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Notation

B v -v B

A: initial point B: terminal point v = AB The negative of v has the same length as v, but is oppositely directed. v + (-v) = 0 3. If a and b are any two vectors, then sum a+b is represented by the arrow from the initial point of a to the terminal point of b. b a a+b

y

(v1,v2) x

v has been positioned so its initial point is at the origin of a rectangular coordinate system, (v1,v2) are called the components of v v = (v1,v2)

Vectors LTD2003

Vectors in 3-space:

z

(v1,v2,v3) y

Sometimes a vector is positioned so that its initial point is not at the origin. If P P has initial point P1(x1, y1, z1) and terminal point 1 2

P P = (x2- x1, y2- y1, z2- z1 ) 1 2 Example The components of the vector v = P P with initial point P1(2, -1, 4) and 1 2 terminal point P2(7, 5, -8) are v = (7-2, 5-(-1), -8-4) = (5, 6, -12) 5. Operations of Vector Addition If v = (v1,v2) and w = (w1,w2) then v + w = ( v1+ w1, v2+ w2 ) Multiplication by scalars If v = (v1,v2) and k is any scalar, then kv = (kv1,kv2) kv is the vector whose length is |k| times the length of v and whose direction is the same as that of v if k>0 and opposite to that of v if k<0.

Vectors LTD2003

Example If v = (1,-2) and w = (7,6) then v + w = (1+7, -2+6) = (8,4) 4v = 4(1,-2) = (4,-8) 6. Properties of Vector Operations u+v= v+u u+0=0+u=u k(lu) = (kl)u (k+l)u = ku + lu (u + v) + w = u + (v + w) u + (-u) = 0 k(u + v) = ku + kv 1u = u

a. c. e. g.

b. d. f. h.

7. Norm of a Vector The length of a vector u is often called the norm of u and denoted by ||u||. The norm of vector u in 2-space is:

u = u1 + u 2

2

u = u1 + u 2 + u 3

2 2

8. The distance between P1 and P2 is the norm of the vector P P 1 2 If P1(x1, y1, z1) and P2(x2, y2, z2) are two points in 3-space, then P P = (x2-x1, y2-y1 , z2-z1) 1 2 and the distance between them is: d = ( x 2 x 1 ) 2 + ( y 2 y1 ) 2 + ( z 2 z 1 ) 2 Examples 1. The norm of the vector u = (-3, 2, 1) is

Vectors LTD2003

d = (4 2) 2 + (3 + 11 ) 2 + (1 + 5) 2 = 44 = 2 11

Exercises 1. Sketch the following vectors with the initial point at the origin. a. c = (3, 6)

a. b.

b. d = (3, 4, 5)

2. Find the components of the vector with initial point P1 and terminal point P2. P1(4, 8) ; P2(3, 7) P1(-1, 0, 2) ; P1(0, -1, 0)

a. b. c.

Find the components of 5(v 4u) Find the components of vector x that satisfies 2u v + x = 7x + w Find scalars a, b, c such that au + bv + cw = (2, 0, 4) v = (4, -3) b. v = (2, 2, 2)

a.

5. Find the distance between P1(3, 3, 3) and P2(6, 0, 3) 6. Let u = (2, -2, 3) ; v = (1, -3, 4) ; w = (3, 6, -4). Find: a. ||u|| + ||v||

b.

||3u 5v + w||

Vectors LTD2003

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