# Technical University of Cluj-Napoca Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Information Technology

Rectangular and triangular Op-Amp signal generator

Student: Rusu Alin-Dorel Group: 2021 Advisors: Conf.dr.ing. Ovidiu Pop Prep. Ing. Marius Muresan

The circuit I’ve used is designed to deliver a 5V amplitude triangular signal. which is quasi-stable. the circuit can remain in each of the states for as long as we want Astable flip-flops: none of the states is stable. rectangular and triangular signals. the circuit changes its state after a predetermined period of time -> these are used for rectangular and triangular signal generators Monostable flip-flops: only one of the states is stable. which is basically a non-inverting comparator with hysteresis. To generate them. - The main principle of such circuits is that no external excitation is applied to them. Components used in the schematic: 2 LF412 op-amps 5 resistors 1 capacitor . To generate a rectangular signal. when a triggering signal is applied. the circuit changes to the other state. flip-flop circuits are used.The most commonly used signals in electronics are the sine. For the triangular signal. with a variable frequency between 1KHz and 10 KHz. obtained by putting a capacitor on the feedback path. an astable comparator with positive feedback is used. and there are 3 types of such circuits: Bistable flip-flops: both its states are stable. to the output of the first comparator is connected an integrator circuit.

1 kΩ. . so that their ratio was 0. In conclusion.- 4 VDC (set to +15V and -15V) The waveform we want to obtain is the following: VOH ≈ VAl – 1V = 14V (it is equal to the amplitude of the rectangular signal) VOL ≈ -VAl + 1V = -14V The about 1V difference between the supplying voltage and the values above is due to the op-amps. enough to see 5 periods at a frequency of 10 KHz. R1=1. which deliver to the output a slighter smaller voltage. I’ve set the VPH and VPL to +5V and -5V and I’ve chosen proper standardized resistors.5ms. In order to test if the values are correct.3 kΩ. I performed a transient analysis with stop time equal to 0.3571. VPH = VPL = - (it is equal to the amplitude of the triangular signal) Because I wanted the amplitude of the triangular wave to be 5V. R3 has the value of R1║ R2 = 1.8 kΩ and R2=5.

For the variable frequency. we must find suitable values for the potentiometer and the capacitor (C1). In order to simulate the potentiometer. I’ve set the value of the capacitor to 33nF and I replaced the other components’ values. R4 and R5 (R4=R5=R) are used as a potentiometer. In the analysis menu. in which the parameter “potentiometru” changed its value by a list I’ve chosen: the first and the last one are for the 1 and 10 KHz frequency. and the middle one for a 5KHz frequency. R (the potentiometer) must be set to 2. in order to show properly the evolution in time of all the signals of various frequencies . . So. for a 10Khz frequency. this time I’ve set a 2ms stop time. because modifying their values changes the frequency. I’ve performed a parametric sweep. 10KHz. For 1KHz. To obtain the maximum desired frequency. The following formula is used: f= To dimension the components properly. the potentiometer must be set to 22 kΩ.2 kΩ.

The result of the simulation is this: Triangular signal: Rectangular signal: .

edu. Cluj-Napoca.I have also performed a performance analysis.T.anadolu.05. according to the calculus 14. and I used the Period goal function: Working plan: 11-12.pdf 3) Gabriel Oltean.2012: presentation About 15 hours in total. Bibliography: 1) “Circuite electronice”. PRES.2012: choosing the circuit and finding information about it 13. U. in the trace menu.tr/~mkoc6/EEM102/resistorsandcaps. I clicked on performance analysis.2012: realization of the schematic and dimensioning the components. to show the frequency behavior of the circuit according to the values of the potentiometer. For this.05. 2007 2) http://home. Fundamental Electronic Circuits courses .05.05.2012: writing the documentation 15. Gabriel Oltean.