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6.

002

CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS

Energy and Power

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

22

Why worry about energy?

small batteries good

Today: How long will the battery last? in standby mode in active use Will the chip overheat and self-destruct?
Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

22

Look at energy dissipation in MOSFET gates


VS R + + vI C vO

C: wiring capacitance and CGS of following gate Let us determine standby power active use power Lets work out a few related examples first.
Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

22

Example 1:
V +

I R + V

Power

V2 P = VI = R

Energy dissipated in time T

E = VIT

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

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22

Example 1:
for our gate

VS
RL vI high

VS RL vO
vI low

vO

RON
2

RON

VS P= RL + RON

P=0

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

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Example 2:
Consider
R1 S1 S2

VS +

R2

T
T1 T2

S1 closed S1 open S 2 open

S 2 closed t

Find energy dissipated in each cycle. Find average power P.


Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

22

T1 : S1 closed, S2 open
i
VS +

R1

+ vC

assume vC = 0 at t = 0

vC VS VS R1 t

VS e R1

t R1C

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

22

Total energy provided by source during T1


E = VS i dt
0 T1

VS = e R1 0
2

T1

t R1C

dt
t T1 R1C 0

VS = R1C e R1

T1 2 R1C = C VS 1 e

C VS if T1 >> R1C
2

I.e., if we wait long enough

1 2 C VS stored on C , 2 1 2 E1 = C VS dissipated in R1 2
6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture
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Independent of R!

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

T2 : S2 closed, S1 open
+ vC

R2

Initially, vC = VS So, initially,

(recall T1 >> R1C)

1 2 energy stored in capacitor = CVS 2


Assume T2 >> R2C So, capacitor discharges ~fully in T2 So, energy dissipated in R2 during T2

1 2 E2 = CVS 2 E1, E2 independent of R2 !


Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

22

Putting the two together:


Energy dissipated in each cycle
E = E1 + E2 1 1 2 2 = CVS + CVS 2 2

E = CVS

energy dissipated in charging & discharging C

Assumes C charges and discharges fully. Average power

E P= T
= CVS T
2

= CVS f
2

1 frequency f = T
Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

22

Back to our inverter


VS
RL

vO vIN RON C

What is P for the following input?

vIN T 2 T T 2 t
T= 1 f

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

22

Equivalent Circuit
RL

VS +

C RON

What is P for the following input? vIN

T 2 T

T 2 t
T= 1 f

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

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What is P for gate?


We can show (see section 12.2 of A & L)

VS RL 2 P= + CVS f 2( RL + RON ) (RL + RON )2


when RL >> RON
VS 2 P= + CVS f 2 RL
2

P STATIC independent of f. MOSFET ON half the time.

be em rem

er b em rem

P DYNAMIC related to switching capacitor

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

22

What is P for gate?


when RL >> RON
VS 2 P= + CVS f 2 RL
In standby mode, half the gates in a chip can be assumed to be on. So P STATIC per gate is still V 2 . S
2

In standby mode, f 0, so dynamic power is 0

2RL
Relates to standby power.

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

22

Some numbers
a chip with 106 gates clocking C =1f F at 100 MHZ RL = 10 k
f = 100 10 6 VS = 5 V + 10 15 25 100 10 6

25 P = 10 4 2 10
6

= 10 6 [1.25 milliwatts + 2.5 microwatts ]

problem !

1.25KW!

2.5W not bad

must get rid of this

VS 2 f
reduce VS 5 V 1V 2.5 W 150 mW

next lecture

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture

22