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KARADENZ EREL MZESNDEN YEN YAZITLAR II zet T.C. Kltr ve Turizm Bakanl ve Mzeler Genel Mdrlnden aldmz izin ve Karadeniz Ereli Mzesi Mdr Ahmet Mercann destekleriyle, Karadeniz Ereli Mzesinin daha nce yaymlanm ve yaymlanmam tm yaztlarn bir corpus kapsamnda toplamak zere bir proje balattk ve mzede korunan sz konusu yaztlar kayt altna alarak, gerekli n almalar gerekletirdik. Yaztlar Zonguldak ve evresinden (Ereli, aycuma/Filyos, Devrek, Gkebey, Kilimli ve Alapl) bulunmutur. almalarn ikinci blmn oluturan bu makalede daha nce yaymlanmam, Roma mparatorluk Dnemine tarihlenen 1i Alapl, 7si Ereli (Herakleia Pontike) civarndan olmak zere toplam 8 Hellence yazt tantlmaktadr. Bu yaztlar srasyla 1) Damiorgoslarn Epilemelesliiyle Yaplan Bir Adak; 2) Apollophanes Kz Hilarann Mezar; 3) Diliporis Olu Pates ve Ei Philumenann Mezar; 4) Timotheos Olu Timothesin; Timotheosun Ei, Arkhelaios(?) Kz Demetriann; Timotheos Kz Tryphosann Mezar; 5) iftlik Khyalar Tertius ve Ei Augenin Mezar; 6) Artemidoros Olu ...-othesin ve Olunun Mezar; 7) Bir Adamn Mezar (Menios?); 8) smi Bilinmeyen Bir Adam ve Einin Mezarna aittir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Karadeniz, Bithynia, Zonguldak, Herakleia Pontike, Ereli, Tios, Tieion, Filyos, Alapl, Damiorgos, Demiourgos, Hilara, Oikonomos, Oikonomissa, iftlik Khyas, Diliporis, Pates. Abstract As part of a project to compile all published and unpublished Greek and Latin inscriptions in the Karadeniz Ereli Museum into a corpus, inscriptions were copied and worked on with the permission of the Ministry of Culture and Tourisms General Directorate of Culture Heritage and Museums and also the support of the director of the Karadeniz Ereli Museum, Ahmet Mercan. These inscriptions are all from Zonguldak Region (Ereli, aycuma/Filyos, Devrek, Gkebey, Kilimli, Alapl). In this article, eight previously unpublished inscriptions are presented: one of them from Alapl and the others are from Ereli (ancient Heraclea Pontica), which are both dated to the Roman Imperial period. Key Words: Black Sea, Bithynia, Zonguldak, Heraclea Pontica, Eregli, Tios, Tieion, Filyos, Alapl, Damiorgos, Demiourgos, Hilara, Oikonomos, Oikonomissa, Estate Manager, Diliporis, Pates.
* PhD Student, Marmara University, Faculty of Science and Literature, Department of Ancient History, stanbul; ** We thank the Ministry of Culture and Tourisms General Directorate of Culture Heritage & Museums and Ahmet Mercan, the director of Karadeniz Ereli Museum for the permission to work on the inscriptions of the museum; we are again grateful to Ahmet Mercan and also to Handan zalpay, to nver Gen and to Onur Arslan the archaeologists and to all staff of the Karadeniz Ereli Museum for their kind assistance and hospitality during our research stay in the museum; to Prof. Dr. Smer Atasoy for his all supports and contributions to work on the inscriptions; to Prof. Dr. Thomas Corsten for sharing his valuable opinions with us; to Prof. Dr. A. Vedat elgin for the last reading of the article and specially to Dr. Hseyin Sami ztrk for his all contributions and assistance during our researches in the museum and editing of this article. 155

With the permission of Ministry of Culture and Tourisms General Directorate of Culture Heritage and Museums and the support of the director of the Karadeniz Ereli Museum, Ahmet Mercan, a project was started to compile all published and unpublished Greek and Latin inscriptions in the museum. The inscriptions were copied and worked on with are all from the Zonguldak Region (Ereli, aycuma/Filyos, Devrek, Gkebey, Kilimli, Alapl). In the first article,1 ten previously unpublished funerary inscriptions had been presented: six of them are from Ereli (ancient Heraclea Pontica), two are from Alapl and two are from the ancient city of Tios / Tieion (Filyos). All are dated to the Roman Imperial period (ztrk Snmez 2009). In this article, eight previously unpublished inscriptions are presented: one of them from Alapl, the others are from

