-Chip data address 20 by one. one of the eight resistors in the selected bank at the execution time by two bank select bits is selected at the execution time by the two bank select bits in the PSW. INDEXED ADDRESSING: . which carry a 3-bit register specification within the opcode of the instruction. containing resistors R0 through R7. A -Writes the contents of the accumulator to the address held by the DPTR register. For example. RESISTOR ADDRESSING: The register banks. MOV A. which contains the address of the operand. can be accessed by certain instructions. For example. The address register for 8-bit address can be R0 or R1 of the selected register bank or the stack pointer. MOVX @DPTR. The address register for 16-bit address can only be the 16-bit “data pointer” register. When the instruction is executed. since this mode eliminates an address byte. INDIRECT ADDRESSING: In indirect addressing.

The address of the table entry in program memory is formed by adding the accumulator data to the base pointer. The instruction. PIN DIAGRAM OF AT89C52: PDIP . A 16-bit base resistor (Either DPTR or the Program counter) points to the base of the table and accumulator is set up with the table entry number. MOVC A. whose address is obtained by adding the content of DPTR and accumulator copies it to the accumulator.@A+DPTR This function reads the contents of program memory.Only program memory can be accessed with indexed intended for reading look-up tables in program memory.

5 (AD 5) P 0.3 P1.6 P1.2 (AD 2) P 0.6 (AD 6) P 0.0 (T X D) P3.6 P2.6 (A 12) (RD) P3.5 P1.1 (AD 1) P 0.7 RST (R X D) P3.2 P1.0 .1 P1.0 P1.1 (A 9) P2.4 P2.5 (A 13) P2.3 P2.4 (AD 4) P 0.7 (A 11) XTAL 2 XTAL 1 GND (A 8) PLCC 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 Vcc P 0.3 (T 0) P3.2 (A 10) P2.1 (INT 0) P3.7 (A 15) P2.P1.4 (A 14) (T1) P3.4 P1.7 (AD 7) EA / VPP ALE/PROG PSEN P2.0(AD 0) P 0.3 (AD 3) P 0.5 (WR) P3.2 (INT 1) P3.


7 ACCUMULATOR: P3. the auxiliary carry 9for BCD operations).P1. the overflow flag a parity bit and two user definable status . B REGISTER: The B register is used during multiply and divide operations.7 Accumulator is the Accumulator register mnemonics for Accumulator. For other instructions can be treated as another scratch pad register.0 – P3.0 – P1. Specific instruction however. The PSW resides in SFR space. PROGRAM STATUS WORD: The PSW resistor contains program status information. The program status word (PSW) contains several status bits that reflect the current state of the CPU. refer to the Accumulator simply A. It contains the carry bit. the two register bank select bits.

Two bits in the PSW are uncommitted and may be used as general-purpose status flags. The parity bit reflects the number is in the accumulator. The bits and RSI are used to select one of the register bans. P=1 if the accumulator contains an old number of 1 s and p=0 if the accumulator contains an even number of 1 s. also serves as the ‘Accumulator’ for a number of Boolean operations. The carry bit other than serving the functions of a carry bit in arithmetic operations. PROGRAM STATUS WORD OF AT89C52 DEVICES: . The lower 32B are grouped into 4 banks of 8 resistors.flags. Thus the number of 1 s in the accumulator plus P is always even. A number instruction refers of their RAM location R0 through R7. The selection of which the four banks is being referred to is made on the bass of the bits RS0 and RS1 execution time. Program instructions call out there resistors as R0 through R7 bits in the PSW select which register is n use.

0 Register Bank Select bit-1 THE LOWER 128 BYTES OF INTERNAL RAM 7F (H) 2F (H) 20 (H) Bit addressable Space Bit address 0-7F (H) Bank Select Bit In PSW 11Bank-3 18 (H) Bank-2 10 (H) Bank-1 08 (H) Bank-0 00 (H) 1F (H) 17 (H) 0F (H) 07 (H) .C AC FO RS1 RS0 OV P Carry flag receives carry out from bit-1 of ALU operation Parity of accumulator by hard ware to 1 bit if it contains an old number of 1 s otherwise set to 0 Auxiliary carry flag receives carry out from bit-1 of addition operands User Definable Flag Overflow Flag set by Arithmetic Operation General Purpose Status Flag Resistor Bank Select bit.

