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Emily Horn CIS College Composition 3 May 2012 Unicorns: An Examination of the birth of the Myth and Its

Transformation Across Time and Culture We may never know precisely when or where or how the legend of the unicorn began. It pervades recorded time and may be dimly visible even in the clouds that hover just above historys sunrise. -Odell Shepard. The Lore of the Unicorn. (Gaffron 14) Today when one thinks of unicorns one thinks of sparkly, glowing white horses with glistening rainbow horns prancing on rainbows across the covers of Lisa Frank trapper keepers. This view of the unicorn is a fairly recent one, that has developed into its present form over millennia. A few centuries ago, the common view of unicorns amongst Europeans was that of a gentle goat-like creature, cloven-hoofed with the tail of a lion and the beard of a goat. They were entranced by virgins and slaughtered by hunters (Johnsgard 87). They were the image of tranquility. Trace the legend back even farther and the unicorn becomes a massive, flesh eating beast, the size of a giant ox or even as large as an elephant (Johnsgard 84-85). Unicorns can be found in a plethora of literature, appearing in all seriousness in the bible, and the writings of Greek historians. In the bible they were seen as symbols of great strength (Lavers 4445). Ancient travelers such as Marco Polo and Lewis Vartoman described them in detail in their most notable works (Nigg 82). Unicorns appeared, seemingly, on the walls of the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians (Unicorn Fantasy and Fact). Eastern myths that date well before the Greek historians put unicorn-like creatures in ancient China and Japan (Unicorn Fantasy and Fact). One can obviously see that unicorns have origin stories in many different times and cultures, each time the myths are different, yet all can be called unicorns. The unicorn, like the dragon, seems to be a universal myth that bridges time and cultures. It is now generally accepted that the mere existence of unicorns is impossible, although many scholars and writers remain fascinated with the manner (Unicorns Fantasy and Fact). Candidates for the basis of the myth include the following: Monoclonius Masicorus, a prehistoric creature related to the triceratops, the narwhal, an arctic animal with an alicorn1 -like tusk, the oryx, a gazellelike animal which appears to have only one horn when viewed from the side, the aurochs, a massive
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alicorn: the horn of a unicorn

extinct relative of the modern cow, the Indian antelope, and the Indian rhinoceros, which possesses only one horn (Unicorn Fantasy and Fact). It can be seen that explanations for the unicorn myth can be found in the real world, indicating that this universal myth may indeed have some basis in fact. There is no general consensus which pinpoints the origin of the unicorn myth, the only thing which can be universally agreed upon is that the unicorn myth has existed since long before recorded history. W. Winwood Reade says it best in his book Savage Africa, It must be laid down as a certain principle that man can originate nothing; that lies are simply truths embellished, distorted or turned inside out. There are other facts besides those which lie on the surface, and it is the duty of the traveler and historian to sift through and wash the gold grains of truth from the dirt of fable (Reade 369). He points out that man is incapable of completely coming up with lies; all lies come from some sort of truth, so maybe, Unicorns do have some basis in fact, and people believe in them, or at least used to, simply because they wanted to believe that there was still something wonderful in the world. Unicorns can trace many of their origin stories back to some of the most famous travelers, historians and philosophers. Many traveling historians have made note of a unicorn-like creature on their travels, foremost amongst these being Marco Polo, Ctesias and Vartoman. Each account differs from the previous, but the one feature which unites all unicorn myths and sightings is the single horn in the forehead (Gaffron 17-18). The first recorded description of the magical unicorn is in the Greek physician Ctesias Indica, circa 400 BC , a book on the marvels of India and Ethiopia. The animal is described as a large red and white ass with a multicolored horn with medicinal properties, blue eyes and a beautiful ankle bone (Nigg 80). While some postulate that Ctesias may have been confused with the rhinoceros, his description hardly fits the rhinoceros. A rhinoceros could hardly be described as looking like an ass and is not colorful at all as Ctesias describes his unicorn as being. However others have pointed out that Ctesias could not have possibly confused the one-horned ass with the rhinoceros. He was an intelligent, educated physician and could not have possibly confused the heavy, sluggish rhinoceros with a horse-like unicorn (Gaffron 15). Odell Shepard points out, Ctesias could scarcely have spent seventeen years in Persia without knowing rather definitely what he meant when he referred to the wild-ass (Gaffron 15). There are many different possibilities to