Ereli which are both dated to the Roman Imperial period. Our work on the inscriptions continues and the further results will be presented in the following articles.
1. DEDICATION BY THE EPIMELEIA OF DAMIOURGOI (= DEMIOURGOI) (Photo 1) Inv. No. : A.99.1.83 Provenance : Ereli Measurements : H: 0.84 m; W: 0.50 m; D: 0.54 m; LH: 0.024 0.026 m. Date : 1st-2nd century A.D. (on the basis of letter forms) Rectangular white marble building (?) stone of which the upper (beginning) part is missing. There are two circular holes carved on the stone for the mounting of the upper part


0 ----------------[d]a miorgn e pimlei& . 2 Polemrxou Asklapida Staflou Puy 4 Kleodkou Asklapida Dhmhtrou Dhmhtrou 6 Mrkou All<i>nou Ngrou. 6 ALLHNOU lapis by the epimeleia of damiorgoi: Polemarkhos son of Asklapiadas, Staphylos son of Pythas, Kleodikos son of Asklapiadas, Demetrios son of Demetrios, Marcus Allienus son of Nigros. 0 A similar type of inscription is attested from Heraclea Pontica that is dedicated to Emperor Vespasianus by the demos with the epimeleia of teimhta (= censors): dmow Atokrtora Oespasiann | Kasara Sebastn teimhtn pimele& | Polemrxou Polemrxou, fsei d | Edamxou, Staflou Staflou, | Yrsvnow Yrsvnow to ka Amilou (Drner 1963: no. 137 = IHeraclea 5). We dont know how many lines were there on the missing stone that carriers the beginnig of the inscription; but according to the example above and also another inscription from Heraclea Pontica (Robert 1937: 259-260, no. 9; Marek 1993: 159, no. 4; IHeraclea 72), the beginning of the inscription may be completed as dmow or dmow Hraklevtn or boul ka dmow (IHeraclea 3). 1 damiorgn = dhmiourgn. In Doric dialect the letter of -a is used instead of -h. For this usage see Fisk 1830: 225. For the changing also from -ou into -o see Gignac 1976: 211-222. The demiourgoi is firstly attested in Heraclea Pontica by this inscription. For detailed information about demiourgoi and their functions in the cities of Asia Minor see Schoeffer 1901; Veligianni-

Terzi 1977; Sherk 1991; Sherk 1993; Dmitriev 2005. 2 Polmarxow Asklapida: the name of Polemarkhos is attested in the inscription mentioned above as Polmarxow Polemrxou. 3 Stfulow Puy: the name of Staphylos is attested in the inscription mentioned above as Stfulow Staflou. 2-4 ?Asklapida and Puy are types of Doric genetivus. For the masculines with the suffix -aw and for the usage of genetivus with the suffix -a, cf. Petersen 1937. 6 ?Allnou = Allinou. For vowel loss (-i) in the genetivus form of Latin names, see Gignac 1976: 303. For this name see Pape Benseler 1959: 64, s.v. Allihnw. 2. GRAVE OF HILARA, DAUGHTER OF APOLLOPHANES (Photo 2) Inv. No. : 2003.175A Provenance : Ereli Measurements : H: 0.35 m; W: 0.49 m; D: 0.13 m; LH: 0,01 m 0,028 m. Date : Ist-3rd century A.D., (on the basis of letter forms) 2


Half-circular and roughly rectangular shaped, white marble stele of which the lower right corner is broken. Elra Apollofnouw, 2 gun d Ermolou. Xare. Hilara, daughter of Apollophanes, also wife of Hermolaos. Farewell !