10 resistors 4 Banks of 8 R0 . DATA POINTER: The data pointer (DPTR) consists of a high byte (DPH) and a low byte (DPL). This causes the stack to begin at location 08(H). 2. p2 and p3 are the SFR latches for ports 0. p1. The stack pointer is initialized to 07(H) after a reset. and 3 respectively. 1. Its intended function is to hold a 16-bit address. It is incremented before data is stored during PUSH and CALL execution while the stack may where in on-chip RAM. . Ports 0 to 3 – p0. It may be manipulated as a 16-bit resistor or 08 two independent bit registers.R7 01 00 STACK POINTER: The stack pointer resistor is 8-bit wide.

TL). TL2) are the 16-bits counting resistors for the interrupt system. (TH1. When data is moved to SBUF. TL1) and (TH2. TIME RESISTORS: Resistors pairs (TH0.SERIAL DATA BUFFER: The serial data buffer is actually two separate resistors transmit buffer and a receive buffer resistor. it comes from the receive buffer. it goes to the transmit buffer where it is held for serial transmission. the timer counters and the serial port. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter-4 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . (Moving a byte to SBUF is what initiates the transmission) When data is moved from SBUF.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BEARING WITH BEARING CAP --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHAPTER 4 .


The bearings are pressed smoothly to fit into the shafts because if hammered the bearing may develop cracks. Bearing is made upon steel material and bearing cap is mild steel. INTRODUCTION Ball and roller bearings are used widely in instruments and machines in order to minimize friction and power loss. While the concept of the ball bearing dates back at least to Leonardo da Vinci, their design and manufacture has become remarkably sophisticated. This technology was brought to its p resent state o f perfection only after a long period of research and development. The benefits of such specialized research can be obtained when it is possible to use a standardized bearing of the proper size and type. However, such bearings cannot be used indiscriminately without a careful study of the loads and operating conditions. In addition, the bearing must be provided with adequate mounting, lubrication and sealing. Design engineers have usually two possible sources for obtaining information which they can use to select a bearing for their particular application: a) Textbooks b) Manufacturers’

Catalogs Textbooks are excellent sources; however, they tend to be overly detailed and aimed at the student of the subject matter rather than the practicing designer. They, in most cases, contain information on how to design rather than how to select a bearing for a particular application. Manufacturers’ catalogs, in turn, are also excellent and contain a wealth of information which relates to the products of the particular manufacturer. These catalogs, however, fail to provide alternatives – which may divert the designer’s interest to products not manufactured by them. Our Company, however, provides the broadest selection of many types of bearings made by different manufacturers.

For this reason, we are interested in providing a condensed overview of the subject matter in an objective manner, using data obtained from different texts, handbooks and manufacturers’ literature. This information will enable the reader to select the proper bearing in an expeditious manner. If the designer’s interest exceeds the scope of the presented material, a list of references is provided at the end of the Technical Section. At the same time, we are expressing our thanks and are providing credit to the sources which supplied the material presented here.

Construction and Types of Ball Bearings

A ball bearing usually consists of four parts: an inner ring, an outer ring, the balls and the cage or separator. To increase the contact area and permit larger loads to be carried, the balls run in curvilinear grooves in the rings. The radius of the groove is slightly larger than the radius of the ball, and a very slight amount of radial play must be provided. The bearing is thus permitted to adjust itself to small amounts of angular misalignment between the assembled shaft and mounting. The separator keeps the balls evenly spaced and prevents them from touching each other on the sides where their relative velocities are the greatest. Ball bearings are made in a wide variety of types and sizes. Single-row radial bearings are made in four series, extra light, light, medium, and heavy, for each bore, as illustrated in Fig. 1-3(a), (b), and (c).

