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DAIRY PRODUCTS

1. MILK - is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of
nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby. Milk derived from cattle species is an important food. It has many nutrients. The precise nutrient composition of raw milk vary by species and by a number of other factors, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium as well as vitamin C. Cow's milk has a pH ranging from 6.4 to 6.8, making it slightly acidic. Throughout the world, there are more than 6 billion consumers of milk and milk products, the majority of them in developing countries. Over 750 million people live within dairy farming households. World's dairy farms produced about 720 million tons of milk in 2010.

2. SKIM MILK - Skimmed milk (United Kingdom and Canada), or skim milk (United States of
America and Australia) is made when all the cream (also called milk fat) is removed from whole milk. Sometimes only half the cream is removed; this is called semi-skimmed milk. Skimmed milk is more popular in the United States than Britain. Skimmed milk contains less fat than whole milk, and as such many nutritionists and doctors recommend it for people who are trying to lose weight or maintain a healthy weight. On the other hand, some consider skimmed milk to actually be less healthy than whole milk, questioning the extent to which animal fat contributes to weight gain. In the UK, milk is marketed and labeled as follows: Whole milk is about 4% fat Semi skimmed milk is 1.7% fat Skimmed milk is between 0.1-0.3% fat In the USA, milk is marketed primarily by fat content and available in these varieties: Whole Milk is 3.25% fat 2% Reduced-Fat Milk 1% Low-fat Milk (also called Light Milk) 0% Fat-Free Milk (also called skim milk or Nonfat Milk) Low-fat milk has sufficient milk fat removed to bring the levels between 0.5-2% It also must contain at least 8.25% solids-not-fat. It must contain 2000IU of vitamin A per quart. Skim milk also called nonfat milk has had sufficient milk-fat removed to bring the level to less than 0.5%.

3. CHEESE - Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. Cheese is
produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms. Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. It is produced by coagulation of the milk protein casein. Typically, the milk is acidified and addition of the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form. Some cheeses have molds on the rind or throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature.

Hundreds of types of cheese are produced. Their styles, textures and flavors depend on the origin of the milk (including the animal's diet), whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, and aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents. The yellow to red color of many cheeses is from adding annatto. For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, then the addition of rennet completes the curdling. Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available; most are produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei, but others have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family. Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, and high content of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk. Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, and lower shipping costs. The long storage life of some cheese, especially if it is encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable.

4. BUTTER/GHEE - Butter is a dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or


milk. It is generally used as a spread and a condiment, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, and pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water. Most frequently made from cows' milk, butter can also be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats, buffalo, and yaks. Salt, flavorings and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat. Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream, an oil-in-water emulsion; the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, and melts to a thin liquid consistency at 3235 C (9095 F). The density of butter is 911 g/L (56.9 lb/cu.ft). It generally has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white. Its unmodified color is dependent on the animals' feed and is commonly manipulated with food colorings in the commercial manufacturing process, most commonly annatto or carotene. Ghee is a clarified butter that originated in South Asia and is commonly used in cuisine and rituals. To prepare ghee, butter is melted in a pot over medium high heat. The butter begins to melt, forming a white froth on top. It is then simmered, stirring occasionally and the froth begins to thin slowly and the colour of the butter changes to a pale yellow shade. Then it is cooked on low heat until it turns a golden colour. The residue solids settle at the bottom and the ghee, which is now clear, golden and translucent and fragrant, is ready. The ghee is then filtered, and it will solidify when completely cool. Ghee can be stored for extended periods without refrigeration, provided it is kept in an airtight container to prevent oxidation and remains moisture-free. The texture, colour and taste of ghee depend on the source of the milk from which the butter was made and the extent of boiling and simmering.

