AUTHORS: TULIKA, SUGANDHA

STEERING SYSTEM
The function of steering is to steer the front wheel in response to driver command inputs in order to provide overall directional control of the vehicle. The factors kept in mind while designing the steering system were  Simplicity  Safety  Requiring minimum steer effort

Economical

Steering geometry
 Ackerman
The Ackerman Steering Principle defines the geometry that is applied to all vehicles (two or four wheel drive) to enable the correct turning angle of the steering wheels to be generated when negotiating a corner or a curve. When a car is travelling around a corner (the red lines represent the path that the wheels follow) the inside wheels of the car follow a smaller diameter circle than the outside wheels. If both the wheels were turned by the same amount, the inside wheel would scrub (effectively sliding sideways) and lessen the effectiveness of the steering. This tire scrubbing, which also creates unwanted heat and wear in the tire, can be eliminated by turning the inside wheel at a greater angle than the outside one.

AUTHORS: TULIKA, SUGANDHA

The difference in the angles of the inside and outside wheels may be better understood by studying the diagram, where we have marked the inside and outside radius that each of the tires passes through. The Inside Radius (Ri) and the Outside Radius (Ro) are dependent on a number of factors including the car width and the tightness of the corner the car is intended to pass through. Aligning both wheels in the proper direction of travel creates consistent steering without undue wear and heat being generated in either of the tires. Steering Arm Angles Creating mis-alignment of the wheels is achieved by a combination of the angle and the length of the steering arms. Below a few diagrams are shown that give examples using parallel and angled steering arms to demonstrate why there is a need for using the Ackerman Steering Principle. Parallel Steering Arms

AUTHORS: TULIKA, SUGANDHA

The steering arms in the diagram to the left are straight and parallel to the sides of the vehicle, which would create a situation where equal movement of the steering servo would produce equal angular movement of the wheels. As the steering arm pivot point (A) is vertically aligned with the king pin pivot point (B) when the wheel is pointing straight ahead, the same amount of movement to the Left or to the Right moves the steering arm pivot point the same vertical distance forward of its starting point. Angled Steering Arms

The steering arms in the image to the left are angled inwards to create a means for the wheel angles to change at a different rate. This is the basis of the Ackerman Steering Principle and creates this unequal angular movement of the wheels. As the steering arms are angled, the pivot point (A) is not vertically aligned and is, in a straight ahead position, part way round the circle. Because of this, a Right movement of the steering arm will cause the pivot point to move a greater distance in the forward direction than a Left movement of the steering arm.

The inside tire has also surpassed the maximum slip angle of grip assuming the outer tire is already at the optimum slip angle. In both situations. High Lateral Acceleration At high lateral accelerations. the inside tire contributes to this push similarly to a centrifugal force. the more you turn the wheel the greater the angular difference between the wheels otherwise both the wheels would never point forward when the car is not turning. Low Lateral Acceleration At low speeds when the tires have minimal tire shear losses on dry. Parallel or reverse Ackermann in this scenario would push (or under steer) the front of the car away from the desired path. Parallel or reverse setups are more advantageous in this situation as both the inside and outside tires still have lateral grip. Reverse Ackermann steering can even be more beneficial . true Ackermann becomes disadvantageous as loads on the outside wheel increase and the greater slip angle of the inside tire creates higher tire temperatures and slows down the car due to tire drag. clean pavement.AUTHORS: TULIKA. the true Ackermann steering geometry is beneficial as the tires are in almost a perfect situation of minute slip angle. SUGANDHA An important point worth noting is that this unequal angular movement is exponential. that is.

1/2 degree as tire develops its maximum cornering force at such a small negative camber angle. . SUGANDHA than the parallel Ackermann geometry since the outside tire (which currently has more load due to weight transfer) is at the optimum slip angle and the inside is at a lower slip angle with less grip. if it leans away from the car. The cornering force that a tire can develop is highly dependent on its angle relative to the road surface. as viewed from the front or the rear of the car. the outside wheel needs to be a different amount than the inner.AUTHORS: TULIKA. and so wheel camber has a major effect on the road holding of a car.  Camber Camber is the angle of the wheel relative to vertical. it has positive camber. This in turn allows the inside tire to have grip but less than the outside tire. it has negative camber.  The second is that the slip angle of maximum lateral force changes with vertical load. Reasons for the choice:  It creates an additional drag force that helps yaw the car. Forward Ackermann geometry with 60% Ackermann was chosen for our BAJA vehicle. If the wheel leans in towards the chassis. The camber angle taken for Baja car is typically around neg. 100% Ackermann is when both the wheels are travelling in concentric circles while 0% is for travelling in equal circles. decreasing the effects of under steer. so to extract maximum lateral force.

