1

REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE I –C6-
Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete - - C C 6 6 - -
« Milwaukee Art Museum», USA
Santiago Calatrava
« Jubilee Church - Rome », Italy
Richard Meier
Dubai Arch Bridge – 2012
2
Flanged Section in Bending
• T-sections and L-sections, having their flanges in compression, can both be designed or
analyzed in a similar manner,
• the flanges generally provide a large compressive area.
FLANGED
SECTIONS
Double
Reinforced
Singly
Reinforced
f
h x ≤ ⋅ λ
f
h x > ⋅ λ
f
h x > ⋅ λ
and lim s
µ µ ≤
1
and lim s
µ µ >
1
3
Singly Reinforced Flanged Section –
the Depth of the Stress Block Lies Within the Flange:
• , the section can be considered as an equivalent rectangular section of breadth equal
to the flange width b.
• the non-rectangular section below the neutral axis is in tension and is, therefore, considered to
be cracked and inactive
f
h x ≤ ⋅ λ
f
h x ≤ ⋅ λ
4

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ≤
2
f
cd f plate Ed
h
d f h b M M η
cd w
f d b ⋅ ⋅

2
1

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ − ⋅

⋅ ≤
⋅ ⋅ d
h
.
d
h
b
b
f d b
M f f
w
cd w
Ed
5 0 1
2
η

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ≤
d
h
.
d
h
b
b f f
w
5 0 1 η µ We conclude that: if then the depth of the stress block lies within
the flange.
f
h x ≤ ⋅ λ
The required reinfocement quantity is:
z f
M
A
yd
Ed
s

·
1
• for , we obtain the resistance moment of the plate: M
Rd
=M
plate f
h x · ⋅ λ

the T section is designed as
a equivalent rectangular
section h x b :
Singly Reinforced Flanged Section –
( )
f
h x ≤ ⋅ λ
5
f
h x > ⋅ λ Singly Reinforced Flanged Section –
• if , then:
f
h x > ⋅ λ

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ >
⋅ ⋅
·
d
h
.
d
h
b
b
f d b
M f f
w
cd w
Ed
5 0 1
2
η µ
2 1 , Rd , Rd Ed
M M M + ·
2 1 1 1 1 , s , s s
A A A + ·
2
1
x
d z

− ·
λ
2
2
f
h
d z − ·

,
_

¸
¸ ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ·
2
1 1 1
x
d f x b z F M
cd w c , Rd
λ
η λ
( )

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · ⋅ ·
2
2 2 2
f
cd f w c , Rd
h
d f h b b z F M η
and lim s
µ µ ≤
1
6
f
h x > ⋅ λ Singly Reinforced Flanged Section –
( )

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − − · − ·
2
2 1
f
cd f w Ed , Rd Ed , Rd
h
d f h b b M M M M η
cd w
f d b ⋅ ⋅

2
1
( )
cd w
f
cd f w
cd w
Ed
cd w
, Rd
f d b
h
d f h b b
f d b
M
f d b
M
⋅ ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ −

⋅ ⋅
·
⋅ ⋅
2 2 2
1
2
η

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ − ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅ − ·
d
h
.
b
b
d
h
f
w
f
s
5 0 1 1
1
η µ µ
and
lim s
µ µ ≤
1
Double Reinforced
Section
Singly Reinforced
Section
lim s
µ µ ≤
1
lim s
µ µ >
1
7
• we check if the tension steel yields:
lim s
µ µ ≤
1
• if , then the flanged section is simply reinforced:
0
1 1 1
· −
, c , s
F F
yd , s cd w
f A f x b ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
1 1
η λ
yd
cd
w
yd
cd
w , s
f
f
d b
f
f
d b
d
x
A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
,
_

¸
¸
⋅ ⋅ · ω λ η
1 1
0
2 2 1
· −
, c , s
F F ( )
yd , s cd f w
f A f h b b ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ −
2 1
η
( )
yd
cd
f w , s
f
f
h b b A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · η
2 1
( )
yd
cd
f w
yd
cd
w , s , s s
f
f
h b b
f
f
d b A A A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · + · η ω
2 1 1 1 1
yd
cd
w
f
w
s
f
f
d b
d
h
b
b
A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ + · 1
1
η ω
x
x d
cu
s

