A Seminar Report on

“WITRICITY” (Wireless Power Transmission)

Submitted for partial fulfillment of

Bachelor of Engineering
in

Electronics & Communication Engineering

Submitted to Ms. Shruti Kalra Assistant Professor

Submitted by Supreet Kumar Singh Roll # 118 VIII Semester

Jaipur Engineering College & Research Centre, Jaipur
Session : 2011 – 12
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ABSTRACT
The technology used for wireless power transmission is known as witricity. Wireless power transmission is not a new idea, Nikola Tesla proposed theories of wireless power transmission in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Tesla's work was impressive, but it did not immediately lead to wide spread practical methods for wireless power transmission. Since then many researchers have developed several techniques for moving electricity over long distances without wires. Some exist only as theories or prototypes, but others are already in use. In 2006 researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology led by Marine Soijacic discovered an efficient way to transfer power between coils separated by a few meters. They have dubbed this technology as witricity. Witricity is based upon coupled resonant objects. Two resonant objects of the same resonant frequency tend to exchange energy efficiently, while not interchanging the surroundings. The researchers demonstrate the ability to transfer 60W with approximately 40% efficiency over distance in excess of 2 meters. Currently the project is looking for power transmission in the range of 100watts. As witricity is in the development stage, lots of work is to be done in improving the range of power transmission and efficiency.

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no.CONTENTS 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Content Introduction Principle of working Circuit and its component Advantages and Disadvantages Application Conclusion Bibliography Pg no. 4 5 11 15 17 20 21 3 . INTRODUCTION Sr.

We have even had to follow one particular cord through the seemingly impossible snarl to the outlet hoping that the plug pull will be the right one. The transmitters and receivers contain magnetic loop antennas made of copper coils and they are tuned to the same frequency. The inventors of witricity are the researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). scientists have tried to develop methods of wireless power transmission that could cut the clutter or lead to clean sources of electricity. This is one of the downfalls of electricity. Wireless power transmission is not a new idea. But witricity is a new technology used for wireless power transmission. They developed a new technology for wireless electricity transmission and this is based upon the coupled resonant objects. While it can make people's lives easier. So the wastage of power is reduced. By the use of this technology transmission of electrical energy to remote objects without wires can be possible. Many researchers developed several methods for wireless power transmission. it can add a lot of clutter in the process.If we are particularly organized and good with tie wrap then also a few dusty power cord tangles around our home. 4 . In this resonant magnetic fields are used. The system consists of witricity transmitters and receivers. For these reasons.

it creates a circular magnetic field around the wire. It takes three basic steps: 5 . if you are to supply thousands of watts to a circuit. as is the case of supplying small appliances. due to the induction effect. The farther apart the coils are from each other. 2. Bending the wire into a coil amplifies the magnetic field. 70% or 80% then we could have a practical way to transfer energy without wires over long distances. If the coils are moved further apart and have different cores. although it does not seem to be so. The more loops the coil makes. wireless energy transfer can be a very practical way of supply. If efficiency is ignored (or not important). If this figure can be improved to reach e. due to the close proximity of the primary and secondary coils. If you place a second coil of wire in the magnetic field you've created. the less the transfer efficiency.2. However. the field can induce a current in the wire. Any time electrical current moves through a wire. instead of a common core.g. the bigger the field will be. the important issue here is the efficiency with which energy is transferred.1 Inductive Coupling Inductive coupling uses magnetic fields that are a natural part of current's movement through wire. However. This is essentially how a transformer works. PRINCIPLE OF WORKING A transformer is an example of wireless energy transfer. things look a lot more difficult. and it's how an electric toothbrush recharges. you have wireless energy transfer.

or secondary winding. making a larger one would waste a lot of energy. Since a magnetic field spreads in all directions. which can hold a charge. Current from the wall outlet flows through a coil inside the charger. 2. You can use the same principle to recharge several devices at once. but if a second 6 . Its resonant frequency is a product of the inductance of the coil and the capacitance of the plates. 3. attaches to each end of the coil. For example. Electronic devices use corresponding built-in or plug-in receivers to recharge while resting on the mat. 2. the magnetic field induces a current in another coil. Research at MIT indicates that induction can take place a little differently if the electromagnetic fields around the coils resonate at the same frequency. For this reason. the Splash power recharging mat and Edison Electric's Power desk both use coils to create a magnetic field. Resonant transfer works by making a coil ring with an oscillating current. These receivers contain compatible coils and the circuitry necessary to deliver electricity to devices' batteries. The theory uses a curved coil of wire as an inductor. In a transformer. stronger field could induce current from farther away. Because the coil is highly resonant any energy placed in the coil dies away relatively slowly over very many cycles. A larger. chargers hold devices at the distance necessary to induce a current. which can only happen if the coils are close together. the coil begins to resonate. creating a magnetic field. this coil is called the primary winding.2 Resonance and Wireless Power Household devices produce relatively small magnetic fields. As electricity travels through this coil. which connects to the battery. When you place your toothbrush in the charger. A capacitance plate. but the process would be extremely inefficient.1. This generates an oscillating magnetic field. This current recharges the battery.