Pthw 2 Deilipriow tn p. Filoumn{n}a Pathw gun tn 4 xareo te a


Pates, son of Diliporis, (died) at the age of 80; Philumena, wife of Pates, (died) at the age of 71. Farewell ! 1 & 3 Pthw is commented as a Thracian name by P. Frei (see Frei 1992: 188, s.v. Pates = cf. SEG 42, 1197); but L. Zgusta (Zgusta 1964: 403, 1189-3, s.v. Pathw) draws attention to the Iranian names ending with -pathw such as Alenpathw (46; MAMA I 33), Ermopthw (355-40; MAMA I 410), Ratoupathw (1321-1; MAMA I 130; VII 37); for the name see also PAPE BENSELER 1959: 1147; LGPN I: 365; LGPN IV: 275, s.v. Pthw. The name is rarely attested in inscriptions; from Phrygia/ Dorylaion (MAMA V, List I (i): 182, no. 144); from Macedonia(Odomantike)/Hagios Christophorus as Aljandrow Ptevw (Zoita Karamitrou-Mentsidi 1988: 28 = SEG 39, 594 = BE (1991), 382 = LGPN IV: 275; 2nd c. B.C.); from Egypt/Monesis as etuxw Patw (Oasis d'gypte, 36,48 = SEG 38, 1776; 4th c. A.D.); from Cyrenaica as Phsiw ka Pthw (PP 2553, 109 B.C.). 2 Deilipriow = Dilipriow. For the changing from ei into i see Gignac 1976: 190. The name of Dilporiw has a Thracian origin and -poriw means son like in the other Thracian names see Kretschmer 1896: 184; Detschew 1957: 160; 374; Fratl Robert 1964: 148-149; Duridanov 1981; Mihailov 1981: 106-108; LGPN IV: 97; Corsten 2006; Corsten 2007; zlem-Aytalar 2010: s.v. Dilporiw; for more examples about the names ending with -poriw cf. Detschew 1957: 160. Dilporiw is attested in ins-

1 Elra = Ilra. For the changing from ei into i see Gignac 1976: 190. For the name of Elra see Pape Benseler 1959: 334, s.v. Elra; for Ilra see Pape Benseler 1959: 543; LGPN I: 234; IV: 173, s.v. Ilra. The form Elra is attested in an inscription from Galatia/Pessinous, in Asia Minor see Strubbe 1984: no. 69 (Sivrihisar). 2 gun = gun. 3. GRAVE OF PATES SON OF DILIPORIS AND HIS WIFE PHILUMENA (Photo 3) Inv. No. Provenance : E.28 : Ereli 0.06 m; LH: 0,015 m 0,03 m. Date : 1st-2nd century A.D., (on the basis of reliefs and letter forms) Rectangular white marble stele, with a triangular pediment and corner acroters. The bottom half is broken and missing. In the middle of the stele there is a rectangular recess with a possible funeral banquet (symposium) scene: on the right is a head of a man (possibly lying on a kline) holding wreath in his right hand to the head of a woman on the left (possibly dressed in khiton and himation).

Measurements : H: 0.28 m; W: 0.18 m; D:

( (

criptions of Bithynia see IByzantion 195, 369; IKios 72; INikaia 81, 1154, 1232, 1416(?); IPrusa 73; TAM IV.1, 16, 126 (Kutluca) and also cf. Fratl Robert 1964: 148-149; Corsten 2006; zlem-Aytalar 2010. As is known to ancient authors from time of Herodotos (Hdt. VII 75) and Xenophon (Xen. an. VI 4, 1; Hell. I 3, 2; III 2) onwards and is attested by numerous inscriptions from Bithynia containing Thracian personal names, the indigenous population of Bithynia was of Thracian origin; for detailed information about the Thracian ethnicity of Bithynia see Corsten 2006: 85, dn. 1; Corsten 2007; also cf. Fol 1970; Fol 1972. 3 For the name of Filoumna see Pape Benseler 1959: 1629; LGPN I: 470; IIIA: 461 s.v. Filoumna. 3 The genetivus form of Pthw seems here unchanged. In an inscription the genetivus form seems as Ptevw see note 1 & 3. As mentioned above the name is rarely attested in inscription so

we are not sure about the exact genetivus form of Pthw. 3 gun = gun. 4. GRAVE OF TIMOTHES SON OF TIMOTHEOS, HIS WIFE DEMETRIA DAUGHTER OF ARKHELAIOS(?), AND HIS DAUGHTER TRYPHOSA (Photo 4) Inv. No. Provenance : A.95.3.1 : Ereli, Aa Camii (Mosque of Aa) Measurements : H: 0.84 m; W: 0.63 m; D: 0.20 m; LH: 0.014 m - 0.022m. Date : 1st-3rd century A.D. (on the basis of reliefs and letter forms) Rectangular white marble stele with a triangular pediment of which top corner is broken and corner acroters. There is a relief of a circular roset159