·
3
1
ε
ε
s
yd
yd cu cu s
E
f
. · ≥
,
_

¸
¸ −
⋅ ·
,
_

¸
¸ −
⋅ ·
,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ · ε
ξ
ξ
ξ
ξ
ε
ξ
ε ε
1
0035 0
1
1
1
3 3 1
8
f
h x > ⋅ λ Double Reinforced Flanged Section – and
lim s
µ µ >
1
3 2 1 , Rd , Rd , Rd Ed
M M M M + + ·
3 1 2 1 1 1 1 , s , s , s s
A A A A + + ·
2
1
x
d z

− ·
λ
2
2
f
h
d z − ·
2 3
d d z − ·

,
_

¸
¸ ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ·
2
1 1 1
x
d f x b z F M
cd w c , Rd
λ
η λ
( )

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · ⋅ ·
2
2 2 2
f
cd f w c , Rd
h
d f h b b z F M η
( )
2 2 3 2 3 3 1 3
d d f A z F z F M
yd s s , s , Rd
− ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ ·
9
• if , then the flanged section is double reinforced, and :
lim s
µ µ >
1
cd w lim , Rd
f d b M ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·
2
1
µ
( )

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − ·
2
2
f
cd f w , Rd
h
d f h b b M η
2 1 3 , Rd , Rd Ed , Rd
M M M M − − ·
( ) ( ) ( )
f cd f w cd w lim Ed yd s
h . d f h b b f d b M d d f A ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · − ⋅ ⋅ 5 0
2
2 2
η µ
cd w
f d b ⋅ ⋅

2
1
( ) ( ) ( )
cd w
f cd f w
cd w
cd w lim
cd w
Ed
cd w
yd s
f d b
h . d f h b b
f d b
f d b
f d b
M
f d b
d d f A
⋅ ⋅
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ −

⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅

⋅ ⋅
·
⋅ ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
5 0 η
µ
( )

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
− − − ·
⋅ ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅
d
h
.
d
h
b
b
f d b
d d f A
f f
w
lim
cd w
yd s
5 0 1 1
2
2 2
η µ µ
( )
yd
cd
w
f f
w
lim
s
f
f
d b
d d
d
h
.
d
h
b
b
A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

,
_

¸
¸
− − −
·
2
2
2
5 0 1 1 η µ µ
yd s yd , s
f A f A ⋅ · ⋅
2 3 1
2 3 1 s , s
A A ·
10
( )
cd lim w yd , s
f d b f A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ η ξ λ
1 1
( )
yd
cd
lim w , s
f
f
d b A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · η ξ λ
1 1
( )
cd f w yd , s
f h b b f A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · ⋅ η
2 1
( )
yd
cd
f w , s
f
f
h b b A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · η
2 1
3 1 2 1 1 1 1 , s , s , s s
A A A A + + ·
( )
2 1 s
yd
cd
f w
yd
cd
lim w s
A
f
f
h b b
f
f
d b A + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · η η ξ λ
( ) [ ]
2 1 s f w lim w
yd
cd
s
A h b b d b
f
f
A + ⋅ − + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ξ λ η
11
yd
cd
w
f
w
s
f
f
d b
d
h
b
b
A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
− ⋅ + · 1
1
η ω
12
Effective width of flanges
The effective flange width of T beams,
depends on:
• the web and flange dimensions,
• the type of loading,
• the span,
• the support conditions,
• the transverse reinforcement.
The design of the effective flange width is
based on the distance l
0
between points of
zero moment if:
1 , eff
l
2 , eff
l
3 , eff
l
1 0
85 0
, eff
l . l ⋅ ·
( )
2 1 0
15 0
, eff , eff
l l . l + ⋅ ·
2 0
7 0
, eff
l . l ⋅ ·
3 2 0
15 0
, eff , eff
l l . l + ⋅ ·
Section 1-1
2 3 3 2
1
/ ... /
l
l
i , eff
i , eff
·
+
2 3
5 0
, eff , eff
l . l ⋅ ≤
13

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