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l equations. The response of dynamic system to an input may be obtained if these differential equations are solved. The differential equations can be obtained by utilizing physical laws governing a particular system, for example, Newtons laws for mechanical systems, Kirchhoffs laws for electrical systems, etc. Mathematical models: The mathematical description of the dynamic characteristic of a system. The first step in the analysis of dynamic system is to derive its model. Models may assume different forms, depending on the particular system and the circumstances. In obtaining a model, we must make a compromise between the simplicity of the model and the accuracy of results of the analysis. Linear systems: Linear systems are one in which the equations of the model are linear. A differential equation is linear, if the coefficients are constant or functions only of the independent variable (time).

d2y dy (1) 3 6 y et is linear differential equation. 2 dt dt d3y d2y dy (6 t ) 2 t 2 y sin t is linear differential equation. (2) 3 dt dt dt y (6 t ) t 2 y y sin t y or

The most important properties of linear system is that the principle of superposition is applicable. In an experimental investigation of dynamic system, if cause and effect are proportional, thus implying that the principle of superposition holds, then the system can be considered linear. Linear time invariant systems: the system which represented by differential equation whose coefficients are function of time for example y (t 6) 2t 2 y 4 y e 2t y An example of time varying control system is a spacecraft control system.

Non linear system: Non linear system are ones which are represented by non linear equations. Examples are Y=sin(x) , y=x2 , z=x2+y2 A differential equation is called non linear if it is not linear. For examples

d2y dy ( ) 2 y A sin wt 2 dt dt 2 d y dy ( y 2 1) y 0 2 dt dt 2 d y dy y y3 0 2 dt dt

The most important properties of non linear system is that the principle of superposition is not applicable. Because of the mathematical difficulties attached to nonlinear systems, one often finds it necessary to introduce equivalent linear system which are valid for only a limited range of operation. Transfer functions: The transfer function of a linear time-invariant system is define to be the ratio of the Laplace transform ( z transform for sampled data systems) of the output to the Laplace transform of the input (driving function), under the assumption that all initial conditions are zero.

a0 y ( n ) a1y ( n 1) ... an 1 y a n y b0 x ( m ) b1 x ( m 1) ... bm 1 x b m x

nm

(1)

take the Laplace transform () of y(t) (a0y(n)) = ao(y(n)) = ao[snY(s)-sn-1y(0)-s(n-2)y/(o)--y(n-1)(0) (a1y(n-1)) = a1(y(n-1)) = a1[sn-1Y(s)-sn-2y(0)-s(n-3)y/(o)--y(n-2)(0)

(any)

= an(y) = anY(s)

same thing is applied to obtain the L.T. of x(t).by substitute all initial condition to zero. The transfer function of the system become.

Transfer Function G ( s ) b0 s m b1s m 1 ... bm 1s bm a0 s n a1s n 1 ... an 1s an

Transfer function is not provide any information concerning the physical structure of the system (the T.F. of many physically different system can be identical). The highest power of s in the denominator of T. F. is equal to the order of the highest derivative term of the output. If the highest power of s is equal to n the system is called an nth order system. How you can obtain the transfer function (T. F.)? 1- Write the differential equation of the system 2- Take the L. T. of the differential equation, assuming all initial condition to be zero. 3- Take the ratio of the output to the input. This ratio is the T. F. . Mechanical translation system Consider the mass spring dashpot system 1- Mass

a

A force applied to the mass produces an acceleration of the mass. The reaction force fm is equal to the product of mass and acceleration and is opposite in direction to the applied force in term of displacement y, a velocity v, and acceleration a, the force equation is where D = d/dt Fm = M a = M D v = M D2 y