100 Series

200 Series

300 Series

Axial Thrust

Angular Contact Self-aligning

Bearing Fig. 1-3 Types of Ball Bearings

The heavy series of bearings is designated by 400. Most, but not all, manufacturers use a numbering system so devised that if the last two digits are multiplied by 5, the result will be the bore in millimeters.

or by employing a double-row radial bearing. Then they are evenly spaced and the separator is riveted in place. 1-4 Methods of Assembly Conrad or non-filling notch type (b) Maximum or filling notch type for Ball Bearings (a) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . However. 1-3 Types of Ball Bearings Fig. refer to manufacturer’s details. The self-aligning ball bearing will take care of large amounts of angular misalignment. These are the Conrad. the balls are placed between the rings as shown in Fig. the balls are a (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 100 Series Extra Light 200 Series Light 300 Series Medium Axial Thrust Bearing Angular Contact Bearing Self-aligning Bearing Fig. In the maximum-type bearing. Some makers list deep groove bearings and bearings with two rows of balls. In the Conrad bearing. Radial bearings are divided into two general classes. which may be present in the catalog number of a bearing. 1-4(a). when the load is directed entirely along the axis. An increase in radial capacity may be secured by using rings with deep grooves. and the maximum. or filling-notch type. bearing 307 signifies a medium-series bearing of 35-mm bore. The radial bearing is able to carry a considerable amount of axial thrust. For bearing designations of Quality Bearings & Components (QBC). the thrust type of bearing should be used.The digit in the third place from the right indicates the series number. For additional digits. The angular contact bearing will take care of both radial and axial loads. see special pages devoted to this purpose. Thus. depending on the method of assembly. or no filling-notch type.

Chapter-5 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SPROCKET WITH CHAIN DRIVE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHAPTER 5 .

3. by engaging with the sprocket. The chain converts rotational power to pulling power. Sprockets have many engaging teeth. The teeth of a gear touch and slip against each other.SPROCKET AND CHAIN DRIVE This is a cycle chain sprocket. or pulling power to rotational power. The chain sprocket is coupled with another generator shaft. Figure Types of Sprockets Engagement with Sprockets: . The sprocket looks like a gear but differs in three important ways: 1. The shape of the teeth is different in gears and sprockets. gears usually have only one or two. 2. there is basically no slippage in a sprocket.

5 shows a rendition of a flat belt drive. the force needed to pull the belt down to the right side will be: T1 = T0 3 eµu For example. T0 = 100 N: the coefficient of friction between the belt and pulley. Back tension First. you can get 256. the way to get more drive power is to increase the coefficient of friction or wrapping angle. and the belt hangs down from each side. The circle at the top is a pulley. µ = 0.6 N of drive power only when there is 100 N of back tension.6 N In brief.566 = 256. the wrap angle u = ¼ (180). we explain the relation between sprockets and chains when power is transmitted by sprockets.Although chains are sometimes pushed and pulled at either end by cylinders. Figure 2. like grease .3. In the following section. chains are usually driven by wrapping them on sprockets. If a substance. let us explain the relationship between flat belts and pulleys. When the pulley is fixed and the left side of the belt is loaded with tension (T0). when you use a flat belt in this situation. 1. For elements without teeth such as flat belts or ropes. T1 = T0 3 2.

Figure Flat Belt Drive . which decreases the coefficient of friction. as in Figure 2. Therefore. the chain will work without back tension. In the chain's case. the direction of the tooth's reactive force is opposite the chain's tension. If the sprocket tooth configuration is square.6. the belt cannot deliver the required tension. and only one tooth will receive all the chain's tension. sprocket teeth hold the chain roller. gets onto the contact surface.or oil.

and it is easy to calculate the required back tension. The balances of forces that exist around the roller are shown in Figure 2.7.Figure Simplified Roller/Tooth Forces Figure The Balance of Forces Around the Roller But actually. . sprocket teeth need some inclination so that the teeth can engage and slip off of the roller.

