Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete

-C3-

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REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE I –C3-

Characteristic Material Strengths The characteristic strengths of materials, corresponding to the 5% fractile, are those strengths values of the tests results below which less than 5% will fall.

the normal (or Gaussian) distribution

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Characteristic Loads § represent the limits within which at least 95% of values will lie in practice. § it’s expected that not more than 5% of cases will exceed the upper limit.

* usually, the maximum value of the actions on a structural member is critical, so the positive sign in the expression is used, ** minimum value is used when for stability cases or for the behaviour of the continous members.
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Partial Factors of Safety

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Design situations - sets of physical conditions representing the real conditions occurring during a certain time interval for which the design will demonstrate that relevant limit states are not exceeded. § persistent design situations, (the conditions of normal use), § transient design situations, (temporary conditions), § accidental design situations, (exceptional conditions), § seismic design situations.

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Ultimate Limit State (ULS) associated with collapse, loss of equilibrium of the whole structure, failure by excessive deformation, rupture or loss of stability

Limit States
are defined as the states beyound which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance

Serviceability Limit States (SLS) correspond to conditions beyond which specified service requirements for a structure or structural member are no longer met:
• deformations, • deflections, • vibrations, • crackings of the concrete that affect durability.
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Actions • permanent [G]: self-weight of the structure, fixed equipment… • variable [Q]: live loads, wind, snow, temperature… • accidental [A]: fire, explosions, impact, seism.

Loads types. Loads transmission to the ground. Ground reactions.

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snow load

wind load

seismic load
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Combinations of Actions for ULS

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Combinations of Actions for SLS

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Range of values for variable actions

Recommended values of ψ factors for buildings.
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Example 3.1 (ULS - EQU)

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Example 3.2
Wind and imposed load acting on an office building – stability check (ULS)

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Example 3.3
Combination of actions at the serviciability limit state - (SLS)

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Bending behaviour of simple concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete

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Bending behaviour of simple concrete, reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete beams

simple concrete

reinforced concrete

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prestressed concrete

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The work stages of the reinforced concrete beams

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Concrete cover

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distance pieces

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