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C2 C.

Compressive Strength of Concrete

is controlled by the proportioning of: • cement, • coarse and fine aggregates, • water (is the chief factor for determining concrete strength, as shown in Fig.1.11 the lower is the water-cement ratio, the higher is the compressive strength.), • various admixtures.

Water: • necessary for the proper chemical action in the hardening of concrete, • extra water increases the workability but reduces strength.

Compressive Strength of Concrete

a. spliting b. sliping


Compressive Strength of Concrete – the concrete classes The concrete of a given strength is identified by its “class”. A class C20/25 concrete, for example, has a characteristic cylinder crushing strength, at 28 days, fck = 20 N/mm2 and a characteristic cube crushing strength fck,cube = 25N/mm2.

fck (cylinder) fck,cube


D. Tensile Strength • an important property that greatly affects the extent and size of cracking in structures. • is a more variable property than compressive strength, and is about 10 to 15% of it.


D. Tensile Strength


E. Stress-Strain Relation
The loads on a structure cause distortion of its members with resulting stresses and strains in the concrete and the steel reinforcement. To carry out the analysis and design of a member it is necessary to have knowledge of the relationship between these stresses and strains. Concrete is a very variable material, having a wide range of strengths and stress-strain curves. The stress-strain behavior of concrete is dependent on its strength, age at loading, rate of loading, aggregates and cement properties, and type and size of specimens. Typical curves for specimens loaded in compression at 28 days using normal testing speeds are shown in Fig.1.16.

F. Modulus of Elasticity • the most commonly adopted alternative definition of the elasticity modulus of the concrete is the secant or static modulus (Ecm). • is measured for a particular concrete by means of a static test in which a cylinder or a prism is loaded to just above one-third of the corresponding control cube stress and then cycled back to zero stress. Load is then reapplied and the behavior will then be almost linear. • the average slope of the line up to the specified stress is taken as the value for Ecm.

F. Modulus of Elasticity The elastic modulus at an age other than 28 days may be estimated from:

• where Ecm(t) and fcm(t) are the values at an age of t days and Ecm and fcm are the values determined at an age of 28 days.


G. Shrinkage As concrete hardens there is a reduction in volume. Shrinkage, broadly defined, is the volume change that is unrelated to load application. It is possible for concrete cured continuously under water to increase in volume (this volume change is known as a swell); however, the usual concern is with a decrease in volume.


G. Shrinkage Shrinkage is liable to cause cracking of the concrete, but it also has the beneficial effect of strengthening the bond between the concrete and the steel reinforcement. The total shrinkage strain is obtained as a sum of two components, the drying shrinkage strain (εcd) and the autogenous shrinkage strain (εca-). The value of the total shrinkage strain (εcs) follows from the equation:

The final value of the drying shrinkage strain εcd,∞ is obtained from the equation:


G. Shrinkage


G. Shrinkage


H. Creep • creep and shrinkage are time-dependent deformations that, alongside the cracking, provide the greatest concern for the designer. • concrete is elastic only under loads of short duration. Because of additional deformation with time, the effective behavior is that of an inelastic material. • Creep, or “plastic flow” as it is some times called, is the continuous deformation of a member under sustained load at unit stresses within the accepted elastic range (say, below 0.5∙fck). • increased deformation with time.


H. Creep

The internal mechanism of creep may be due to any one or a combination of the following: (1)crystalline flow in the aggregate and hardened cement paste, (2)plastic flow of the cement paste surrounding the aggregate, (3)closing of internal voids, (4)the flow of water out of the cement gel due to external load and drying.

H. Creep The creep deformation of concrete εcc(∞,t0) at time t=∞, for a constant compressive stress σc with time, may be calculated from the relation:


H. Creep The effects of creep are particularly important in beams, where the increased deflections may cause the opening of cracks, damage to finishes and the non-alignment of mechanical equipment. The effect of unloading may be seen from Fig 1.22, where at a certain time t1, the load is removed. There is an immediate elastic recovery and a long-time creep recovery, but a residual deformation remains. Redistribution of stress between concrete and steel occurs primarily in the uncracked compressive areas and has little effect on the tension reinforcement, other than reducing shrinkage stresses in some instance. The provision of reinforcements in the compressive zone of a flexural member often helps to restrain the deflections due to creep.