FIG 2. The power transmitted to the receiving antenna is then utilized in the load Electromagnetic resonance coupling involves creating an LC resonance. as all hardware is kept well within the 1/4 wavelength distance they radiate little energy from the transmitter to infinity. The ohm loss and the radiation loss of the antennas are represented by R. The power is transmitted through magnetic resonance coupling in between the two coils at the resonance frequencies.radiative. the coil can pick up most of the energy before it is lost. The wireless power transfer system involves resonating two identical coils with a high frequency power source.coil is brought near to it.1 The MIT wireless power project uses a curved coil and capacitive plates. even if it is some distance away. 2 represents the characteristic impedance. In this system. 7 . Zsource in Fig. the magnetic coupling and electric coupling can be represented as mutual inductance and mutual capacitance respectively as shown in Fig. Hence. and Zload is the impedance of the load. and transferring the power with electromagnetic couplings without radiating electromagnetic waves. 50_ the default characteristic of most high frequency systems. the power is transferred via magnetic coupling. Therefore the coupling can be represented by mutual induction Lm. they are both considered to be the same at Z0. 2. In this paper. near field (sometimes called evanescent waves). The fields used are predominately non.

as in equation (1). To satisfy the resonance condition.1 Energy transfer and efficiency The general principle is that if a given oscillating amount of energy (for example alternating current from a wall outlet) is placed into a primary coil which is capacitive loaded.2. the reactance of Fig. and form an oscillating magnetic field. 2. The condition in equation (1) can be satisfied by two resonant frequencies as calculated in equation (2) and (3). The energy will transfer back and forth between the magnetic field in the inductor and the electric field across the capacitor at the resonant frequency. This oscillation will die away at a rate 8 .2 must be 0.Next the resonance frequency is calculated based on the equivalent circuit. the coil will 'ring'.

2. provided the secondary coil cuts enough of the field that it absorbs more energy than is lost in each cycle of the primary. 2. even though the field dies quickly with distance from a coil. Tight coupling is when the coupling coefficient is around 1 as with conventional transformers. the primary and secondary can be several diameters apart. Loose coupling is when the coils are distant from each other.determined by the Q factor. However. and the Q factor for such a coil is: . mainly due to resistive and radiative losses.3 Power transfer 9 . Over coupling is when the secondary coil is close enough that it tends to collapse the primary's field. The coupling coefficient is between 0 and 1.2 Coupling coefficient The coupling coefficient is the fraction of the flux of the primary that cuts the secondary coil.2.01. it may be lower than 0. for example for wireless power transmission. 2. (experimentally around a thousand has been demonstrated with air cored coils) only a small percentage of the field has to be coupled from one coil to the other to achieve high efficiency. The primary coil forms a series RLC circuit. critically coupled or over coupled. and is a function of the geometry of the system. Systems are said to be tightly coupled. and at greater distances. and critical coupling is when the transfer in the pass band is optimal. loosely coupled.2 is used. so that most of the flux misses the secondary. in Tesla coils around 0. Because the Q factor can be very high. then most of the energy can still be transferred.

which increases the power that can be received—at resonance far more power is in the oscillating field than is being fed into the coil.4 Voltage gain The voltage gain of resonantly coupled coils is proportional to the square root of the ratio of secondary and primary inductances 2.5 Transmitter coils and circuitry Unlike the multiple-layer secondary of a non-resonant transformer. 2. coils for this purpose are often single layer solenoids (to minimize skin effect and give improved Q) in parallel with a suitable capacitor. a relatively intense field builds up over multiple cycles.Because the Q can be very high. with spacers.2. or low permittivity. Insulation is either absent. low loss materials such as silk to minimize dielectric losses. even when low power is fed into the transmitter coil.2. 10 . and the receiver coil receives a percentage of that. or they may be other shapes such as wave-wound lit wire.