explain what Ctesias observed, some options being the widely accepted theory that he could have viewed some sort of gazelle from the side, or he could have mashed together several animals like the Tibetan chiuru (an antelope), the Tibetan kiang (a wild horse) and the wild ox. (Lavers 11-20) Aristotle himself read Ctesias Indica and believed in the possibility of Ctesias ass existing, since, as he postulated, it had a solid hoof and therefore could have a single horn, whereas a cloven hoofed animal could not have a single horn (Gaffron 38). The Greek traveler Megasthenes recorded a unicorn closely resembling that of Ctesias. His unicorn, the cartazoon, had a spiraled black horn, a pig's tail, and the bray of a donkey. Megasthenes was also careful to distinguish this animal from the Rhinoceros (Gaffron 38-39). A third Greek historian, Gaius Plinius Secundus, more commonly known as Pliny the Elder, recorded in his Historia Naturalis, a unicorn with a stag's head, elephant feet, a boar's tail and the body of a horse with a single black horn, purportedly so violent it could not be taken alive. Plinys unicorn closely resembles the one which Marco Polo mentions in his Travels. One can take Plinys words with a grain of salt, since among other things recorded in his Historia, he believed that ostriches could hatch their eggs by looking at them aggressively (Lloyd and Mitchinson). Plinys description is important to note however, because for more than a thousand years his beliefs about animals were the beliefs of almost every scholar in Europe (Gaffron 40). Pliny's status as a respected scholar and his mention of the unicorn in his most notable work solidify the unicorn myths survival into the middle ages and beyond- as long as Pliny's works continue to be read. Marco Polo was another famous traveler to record seeing a unicorn on his travels. He claimed to have seen unicorns on the island of Sumatra- but his description closely matches the Sumatran rhinoceros, one of three types of rhinoceros with a single horn (Unicorns Fantasy and Fact). The portion of his account which describes his encounter with unicorns is as follows, There are wild elephants...and numerous unicorns, which are nearly as big. They have hair like that of a buffalo, feet like those of an elephant and a horn in the middle of the forehead, which is black and very thick (Nigg 81). Polo, however, was less reliable as a truthful source than Ctesias, seeing as how he was only a merchant and did not even write his famous Travels himself (Lloyd and Mitchinson) and many doubt that he was a traveler at all (Jacoby). While Polo was not necessarily the most reliable source for truth, he can however be regarded as a great propagator of the myth, since his Travels were both widely popular and widely read (Jacoby 193). Lewis Vartoman, said to be the first European to enter the holy city of Mecca, describes the unicorns he saw in the Temple of Mecca and in the city of Zeila, which is located in modern

Somalia (Nigg 82). Here he describes what he saw in the temple, In another part of the said temple is an enclosed place in which there are two live unicorns, and these are shown as very remarkable objects..they...are like a colt..has a single horn in the forehead...like those of a goat (Varthema 4649). Later in his account he describes seeing a different variety of unicorn in Zeila, I also saw there other cows, which had a single horn in the forehead...and turns more towards the back of the cow than forwards (Varthema, 86-87). His description of this unicorn as looking like a cow may have some truthful basis in the practice of artificially creating unicorns from cows. After these major historians and travelers came many others, telling stories of unicorns from far off lands. English clergyman Edward Topsell was a historian who freely mixed fantastic animals with real ones in his Historie of Foure Footed Beasts. In his book he sums up major writings of the past, including some of those previously mentioned, in order to prove to his readers that unicorns really do exist (Nigg 82). Here he references Portuguese sailors reported to have seen unicorns on the coast of Africa. Portuguese navigators saw, between the cape of Good Hope and cape Corrientes, an animal having the head and mane of a horse, with one movable horn (Topsell 372-375). Topsells unicorn is much closer to the modern image of the unicorn, a horse with a single horn, than many of the other historian's accounts. Many of these historians, travelers and writers were doing not much more than reporting what they had heard from others who had purportedly seen these fantastic creatures. The many accounts of these historians helped to influence people in a wide variety of cultures and countries to believe that unicorns did exist, in the far off recesses of the world. The readers, would probably never travel to these places themselves, and would have to trust the account of a traveling historian to account the wonders of these strange places. The problem with trusting what other people say is that they may not always tell the truth. The myth of the unicorn is found in one of the most important books of all time, the bible. Unicorns are mentioned several times in the Old Testament of the bible.. It is mentioned seven times in the bible all together, in Numbers, Deuteronomy, Isaiah, Job and three times in Psalms. A unicorn like creature is also mentioned in Daniel. In Numbers, Psalms, Isaiah and Job it is referenced for its strength (Gaffron 43-44). In Deuteronomy and Psalms unicorn horns are mentioned. In Daniel a unicorn is used as an allegory in a vision from God. The myth of the unicorn is obviously prevalent enough and important enough to be used in the bible and the mention of it in the holy book of most Europeans secured it in a place in the European mythos