2- Spring

The elastance, or stiffness k provides a restoring force as represented by a spring. The reaction force fk on each end of the spring is the same and is equal to the product of stiffness k and the amount of deformation of the spring. End c has a position yc and end d has a position yd measured from the respective equilibrium positions. The force equation, in accordance with the Hoks law is fk = k ( yc - yd ) to If the end d is stationary, then yd = 0 and the above equation reduces Fk = k yc 3- dashpot

e f

The reaction damping force fB is approximated by the product of damping B and the relative velocity of the two ends of the dashpot. The direction of this force depend on the relative magnitude and direction of the velocity Dye and Dyf FB = B (Ve Vf ) = B ( Dye - Dyf ) Mechanical translation quantity and units U. S. customary units metric units Quantity Force pounds newtons Distance feet meters Velocity feet/second meter/second 2 meter/second2 Acceleration feet/second Mass slugs=pound*second2/foot kilogram Stiffness coefficient pounds/foot newtons/meter Damping coefficient pounds/(foot/second) newtons/(meter/second) Example: find the T. F. of the figure below

The fundamental law governing mechanical system is Newtons law for translational system, the law state that

Ma

M

d2y dy f ky x 2 dt dt

[M

[ f

dy ] f [ sY ( s ) y (0)] dt [ky ] kY ( s ) ( x) X ( s )

Set the initial conditions to zero so that y(0)=0, y (0) 0 the Laplace transform can be written

( Ms 2 fs k )Y ( s ) X ( s )

Taking the ratio of Y(s) to X(s), we find that the transfer function of the system is

T .F . G ( s ) Y (s) 1 2 X ( s ) Ms fs k

To draw the mechanical network, the points xa, xb and the reference are located. The complete mechanical network is drawn in fig. below.

f f k k ( xa xb )

f k f m f B MD xb BDxb

2

or

f k f m f B M b BD x b x

It is possible to obtain one equation relating xa to f, xb to xa, or xb to f by combining equation (1) & (2) k ( MD 2 BD) xa ( MD 2 BD k ) f (3) check

( MD 2 BD k ) xb kxa ( MD 2 BD) xb f

Let

xa MD 2 BD k G1 f k ( MD 2 BD)

G2

xb k (7) 2 xa MD BD k 1 x (8) G b 2 f MD BD Or by taking L.T. to equation 3,4,5 with all initial condition equal to zero. The transfer functions are

xa ( s ) Ms 2 Bs k f ( s ) k ( Ms 2 Bs) x ( s) k G2 ( s ) b 2 xa ( s ) Ms Bs k G1 ( s )

(9)

(10) (11)

1 xb ( s) 2 f ( s) Ms Bs

Note that the equations 8 & 11 are equal to the product of the (6) * (7) & (9)*(10) & G(s)=G1(s)G2(s) G=G1G2 The block diagram representing the mathematic operation

G1(D)

xa

G2(D)

xb

G (D)

xb

G1(s)

xa

G2(s)

xb

G (s)

xb

Example: Automobile suspension some system of one wheel M1= mass of the automobile B = the shock absorber k1 =the spring k2= elestance of the tire M2= mass of the wheel Two independent displacement exist, so we must write Two equations

d 2 x1 dx dx M 1 2 B( 1 2 ) k1 ( x1 x2 ) dt dt dt M1 d 2 x2 dx dx f (t ) B( 2 1 ) k1 ( x2 x1 ) k2 x2 2 dt dt dt

T (s) X 1 (s) Bs k1 4 3 F ( s ) M 1M 2 s B( M 1 M 2 ) s ( K1M 2 k2 M 1 ) s 2 k 2 Bs k1k 2

Consider the system shown below. The system consists of a load inertia and a viscous friction damper. J = moment of inertia of The load kg. m2 f = Viscous Friction coefficient Newton / (rad /sec) = angular velocity, red / sec T = torque applied to the system, Newton.m For mechanical rotational systems Newtons low states that

J f T

Applying Newtons law to the present system, We obtain Then the transfer function of this system is found to be ( s ) 1 where ( s) { (t )} , T ( s ) {T (t )} T ( s) Js f

Electrical Systems

LRC circuit. Applying kirchhoffs voltage law to the system shown. We obtain the following equation;

L di 1 Ri idt ei .......(1) dt C 1 idt eo .......( 2) C

Equation (1)&(2) give a mathematical model of the circuit. Taking the L.T. of equations (1)&(2), assuming zero initial conditions, we obtain

LsI ( s ) RI ( s ) 11 I ( s ) Ei ( s ) Cs 11 I ( s ) Eo ( s ) Cs

E0 ( s ) 1 2 E i ( s ) LCs RCs 1

Complex impedances.