it is desirable to have the steering axis of a car's wheel right at the wheel hub.AUTHORS: TULIKA.  Caster Caster is the angle to which the steering pivot axis is tilted forward or rearward from vertical. if it's tilted forward. If the pivot axis is tilted backward (that is. The trail would be zero. and no castering . the axis would be coincident with the tire contact patch. as viewed from the side. SUGANDHA This fact is due to the contribution of camber thrust. Due to many design considerations. then the caster is positive. the top pivot is positioned farther rearward than the bottom pivot). If the steering axis were to be set vertical with this layout. then the caster is negative. and thus is used to enhance straight-line stability. Positive caster tends to straighten the wheel when the vehicle is traveling forward. which is an additional lateral force generated by elastic deformation as the tread rubber pulls through the tire/road interface (the contact patch).

Most cars are not particularly sensitive to caster settings." but this effect is much smaller than that created by mechanical castering. the road wheel would simply change camber rather than direction. This effect causes the outside wheel in a turn to gain negative camber. with lower angles being used on heavier vehicles to keep the steering effort reasonable. Since the wheel rotates about a tilted axis.AUTHORS: TULIKA. the wheel gains camber as it is turned. although it is possible to overdo it. With such an arrangement. This effect is best visualized by imagining the unrealistically extreme case where the steering axis would be horizontal-as the steering wheel is turned. While greater caster angles serve to improve straight-line stability. they also cause an increase in steering effort. SUGANDHA would be generated. and thus the same effect as seen in the shopping cart casters is achieved. . the tire itself generates a bit of a castering effect due to a phenomenon known as "pneumatic trail. it is important to ensure that the caster is the same on both sides of the car to avoid the tendency to pull to one side. it is possible to create castering by tilting the steering axis in the positive direction. The wheel would be essentially free to spin about the patch (actually. The tilted steering axis has another important effect on suspension geometry. Three to five degrees of positive caster is the typical range of settings. while the inside wheel gains positive camber. so we'll ignore it here). Nevertheless. the steering axis intersects the ground at a point in front of the tire contact patch. These camber changes are generally favorable for cornering. Fortunately.

straight-line stability and corner entry handling characteristics. If the leading edges point away from each other. The amount of toe can be expressed in degrees as the angle to which the wheels are out of parallel.AUTHORS: TULIKA. since they are always turned relative to the direction of travel. as the difference between the track widths as measured at the leading and trailing edges of the tires or wheels. the wheels on a given axle of a car should point directly ahead when the car is running in a straight line. Toe settings affect three major areas of performance: tire wear. . Excessive toe-in or toe-out causes the tires to scrub. Too much toe-in causes accelerated wear at the outboard edges of the tires. or more commonly. SUGANDHA . For minimum tire wear and power loss. while too much toe-out causes wear at the inboard edges.  Toe in/Toe out When a pair of wheels is set so that their leading edges are pointed slightly towards each other. the pair is said to have toe-out. the wheel pair is said to have toe-in.

RACK ANS PINION STEERING As the name implies. Under this condition. meaning they run side by side from one end of the rack to the other. although these teeth run parallel to the length of the shaft.is a round rod that also has teeth on it. toe-in causes the wheels to tend to roll along paths that intersect each other. SUGANDHA In our Baja vehicle we use Toe in of 3-4mm. With the steering wheel centered. The flat side contains teeth running the length of the rack. not lengthwise as on the rack.also known as a steering rack -. a non-driven wheel will tend to toe itself out especially in rear-drive cars. The pinion shaft comes into the rack at a ninety-degree angle. Also when pushed down the road.AUTHORS: TULIKA. The other major component. the wheels are at odds with each other.is a long piece of metal that is flat on at least one side. The teeth are cut perpendicular to the edges of the rack. the pinion -.The reasons for the choice is: Toe in unlike Toe out (which encourages initiation of turn) provides straight line stability. The basic types of steering systems used are described below1.more correctly. the pinion shaft -. The rack -. rack-and-pinion steering consists of two major components -.a rack and a pinion. Thus. and no turn results. toe in helps in providing stability while going down the road. .