CIRCUIT AND ITS COMPONENETS The various components in making the circuit for the project. Capacitors 10. Bifilar enhanced coil: 22 gauge copper wire 2.1 Primary and Secondary coils Both primary and secondary circuit consists of bifilar enhanced coils.788 micro Henry 3. 11 . Function generator 3. ‘1 µF’ capacitors are connected to give ‘. 3. a static electric field develops in the dielectric that stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the conductors. measured in farads.e. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference betwee them.01 µf’capacitor.2 Capacitors A capacitor is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value. LED 4. These coils are of copper wire of 22 gauge and have 41 turns on either side i. both primary and secondary coils consists of 41 turns of 22 gauge copper wire each.3.Wireless transmission of electric power using resonance circuit can be explained as: 1. When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors. capacitance. The inductance of both the coils is 2.

These waveforms can be either repetitive or single-shot.1 micro Farad capacitors are connected in series to give a 0. in filter networks. producing the linear triangle wave. In the circuit 10 – 0.2 Series connection of Capacitors 3. the charging and discharging is reversed using a comparator. testing and repair of electronic equipment.Fig 3.1 A capacitor Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass.01 micro farad capacitor on both secondary and primary circuit. different frequencies may be 12 . Function Generators are used in development. e. This produces a linearly ascending or descending voltage ramp. in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies and for many other purposes. As the output voltage reaches upper and lower limits. Analog function generators usually generate a triangle waveform as the basis for all of its other outputs. FIG 3. for smoothing the output of power supplies. The triangle is generated by repeatedly charging and discharging a capacitor from a constant current source.3 Function Generator A function generator is a piece of electronic test equipment or software used to generate electrical waveforms. as a signal source to test amplifiers.g. By varying the current and the size of the capacitor. or to introduce an error signal into a control loop. in which case some kind of triggering source is required (internal or external).

and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. releasing energy in the form of photons. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices. slow rise and fast fall.obtained. In the project we have supplied a sinusoidal waveform of 30 V and 40kHz.e. FIG 3.4 Light Emitting Diode A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. Saw tooth waves can be produced by charging the capacitor slowly.3 A picture of Function Generator 3.the polarity of the diode changes the polarity of the resulting saw tooth. but modern versions are available across the visible. with very high brightness. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the 13 . using a current. but using a diode over the current source to discharge quickly . When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on). early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light. A typical function generator can provide frequencies up to 20 MHz RF generators for higher frequencies are not function generators in the strict sense since typically produce pure or modulated sine signals only. i. electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device. ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. or fast rise and slow fall.

and integrated optical components may be used shape its radiation pattern. longer lifetime. In the circuit LED is being used as an indicating device in the circuit of our project. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2). and greater durability and reliability.semiconductor. smaller size. faster switching. 14 . LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. improved robustness.

The cost of transmission and distribution become less and the cost of electrical energy for the consumer also would be reduced. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 4. cables and substations. The power could be transmitted to the places where the wired transmission is not possible. towers and sub stations between the generating station and consumers and facilitates the interconnection of electrical generation plants on a global scale.  More freedom of choice of both receiver and transmitter. It has more freedom of choice of both receiver and transmitters.  Eliminates the use of power transmission lines. thus reducing the cost of electrical energy. the efficiency of this method is very much higher than the wired transmission. Power can be transferred to the places where wired transmission is not possible. therefore. Power is available at the rectenna as long as the WPT is operating.4.   Low transmission loss. The power failure due to short circuit and fault on cables would never exist in the transmission and power theft would be not possible at all. Loss of transmission is negligible level in the Wireless Power Transmission. Even mobile transmitters and receivers can be chosen for the WPT system.1 Advantages Wireless Power Transmission system would completely eliminates the existing hightension power transmission line cables. thus increasing the efficiency.  To make the recharge of electronic devices more convenient for consumer especially for the elderly and the disabled 15 .

