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2010 - 2012

1rst EPAL KAVALAS GREECE

Physical and sports activities in different environments

STUDENTS NAMES
1) ARGIRAKIS MARIOS 2) GRIGORIADIS POSIDON 3) HARITOS IOANNIS 4) PAPAZOGLOU THEMISTOKLIS 5) HARITONIDIS SAVVAS 6) PEGGARAS ILIAS 7) POURAS ANDREAS 8) KALOUTSIDIS AVRAAM 9) ZAPIDIS PANAGIOTIS 10) VAFAKIS ILIAS 11) VAMVAKIDIS ATHANASIOS 12) PANAGIOTIDIS VALENTINOS 13) TSAMA KIRIAKOS 14) HOUTSISVILI REVAZ 15) HATZISTAVROU PETROS 16) KATSIKARI MARIA

TEACHERS NAMES
1) KARANASIOU AGGELIKI 2) PAPADOPOULOS GRIGORIS 3) SPIROS STAMOS

2010 - 2012

PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS
IPSCT G.FALCONE (PALAZZOLO S/O-BS) IT ESCOLA SECUNDRIA DOM EGAS MONIZ (RESENDE) PT IES JOAQUN ROMERO MURUBE (SEVILLA) ES BILINGUAL SECONDARY SCHOOL (WIENER NEUSTADT) AT MERAM KONYA LISESI (KONYA) TR PROFESSIONAL HIGH SCHOOL OF ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING MARIE CURIE (SLIVEN) BG 1RST EPAL KAVALAS (AVALA) GR COLEGIUL NATIONAL FRATII BUZESTI (CRAIOVA) RO INGRID JESPERSENS GYMNASIESKOLE (COPENHAGEN) DK

PARTICIPATING COUNTRIES EUROPE

GREECE

TURKEY

ITALY

PORTUGAL

BULGARIA

ROMANIA

AUSTRIA

DENMARK

SPAIN

SPORTS IN ANCIENT GREECE OLYMPICS


Ancient Greeks loved sport and most cities in Ancient Greece had public gymnasiums where people gathered to train and relax. The Greeks believed that a healthy body was very important. Most men and boys practiced sports every day because they enjoyed them and wanted to keep fit. Sport was a good preparation for war too. The Greek armies had to be fit enough to march long distances, carrying all their heavy equipment, and then begin the fight with the enemy.

The Greeks had four national sports festivals, where athletes from different city states competed against one another. The most important of the sports contests was the Olympic Games. These were played at Olympia, every four years, in honour of Zeus. On the first day of the Olympics, sacrifices of grain, wine, and lambs were made to Zeus.

OLYMPIC GAMES

Greece is the home country of the Olympic Games. Olympia, a Greek city, was known to be a very important centre of athletics. The Olympic games, held there every four years, were so important in Greek life that they were used as the basis for the Greek calendar.

THE OLYMPIC TRUCE


A truce was announced before and during each of the Olympic festivals, to allow visitors to travel safely to Olympia. During the truce, wars were suspended, armies were prohibited from entering Elis or threatening the Games, and legal disputes and the carrying out of death penalties were forbidden

RUNNING
There were 4 types of races at Olympia. The stadion was the oldest event of the Games. Runners sprinted for 1 stade (192 m.), or the length of the stadium. The other races were a 2stade race (384 m.), and a long-distance run which ranged from 7 to 24 stades (1,344 m. to 4,608 m.).

WRESTLING
Like the modern sport, an athlete needed to throw his opponent on the ground, landing on a hip, shoulder, or back for a fair fall. 3 throws were necessary to win a match. Biting was not allowed, and genital holds were also illegal. Attacks such as breaking your opponent's fingers were permitted.

PENTATHLON
The pentathlon was a combination of heavy and light events. It included jumping, running, javelin, discus and wrestling. The pentathlon was considered to be a very important event because the athlete had to combine many qualities and skills of the body.

JAVELIN
The javelin was a man-high length of wood, with either a sharpened end or an attached metal point. It had a thong for a hurler's fingers attached to its center of gravity, which increased the precision and distance of a javelin's flight

DISCUS
The ancient Greeks considered the rhythm and precision of an athlete throwing the discus as important as his strength. The discus was made of stone, iron, bronze, or lead, and was shaped like a flying saucer

JUMPING
It is similar to the long jump. The athlete jumped into a pit holding halters in his hands. It was accompanied by flute music.