The car turns left. the pinion rotates counter-clockwise (from the driver's perspective). for instance. The pinion is connected directly to the steering column. and the teeth on the pinion mesh with the teeth on the rack.AUTHORS: TULIKA. making the wheels go left. Simply put. the rotary motion of the pinion is changed to transverse motion by the rack. The rack moves to the right. SUGANDHA held in place by a collar. Rack and pinion steering mechanisms have the following advantages— Advantages: • Simple construction • Economical and uncomplicated to manufacture • Easy to operate due to good degree of efficiency . so when the steering wheel is turned to the left.

The tie rods connect to the track rod.the pitman arm. . which is supported by idler arms.PITMAN ARM TYPE Pitman arm mechanisms have a steering 'box' where the shaft from the steering wheel comes in and a lever arm comes out . SUGANDHA • Contact between steering rack and pinion is free of play and even internal damping is maintained • Tie rods can be joined directly to the steering rack • Minimal steering elasticity compliance • compact (the reason why this type of steering is fitted in all European and Japanese frontwheel drive vehicles) • The idler arm (including bearing) and the intermediate rod are no longer needed • Easy to limit steering rack travel and therefore the steering angle 2. This pitman arm is linked to the track rod or centre link. to compound linkages where it is connected to one end of the steering system or the track rod via other rods. There are a large number of variations of the actual mechanical linkage from direct-link where the pitman arm is connected directly to the track rod.AUTHORS: TULIKA.

It meshes directly with a sector gear (so called because it's a section of a full . the end of the shaft from the steering wheel has a worm gear attached to it.AUTHORS: TULIKA. that has become a moot point and the steering system design is now more to do with mechanical design. SUGANDHA Most of the steering box mechanisms that drive the pitman arm have a 'dead spot' in the centre of the steering where you can turn the steering wheel a slight amount before the front wheels start to turn. a)Worm and sector In this type of steering box. This slack can normally be adjusted with a screw mechanism but it can't ever be eliminated. The traditional advantage of these systems is that they give bigger mechanical advantage and thus work well on heavier vehicles. The following are the four basic types of steering box used in pitman arm systems. price and weight. With the advent of power steering.

When the steering wheel is turned. The difference here is that instead of having a sector gear that meshes with the worm gear. When the sector gear turns. and the sector gear pivots around its axis as its teeth are moved along the worm gear. there is a roller instead. The following diagram shows the active components that are present inside the worm and sector steering box. Without the hourglass shape. the worm gear is actually an hourglass shape so that it is wider at the ends. it turns the cross shaft. giving the output motion that is fed into the mechanical linkage on the track rod. which turns the pitman arm.AUTHORS: TULIKA. SUGANDHA gear wheel). The roller is mounted on a roller bearing shaft and is held captive on the end of the cross shaft. the roller might disengage from it at the extents of its travel. The sector gear is mounted on the cross shaft which passes through the steering box and out the bottom where it is splined. Worm and roller The worm and roller steering box is similar in design to the worm and sector box. and the the pitman arm is attached to the splines. . it twists the cross shaft. the roller is forced to move along it but because it is held captive on the cross shaft. The box itself is sealed and filled with grease. the shaft turns the worm gear. Typically in these designs. As the worm gear turns.

AUTHORS: TULIKA. hence why it's used the most. This forces the nut to move along the worm drive. the worm drive has many more turns on it with a finer pitch. These loop around the worm drive and then out into a recirculating channel within the nut where they are fed back into the worm drive again. In a recirculating ball steering box. A box or nut is clamped over the worm drive that contains dozens of ball bearings. Cam and lever . The nut itself has a couple of gear teeth cast into the outside of it and these mesh with the teeth on a sector gear which is attached to the cross shaft just like in the worm and sector mechanism. SUGANDHA Worm and nut or recirculating ball This is by far the most common type of steering box for pitman arm systems. Hence recirculating. This system has much less free play or slack in it than the other designs. the worm drive turns and forces the ball bearings to press against the channel inside the nut. The example below shows a recirculating ball mechanism with the nut shown in cutaway so you can see the ball bearings and the recirculation channel. As the steering wheel is turned.

