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Figure 8.2.

Local smoothness variation

Precast element to precast element.


Precast element to cast-in-place concrete.
Precast element to masonry.
Precast element to structural steel construction.
See Ref. 4 for recommended erection tolerances for additional precast members.
These tolerances should be considered guidelines for the development of project specific tolerances for erection.
8.3.3

architectural panel tolerances. If more restrictive


tolerances are required, they must be clearly indicated in the contract documents, and subsequently
increased costs anticipated.
8.3

Erection Tolerances

8.3.1

General

8.3.2

Mixed building systems combine precast and


prestressed concrete with other materials, usually
cast-in-place concrete, masonry or steel. Each
industry has its own recommended erection tolerances which apply when its products are used exclusively. The compatibility of those tolerances with the
precast tolerances should be checked and adjusted
when necessary.
Example 8.4.2 shows one problem that can
occur when erection tolerances are chosen for each
system without considering the project as a whole.
8.3.4

Erection tolerance values are those to which


the primary control surfaces of the member should
be set. The final location of other features and
surfaces will be the result of the combination of the
erection tolerances and the product tolerances given
in Section 8.2.
Because erection is equipment and site dependent, there may be good reason to vary some of the
recommended tolerances to account for unique
project conditions. In general, the more restrictive
the erection tolerances, the higher the cost of
erection will be. Combining liberal product
tolerances with restrictive erection tolerances may
place an unrealistic burden on the erector. Thus,
the designer should review proposed tolerances with
manufacturers and erectors prior to deciding on the
final project tolerances.
To minimize erection problems, the dimensions
of the in-place structure should be checked prior to
starting precast erection. After erection, and before
other trades interface with the precast concrete
members, it should be verified that the precast elements are erected within tolerances. [7]

Mixed Building Systems

Connections and Bearing

The details of connections must be considered


when specifying erection tolerances. Space must be
provided to make the connection under the most
adverse combination of tolerances.
Bearing length is measured in the direction of
the span, and bearing width is measured
perpendicular to the span. Bearing length is often
not the same as the length of the end of a member
over the support, as shown in Figure 8.3.1. When
they differ, it should be noted on erection drawings.
The Engineer may wish to specify a minimum
bearing for various precast products. For further
information, see Ref. 7.
Figure 8.3.1

Relationship between bearing


length and length over support

Recommended Erection Tolerances

Figures 8.3.2 to 8.3.9 show erection tolerances


for the following four mixed building systems:

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Table 8.3.1

810

Beam erection tolerances

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Table 8.3.1

Beam erection tolerances (Cont.)

The primary control surfaces are usually as shown, although this needs to be confirmed on a
job-by-job basis.
a

Plan location from building grid datum ........................................................................o1 in.

a1 Plan location from centerline of steel*.........................................................................o1 in.

Bearing elevation from nominal elevation at support:


Maximum low ............................................................................................................... Q/S in.
Maximum high .............................................................................................................. Q/F in.

Maximum plumb variation over height of element:


Per 12 in. height ...........................................................................................................Q/K in.
Maximum at rectangular or L-beam .............................................................................Q/S in.
Maximum at inverted tee beam.................................................................................... E/F in.

Maximum jog in alignment of matching edges:


Architectural exposed edges........................................................................................ Q/F in.
Visually non-critical edges............................................................................................Q/S in.

Joint width:
Architectural exposed joints .......................................................................................oQ/F in.
Hidden joints...............................................................................................................oE/F in.
Exposed structural joint not visually critical................................................................oQ/S in.

Bearing length (span direction).................................................................................oE/F in.

Bearing width ............................................................................................................oQ/S in.

Note: When bearing pads are used at unarmored edges, they should be set back a minimum
of Q/S in. from the face of the support or at least the chamfered dimension at chamfered edges.
* For precast elements on a steel frame, this tolerance takes precedence over tolerance on dimension a.

Or member top elevation where member is part of a frame without bearing ledges.
This is a setting tolerance and s hould not be confused with structural performance requirements set by the
architect/engineer. The nominal bearing dimensions and the allowable variations in the bearing length and
width should be specified by the engi neer and shown on the erection drawings.

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Table 8.3.2

812

Floor and roof member erection tolerances

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Table 8.3.2

Floor and roof member erection tolerances (Cont.)

The primary control surfaces are usually as shown. A majority of the time, there is no
designated vertical primary control surface, and in some scenarios there are no primary control
surfaces at all. This needs to be determined on a job-by-job basis.
a

Plan location from building grid datum ........................................................................o1 in.

a1 Plan location from centerline of steel support*............................................................o1 in.


b

Top elevation from building elevation datum at member ends:


Covered with topping .................................................................................................oE/F in.
Pretopped tee/carpet di rect hollow-core slab.............................................................oQ/F in.
Untopped roof.............................................................................................................oE/F in.