Most of the references to unicorns in the bible can be explained through a simple mistranslation. In the third century BC, 72 Hebrew-Greek translators were brought together by Ptolemy II to create a Greek translation of the Old Testament (Lavers 49). All of the translators faced the same problem when they came across a reference to a horned animal called Reem. The problem they faced was none of them knew what kind of animal a Reem was (Lavers 50). They knew that it was not a bull or a cow, since a different word was used for these animals. The translators eventually decided on the translation of Monokeros, which means one-horned in Greek, and is translated unicornis in Latin. Hence the moniker unicorn in later translations (Gaffron 44). In many parts of the bible, and in Hebrew legend, the unicorn represents great strength. In the book of Daniel a creature with one horn is mentioned, but the word unicorn is not specifically mentioned. Daniel has a vision of a unicorn fighting a large ram. The unicorn cuts the ram's horns off, its own horn falls off and four horns grow in its place. The angel Gabriel then explains to Daniel that the ram's horns are Media and Persia and the unicorn is Alexander the Great. Daniel uses this dream to predict the future, that eventually four great rulers will arise from Alexander the Great. In this instance the unicorn is used to symbolize the strength of a strong ruler, Alexander the Great. (Lavers 46) Upon the establishment of the early church and later into the reign of the catholic church, the unicorn was still used as a strong symbol. The unicorn also had religious significance; it was associated with Jesus. Unicorns were found decorating many churches in Europe (Unicorn Fantasy and Fact). Norma Gaffron also notes the unicorn's strength as a reason for its association with Christ. Because of the unicorns strength, purity and power, it was, in medieval times, a symbol of Jesus Christ, the central figure of the Christian religion (Gaffron 50). Eventually the unicorn myth developed from a symbol of Christ into a symbol of the Virgin Mary with the addition of the virgin into the unicorn mythos. The Catholic church is credited for attributing the virgin in the unicorn story to Mary and making the unicorn an allegory for Christ. In these later unicorn myths a unicorn was subdued by a virgin and then led to slaughter. The virgin in the myth was taken to represent Mary and the unicorn Christ (Johnsgard 119). With the help of the church the unicorn myth became even more prevalent in medieval Europe, further confirming its survival into modern times. While the Greeks may have the earliest recorded mentions of the unicorn, the earliest known unicorn myths began in the east, with the ancient Chinese. Unicorns are thought to be responsible for the creation of the written Chinese language, and provided an oracle predicting the greatness of Confucius (Johnsgard 104-106). The unicorn prevalent in Chinese myth is called the Ki-lin.

Sightings were very rare. It was said to resemble a small stag with the body of a deer and the tail of an ox. In other cases it was said to have scales and travel in a thick cloud (Johnsgard 86). According to some Chinese myths the mother of Confucius, met a unicorn before he was born, an omen that told her that he would be special, as he was indeed (Gaffron 27). In Chinese lore the unicorn was thought to represent the earth element, as the phoenix was fire, the turtle water and the dragon air (Gaffron 23). In Japan, the creature was referred to as the Kirin, it was rumored to be able to detect guilt and would punish the guilty with death (Gaffron 29). As can be seen in these many instances in far east myths, the unicorn symbolized great wisdom and knowledge. The origins of the unicorn myths perpetuated by the Greeks are found in the near-east, the unicorns Ctesias recorded being found in India. In eastern myths a unicorn is rumored to have bowed on its knees to Genghis Khan when he entered India, and the warlord took this as a sign he should not continue his invasion (Gaffron 12-13). In Buddhist myth, a single-horned gazelle listened on bended knees to the Buddhas sermon. The gazelles single horn symbolized Nirvana (Gaffron 14). An Indian legend tells of a boy named Vibhandaka who lived amongst wild animals and once saw a unicorn that resembled a gazelle with a single horn (Johnsgard 109-110). In another Indian myth, a man named Risharinga was called the unicorn man because he had a single horn in the middle of his forehead (Unicorn Fantasy and Fact). These eastern myths show the wide variety with which the unicorn made its appearance throughout the world. In Arabia the prevalent species of unicorn in myth is the karkadann, it roamed the plains of India and Persia. It had enormous strength and was often confused with the Rhinoceros, but more closely resembled an oryx (Johnsgard 84-85). There are many legends about karkadann in the countries in these areas, the legends usually associate the karkadann with enormous strength and a magical horn with medicinal properties. Alexander the Greats war horse Bucephalus was believed by some to be a fierce Karkadann that was tamed by a young Alexander (Johnsgard 115-116). The location of these eastern myths coincide with the countries in which the early Greek travelers purported to have seen unicorns. While many of these myths could have been completely fabricated, or simply instances of mistranslated information, one of the easiest ways to explain the majority of unicorn sightings is easily summed up, Some reports of one-horned animals are thought to be from people who observed them in profile or saw an animal whose other horn had broken off (Nigg 76). In other words, well wishing travelers could have mistaken a gazelle for a unicorn and quickly spread the myth to fellow travelers. It can also be noted that large antelopes in the Himalayas could be