turning the pitman arm. Instead of twisting further into the block the way a regular bolt would. it moves the block. RECIRCULATING BALL TYPE STEERING MECHANISM The recirculating-ball steering gear contains a worm gear. . similar to a bolt that sticks into the hole in the block. When the steering wheel turns. which moves the gear that turns the wheels. This block has gear teeth cut into the outside of it. 3. which engage a gear that moves the pitman arm. You can image the gear in two parts. The worm drive is known as a cam and has a much shallower pitch and the sector gear is replaced with two studs that sit in the cam channels. SUGANDHA Cam and lever steering boxes are very similar to worm and sector steering boxes. the studs slide along the cam channels which forces the cross shaft to rotate.AUTHORS: TULIKA. The first part is a block of metal with a threaded hole in it. As the worm gear is turned. One of the design features of this style is that it turns the cross shaft 90° to the normal so it exits through the side of the steering box instead of the bottom. This can result in a very compact design when necessary. The steering wheel connects to a threaded rod. this bolt is held fixed so that when it spins. it turns the bolt.

AUTHORS: TULIKA. second.without the balls in the steering gear. making the steering wheel feel loose. The balls actually serve two purposes: First. STEERING RATIOS . all of the threads are filled with ball bearings that recirculate through the gear as it turns. they reduce friction and wear in the gear. SUGANDHA Instead of the bolt directly engaging the threads in the block. Apart from this. they reduce slop in the gear. An additional advantage is that a variable ratio steering can be designed which has been detailed below. it has the least number of parts hence requires less maintenance. THE STEERING MECHANISM MOST SUITABLE FOR OUR VEHICLE We are planning on implementing the rack and pinion mechanism because it is comparatively easier to manufacture and the most cost effective. Slop would be felt when you change the direction of the steering wheel -. the teeth would come out of contact with each other for a moment.

AUTHORS: TULIKA. less effort is required because of the higher gear ratio. and also reduces effort near the wheels turning limits. By employing a variable ratio a reduction in steering torque can be achieved. These smaller cars are light enough that even with the lower ratio. Advantages of variable ratio steering— 1. then the steering ratio is 360 divided by 20. A higher ratio means that you have to turn the steering wheel more to get the wheels to turn a given distance. VARIABLE STEERING RATIOS Some cars have variable-ratio steering. the effort required to turn the steering wheel is not excessive. increased lateral acceleration as a result of high downforce and higher normal loads acting on the tyres result in increased loads on the steering rack. However. if one complete revolution (360 degrees) of the steering wheel results in the wheels of the car turning 20 degrees. SUGANDHA The steering ratio is the ratio of how far you turn the steering wheel to how far the wheels turn. Generally. In high speed driving. which uses a rack-and-pinion gear set that has a different tooth pitch (number of teeth per inch) in the centre than it has on the outside. or 18:1.you don't have to turn the steering wheel as much to get the wheels to turn a given distance -.which is a desirable trait in sports cars. sportier cars have lower steering ratios than larger cars and trucks. The lower ratio gives the steering a quicker response -. For instance. . This makes the car respond quickly when starting a turn (the rack is near the centre). lighter.

the no. Nevo Developments and Sona Koyo steering systems. the driver has to turn the steering wheel in lesser amount. Variable ratio rack and pinion systems eliminate the compromises that constant ratio systems have by allowing the designer to utilise a best fit approach for tuning the vehicle response over a wide range of driving conditions. The above ratio selected offers moderate steering effort required during cornering.Gurgaon have been contacted with regards to the requirement.AUTHORS: TULIKA.With the above steering ratio. of lock to lock turns of steering wheel is reduced. During cornering. Variable ratio can also be used to tune the yaw gain or sensitivity of the vehicle to steering inputs. A response is awaited. 3. Lesser no. . In electric power steering systems variable ratios allow the designer to balance the power requirements of the system. The steering ratio opted for our BAJA vehicle is 12:1 in support of the following reasons1. Moderate steering effort-The steering effort increases with reduction in steering ratio. of lock to lock turns. 2. SUGANDHA 2. 4. Since variable steering ratios offer a much greater advantage over constant steering ratio we are trying to look for manufacturers who can supply readymade rack and pinion ratios with desired ratios. A high yaw gain makes the vehicle feel very nervous in high speed corners where the smallest steering wheel input results in what feels like an excessive response.

