The Origin of Oil and Gas
Dr. Wahyudi Citrosiswoyo Dept. Dept Ocean Engineering ITS Engineering, Surabaya

Petroleum Exploration
• Surface and subsurface geological studies • Seismic surveys • G i and magnetic surveys Gravity d i • Horizontal magnetic gradient • Helium content of soils

Surface and Subsurface Geology
• • • • Stratigraphy Structure Paleontology P l t l Geochemistry

Geologi Asia Tenggara (Metcalfe, 1990)

Sistem Tumbukan di Arc Trench System (Dickinson, 1971)

Fisiografi Pulau Jawa Bagian Timur (Bemmelen, 1949)

Elemen Tektonik Jawa Timur: 1. Zona Pegunungan Selatan; 2. Zona Gunung Berapi Kuarter; 3. Zona Kendeng; 4. Zona Rembang-Madura; 5a. Tinggian Karimunjawa; 5b. Depresi Bawean Barat; 5c. Depresi Bawean Timur; 5d. Depresi Tuban; 5e. Rendahan Masalembo; 5f. Tinggian Masalembo (Badan Geologi, 2010)

Struktur Kerak Jawa Timur Berdasarkan Bouger Gravity Sub-surface Model (Badan Geologi, 2010)

Elemen Tektonik Jawa Timur (Patranusa Data, 2006)

Peta Anomali Magnetik Jawa Timur (CCOP, 1994)

Cekungan sedimen di Indonesia (Ditjen Migas, 2007)

Seismic Surveys
• Create an artificial shock wave • Record the arrival of the shock waves at groups of vibration detectors • Move vibration detectors and repeat • A profile is constructed by plotting the arrival times of the waves at the detectors

Bor di Sini

Survei Seismik untuk Eksplorasi Migas

Penampang seismik Sumur Banjar Panji 1 Mazzini et al., 2007)




Penampang Seismik Sumur Banjar Panji 1 – Porong 1 (BPLS, 2007)

Other Types of Surveys
• Horizontal Magnetic Gradient
– Measures small changes in the horizontal gradient of the Earth s magnetic Earth’s field that are related to magnetic minerals formed when b f d h by petroleum microseepages

• Helium Content of Soils
– Analyze near-surface borehole samples for helium that is a byproduct of radioactive decay associated with petroleum

The Origin of Petroleum Hydrocarbons H d b
• Theories of inorganic origin
1. (at high T) metallic carbides + water acetylene 2. 2 Volcanic emanation acetylene 3. high T alkaline + carbonatite hydrocarbon failed

• Theories of organic origin
it h d been believed (b f i had b b li d (before WW II) that h hydrocarbon originally from organic matter

How organic matter accumulates
• High surface productivity • Reductive environment • Hi h sedimentation rates High di i • Low water circulation • Close basin

Plant plankton Animal plankton

• Most oil and gas starts life as microscopic plants and animals that live in the ocean.

Types of Petroleum Oil and gas are formed by the thermal cracking of organic compounds buried in fine grained rocks fine-grained

Algae = Hydrogen rich = Oil-prone Wood = Hydrogen poor = Gas-prone

Houston Geological Society Academic Liaison Committee

Delta Mahakam Modern
Sumber yang kaya kerogen

Where and how oil and gas accumulate il d l
•Source rocks •Oil & gas migration Oil •Oil & gas reservoir •Reservoir rock •Cap rock Cap •Oil traps

The 5 main components of an oil accumulation
1. Must be an organic-rich source rock to generate the oil/gas 2. The source rock must have been heated sufficiently to yield its petroleum 3. There 3 Th must be a reservoir to contain th expelled tb i t t i the ll d hydrocarbons. This must have:
a. b. Porosity, to hold the hydrocarbons Permeability, to allow fluid flow

4. The reservoir must be sealed by an impermeable Cap Rock to prevent upwards escape of the hydrocarbons to the earth’s surface , g y 5. Source, reservoir and seal must be arranged in such a way that the petroleum is Trapped

Formation of an oil accumulation
1. Burial of adequate organic source material.
most petroleum is derived from the accumulation of trillions of individual microorganisms. organisms

2. Burial to the appropriate depths.
depths of 2-6 km and temperatures of 60-160º C.

3. Presence of a reservoir-quality rock.
1. a porous storage space. Sandstone and limestones are the most common reservoir rocks. To be a reservoir they must have:
Porosity, to hold the hydrocarbons Permeability, to allow fluid flow

4. Presence of an adequate seal
A seal is an impermeable bed (such as a shale or a bed of salt) that sits on top of the trap and prevents the hydrocarbons rising any further.