PANKRATION
This event was a grueling combination of boxing and wrestling. Punches were allowed, although the fighters did not wrap their hands with the boxing himantes. Rules outlawed only biting and gouging an opponent's eyes, nose, or mouth with fingernails. Attacks such as kicking an opponent in the belly, which are against the rules in modern sports, were perfectly legal.

Yet the first Olympic Games for which we still have written records were held in 776 BCE (though it is generally believed that the Games had been going on for many years already) The worlds most important sports event for over a hundred years Idea of Frenchman Pierre de Coubertin Olympic Games celebrated in a different country every four years Games of the Olympiad (Summer Games) Olympic Winter Games. The Olympic Games have become one of the biggest sporting events of our time. Athletes from the entire world take part. Their achievements are watched from both near and far by hundreds of millions of spectators. The five rings on the Olympic flag represent the international nature of the Games. In contrast with the Olympic Games of Antiquity, each edition of the modern Games takes place in principle in a different city and country.

SPORTS ACTIVITIES

VOLLEYBALL
Volleyball originated in the United States in 1895 as a blend of basketball, baseball, tennis, and handball. Today, volleyball has spread to 211 countries around the world, and is recognized as a truly international, widely played, popular sport. In the old days, volleyball was played to 15 points and a point is scored only when the serving team wins the rally. Today, rally scoring is primarily used which means a point is scored as a result of each play. Most volleyball games today are rally scoring and played to 25 points. To win the game, you must score more points than your opponent and be leading by at least 2.

RULES FOR HOW TO PLAY VOLLEYBALL


Indoor volleyball is played with two 6 player teams. Each team has 3 front row players and 3 back row players. The front row players mainly hit and block. The back row players mainly pass and dig. The teams are separated by a net over which the ball must cross. In the mens game, the net is positioned to 2.43 meters high. In the womens game, the net is positioned to 2.24 meters high. Basic Skills for How to Play Volleyball The basic skills for playing volleyball are serving, passing, setting, attacking, blocking and digging.

EQUIPMENT FOR VOLLEYBALL


Equipment, The minimum you need is a volleyball, a net, knee pads, and also a water bottle in case you get tired you may also need sporty clothing like sport shorts and a sports shirt . Any sporting goods store should have this stuff. Lots of nets come with lines to mark the boundaries of the court, or you can use shoes or other objects to indicate the corners of the court. Each half of a beach volleyball court should be 8 meters by 8 meters, though for a backyard game you don't necessarily have to be exact.

GREEK VOLLEYBALL LEAGUE 2011


Great victory of Olympiakos

BASKETBALL
Panathinaikos Basketball Club is the professional basketball team of Athens-based multisport club Panathinaikos The parent athletic club was founded in 1908, while the basketball team in 1922 and it has since developed into the most successful basketball team in Greece and among the best in Europe. Panathinaikos has won 31 Greek Championships, 12 Greek Cups, 5 European Championships, 1 Intercontinental Cup and 2 Triple Crowns.

HISTORY OF BASKETBALL
The game of basketball was invented over a hundred and fifteen years ago by Dr. James Naismith. Although the game has undergone a lot of changes, the fundamentals of how to play basketball still remain the same.

EQUIPMENTS AND RULES


To start playing the game, we need to first gather the equipments. This should be very easy as the game only requires a ball and two hoops perched at a height of ten feet at the opposite ends of the court. Next, we need to set the teams. Two teams with members per team. The object of the game, very obviously is to score baskets. As for the length of the game, the famous National Basketball Association (NBA) teams play a 60 minutes game with four 15 minutes sessions. The length can vary based on tournaments and organizations. Each goal or basket is worth 2 points. However, if a basket is scored from outside the 3 point line, that is the arc shaped line outside the free throw line, then the basket is worth 3 points. The game starts with a jump ball. The game of basketball comprises of offense and defense.