round down to the nearest whole number to be safe By this formula. Using chains and sprockets. if the chain is wrapped halfway around the sprocket. Therefore.For example.5 of the allowable tension as the back tension (F). This is shown in below Figure 2. This is 1 percent of the amount of a flat belt. . our 257 N force will require 257/3.96 N. Now let's compare chains and sprockets with a toothed-belt back tension. assume a coefficient of friction µ = 0.5 = 73 N of back tension. Both toothed belts and chains engage by means of teeth. the back tension at sprocket tooth number six is only 0. the required back tension is much lower than a flat belt. but chain's back tension is only 1/75 that of toothed belts. the general recommendation is to use 1/3. Although in toothed belts the allowable tension can differ with the number of pulley teeth and the revolutions per minute (rpm). and you can calculate the back tension (Tk) that is needed at sprocket tooth number k with this formula: Tk = T0 3 sin ø k-1 sin(ø + 2b) Where: Tk= T0 = ø= N= 2b = k= back tension at tooth k chain tension sprocket minimum pressure angle 17 64/N(š) number of teeth sprocket tooth angle (360/N) the number of engaged teeth (angle of wrap 3 N/360).8.

8 Back Tension on a Toothed Belt Chain wear and jumping sprocket teeth The key factor causing chain to jump sprocket teeth is chain wear elongation (see Basics Section 2. In Figure 2.4). b: Working curve. If the roller. .2. the chain creeps up on the sprocket teeth until it starts jumping sprocket teeth and can no longer engage with the sprocket.Figure 2. c: Where the tooth can guide the roller but can't transmit tension.10 shows the engagement of a sprocket with an elongated chain. Because of wear elongation. it causes jumped sprocket teeth. Figure 2. where the roller and the sprocket are working together. which should transmit tension. where the roller falls into place. only engages with C.9 there are three sections on the sprocket tooth face: a: Bottom curve of tooth.9 shows sprocket tooth shape and positions of engagement. Figure 2.

Smaller sprockets are limited by other harmful effects. Figure 2.The chain's wear elongation limit varies according to the number of sprocket teeth and their shape.9 Sprocket Tooth Shape and Positions of Engagement . therefore. in the case of less than 60 teeth. as shown in Figure 2.5 percent (in transmission chain). the stretch limit ratio is limited to 1. we see that sprockets with large numbers of teeth are very limited in stretch percentage. such as high vibration and decreasing strength.11. Upon calculation.

Figure 2.11 Elongation Versus the Number of Sprocket Teeth In conveyor chains.10 The Engagement Between a Sprocket and an Elongated Chain Figure 2. . in which the number of working teeth in sprockets is less than transmission chains. Large pitch conveyor chains use a straight line in place of curve B in the sprocket tooth face. the stretch ratio is limited to 2 percent.

" For the most part. • Cast steel chain. forged chain is used in overhead conveyors for automobile factories. In this book. • Forged chain. cast iron chain is part of water-treatment equipment. There are many kinds of chain. • • Steel chain. and "plastic chain. which transmits power by means of tensile forces. Plastic chain. We can sort chains into five types: • Cast iron chain. Demand for the first three chain types is now decreasing." which makes up the largest share of chains being produced.A chain is a reliable machine component. they are only used in some special situations." . we will refer to "roller chain" simply as "chain. The function and uses of chain are similar to a belt. For example. we are going to focus on the latter two: "steel chain." especially the type called "roller chain. It is convenient to sort types of chain by either material of composition or method of construction. and is used primarily for power transmission and conveyance systems.

pin. top chain. and free flow chain. Large pitch conveyor chain. The first one is used for power transmission. and roller. Top chain. bushing. In the following section of this book.NOTE: Roller chain is a chain that has an inner plate. which can be broadly divided into six types: 1. outer plate. Precision conveyor chain. . 6. checks the appropriate pages in the Applications section about these features. 4. 2. 3. Power transmission chain. small pitch chain. 5. the other five are used for conveyance. In the following section. Small pitch conveyor chain. we will describe the uses and features of each chain type by following the above classification. we will explain the composition of power transmission chain. and large pitch conveyor chain. Free flow chain. we will sort chains according to their uses. In the Applications section of this book. Because there are special features in the composition of precision conveyor chain.