mistaken for a single-horned animal at a distance (Unicorns Fantasy and Fact). The areas that these animals inhabit also fit with the areas from which many unicorn accounts originate. As Rudiger Robert Beer says, Thousands of years ago some Persian hunter saw an ibex in profile against the open sky in the mountain uplands and told everyone he had seen a unicorn. Or the same could have happened with an Arab or some other native of Africa at the sight of a gazelle, and thus we can have a perfectly natural explanation of how the unicorn myth began (Gaffron 14). The most obvious candidate for this theory is the Arabian oryx, a solitary desert animal which ranges across the Middle East. Anthony Shepard notes, An oryx seen sideways appears to have only one horn. It may be, although there are no reports of this, that some animals have lost a horn in battle, or through some mischance- indeed there may have been cases where an oryx has been born with only one (Gaffron 35). Shepard believes the unicorn of Arabia may be attributed to the oryx. The Bedouin tribesmen believed that killing an oryx gave the hunter the strength and endurance of the animal. Their skin was also highly valuable (Gaffron 33). This practically mythical and mysterious, but very real beast could very easily be turned into a unicorn if the right people saw it and decided to spread stories about it. Another origin of the Arabian unicorn is found in the wall paintings of the Egyptians and Persians. In these paintings two horned animals were often depicted with a single horn because they were always represented in profile. So to an outsider these paintings may have seemed to be a different animal entirely (Unicorns Fantasy and Fact). However many of these sideways sightings are attributed to unicorns, there is a real beast with a single horn which is often attributed to the unicorn. It is assumed by many that the unicorn myth has its origins in the rhinoceros. While this possibility is entirely valid, there are several variables to consider before immediately attributing the unicorn myth to the rhinoceros.Legends of the unicorn may, in fact, have had their origins in the rhinoceros, but time transformed the animal from a wild ferocious beast into an elegant, mysterious, and magical creature (Nigg 75). Joe Nigg later addresses the possibility of Marco Polos unicorn being nothing more than a rhinoceros, Because of its horn, the rhinoceros and the legendary unicorn were often confused...Describing the unicorn in his Travels, Marco Polo carefully distinguishes the Asian rhinoceros from the beast of fable (Nigg 81). In Java, India and Sumatra there are three single-horned species of Rhinoceros, so it is possible that Polo had seen a different species of rhinoceros in Asia and a new species which he called the unicorn when he went to Sumatra.