BASKETBALL

SWIMMING FREESTYLE SWIMMING


The freestyle is a swim style also known as front crawl or sidestroke. It is used in competitions but there is no real regulation on how it has to be swum. Most swimmers chose to swim front crawl during freestyle competition because it is the fastest technique. For individual freestyle competitions, however, a swimmer can use any stroke they want, but during medley competitions they cannot use the breaststroke, butterfly stroke or backstroke

INSTRUCTIONS
1 Visualize a line running down the center of your body from your chin to your chest. This line is the axis upon which your whole body should pivot, and it should extend horizontally in the direction you are swimming. 2 Keep your legs straight, but not rigid, with your toes pointed out, and kick up and down. Continue kicking the entire time. 3 Move your arms in a windmill motion opposite each other. While one arm is extended completely out, the other should be all the way back, almost against the side of your body. 4 Keep your hands flat, thumb separated from the index finger and pull the extended arm through the water beneath your body. Bend your arm at the elbow and draw your fingertips along the imaginary line down the center of your body. 5 Lift your other arm out of the water and move it all the way forward as the first arm is pulling beneath you. Bend at the elbow and drag your fingertips along the surface of the water. Penetrate the water with your fingertips and completely extend the arm. 6 Breathe on one side by turning your head to that side as the arm comes out of the water.

RULES AND REGULATION


Some part of the swimmer must be above water at any time, except for the first 15 metres after the start and every turn. This rule was introduced to prevent swimmers from using the faster underwater swimming to their advantage, or even swimming entire laps underwater. The exact FINA rules are: Some part of the swimmer must touch the wall upon completion of each length and at the finish. Some part of the swimmer must break the surface of the water throughout the race, except it shall be permissible for the swimmer to be completely submerged during the turn and for a distance of not more than 15 metres after the start and each turn. By that point the head must have broken the surface. Competitions 50 m freestyle 100 m freestyle 200 m freestyle 400 m freestyle 800 m freestyle 1500 m freestyle 4100 m freestyle 4200 m freestyle

HISTORY OF SWIMMING Swimming has been recorded since prehistoric times, the earliest recording of swimming dates back to Stone Age paintings from around 7,000 years ago. Written references date from 2000 BC

WRESTLING The basic strategy in wrestling is to first wear down your opponent and then pin him to the mat as quickly as possible. Sounds simple? Not when your opponent wants to win as much as you do. The trick is to keep him on the defense. As an attacker, you can wear down his energy level so you can apply more powerful moves on him. By learning a good offensive strategy, you will increase your overall chance of success.

HISTORY OF WRESTLING
Wrestling is one of the oldest forms of combat with references to it as early as the Iliad, in which Homer recounts the Trojan War in the 13th or 12th century BC.The origins of wrestling can be traced back 15,000 years through cave drawings in France. In ancient Greece, wrestling occupied a prominent place in legend and literature, wrestling competition, brutal in many aspects, was the number one sport of the Olympic Games.

OLYMPIC WINNERS

FOOTBALL
Association football, commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is the world's most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field of grass or green artificial turf, with a goal in the middle of each of the short ends. The object of the game is to score by driving the ball into the opposing goal. In general play, the goalkeepers are the only players allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms, while the field players typically use their feet to kick the ball into position, occasionally using their torso or head to intercept a ball in midair. The team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is tied at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time and/or a penalty shootout, depending on the format of the competition.

HISTORY OF THE FOOTBALL


Games revolving around the kicking of a ball have been played in many countries throughout history. According to FIFA, the "The very earliest form of the game for which there is scientific evidence was an exercise from a military manual dating back to the second and third centuries BC in China. The modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played at the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century.

EQUIPMENT USED IN FOOTBALL


The equipment for soccer required by the FIFA Laws of the Game are: - a jersey or shirt - shorts - stockings - shinguards - footwear Most youth recreational soccer leagues will provide everything but the shinguards and the footwear. Only one soccer ball is "required" to play a game

OLYMPIACOS
Olympiacos is the most successful club in Greek football history, having won 38 League titles, 24 Greek Cups and 4 Greek Super Cups, more titles than any other Greek team and it is one of four teams that have never been relegated from the first division, in European competitions, they have reached the quarter-finals twice, in the 199899 UEFA Champions League and the 199293 European Cup Winners' Cup. Olympiacos is also one of the founding members of the European Club Association.