There are also some special connecting links which have the same strength as the chain itself.2) . This type of connecting link is 20 percent lower in fatigue strength than the chain itself.Basic Structure of Power Transmission Chain A typical configuration for RS60-type chain is shown in Figure 1. The pin and link plate are slip fit in the connecting link for ease of assembly. (See Figure 1. Figure 1.1.1 The Basic Components of Transmission Chain Connecting Link This is the ordinary type of connecting link.

It has fatigue strength almost equal to that of the chain itself. (See Figure 1. There is also a two-pitch offset link available that has fatigue strength as great as the chain itself.3) Figure 1. the pin and the tap fit connecting link plate are press fit.Tap Fit Connecting Link In this link.2) Figure 1. (See Figure 1.2 Standard Connecting Link (top) and Tap Fit Connecting Link (bottom) Offset Link An offset link is used when an odd number of chain links is required. The pin and two plates are slip fit. It is 35 percent lower in fatigue strength than the chain itself.3 Offset Link .

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter-6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TYPES OF STEERING MECHANISM --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .

CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF STEERING MECHANISM 1. . Power Rack-and-pinion:When the rack-and-pinion is in a power-steering system. the rack has a slightly different design. Power Steering 1. Power Rack-and-pinion Steering 2. Re-circulating-ball Steering 3.

Supplying higher-pressure fluid to one side of the piston forces the piston to move. There are two fluid ports. The linkage that turns the wheels is slightly different than on a rack-and-pinion system. which in turn moves the rack. 2. let's take a look at another type of steering. We'll check out the components that provide the high-pressure fluid. Re-circulating-ball Steering:Re-circulating-ball steering is used on many trucks and SUVs today. as well as decide which side of the rack to supply it to.Part of the rack contains a cylinder with a piston in the middle. providing the power assist. First. later in the article. one on either side of the piston. The piston is connected to the rack. .

The re-circulating-ball steering gear contains a worm gear. second. You can image the gear in two parts. . The balls actually serve two purposes: First. which engage a gear that moves the pitman arm (see diagram above). Instead of twisting further into the block the way a regular bolt would. The steering wheel connects to a threaded rod. they reduce slop in the gear. similar to a bolt that sticks into the hole in the block. it moves the block. When the steering wheel turns. which moves the gear that turns the wheels. Instead of the bolt directly engaging the threads in the block. this bolt is held fixed so that when it spins. it turns the bolt. all of the threads are filled with ball bearings that recirculation through the gear as it turns. This block has gear teeth cut into the outside of it. The first part is a block of metal with a threaded hole in it. they reduce friction and wear in the gear.

the teeth would come out of contact with each other for a moment. 3.Slop would be felt when you change the direction of the steering wheel -. Assist is provided by supplying higher-pressure fluid to one side of the block. Power Steering:- There are a couple of key components in power steering in addition to the rackand-pinion or recirculation-ball mechanism.without the balls in the steering gear. Power steering in a re-circulating-ball system works similarly to a rack-and-pinion system. making the steering wheel feel loose. Pump .

. This pump is driven by the car's engine via a belt and pulley. they pull hydraulic fluid from the return line at low pressure and force it into the outlet at high pressure. especially at high engine speeds when so much fluid is being pumped. The pump contains a pressure-relief valve to make sure that the pressure does not get too high. The pump must be designed to provide adequate flow when the engine is idling. As the vanes spin. The amount of flow provided by the pump depends on the car's engine speed.The hydraulic power for the steering is provided by a rotary-vane pump (see diagram below). As a result. It contains a set of retractable vanes that spin inside an oval chamber. the pump moves much more fluid than necessary when the engine is running at faster speeds.

The device that senses the force on the steering wheel is called the rotary valve. the more the bar twists. The more torque the driver uses to turn the wheels. The torsion bar is a thin rod of metal that twists when torque is applied to it. so the amount of torque in the torsion bar is equal to the amount of torque the driver is using to turn the wheels. The key to the rotary valve is a torsion bar. the system shouldn't provide any assist. . When the driver is not exerting force (such as when driving in a straight line).Rotary Valve A power-steering system should assist the driver only when he is exerting force on the steering wheel (such as when starting a turn). The top of the bar is connected to the steering wheel. and the bottom of the bar is connected to the pinion or worm gear (which turns the wheels).

connecting to either the pinion gear or the worm gear depending on which type of steering the car has. It also connects to the top end of the torsion bar. The torsion bar also turns the output of the steering gear.The input from the steering shaft forms the inner part of a spool-valve assembly. connecting to either the pinion gear or the worm gear depending on which type of steering the car has. The torsion bar also turns the output of the steering gear. . It also connects to the top end of the torsion bar. The input from the steering shaft forms the inner part of a spool-valve assembly. The bottom of the torsion bar connects to the outer part of the spool valve. The bottom of the torsion bar connects to the outer part of the spool valve.

