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7.2 Bacteria I. What are bacteria? a. Bacteria are the only prokaryotes i. Bacteria-single, prokaryotic cell ii.

Only prokaryotes(no nuclei) b. Where do bacteria live? i. On/in almost every material & environment on Earth 1. Soil, water,& air 2. Coldest of Artic & boiling waters near undersea volcanoes c. 1 or 2 kingdoms of bacteria? i. Some scientists group in Kingdom Monera ii. Some scientists group bacteria in Kingdom Archaebacteria and Eubacteria 1. Archaebacteria-extreme environments 2. Eubacteria- almost anywhere else &different chemical makeup than Archaebacteria iii. Both are prokaryotic Size and Shape of Bacteria a. How big are bacteria? i. 1.5 million times smaller than average person ii. Measured in micrometers 1. I micrometer= one-millionth of a meter b. Shapes of bacterial cells i. Rod-shaped =Bacilli ii. Ball-shaped=Cocci iii. Spiral-shaped=Spirilla iv. Some exist as individuals, pairs, chains, or clusters Movement and feeding a. How bacteria move i. Some move using flagella to propel through liquid environments ii. Some have slimy layer on outside to slide over surfaces iii. Some are just carried by movement of air or liquid iv. Some are transferred through surface to surface b. Some bacteria make their own food i. Photosynthetic bacteria make their food from sunlight and carbon dioxide 1. Also they produce oxygen 2. Cyanobacteria- Photosynthetic ii. Bacteria that live in harsh environments produce food without sunlight. They use chemicals to produce their food instead of energy from the sun 1. Chemosynthesis c. Some bacteria get their food from outside i. Absorb food from material they live on/in





1. Break down dead organisms Bacteria and the beginning of life on Earth a. Bacteria were the first organisms i. Single-celled prokaryotes< than 3 billion yrs. Old ii. Anareobic Bacteria- dont require oxygen for cellular respiration b. Bacteria increased oxygen in Earth atmosphere i. Some bacteria developed ability to use photosynthesis 1. Cyanobacteria- one of the first photosynthetic bacteria ii. Aerobic bacteria use oxygen for cellular respiration c. Eukaryotic cells developed from prokaryotic cells i. Smaller prokaryotes were engulfed by larger prokaryotes ii. Smaller cells began to survive by living inside larger iii. Eventually become organelles The importance of Bacteria a. Bacteria and Industry i. Yogurt and cheese are made with certain types of bacteria ii. Some drugs are made with the help of bacteria iii. Sewage treatment plants use bacteria to break down waste products iv. Other bacteria are used in mining and to clean up oil spills b. Symbiosis i. Bacteria and the organism both benefit 1. Called mutualism c. Life on Earth depends on bacteria i. Plants need nitrogen to make amino acids ii. Bacteria are natures recyclers d. Bacteria and Antibiotics i. Bacteria causes diseases& illnesses 1. They are treated by antibiotics a. Antibiotics kill bacteria without harming your own cells