But the studies in this domain repeatedly proves that the microwave radiation level would be never higher than the dose received while opening the microwave oven door. Thus public exposure to WPT fields would also be below existing safety guidelines.3 Biological Impacts Common beliefs fear the effect of microwave radiation.2 Disadvantages The Capital Cost for practical implementation of WPT seems to be very high and the other disadvantage of the concept is interference of microwave with present communication systems. 16 . Cellular telephones operate with power densities at or below the ANSI/IEEE exposure standards. To reduce the Faults because of Short Circuit of wires and cables 4. 4. meaning it is slightly higher than the emissions created by cellular telephones.

fuel free electric vehicles. Wireless sensors and RF Power Adaptive Electronics Rectifying Circuits (PARC). Another application of WPT is moving targets such as fuel free airplanes.1 17 . Direct Wireless Power—when all the power a device needs is provided wirelessly.5. FIG 5. The other applications of WPT are Ubiquitous Power Source (or) Wireless Power Source. and no batteries are required. APPLICATION Generating power by placing satellites with giant solar arrays in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit and transmitting the power as microwaves to the earth known as Solar Power Satellites (SPS) is the largest application of WPT. moving robots and fuel free rockets. This mode is for a device that is always used within range of its WiTricity power source.

speakers. laptops. etc. Wi-Fi hotspots while devices are in use and mobile. unsightly cables and “wall-wart” power supplies. Industrial • Direct wireless power and communication interconnections moving “joints” across rotating and (robots. wireless loud … eliminating expensive custom wiring. etc … eliminating disposable batteries and awkward cabling. machine tools) … eliminating costly and failureprone wiring. keyboard. Consumer Electronics • Automatic wireless charging of mobile electronics (phones. etc. • Direct wireless powering of stationary devices (flat screen TV’s. • Direct wireless powering of desktop PC peripherals: wireless mouse. car.) where it is impractical or impossible to run wires. mining.) in home. without requiring a power cord or battery replacement. printer. office.2 Industrial Application interconnections at points of use in harsh environments (drilling. display. • • • Direct wireless power and communication FIG 5. packaging machinery.Automatic Wireless Charging—when a device with rechargeable batteries charges itself while still in use or at rest. underwater. home theater accessories. assembly machinery. digital picture frames. 18 . game controllers.

Transportation • Automatic wireless charging for existing electric vehicle classes: golf carts.4 Othen Direct wireless powering and automatic wireless charging of smart cards. pacemaker. FIG 5. at home.• Direct wireless power for wireless sensors and actuators. • FIG 4. etc. unmanned mobile robots and aircraft. • Automatic wireless charging for future hybrid • FIG 5.3 Transportation Application and all-electric passenger and commercial Vehicles.).).4 other application • wireless charging of consumer appliances. in parking garages. etc. 19 . eliminating the need for power wiring or battery replacement and disposal. etc. at fleet depots. and at remote kiosks. mobile robots. industrial vehicles. covert sensors. Automatic wireless charging and for high tech military systems (battery powered mobile devices. • Direct wireless power interconnections to replace costly vehicle wiring harnesses and slip rings. Other Applications • Direct wireless power interconnections and automatic wireless charging for implantable • medical devices (ventricular assist devices. defibrillator.

Dr. CONCLUSION The concept of Wireless Power Transmission system is presented. biological impacts and applications of WPT are also discussed. disadvantages. The technological developments in Wireless Power Transmission (WPT).6. This concept offers greater possibilities for transmitting power with negligible losses and ease of transmission than any invention or discovery heretofore made. Neville 20 . the advantages.

towers.com/id/Wireless-Power-Transmission-Over-ShortDistances-U/ www. We can expect with certitude that in next few years’ wonders will be wrought by its applications if all the conditions are favorable. Nikola Tesla is the pioneer of this invention. The electrical energy can be economically transmitted without wires to any terrestrial distance. We can send it to you like a cell phone call – where you want it. BIBLIOGRAPHY • • • • en. much like “cable TV” of today.instructables. cables. Monthly electric utility bills from oldfashioned.com/wireless-power. Wireless transmission of electricity have tremendous merits like high transmission integrity and Low Loss (90 – 97 % efficient) and can be transmitted to anywhere in the globe and eliminate the need for an inefficient. The transmission of power without wires is not a theory or a mere possibility. when you want it.of NASA states “You don’t need cables. fossil-fuelled. loss-prone electrified wire-grid delivery services will be optional. it is now a reality. or copper wires to receive power.htm 21 . The system would reduce the cost of electrical energy used by the consumer and get rid of the landscape of wires. Dr. costly. It has negligible demerits like reactive power which was found insignificant and biologically compatible.org/wiki/Wireless_energy_transfer http://electronics.com/articles/tws8c. experiments and measurements. Many countries will benefit from this service. Many researchers have established in numerous observations. and substations.howstuffworks. pipes.tfcbooks.htm http://www. in real time”. 7. qualitative and quantitative. and capital intensive grid of cables.wikipedia. It has a tremendous economic impact to human society. and transmission towers.

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