5. 5 Presence of a trap
In order to prevent the hydrocarbons rising to the surface and escaping they must be caught in a confined space, termed a trap. i.e. the source, reservoir and seal must be arranged in such a way that the petroleum is trapped.

The Petroleum System

In addition to the 5 components, p a further two events are essential:
– Timing: no trapping unless the traps are present when migration is occurring – Maturation: no petroleum if the source rock OM p does not mature – Migration: no accumulation if the petroleum doesn’t g migrate

Source rocks
• Definitions: – A rock capable of generating significant amounts of oil or gas • Characteristics: – Blackish, black fine grain sedimentary rocks – Shale • Sedimentary rocks rich enough in organic matter
– 0 5 2 weight percent organic matter 0.5-2 i ht t i tt

• Can be land or water based material • Type of organic material can determine the type of petroleum generated

Black Shale

The Source Rock

Black Shale

This shale typically contains >1% of organic carbon, by weight. The shale is very widespread, underlying much id d d l i h of Britain and most of the North Sea, and is by far the most p important source rock for the oil that has been found in the North Sea Basin.

When does an OM rich rock become a source rock? k?
• Determined by:
– – – – Richness of source rock Maturity history M i hi Geological framework in which it exists Current economics and politics of exploitation f

The Origin of Petroleum

Organic rich Organic-rich Source Rock

Thermally Matured Organic Matter


Houston Geological Society

What is Petroleum?
A natural, yellow-to-black, flammable, liquid y hydrocarbon found beneath the earth’s surface

Houston Geological Society Academic Liaison Committee


Source Rocks Can Be:
• Immature (potential sources) (p ) • Mature (active): generation has begun • Over-mature (cooked): generation has been completed • NB even immature source rocks contain hydrocarbons (waxes etc inherited from the living biomass)

How does OM become Oil?

2 stages: Conversion of OM to kerogen Conversion of Kerogen to petroleum and gas

The Transformation of Organic Matter

Kerogen Formation g
• 2 stage: • Polymerization: Conversion of geomonomers to geopolymers (onset g o o o s g o ol s (o s t rapid, short period: 100’s – 1000’s years. Temperatures up to 50°C • Rearrangement of the geopolymers

What Is Kerogen?

• Precursor to oil and gas g • Insoluble in organic solvents • Complex mixture of high molecular weight organic materials • Bulk composition determined by source and environment • General composition may be described as: • (C12H12ON0.16)x

Kerogen Type
• It is important to identify the type of kerogen in a source rock
– Determines the type of hydrocarbon produced, if at all

TOC 2.12 WT.%

TOC .38 WT.%

As Black Shale is buried, it is heated. Organic matter is first changed by the increase in temperature into kerogen, which is a solid form of hydrocarbon Around 90°C, it is changed into a liquid state, which we call oil



Around 150°C, it is changed into a gas

A rock that has produced oil and gas in this way is known as a Source Rock

Migration Formation of the Oilfield

• Oil (& gas) migrates from the source source, through carrier beds and accumulates in the reservoir ese voi • Source bed → 1st carrier = primary p migration • Carrier → reservoir = secondary migration

Primary Migration
• Hypotheses – 1. Migration of hc’s in clay compaction water 2. – 2 Migration by molecular solution in water – Migration in micellar solution – Migration in gas charged solution – Migration via micro-fracturing of source rocks – Diffusion along kerogen network • Arguable that all of these process are in operation

Secondary Migration

• Oil must b capable of continuous phase t be bl f ti h flow • Capillarity
– NB the oils capillary pressure must exceed the reservoirs displacement pressure (reservoirs normally fluid filled)

Once in the Reservoir Rock
• Availability of continuous p y pore spaces allows p continuous flow • Physical requirements for secondary migration are: – 1 Adeq ate supply of hydrocarbons 1. Adequate s ppl h drocarbons – 2. Adequate continuous migration pathways – 3. Adequate pressure gradient to drive migration

Main Mechanisms of Secondary Migration Mi ti

• Mi Migration by water drive i b d i • Migration by gas flushing • Fracture-bound migration

• Difference in densities between H2O and oil = main mechanism of secondary migration • All crude oils float on saline water, nearly all on freshwater • Thus, oil tends to migrate upwards through the heavier water th h i t • Subject to a buoyant force (Pb)

Buoyant Force
• Oil displaces equal volume of water • Pb = difference between weight of displaced water and emplaced oil: vector force directed vertically upwards • Pb = diff difference i pressure b t in between water t phase and oil phase
• Pb = Pw - Po

Gas Flushing
• 2 fluids of different densities try to occupy the same trap • Heaviest fluid is displaced as lighter one moves above it

Trapping Mechanisms
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