Maximum jog in alignment of matching edges


(both topped and untopped construction) .....................................................................1 in.

Joint width:
0 to 40 ft member .......................................................................................................oQ/S in.
41 to 60 ft member .....................................................................................................oE/F in.
61 ft plus member........................................................................................................o1 in.

Differential top elevation as erected (for units of same design and length):
Field topped.................................................................................................................. E/F in.
Pretopped tees at dr iving lanes/carpet direct hollow-core slabs.................................. Q/F in.

Untopped roof ............................................................................................................. E/F in.

Bearing length (span direction) .................................................................................oE/F in.

Bearing width (n/a for hollow-core slabs)..................................................................oQ/S in.

Differential bottom elevation of

exposed hollow-core slabs ......................................................................................... Q/F in.

Note: When bearing pads are used at unarmored edges they should be set back a minimum of
Q/S in. from the face of the support or at least the chamfered dimension at chamfered edges.
* For precast concrete erected on a steel frame building, this tolerance takes precedence over tolerance on
dimension a.

It may be necessary to feather the edges to oQ/F in. to properly apply some roof membranes.
This is a setting tolerance and s hould not be confused with structural performance requirements set by the
architect/engineer. The nominal bearing dimensions and the allowable variations in the bearing length and
width should be specified by the engi neer and shown on the erection drawings.
Untopped installations will require a larger tolerance.

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Table 8.3.3

814

Column erection tolerances

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Table 8.3.3

Column erection tolerances (Cont.)

The primary control surfaces are usually as shown, although this needs to be confirmed on a
job-by-job basis.
a

Plan location from building grid datum:


Structural applications ...............................................................................................oQ/S in.
Architectural applications ..........................................................................................oE/K in.

Top elevation from nominal top elevation:


Maximum low .............................................................................................................Q/S in.
Maximum high ............................................................................................................Q/F in.

Bearing haunch elevation from nominal elevation:


Maximum low .............................................................................................................Q/S in.
Maximum high ............................................................................................................Q/F in.

Maximum plumb variation over height of element (element


in structure of maximum height of 100 ft)....................................................................o1 in.

Plumb in any 10 ft of element height..........................................................................oQ/F in.

Maximum jog in alignment of matching edges:


Architectural exposed edges......................................................................................oQ/F in.
Visually non-critical edges..........................................................................................oQ/S in.

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Table 8.3.4

816

Structural wall panel erection tolerances

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Table 8.3.4

Structural wall panel erection tolerances (Cont.)

The primary control surfaces are usually as shown, although this needs to be confirmed on a
job-by-job basis.
a

Plan location from building grid datum* .....................................................................oQ/S in.

a1 Plan location from centerline of steel support ............................................................oQ/S in.


b

Top elevation from nominal top elevation:


Exposed individual panel ...........................................................................................oQ/S in.
Non-exposed individual panel ....................................................................................oE/F in.
Exposed relative to adjacent panel ............................................................................oQ/S in.
Non-exposed relative to adjacent panel.....................................................................oE/F in.

Support elevation from nominal elevation:


Maximum low ............................................................................................................... Q/S in.
Maximum high .............................................................................................................. Q/F in.

Maximum plumb variation over height of


structure or over 100 ft which ever is less* ................................................................. o1 in.

Plumb in any 10 ft of element height..........................................................................oQ/F in.

Maximum jog in alignment of matching edges...........................................................oQ/S in.

Joint width (governs over joint taper) .........................................................................oE/K in.

Joint taper over height of panel..................................................................................oQ/S in.

h10 Joint taper over 10 ft height........................................................................................oE/K in.


i

Maximum jog in alignment of matching faces:


Exposed to view .........................................................................................................oE/K in.
Not exposed to view ...................................................................................................oE/F in.

Differential bowing or camber as erected

between adjacent members of the same design ......................................................oQ/S in.


* For precast buildings in excess of 100 ft tall, Tolerances a and d can increase at the rate of Q/K in. per story
to a maximum of 2 in.

Refer to Section 8.2.8 for description of bowing tolerance.

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Table 8.3.5

818

Architectural walls/spandrel erection tolerances

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Table 8.3.5

Architectural walls/spandrel erection tolerances (Cont.)

The primary control surfaces are usually as shown, although this needs to be confirmed on a
job-by-job basis.
a

Plan location from building grid datum* .....................................................................oQ/S in.

a1 Plan location from centerline of steel support ...........................................................oQ/S in.


b

Top elevation from nominal top elevation:


Exposed individual panel ...........................................................................................oQ/F in.
Non-exposed individual panel ....................................................................................oQ/S in.