The Future of Power Steering Since the power-steering pump on most cars today runs constantly. the amount of rotation between the inner and outer parts of the spool valve depends on how much torque the driver applies to the steering wheel. This wasted power translates into wasted fuel.As the bar twists. But if the spool valve is turned one way or the other. it rotates the inside of the spool valve relative to the outside. Let's take a look at some advances we'll see in coming years that will help improve efficiency. It turns out that this type of power-steering system is pretty inefficient. replacing it with a purely electronic control system. You can expect to see several innovations that will improve fuel economy. ports open up to provide high-pressure fluid to the appropriate line. One of the coolest ideas on the drawing board is the "steer-by-wire" or "drive-by-wire" system. When the steering wheel is not being turned. both hydraulic lines provide the same amount of pressure to the steering gear. it wastes horsepower. . pumping fluid all the time. These systems would completely eliminate the mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the steering. Since the inner part of the spool valve is also connected to the steering shaft (and therefore to the steering wheel).

Essentially. It would also be possible in this sort of system to store distinct control preferences for each driver in the family. The output of these sensors would be used to control a motorized steering system. In the past fifty years. It would contain sensors that tell the car what the driver is doing with the wheel. General Motors has introduced a concept car.all it takes to adjust the steering is some new computer software. the steering wheel would work like the one you can buy for your home computer to play games. and have some motors in it to provide the driver with feedback on what the car is doing. One of the most exciting things about the drive-by-wire system in the GM Hy-wire is that you can fine-tune vehicle handling without changing anything in the car's mechanical components -. the Hy-wire. This would free up space in the engine compartment by eliminating the steering shaft. you will most likely be able to configure the controls exactly to your liking by pressing a few buttons. just like you might adjust the seat position in a car today. car steering systems haven't changed much. But in the next decade. It would also reduce vibration inside the car. we'll see advances in car steering that will result in more efficient cars and a more comfortable ride. that features this type of driving system. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . In future drive-by-wire vehicles.

Chapter-7 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- WORKING PRINCIPLE --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHAPTER 7 .

A rack-andpinion gear set is enclosed in a metal tube.WORKING PRINCIPLE FRONT WHEEL MECHANISM:- RACK AND PINION STEERING:Rack-and-pinion steering is quickly becoming the most common type of steering on cars. small trucks and SUVs. . A rod. connects to each end of the rack. It is actually a pretty simple mechanism. with each end of the rack protruding from the tube. called a tie rod.

• It provides a gear reduction. . lighter. moving the rack. However. For instance. Generally. When you turn the steering wheel. On most cars. if one complete revolution (360 degrees) of the steering wheel results in the wheels of the car turning 20 degrees. it takes three to four complete revolutions of the steering wheel to make the wheels turn from lock to lock (from far left to far right). The rack-and-pinion gear set does two things: • It converts the rotational motion of the steering wheel into the linear motion needed to turn the wheels. or 18:1.The pinion gear is attached to the steering shaft. the gear spins. These smaller cars are light enough that even with the lower ratio. The steering ratio is the ratio of how far you turn the steering wheel to how far the wheels turn. The tie rod at each end of the rack connects to the steering arm on the spindle (see diagram above). less effort is required because of the higher gear ratio. then the steering ratio is 360 divided by 20. the effort required to turn the steering wheel is not excessive. The lower ratio gives the steering a quicker response -.which is a desirable trait in sports cars. sportier cars have lower steering ratios than larger cars and trucks. A higher ratio means that you have to turn the steering wheel more to get the wheels to turn a given distance. making it easier to turn the don't have to turn the steering wheel as much to get the wheels to turn a given distance -.