te/patera? carved in the mid-upper part of the pediment. In the middle of the stele is a rectangular recess with the bust reliefs of three people (Demetria, Tryphosa, Timothes); from left to right two women dressed in khiton and himation pulled up over her heads as a veil and a bearded man who is dressed in himation; and whose right arms are held on their left chests in a conventional greeting pose. Above the recess, there are four lines of Greek inscription along the pediment, the first line of which is divided into two parts by the rosette/patera. Teimoyw Teimoyou t[n 2 Dhmhtra Arxelao<u> yugthr, gun . Teimoyou tn ng. Xarete. Truf [sa] . 4 Teimoyou yugthr tn ie. Xare.
2 ARXELAIOS lapis.

1 Teimoyw = Timoyw. For the name see LGPN I; IV; VA, s.v. Timoyw. 1 & 3 & 4 Teimoyou = Timoyou. The name of Teimyeow is attested from the inscriptions of Heraclea Pontica, see IHeraclea 3, 78. 2 Arxlaiow should be a genetivus form of a masculine name considered he is the father of Dhmhtra; but any form such as this has not been attested yet; so we think imprecisely that -u should be written instead of -w. The name of Arxlaiow is rarely attested in inscriptions; see IScM I 193 = SEG 1, 330 (138 A.D.). 3 The name of Trufsa is attested from the inscriptions of Heraclea Pontica, see IHeraclea 10, 83; ztrk Snmez 2009: 135-136, no. 8. 5. GRAVE OF ESTATE MANAGERS TERTIUS AND HIS WIFE AUGE (Photo 5) Inv. No. : A.95.6.1 Provenance : Ereli; Village of Dalca Measurements : H: 0.41 m; W: 0.39 m; D: 0.065 m; LH: 0.018 m 0.03 m Date : 1st-3rd century A.D. (on the basis of letter forms) Rectangular white fragmentary marble stele of which the lower, the upper and the left parts are broken. [T]rtiow O [ . . 2 okonmow vac. [. Xairmono[w 4 tn vac. Xar[e]. Agh okonm[issa/ow] 6 gun d Tert[ou tn vac. [Xare]. Tertius ...., oikonomos of .... Khairemon, .... (died) at the age of .... Farewell !; Oikonomissa/Oikonomos Auge, also wife of Tertius, (died) at the age of .... Farewell !

Timothes, son of Timotheos, (died) at the age of ...; Demetria, daughter of Arkhelaios(?), wife of Timotheos, (died) at the age of 53. Farewell ! Tryphosa, daughter of Timotheos, (died) at the age of 15. Farewell ! 4


2 & 5 okonmow is used for expressing the term estate-manager/steward administrator for both masculines and feminines; but also the term of okonmissa means wife of okonmow (see Liddell Scott 1996: 1204, s.v. okonmow and okonmissa). Probably, the women used to execute the same or the look a-like work directly, as well (INikaia 1062) or after their husbands death they undertake the management of the farms, household or landed estate in the name of land or estate owners (okbankir 2010: no. 12). Any oikonomos or oikonomissa is not attested from Heraclea Pontica and its territorium before suprisingly. But many of them are attested from the inscriptions of Bithynia; for oikonomoi see Adak Akyrek-ahin 2005: no. 5 (Sapanca); okbankir 2010: no. 1 (oikonomos Strat(e)ios, Modrena/ Klaudiopolis); IKalchedon 4, 101; IKios 46, 91 (C. Carius, Roman Imp. Period); INikaia 192 (Italos, oikonomos, perhaps of Chrestus, 1st-2nd c. A.D.), 196 (Philon, oikonomos of Claudia Gallita), 205 (Claudius Thallos, oikonomos of C. Claudius Calpurnianus), 753 (C. Carius, Roman Imp. Period), 1057 (Cosmianus, 3rd. c. A.D.), 1062 (Graptos, oikonomos of Annia Astilla, 3rd c. A.D.), 1201 (Doryphoros, oikonomos of Claudia Eias), 1292 (Ennius), 1336 (Quirinus, oikonomos of Euangelos, 1st-2nd c. A.D.), 1413 (Euangelos, oikonomos of Antipatris); IPrusa 165 (Herperos, son of Herperos, oikonomos of Tiberius Claudius Polio Phaedrus, 2nd c. A.D.); IPrusias 103 (Pantagathos, oikonomos of T. Flavius Domitianus Demokrates, 1st-2nd c. A.D.); TAM IV.1, 57 = Eck 1981: 664, no. 57E = ahin 1984: 160 (Arkhelas, oikonomos of M. Scribonius Capetolinus, Umurbey/Nicaea) SEG 28, 1015 (Sosylos, oikonomos of Hippon Reglianus, Dacibyza); TAM IV.1, 276 (Gaius, oikonomos of Tryphon, Nicomedia); for oikonomissai see INikaia 1466 (Eupraxia, oikonomissa of C. Catillius Claudianus Thrase); IPrusa 68 (Anthoussa, oikonomissa of Timotheos, Roman Imp. Period); okbankir 2010: no. 12 (oikono-