Support elevation from nominal elevation:


Maximum low ............................................................................................................... Q/S in.
Maximum high .............................................................................................................. Q/F in.

Maximum plumb variation over height of structure


or 100 ft whichever is less* .........................................................................................o1 in.

Plumb in any 10 ft of element height..........................................................................oQ/F in.

Maximum jog in alignment of matching edges:


Exposed relative to adjacent panel ............................................................................oQ/F in.
Non-exposed relative to adjacent panel.....................................................................oQ/S in.

Joint width (governs over joint taper) .........................................................................oQ/F in.

Joint taper maximum ..................................................................................................oE/K in.

h10 Joint taper over 10 ft length........................................................................................oQ/F in.


i

Maximum jog in alignment of matching faces ............................................................oQ/F in.

Differential bowing or camber as erected between


adjacent members of the same design ......................................................................oQ/F in.

Opening height between spandrels............................................................................oQ/F in.


* For precast buildings in excess of 100 ft tall, Tolerances a and d can increase at the rate of Q/K in. per story
to a maximum of 2 in.

For precast elements erected on a steel frame, th is tolerance takes precedence over tolerance on
Dimension a.

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Table 8.3.6

820

Single, double, and triple stadium riser erection tolerances

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Table 8.3.6

Single, double and triple riser erection tolerances (Cont.)

The primary control surfaces are usually as shown, although this is something that needs to be
confirmed with the contractor on a job-by-job basis. Local building codes may require more
restrictive riser height tolerances which could also affect product tolerance.
a

Plan location from building grid line datum .................................................................o1 in.

Plan location from theoretical centerline of


support structure .........................................................................................................o1 in.

Top elevation from building elevation datum at


members end. (This datum may be adjusted to
accommodate existing field conditions.) ....................................................................oQ/S in.

Maximum jog in alignment of matching edges


at the horizontal primary control surface...................................................................... Q/F in.

Maximum jog in alignment of matching edges


at the vertical primary control surface .......................................................................... Q/S in.

Bearing in span direction.............................................................................................1 in.

Joint width (horizontal) at end of piece. (Joint


width needs to be Q/F in. minimum.) ............................................................................oQ/S in.

Joint width (Joint width needs to be Q/F in. minimum in either case.)
90-deg angle ..............................................................................................................oQ/S in.
Joint width at skewed ends .......................................................................................oT/K in.

Differential camber (at midspan as erected)


between adjacent members of the same design ......... oE/AH in. per 10 ft of member length.

Differential sweep (at midspan as erected)


between adjacent members of the same design ......... oE/AH in. per 10 ft of member length.

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Table 8.3.7

822

Room module erection tolerances

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Table 8.3.7

Room module erection tolerances (Cont.)

The tolerances listed below are used at the primary control surfaces only, and only those
tolerances that are applicable to that surface. Normally, the primary control surfaces are the
front face of the cell unit as the vertical primary control surface, and either the head of the door
(as shown at left), top of cell, or the bottom of balcony as the horizontal primary control surface.
Note: on jobs where pre-topped balconies are cast as part of the cell unit, the horizontal
primary control surface may be the top surface of the balcony.
a

Plan location from building grid line datum ................................................................oQ/S in.

Vertical control (at primary control surface)


from a horizontal datum .............................................................................................oE/K in.

Actual grout joint........................................................................................... Q/S in. minimum

Plumb at element height .............................................................................................. Q/F in.

Maximum jog in alignment of matching edges.............................................................Q/F in.

Vertical joint width ......................................................................................................oE/K in.

Joint taper......................................................................................................Not applicable

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Table 8.3.8

824

Stair unit erection tolerance

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Table 8.3.8

Stair unit erection tolerance (Cont.)

The primary control surface for stair units is the top of landing at floor levels. Tolerances listed
below are the same whether landings are monolithic or separate pieces. Local building codes
may require more restrictive riser height tolerance which could also affect the product
tolerance.
a

Plan location from building grid line datum ................................................................oQ/S in.

Differential elevation as erected* ...............................................................................oE/K in.

Joint width ..................................................................................................................oE/F in.

Maximum jog in alignment of matching edges.............................................................1 in.

Maximum jog in alignment of stair tread nosings


(This tolerance overrides d if needed.) ...................................................................... Q/S in.

Maximum jog in alignment of matching edges


at the primary control surface* .....................................................................................E/K in.

Bearing (in span direction) .........................................................................................oE/F in.

* At stair units that have pre-topped precast landings, the maximum jog between stair units as well as from stair
unit to finish floor cannot exceed Q/F in. However, units which have landings that are topped have more leeway.
This needs to be discussed and agreed upon with the general contractor .

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