The biggest problem encountered when trying to pass the rhinoceros off as the unicorn in many of these early myths is that the rhinoceros was already well known to the world as a separate and confirmed animal (Gaffron 15). In fact, rhinos were common place in Rome. Young rhinos from India were brought to Rome for the Circus Maximus and then trained to fight each other. Rhino horn, like unicorn horn, was said to possess the power to protect against poisons (Unicorn Fantasy and Fact). These supposedly mystical powers of unicorn and rhinoceros horn are a major factor in the near extinction of the rhinoceros in India and Africa, because the horn of the rhino has long been seen as a modern version of the unicorns (Johnsgard 103-104). After these many early myths are explained along comes the unicorn known to medieval Europe. The unicorn of medieval Europe was very different from the massive, strong beast of Arabic, biblical and Greek myth. Indeed the unicorn of European myth bears little resemblance to an ass or a rhinoceros. This dissimilarity is explained by Joe Nigg as a development of the unicorns by the Europeans into a symbol instead of a real beast, Now the rhinoceros did have a certain effect on the development of European concepts of the unicorn, but it never became the European unicorn. This latter acquired its own, purely fanciful figure. And its own reality (Nigg 32). This European version of the unicorn is the most similar to the current image. It is about three and a half feet tall, has large ears and a shaggy beard; it is very similar to a goat and is usually described as having cloven hoofs (Johnsgard 87). In medieval Europe books called bestiaries contained descriptions of both real and entirely mythical beasts. Lions, tigers and elephants were listed right alongside unicorns and other unusual creatures (Unicorns Fantasy and Fact). These bestiaries were widely read by the upper classes in Europe and believed to be factual by most scholars (Unicorns fantasy and Fact) In medieval Europe unicorns came to be synonymous with virginity and purity. A set of tapestries, the unicorn tapestries, also known as the Verteuil tapestries, were produced in France around 1500 AD. The collection consists of six tapestries and two fragments depicting a unicorn hunt (Unicorns Fantasy and Fact). The unicorn is first lured out by a virgin, and then attacked by hunters and carried back to the castle in triumph. It is this myth which was later attributed by the Catholic church to symbolize Jesus and Mary. The unicorn could have become associated with virginity in a variety of ways, foremost of these is a translation issue. In one Latin text, a unicorn could be caught when it was tangled in vinesvirge in Greek. This may have been the origin of the virgin myth since Virgo, or virgin is a very similar word in Latin (Johnsgard 116). Another supposition, perhaps a greater stretch than a

translation issue, is that (according to Fray Luis de Urreta) a karkadann could only be subdued by a female monkey. Such accounts may have filtered into Europe (Johnsgard 117). In medieval Europe alicorn was widely sought after for its supposed poison detecting powers and its ability to neutralize poison. Many wealthy aristocrats bought this supposed alicorn and tested it with less than favorable results (Johnsgard 103). According to Karin and Paul Johnsgard, The unicorns remarkable ability to purify water...was reliably recounted by 14th century priest John Hess. Hess visited the Holy Land and actually observed a unicorn thus cleansing polluted water (Johnsgard 126). It is unknown whether there is any truth in Hesss observation . Such accounts as Hesss led to an ever increasing demand for magical alicorn. Throughout the 11th and 16th centuries, long, white, spiraled horns were in great demand. The horns were rare and thought by many to protect against poison, so the cups goblets, plates, and utensils of European royalty were made of unicorn horn (Unicorns Fantasy and Fact). In medieval Europe, the supply and existence of alicorn was regarded as the main proof for the existence of unicorns. However this alicorn, once examined is clearly determined to have orig from an arctic whale known as the narwhal (Lavers 97). There exists, a small arctic whale called the narwhale, which has evolved a single spiraled tusk that very closely resembles the horn of a unicorn... (Johnsgard 84). The horn of the narwhal, like the perceived horn of the unicorn is twisted in a dextral spiral. The narwhal, a porpoise which grows a long tusk from the front of its head, is one of the greatest sources for the continuation of the unicorn myth throughout the medieval times. The tusk of the narwhal was commonly passed off for unicorn horn, and as Thomas Browne notes many of the alicorn that was observed in Europe is not horn at all but tusk, which has very different properties, Since what horns so ever they be that pass among us, they are not the horns of one but several animals: Since many in common use and high esteem are no horns at all.. (Edwards 258). John Parkinson ties the supposed alicorn directly to the narwhal, ...it is somewhat probable that even all those horns formerly mentioned both in France and Venice or elsewhere and that of our kings...is but of the Sea Unicorne... (Edwards 258). During an arctic voyage in 1577, a British sailor discovered one of these supposed sea unicorns; he described it as a huge fish, that was like a porpoise about twelve feet long with a single horn about two yards long. Danish sailors had already been trading in these horns for years. The Danish king's throne is even made out of this supposed alicorn (Unicorns Fantasy and Fact). The existence of the narwhal solidified many Europeans' beliefs that unicorns also existed since many believed in the concept of every animal on land having a counterpart in the ocean