missa Hermione, Eskiehir Sarcakaya/Beyyayla Ky) and of Pisidia see MAMA VIII 399 (oikonomissa Eirene, Killanion Pedion) in Asia Minor. Finally an unpublished gravestone of oikonomoi Kallikarpos and his wife Spendusa is found in Geyve/Village of Akdoan during the epigraphical surveys in 2011 under the head of H. S. ztrk. As S. ahin comments in INikaia 1062, one of the main reasons of increasing number of farms of this kind in Bithynia is, doubtless, that the soft maritime climate and the rich water resources which is the characteristic feature of the region, like today. For general information about these kinds of farms, landholding, landowners, estate managers and steward administrators (oikonomoi & oikonomissai) in Bithynia see Robert 1937: 241; Marek 2003: 75; Fernoux 2004: 238-252; Corsten 2006; for Roman landholding in Asia Minor see Broughton 1934; for an imperial estate in Galatia see Anderson 1937; for slavery and other forms of dependence in Asia Minor see Marinovic et alii 1992: 77-138; Weiss 2004: 50-59; 186; for slave trade in the sout coast of Black Sea (including Heraclea Pontica), see Avram 2007. 5


For more information about oikonomos (= okonmow) and oikonomissa (= okonmissa) see also Landvogt 1908; Ziebarth 1937. 4 & 7 Any traces of letters can not be seen after the terms of both tn. The stele possibly was prepared when they were alive and the ages were written with paint when they died; the paint was cleaned by the time. 6. GRAVE OF A MAN, SON OF ARTEMIDOROS AND HIS SON (Photo 6) Inv. No. : 2003.2A Provenance : Alapl Measurements : H: 0.39 m; W: 0.30 m; D: 0.10 m; LH: 0.01 0.015 m. Date : 2nd-3rd century A.D. (on the basis of reliefs and letter forms) Rectangular white marble stele with a triangular pediment. The possible right and left corner acroters are broken and missing. There is a relief of circular rosette carved in the middle of the pedi6

ment. The upper left corner and the lower part of the stele from where the figures end are broken and missing. In the middle of the stele there is a rectangular recess with the relief of a standing male figure dressed in khiton / himation and his right arm is in conventional pose on his left chest for greeting. There is also a standing male (possibly the son), portrayed frontally on the left corner, who is dressed in khiton. [ca. 3]?.yhw Artemidrou tn [1-2], . 2 [ca. 3]? uw ato tn g. Xare[te?] .-othes, son of Artemidoros, (died) at the age of .; his son ...(died) at the age of 3. Farewell ! 1 The first letter after breakage should be o or v. The names that are known ending with -yhw are Dvryhw (LGPN I), Ermyhw (LGPN VA), Timyhw (LGPN I; IV; VA); Timyhw is also attested in no. 4 in this article; for the list of names that are known ending with -yhw see Hansen 1957: 158. 2 If there is, the name of the son in breakage should consist of only three letters according to space and possible completion in the first line, but it seems questionable; so the name may not be mentioned in inscription as considered he was only three years old when he died. 7. GRAVE OF A MAN (MENIOS?) (Photo 7a-b) : A.1992.78 : Ereli : H: 0.37 m; W: 0.16 m; D: 0.22 m; LH: 0,015 m 0,025 m. Date : 1st-3rd century A.D. (on the basis of letter forms) A rectangular white marble ostotheke of which left part is broken and missing. Inv. No. Provenance Measurements