5. YOGURT - Yogurt or yoghurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The
bacteria used to make yogurt are known as "yogurt cultures". Fermentation of lactose by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and its characteristic tang. Worldwide, cow's milk is most commonly used to make yogurt, but milk from water buffalo, goats, sheep, horses, camels, and yaks is also used in various parts of the world. Dairy yogurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus bacteria. In addition, other lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are also sometimes added during or after culturing yogurt.

The milk is first heated to about 80 C (176 F) to kill any undesirable bacteria and to denature the milk proteins so that they set together rather than form curds. The milk is then cooled to about 45 C (112 F). The bacteria culture is added, and the temperature is maintained for 4 to 7 hours to allow fermentation.

6. CREAM - Cream is a dairy product that is composed of the higher-butterfat layer skimmed from
the top of milk before homogenization. In un-homogenized milk, over time, the lighter fat rises to the top. In the industrial production of cream this process is accelerated by using centrifuges called "separators". In many countries, cream is sold in several grades depending on the total butterfat content. Cream can be dried to a powder for shipment to distant markets. Cream skimmed from milk may be called "sweet cream" to distinguish it from whey cream skimmed from whey, a by-product of cheese-making. Whey cream has a lower fat content and tastes more salty, tangy and "cheesy". Cream produced by cattle (particularly Jersey cattle) grazing on natural pasture often contains some natural carotenoid pigments derived from the plants they eat; this gives the cream a slight yellow tone, hence the name of the yellowish-white color, cream. Cream from goat's milk, or from cows fed indoors on grain or grain-based pellets, is white.

7. ICE CREAM - Ice cream (formerly and properly ice-cream, derived from earlier iced cream or
cream ice) is a frozen dessert usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours. Most varieties contain sugar, although some are made with other sweeteners. In some cases, artificial flavourings and colourings are used in addition to, or instead of, the natural ingredients. The mixture of chosen ingredients is stirred slowly while cooling, in order to incorporate air and to prevent large ice crystals from forming. The result is a smoothly textured semi-solid foam that is malleable and can be scooped. The meaning of the phrase "ice cream" varies from one country to another. Phrases such as "frozen custard", "frozen yogurt", "sorbet", "gelato" and others are used to distinguish different varieties and styles. In some countries, such as the USA, the phrase "ice cream" applies only to a specific variety, and most governments regulate the commercial use of the various terms according to the relative quantities of the main ingredients. In other countries, such as Italy and Argentina, one word is used for all variants. Analogues made from dairy alternatives, such as goat's or sheep's milk, or milk substitutes, are available for those who are lactose intolerant, allergic to dairy protein, and/or vegan. The most popular flavors of ice cream are vanilla and chocolate.

8. CURD - Curds are dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible
acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar, and then draining off the liquid portion. The increased acidity causes the milk proteins (casein) to tangle into solid masses, or curds. The remaining liquid, which contains only whey proteins, is the whey. In cow's milk, 80% of the proteins are caseins. Milk that has been left to sour (raw milk alone or pasteurized milk with added lactic acid bacteria or yeast) will also naturally produce curds, and sour milk cheese is produced this way. Curd products vary by region and include cottage cheese, quark (both curdled by bacteria and sometimes also rennet) and Indian paneer (milk curdled with lime juice). The word can also refer to a non-dairy substance of similar appearance or consistency, though in these cases a modifier or the word curdled is generally used. Cheese curds, drained of the whey and served without further processing or aging, are popular in some French-speaking regions

of Canada, such as Quebec and parts of Ontario. In Quebec and Eastern Ontario, cheese curds are popularly served with french fries and gravy as poutine. In some parts of the U.S., especially in Wisconsin, they are breaded and fried, or are eaten straight. Cheese curds may also be coated with a powdered flavoring agent and sold as a snack food in a fashion similar to flavored potato chips.