(Gaffron 69). Eventually the narwhal/alicorn bubble burst in the mid 1600s when the people buying it realized that it neither worked for the purpose they intended(as a poison neutralizer), and was not actually horn, but tusk (Lavers 99-100). Today it is common knowledge that unicorns do not exist in their mythological form, however more recent discoveries of artificial unicornization seem to indicate that some of the accounts could have been true (Nigg 98). In 1933, a Maine doctor, W. Franklin Dove artificially created a unicorn by transplanting the horn buds of a day-old calf from the sides of its skull to the front. The horn buds grew together into a single horn (Nigg 96). The unicorn was commonly known as the unicorn bull. Doctor Dove was not the first to engage this strange practice of creating artificial unicorns. For centuries now the Dinka tribe in Africa has performed a similar procedure on their largest bull calves in order to mark them as the future herd leaders (Unicorns Fantasy and Fiction). If this practice is as old as some say, some of the traveler's tales might actually be true (Nigg 96). Another scientific possibility for unicorns could be found in simple genetic mutation. Perhaps unicorns are mutants- animals born with a characteristic not common in their parents: In this case, a single horn (Gaffron 18). This possibility is not entirely unfounded. A roe deer was found in a French animal sanctuary in 2008 with only a single horn in the middle of its forehead, leading it to be called Unicorn by sanctuary staff. (Animal Spots) Not counting these few rare exceptions, Joe Nigg notes that, In 1827, science struck the final blow to the reality of the unicorn. French naturalist, George Cuvier declared no cloven hoofed animal could have a single horn. Such animals, he said, had a divided frontal bone and that one horn could not grow from the middle of it. The rhinoceros did not count because its horn was made of bristles not bone (Nigg 96). It was after this time that all belief that the unicorn existed faltered and died out. The advent of science struck the final blow to several mythical beasts and many things supposed to be magic during and before the mid-1800s. However the origin of how these fantastic creatures came to be widely accepted myths still fascinated many. Unicorns are complex creatures, their mythos stretches across continents and oceans. It pervades recorded history and has fascinated scholars of many origins. Unicorns have made amazing leaps and bounds, from massive elephant beasts, to furry horse-elephant hybrids, to small goat like creatures resting on the laps of virgins. Unicorns have gone from being fascinating stories from far off lands, to generally accepted as a real creature, to a fictional beast meant only for childrens stories. While we may not still believe in unicorns, they are everywhere in modern culture. They are in books, and movies, stationary and

time-wasting games. The most amazing thing about the unicorn is its ability to survive centuries of skeptics, philosophers and scientists. Even when science declared the unicorn to be fiction it kept going. The unicorn would not allow its mythos to die. It has weaseled its way into the most important book in the world, into the legends of some of the most important figures in history, and into the observations of some of the most respected historians. Scholars continue to research their origin, and devise new ways to determine the manner in which so many people all over this great big world came to believe in this fantastical creature. It is a creature that, for all its posing and sparkling is not much more than a four-legged beast with a single horn. The unicorn is hardly remarkable at all when compared to sea monsters, dragons and the phoenix, yet this single creature, in all its forms and species, has made it into the minds of people the world over. The unicorn's truly fascinating characteristic is not its single horn. It is the remarkable ability of its myth to live on through generations and across cultures, no matter what sort of scientific explanation it thrown at it. I suggest that the next time one enjoys a game of jumping robot unicorns or laughs at a ridiculously gaudy portrait of a rainbow colored, sparkling unicorn, appreciate the amount of time and space that unicorn has had to travel, and the road blocks its mythos has had to traverse, all in order to arrive on the front of a childs notebook. Bibliography Animal Spots. Current Science 94.2 (2008): 3. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. Edwards, Karen. Unicorn. Milton Quarterly 43.4 (2009): 257-259. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. Gaffron, Norma. Unicorns. Saint Paul: Greenhaven Press, 1989. Print. Jacoby, David. "Marco Polo, His Close Relatives, And His Travel Account: Some New 2012. Johnsgard, Karin and Paul. Dragons and Unicorns: A Natural History. New York: St. Martins Press, 1982. Print. Lloyd, John, and John Mitchinson. The Book of General Ignorance. London: Faber and Faber, 2006. Print. Nigg, Joe, Wonder Beasts: Tales of Lore of the Phoenix, the Griffin, the Unicorn and the Englewood: Libraries Unlimited, 1995. Print. Dragon. Insights." Mediterranean Historical Review 21.2 (2006): 193-218. Academic Search Premier. Web. 3 May

Lavers, Chris. The Natural History of Unicorns. New York: William Morrow, 2009. Print. Reade, W. Winwood. Savage Africa. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1864. Topsell, Edward. The Historie of Foure-Footed Beasts. London, 1658. Print. Unicorns Fantasy and Fact. Science Activities 34.3 (1997): 10. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Apr. 2012. Vartoman, Louis. The Travels of Ludovico di Varthema. Trans. John Winter Jones. London: The Hakluyt Society, 1863. Print.