8. GRAVE OF AN ANONYMOUS MAN AND HIS WIFE (Photo 8) Inv. No. : A.95.1.16 Provenance : Ereli Measurements : H: 0.30 m; W: 0.18 m; D: 0.05 m; LH: 0.016 m 0.02 m Date : Ist-3rd century A.D. (on the basis of relief and letter forms)

7b Rectangular white marble fragmentary stele of which the lower, the right and the left parts are broken and missing. Only the head of a woman is seen (possibly dressed in khiton and himation) in the middle of the stele ]vnow tn ob . 2 g]un tn vac. X[arete].

[- - -]mhniow . [- - -]. Xare.

.menios. Farewell ! 1 Here, there should be a name ending with -mhniow. For the list of the names ending with -mhniow see Hansen 1957: 238. According to the measurements of the ostotheke and possible enough space, it is also possible to identify the name as Mniow which is a theophoric name based on the god Men (see McLean 2002: 79). The name is attested from the inscriptions of Heraclea Pontica, see IHeraclea 33, 72. Also the name Noumniow is attested from Herakleiotai (the citizens bearing the ethnic Hraklethw/ -tiw) in Athens (see Avram, PPEE, no. 14631469; 4th-1st cent. B.C.) who were commented as slaves but it should not be forgotten it is hard to isolate the Pontic Heraclea from the many other cities with the same name in the Greek world (see Avram 2007: 246).


..... (died) at the age of 72; .... wife of ..... (died) at the age of ..... Farewell ! 2 The lack of the womans age may be commented as the stele was prepared when she was alive and after her death the age was written with paint but cleaned by the time.

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inscriptions of the 2nd and 3rd century A.D., in: Otten et alii 1992: 181-192. Gabrielsen Lund 2007 = V. Gabrielsen J. Lund (Eds.), The Black Sea in Antiquity. Regional and Interregional Economic Exchanges, Aarhus 2007 (Black Sea Studies 6). Gephyra = Gephyra. Zeitschrift fr Geschichte und Kultur der Antike auf dem Gebiet der heutigen Trkei Gnmz Trkiyesinin Antik Devirdeki Tarihi ve Kltr iin Dergi Gignac 1976 = F. T. Gignac, A Grammar of the Greek Papyri of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, I: Phonology, Milano 1976. Hansen 1957 = B. Hansen, Rcklaufiges Wrter buch der griechischen Eigennamen, Berlin 1957. Hdt. (Herodotos, Historiae) = Herodot Tarihi, trans.: M. kmen, stanbul 2006. IByzantion = A. Lajtar, (Hrsg.), Die Inschriften von Byzantion. Teil I: Die Inschriften, Bonn 2000 (IGSK 58). IGSK = Inschriften griechischer Stdte aus Kleinasien IHeraclea = L. Jonnes (Hrsg.), The Inscriptions of Herakleia Pontika. With a Prosopographia Heracleotica by W. Ameling, Bonn 1994 (IGSK 47). IKalchedon = R. Merkelbach F. K. Drner S. ahin (Hrsg.), Die Inschriften von Kalchedon, Bonn 1980 (IGSK 20). IKios = Th. Corsten (Hrsg.), Die Inschriften von Kios, Bonn 1985 (IGSK 29). INikaia = S. ahin, Katalog der antiken Inschriften des Museums von Iznik (Nikaia) / znik Mzesi Antik Yaztlar Katalou, Bonn 1979-1982 (IGSK 9 & 10.1-2). IPrusa = Th. Corsten (Hrsg.), Die Inschriften von Prusa ad Olympum Teil I-II, Bonn 1985-1993 (IGSK 39 & 40). IPrusias = W. Ameling (Hrsg.), Die Inschriften von Prusias ad Hypium, Bonn 1985 (IGSK 27). IScM = D. M. Pippidi, Inscriptiones Daciae et Scythiae Minoris antiquae. Series altera: Inscriptiones Scythiae Minoris graecae et latinae. Vol. 1. Inscriptiones Histriae et vicinia. Bucharest 1983. JRS = The Journal of Roman Studies Krestchmer 1896 = P. Krestchmer, Einleitung in

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