BRAKE

DANCE

B-boying, often called "breakdancing", is a popular style of street dance that was created and developed as part of hip-hop culture among African Americans and, later, among Latino youths in New York City

TRADITIONAL DANCES

KALAMATIANOS DANCE
The Kalamatians Dance is one of the best known dances of Greece. It is popular throughout Greece and Cyprus and is often performed at social gatherings. As is the case with most Greek folk dances, it is danced in circle with a counterclockwise rotation, the dancers holding hands. The roots of kalamatianos can be found in antiquity It is believed to have acquired the name kalamatianos from the town of Kalamata in southern Greece; most Greek dances are commonly named after the villages or areas from which they are considered to have originated

XASAPIKO DANCE
Hasapiko (Asia Minor) The butcher's dance from the Guild of Constantinople during the Byzantine period. It is danced in a straight line and consists of the basic step alternating with variations. Every group has its own set of variations. The dance remained popular in Constantinople (Istanbul), Asia Minor and some islands for centuries until the 1922, after which it became panhellenic. Thanks to the movie "Zorba the Greek" is has become the best known Greek dance in the world.

KOFTOS DANCE
Koftos is a lively Greek dance typical of the areas of Thessaly, Epirus and central Greece. "Koftos" in Greek means to cut and the name of the dance comes from the periodic interruptions in the music/tune. When the music stops, the dancers yell "Hey", and you can also put your arms up, down, or clap.

KONIALI DANCE
The famous Turkish song Konyali is very well known throughout Greece. Naturally it was already sung and danced by the Greeks of Anatolia- Karamanlis, Cappadocians Pontians and others. A version with Greek lyrics was first recorded by Roza Eskenazi in the 1930s. the tune was known also throughout Thrace and was danced as either a free style. In Konya itself and in Central Anatolia it is most often danced playing spoons "Kasik Havasi" or as a Kocek/Kiotsetsi

SAILING
Sailing has already existed even during the ancient times. In general, sailing is considered to be one of the greatest hobbies of all time. It is always made possible with the use of recreational boats of various kinds and sizes. However, since it has already been mentioned that sailing has existed during ancient times, the boats that they have been using before may be a bit different from the boats that you may have seen nowadays.

Rules of the Road for Sailboats

Equipment

Sailing Equipment

Climbing
Climbing is the activity of using one's hands and feet (or indeed any other part of the body) to ascend a steep object. It is done both for recreation (to reach an inaccessible place, or for its own enjoyment) and professionally, as part of activities such as maintenance of a structure, or military operations.

Climbing activities

BOULDERING BUILDERING CANYONING CHALK CLIMBING COMPETITION CLIMBING ICE CLIMBING LEAD CLIMBING MOUNTAIN CLIMBING POLE CLIMBING (GYMNASTIC) LUMBERJACK ROCK CLIMBING ROPE ACCESS ROPE CLIMBING SCRAMBLIMG TREE CLIMBING

Climbing Instructions
Climbing has a lot of things going for it: its great fun, promotes confidence, a sense of achievement and gives a whole-body workout often with fantastic scenery in the background.

Canoeing
Some canoes are called kayaks. When exactly a canoe can be called a kayak is difficult to determine though, and often arbitrary. Internationally, the term canoeing is used as a generic term for both forms though the terms "paddle sports" or "canoe/kayak" are also used.

History of Canoe
Canoes were developed over the course of thousands of years by the native peoples of North America. The word 'canoe' originiated from the word 'kenu' - meaning dugout. These seagoing boats were used by the Carib Indians of the Caribbean islands, and were made of large tree trunks which were shaped and hollowed, and were strong enough to travel between the islands. North American Indians are responsible for creating the more well-known version of the canoe - a frame of wooden ribs covered with the lightweight bark of birch trees, and sometimes elm or cedar trees. These boats, which have remained virtually unchanged in design for thousands of years, proved to be ideal for travelling the numerous streams, rivers and lakes of North America.

Bicycle - Cycling
Vehicles for human transport that have two wheels and require balancing by the rider date back to the early 19th century. The first means of transport making use of two wheels, and thus the archetype of the bicycle, was the German draisine dating back to 1817. The term bicycle was coined in France in the 1860s.

Cycling Injuries
For all the fun of cycling, it can be a dangerous sport when it comes to falls and repetitive injuries. Keep cycling fun by discovering how to prevent common injuries impacting on your ride.

Cycling Setup

Riding Position Set Up Foot Position Saddle Position Saddle Front/Back Adjustment Stem and Handlebars Reach