. BACK WHEEL MECHANISM:The back wheel is coupled by the front wheel steering mechanism for motorized with the help of linking mechanism for motorized and universal joint.4.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter-8 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- DESIGN AND DRAWINGS --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .

to rotate about its centre. a tangential force is necessary. it is meant the turning or twisting moment of a force about an axis. .159 x φ x Z x Ia X (P/A) Newton meters 0. It is measured by the product of the force and the radius at which this force acts.CHAPTER 8 DESIGN AND DRAWINGS DESIGN OF D. MOTOR Torque in a motor: By the term torque. Torque (T) Using the relation.162 x φ x Z x Ia x (P/A) Kg-m The torque given by the above equation is the developed torque in the machine. But the output torque is less than the developed torque due to friction and windage losses. For an armature of a motor.C. This force is developed with in the motor itself. B = = = T = = = = φ/a φ/(ΠD/P)ł φ x P / ( Π Dł ) = ½ ( Ia / A ) BDC Z Newton meters ½ x (Ia / A) x Z x φ x {P/ (ΠDł) } x Dł φ Z P Ia / ( 2ΠA ) Newton meters 0.

5 mm . 6204 Outer Diameter of Bearing (D) Thickness of Bearing (B) Inner Diameter of the Bearing (d) = = = 47 mm 14 mm 20 mm r₁ = Corner radii on shaft and housing r₁ = 1 (From design data book) Maximum Speed = 14.000 rpm (From design data book) Mean Diameter (dm) = (D + d) / 2 = (47 + 20) / 2 dm = 33.DESIGN OF BALL BEARING Bearing No.

258 = Ks = DESIGN OF RACK AND PINION DESIGN OF PINION From PSG design data book (page no.7.65 (4 X 6 )-4 6 1.Spring index (C) = = ( D /d ) 12 / 2 = 6 C WALL STRESS FACTOR Ks = 4C – 1 + 0.18) .65 4C – 4 C (4 X 6) -1 + 0.

HB CB = Brinell hardness number = coefficient depends on hardness Kcl = life factor ________________ (2) Kcl N Where n N = {[1 x 107]/N} 1/6 = 60 x n x T _______________ (3) = rpm = life in no. E2 = Young’s modulus N/m2 Mt = Torque N-m E1 = E2 = 1. = 8000 hours.1х106 N/m2 Calculation of σcmax σcmax = HB х CB х Kcl Where. σcmax = maximum contact compressive stress N/m2 E1. Of cycles T = life in hours.59/ σcmax) х [[Mt]/((1/E1)+(1/E2)) 2]}(1/3) _________________ (1) Where. .dmin > { (0.

139. The value of kcl is obtained as 1. Kcl = 1.139. Substituting the values in equation [2] σcmax = 20 x 200 x 1.2Kg ____________ (5) W =mxg ω = 2Πn/60 R = 1m Substituting the values of m. ω. ____________ (4) For power calculation Centrifugal force. r in equation [4] . fc M = m ω2 r = 0. T in the equation [3].From P.4).1309 = 4520 x105 N/m2 Calculation of Mt Mt = 97420 x (Kw/n).S. CB = 20 HB = 200 Substituting the values of N.G design data book (page no. n.2.

21 = 31.28w Substituting the value of kw and n in equation in [4].05 = 2.4 x Mt = 1.962 = 2. Mt = 22.178 x 1 = 2.4 x 22. = 2.178N Torque = f x r = 2. E1. Centrifugal force.178 x 1.81 = 1.1 N-m Substituting the values of σcmax. = mxg = 0. [Mt].21 [Mt] = 1.2 x 9. f = fc + fd = 0. Power = Torque x angular velocity.178Nm. fd = 0.216 N.962N.fc Downward force.216 + 1.E2 in equation [1]. .