This means . one on either side of the piston. Supplying higherpressure fluid to one side of the piston forces the piston to move.AUTHORS: TULIKA. Power steering helps considerably when a vehicle is stopped or moving slowly. which is part of a servo system. Hydraulic or electric actuators add controlled energy to the steering mechanism. Also. which in turn moves the rack. The piston is connected to the rack. a hydraulic cylinder. so the driver needs to provide only modest effort regardless of conditions. These systems have a direct mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the linkage that steers the wheels. Power steering helps drivers steer vehicles by augmenting steering effort of the steering wheel. this is typically called "rοad feel". Representative power steering systems for cars augment steering effort via an actuator. There are two fluid ports. power steering provides some feedback of forces acting on the front wheels to give an ongoing sense of how the wheels are interacting with the road. SUGANDHA POWER STEERING Part of the rack contains a cylinder with a piston in the middle. providing the power assist.

SUGANDHA that power-steering system failure (to augment effort) still permits the vehicle to be steered using manual effort alone. An interfaced ECU circuit that shares the same housing converts the signals from the torque and rotation sensors into signals that the ECU can process and provide an active output. The motor then pushes the rack either to the right or left. reversing the current flow reverses directional rotation of the motor. The ECU then emits the appropriate command to the ‘power unit or current controller’. The sensor performs two different functions: Firstly as a torque sensor.AUTHORS: TULIKA. The microprocessor control unit analyzes inputs from the steering sensor as well as the vehicle’s speed sensor. Increasing current to the motor increases the amount of power assist. Direction of rack movement is dependent on which way the voltage flows. and secondly as a rotation sensor. ELECTRIC POWER STEERING A steering sensor is located on the input shaft where it is bolted to the gearbox housing. which supplies the electric motor with the necessary current to activate. The sensor inputs are then compared to determine how much power assist is required according to the ‘forces capability map data’ stored in the ECU’s memory. This map data is pre-programmed by the manufacturer. which converts the rotation speed and direction into voltage signals for the ECU to monitor and convert into a binary code. it converts steering torque input and direction into voltage signals for the ECU to monitor and convert into a binary code. The electric power assistance system has three operating modes: .

If the steering wheel is turned and held in the full-lock position and steering assist reaches maximum.AUTHORS: TULIKA. 2. This eliminates all power assist. The control unit is also designed to protect the motor against voltage surges from a faulty alternator or charging problem. In normal control mode left or right power assist is provided in response to input from the torque and rotation sensor’s inputs. outputs. . An in-dash EPS warning light is also illuminated to alert the driver. 3. the control unit turns the system off by actuating a fail-safe relay in the power unit. the control unit reduces current to the electric motor to prevent an overload situation that might damage the motor. causing the system to revert back to manual steering. SUGANDHA 1. If a problem occurs. The return control mode is used to assist steering return after completing a turn. The damper control mode changes the vehicle speed to improve road feel and dampen kickback. The electronic steering control unit is capable of self-diagnosing faults by monitoring the system’s inputs. and the driving current of the electric motor.

AUTHORS: TULIKA. . 2. PINION ASSIST TYPE -The power assist unit is attached to the steering gear's pinion shaft. tilt-type steering columns and other column types. -This system is compact and easy to mount on the vehicle. SUGANDHA TYPES OF EPS 1. COLUMN ASSIST TYPE -The power assist unit. controller and torque sensor are attached to the steering column. -This power assist system can be applied to fixed steering columns.

RACK ASSIST TYPE -The power assist unit is attached to the steering gear rack. DIRECT DRIVE TYPE -The steering gear rack and power assist unit form a single unit. We are trying to look for cars where EPS has been implemented and trying to see if purchasing such a system will prove effective and cost efficient for us. allowing assist torque to be increased greatly without raising interior noise. . allowing great flexibility in layout design. -Combined with a variable-ratio steering gear. and in turn ideal steering feeling. -The power assist unit can be located freely on the rack. -The steering system is compact and fits easily in the engine compartment layout.AUTHORS: TULIKA. 3. SUGANDHA -The power assist unit is outside the vehicle's passenger compartment. -The direct provision of assistance to the rack enables low friction and inertia. -The power assist unit's high reduction gear ratio enables very low inertia and superior driving feeling. 4. this system can suffice with a compact motor and offer superior handling characteristics.