USES/APPLICATIONS OF DAIRY
1. Milk
Make frozen fish taste fresh Boost corn on the cob flavor Repair cracked china Polish silverware Soothe sunburn and bug bites Give yourself a facial Soften skin Clean and soften dirty hands Clean patent leather Remove ink stains from clothes

2. Cream
Served as it is. A traditional part of a Cream tea. Thickest available fresh cream, spooned onto pies, puddings, and desserts (cannot be poured due to its consistency) Whips the easiest and thickest for puddings and desserts, can be piped Whips well but lighter, can be piped Decorations on cakes, topping for ice cream, strawberries and so on. Poured over puddings, used in sauces Half Cream is uncommon, used in some cocktails

3. Butter
Rehydrate dry, brittle nails Cut Snow-Shoveling time in half Make old candle look new again Sooth Fluffy's holiday anxiety Erase watermarks from wood Slice sticky foods with ease Swallow big pill without worry Prevent Cheese from molding Remove ink stains from plastic Silence a squeaky door hinge

4. ICE CREAM
Cakes Pies Bonbons Floats Sandwiches Milkshakes Sundaes Banana Splits

5. YOGURT
Yogurt isn't only a yummy snack that curbs the appetite, it's also beneficial to your body. Yogurt contains vitamins like B12 and B6, as well as riboflavin, calcium, protein and active yogurt cultures. Even if you're unable to digest milk, you can probably digest yogurt, due to the active cultures it contains. These aid digestion and help break down lactose. Although it's best to eat plain yogurt, you can add fresh fruit for a healthy snack. Fruit-on-the-bottom yogurts usually contain sugar and sometimes preservatives. It's healthier to cut up your own fruit to mix with plain yogurt and add maple syrup for sweetener if absolutely necessary. Yogurt is a natural remedy for yeast infections because of the helpful bacteria in and antibiotic properties of the active cultures. If you are a female experiencing a yeast infection, coat a tampon in plain, organic yogurt and put it in the freezer for an hour. Insert the tampon for about an hour before removing. Repeat twice a day until the yeast infection is gone. Yogurt also prevents gas and diarrhea in both pets and humans. If you are feeling nauseous, or your dog is having problems making it outside, add a few teaspoons of yogurt to your next meal and Fido's. You'll both be feeling better by bedtime.

6. GHEE
Use it when sauting and want a buttery flavor. It can take the heat without burning. Ghee is long cooked and then strained. It is a way to keep and preserve butter in hot climates such as India. It lasts for quite a while at high temps and a very long time if kept cooler. It makes a better pie crust than butter. It's good to sub for oil in making popcorn - avoids the step of buttering. The reason ghee doesn't spoil is because all of the water has been boiled out of it. Storing it in the moist environment of a refrigerator and pulling it out, using it, recovering it and putting it back into the reach-in is likely to cause condensation in the container, which will cause spoilage.

7. CURD
Curd is reported to have better nutritive value than milk. Though there is no increase in the fat or protein content of milk during fermentation, the digestibility of curd is more than that of milk. The calcium and phosphorous contents of curd are more easily assimilated. Curd contains more vitamins than milk. Curd is used in the preparation of beverages by beating it with water and adding sugar or salt and spices. Curd is also considered one of the best aids to natural good looks.

The bacteria present in curd make the skin soft and glowing. It is also a good hair conditioner and has antidandruff property. Curd mixed with orange or lemon juice is a good face cleanser. It supplies moisture to the skin and fruit juice provides the essential vitamin C. Live yoghurt discourages the proliferation of harmful bacteria and yeasts in the gut that lead to bowel infection. It can help to relieve gastrointestinal disorders, diarrhea and constipation. It can also reduce bad breath associated with some digestive disorders. Yoghurt is helpful for people suffering from diarrhea on account of radiotherapy treatment, food poisoning or irritable bowel syndrome. It is often recommended as an external treatment for anyone who is suffering from thrush. It is also claimed that yoghurt can improve the condition of the skin and alter the balance of bacteria in the large bowel in a way that may protect against colon cancer. Curd is used in the treatment of insomnia. It is also believed that taking sufficient curd in the daily diet could prevent premature ageing.