5mm : 21° : 31mm : 1. Specification Of Pinion Material Outside diameter Circular pitch Tooth depth Module Pressure angle Pitch circle diameter Addendum : cast-iron : 34mm : 4.375mm : 1.875mm : 2.45mm : 0. We have taken the standard diameter of pinion as 34mm.5mm Dedendum Circular tooth Thickness Fillet radius Clearance : 1.07mm.375mm Design of rack .7mm : 3.The minimum diameter of the pinion is calculated to be 23.355mm : 0.

5mm 20× 15mm Here : 215 mm used.3. Teeth on the rack is adjusted for 215mm .Pitch circle diameter of the gear is = 31mm Circumference of the gear is = ∏ × pitch circle diameter = ∏ × 31 = 97.76 mm 3.1 Specification Of Rack Minimum length of the teeth Material Module Cross-section : : : : 194.) the rack minimum length is 194.76 mm. cast iron 1.38mm The dimension is for 360° for one rotation For two rotations (Approx.







-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter-9 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .

S copper M. x PARTS Frame Stand Steering Arrangement Wheel Bearing with Bearing Cap Dc motor Chain with Sprocket Connecting Tube Bolt and Nut Sheet Qty. iii. ii. No. ix.S Rubber M. i. vi viii.S Plastic M.S Plastic . 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 meter 2 Material Mild Steel M. v. iv.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- LIST OF MATERIALS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHAPTER-9 LIST OF MATERIALS Sl.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter-10 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- COST ESTIMATION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .

MATERIAL COST:Sl. GRINDING. vi viii.S Rubber M. i. WELDING. LABOUR COST LATHE.CHAPTER-10 COST ESTIMATION 1. OVERHEAD CHARGES The overhead charges are arrived by “Manufacturing cost” Manufacturing Cost = Material Cost + Labour cost . No. iii. ii. DRILLING.S copper M.S Plastic = Amount (Rs) TOTAL 2. x PARTS Frame Stand Steering Arrangement Wheel Bearing with Bearing Cap Dc motor Chain with Sprocket Connecting Tube Bolt and Nut Sheet Qty. POWER HACKSAW. v. iv. ix.S Plastic M. GAS CUTTING: Cost = 3. 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 meter 2 Material Mild Steel M.

= = Overhead Charges = = 20% of the manufacturing cost TOTAL COST Total cost = = = Total cost for this project = Material Cost + Labour cost + Overhead Charges -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter-11 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- .

.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ADVANTAGES --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHAPTER-11 ADVANTAGES • Free from wear adjustment. • Less skill technicians is sufficient to operate.

• Less time -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter-12 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . • Installation is simplified very much.• It gives simplified very operation.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- APPLICATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CHAPTER-11 APPLICATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES APPLICATIONS .

• Automobile application DISADVANTAGES 1. Additional space is required to install this arrangement in vehicles -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter-13 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- . Additional cost is required 2.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CONCLUSION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- CHAPTER 13 CONCLUSION .

We gained a lot of practical knowledge regarding. . We are proud that we have completed the work with the limited time successfully. planning. let us add a few more lines about our impression project work. We are able to understand the difficulties in maintaining the tolerances and also quality. We feel that the project work is a good solution to bridge the gates between institution and industries. purchasing. assembling and machining while doing this project work. We have done to our ability and skill making maximum use of available facilities. In conclusion remarks of our project work. Thus we have developed an “FOUR WHEEL STEERING MECHANISM” which helps to know how to achieve low cost automation. The FOUR WHEEL STEERING MECHANISM FOR MOTORIZED is working with satisfactory conditions. By using more techniques. The application of pneumatics produces smooth operation.This project work has provided us an excellent opportunity and experience. they can be modified and developed according to the applications. to use our limited knowledge.

- N.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BIBLIOGRAPHY --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BIBLIOGRAPHY AUTOMOBILE ENGG.M AGGARWAL . www.GUPTA S. S.METHTA .visionengineer.KATARIA & SONS CYBER REFERANCE www. THEORY & PERFORMANCE OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND ELECTRONICS V.SUBRAMANIAM ALLIED PUBLISHERS LTD.KATARIA & SONS ADVANCES IN AUTOMOBILE ENGG.K.tpup.B.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PHOTOGRAPHY --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- PHOTOGRAPHY .