it means spinning the car and ending up pointing back the way it came. the car goes where it's pointed far too efficiently and ends up diving into the corner much more quickly than expected. that normally involves going off the outside of the corner into a catch area or on to the grass. With oversteer. The end result is that the car will start to take the corner very wide. Understeer can be brought on by all manner of chassis. resulting in the rear kicking out in the corner. In normal driving. Oversteer is brought on by the car losing grip on the rear wheels as the weight is transferred off them under braking.AUTHORS: TULIKA. Getting out of understeer can involve letting off the throttle in front-wheel-drive vehicles (to try to give the tyres chance to grip) or getting on the throttle in rear-wheel-drive vehicles (to try to bring the back end around). the end result in racing is that the car will spin and end up going off the inside of the corner backwards. it means crashing at the outside of the corner. In normal driving. In racing. At this point the mechanical grip of the front tyres can simply be overpowered and they start to lose grip (for example on a wet or greasy road surface). Typically it happens as brakes are applied and the weight is transferred to the front of the car. BUMP STEER . suspension and speed issues but essentially it means that the car is losing grip on the front wheels. OVERSTEER Oversteer is the opposite of understeer. Without counter-steering. SUGANDHA VEHICLE DYNAMICS UNDERSTEER Understeer is so called because the car steers less than what is wanted.

Bump steer in many stock vehicles is usually noticed by lowering the ride height. The tie rod as well as the A-arms are connected to the upright which hold the wheel hub. changing the suspension geometry. This will represent the situation of a driver with no steering input (zero degrees of steering angle). . wheel. Example #1: Bump Steer Scenario The picture displays the FRONT RIGHT section of a typical Formula SAE chassis. The examples below will further explain bump steer. and tire. As can be seen. SUGANDHA It is defined as the tendency of a wheel to steer as it moves upwards into jounce. It is typically measured in degrees per meter or degrees per foot.AUTHORS: TULIKA. brake rotor. caliper. there are two A-arms and a stationary steering rack (silver bar) with a tie rod. This is mainly due to the tie rod not moving in the same arc motion as the control arm (upper or lower depending on suspension type).

Suddenly the driver hits a pothole compressing the front suspension. the front tire immediately toes in making the vehicle less predictable and unstable. SUGANDHA Initially the vehicle has no toe in or out and is traveling in a straight line. All seems well as the driver holds the wheel steady with no input over the smooth pavement road. As can be seen. The steering can also feel a bit light and loose under bump steer.AUTHORS: TULIKA. The same issue can occur with hard braking which .

Example #2: Scenario without Bump Steer . As the upper A-arm loses its lateral (left to right) displacement under jounce. due to the high difference in angle and length of the tie rod. As seen below.AUTHORS: TULIKA. the tie rod gains lateral distance pushing the upright out toeing in the front suspension. the arc motion is completely off when compared to the upper A-arm. SUGANDHA would compress the front suspension due to forward weight transfer.

SUGANDHA As can be seen. .AUTHORS: TULIKA. It can already been seen that this situation is more advantageous as the arc of tie rod will be more similar to the arc motion of the upper control arm. A picture of the vehicle prior to a bump or heavy braking can be seen below. The tie rod now hides behind the upper A-arm at the front view. the silver stationary steering rack seen in the previous example has been removed with a tie rod placed right on the upper bar of the chassis where the steering rack should be (assuming the designer wanted the tie rod on the upper portion of the upright).

60 inches Wheel base. the wheel still has no toe in or toe out.26 turns.6. The vehicle is in turn far more stable and predictable than the bump steer scenario.2 deg.using the formula listed above we get it close to 11.675 inches.12:1 Track. CALCULATIONS:Steering ratio. +/.2 deg. Ackermann %=60% Turning circle radius.58 inches Maximum steering angleInner front wheel. Lock to lock.67 inches per turn Lateral rack movement. Outer front wheel.2. +/. RESEARCH GOING ON FOR THESE:- .2 feet.2. SUGANDHA And with load or heavy braking.28 deg.40 deg.AUTHORS: TULIKA. Rack travel. The driver no longer has the light feeling through the steering wheel over bumps and dips.

SUGANDHA 1. . 3. So a rack of 14” with a gear ratio of 1.AUTHORS: TULIKA. Longer tie rods are being searched to make the rack as small as possible. 2. Market research on EPS as well as variable steering ratio is being carried out for its implementation.5:1 is being researched for application. To implement rack of size as small as possible to reduce bump steer and to make the steering a bit more responsive and to decrease the lock to lock for the ease and comfort of the driver at no increased cost.

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