circuit is

Eo ( s ) Z 2 ( s) Ei ( s ) Z1 ( s ) Z 2 ( s ) Where Z1= Ls+R 1 Z2 Cs Z(s) = E(s)/I(s) Hence the T.F. Eo(s)/Ei(s) can be found as follows; 1 Eo ( s ) 1 Cs 2 Ei ( s ) Ls R 1 LCs RCs 1 Cs

The dc motors have separately excited fields. They are either armature-controlled with fixed field or field-controlled with fixed armature current. For example, dc motors used in instruments employ a fixed permanent-magnet field, and the controlled signal is applied to the armature terminals. Consider the armature-controlled dc motor shown in the following figure.

Ra = armature-winding resistance, ohms La = armature-winding inductance, henrys ia = armature-winding current, amperes if = field current, a-pares ea = applied armature voltage, volt eb = back emf, volts = angular displacement of the motor shaft, radians T = torque delivered by the motor, Newton*meter J = equivalent moment of inertia of the motor and load referred to the motor shaft kg.m2 f = equivalent viscous-friction coefficient of the motor and load referred to the motor shaft. Newton*m/rad/s T = k1 ia where is the air gap flux, = kf if , k1 is constant

T = kf if k1 ia For a constant field current where k is a motor-torque constant T = k ia For constant flux

eb kb d dt

{(eb=k2)}

La dia Raia eb ea ........(2) dt

The armature current produces the torque which is applied to the inertia and friction; hence

Jd 2 d f T Kia ..........(3) 2 dt dt Assuming that all initial conditions are condition are zero/and taking the L.T. of equations (1) ,(2)&(3), we obtain Kps(s) = Eb(s) (Las+Ra) Ia(s)+Eb(s) =Ea(s) (Js2+fs) (s) = T(s) = KIa(s) The T.F can be obtained is (s) K .........chek ? 2 Ea ( s ) s ( La Js ( La f Ra J ) s Ra f KK b )

Find the T.F

The torque T developed by the motor is proportional to the product of the air gap flux and armature current ia so that T = k1 ia Where k1 is constant T = k2 if Where k2 is constant di f Lf R f i f e f .(1) dt d 2 d J 2 f T k2i f . (2) dt dt

By taking the L.T. of eqs. (1)&(2) & assuming zero initial conditions we get (Lf s +Rf) If (s) = Ef (s) (Js2 + fs) (s) = k2 If (s) The T.F. of the this system is obtained as K2 (s) ...........chek ? E f ( s ) S ( L f s R f )( Js f )

H.W

For the positional servomechanism obtain the closed-loop T.F. for the positional servomechanism shown below, Assume that the in-put and out put of the system are input shaft position and the output shaft r = reference input shaft, radian c = out put shaft, radian = motor shaft, radian k1 = gain of potentiometer error detector = 24/ volt/rad kp = amplifier gain = 10 kb = back emf const.= 5.5*10-2 volts-sec/rad K = motor torque constant = 6*10-5 Ib-ft-sec2 Ra = 0.2 La = negligible Jm = 1*10-3 Ib-ft-sec2 fm = negligble Jl = 4.4*10-3 Ib-ft-sec2 fL = 4*10-2 Ib-ft/rad/sec n = gear ratio N1/N2=1/10 Hint J = Jm+n2Jl ,f = fm+n2fL ( s) 0.72 Answer Ea ( s ) s (0.13s 1)

UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING FIRST TERM EXAMINATION

Q1: (A) Define four of the following statements, (1) state vector, (2) transducer, (3) open loop control system, (4) transfer function, (5) linear time invariant system. [2 Marks] (B) For the electrical circuit shown in Fig. (1) (1) Derive the transfer function Y(s)/U(s). [2 Marks] (2) Find the state space equations and then draw the block diagram of state space equations. [2 Marks]

L Fig. (1)

Q2: For the block diagram of feedback control system shown in Fig.(2) the output is Y(s)=M(s)R(s)+Mw(s)W(s) Find the transfer functions M(s) and Mw(s).

W(s) R(s) + _ + _ H3 + _ H1 + + Y(s)

[4 Marks]

G1

G2

G3

H2

Fig. (2)

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