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**REINFORCED AND PRESTRESSED CONCRETE I –C6-
**

Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete - - C C 6 6 - -

« Milwaukee Art Museum», USA

Santiago Calatrava

« Jubilee Church - Rome », Italy

Richard Meier

Dubai Arch Bridge – 2012

2

Flanged Section in Bending

• T-sections and L-sections, having their flanges in compression, can both be designed or

analyzed in a similar manner,

• the flanges generally provide a large compressive area.

FLANGED

SECTIONS

Double

Reinforced

Singly

Reinforced

f

h x ≤ ⋅ λ

f

h x > ⋅ λ

f

h x > ⋅ λ

and lim s

µ µ ≤

1

and lim s

µ µ >

1

3

Singly Reinforced Flanged Section –

the Depth of the Stress Block Lies Within the Flange:

• , the section can be considered as an equivalent rectangular section of breadth equal

to the flange width b.

• the non-rectangular section below the neutral axis is in tension and is, therefore, considered to

be cracked and inactive

f

h x ≤ ⋅ λ

f

h x ≤ ⋅ λ

4

,

_

¸

¸

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ≤

2

f

cd f plate Ed

h

d f h b M M η

cd w

f d b ⋅ ⋅

⋅

2

1

,

_

¸

¸

⋅ − ⋅

⋅

⋅ ≤

⋅ ⋅ d

h

.

d

h

b

b

f d b

M f f

w

cd w

Ed

5 0 1

2

η

,

_

¸

¸

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ≤

d

h

.

d

h

b

b f f

w

5 0 1 η µ We conclude that: if then the depth of the stress block lies within

the flange.

f

h x ≤ ⋅ λ

The required reinfocement quantity is:

z f

M

A

yd

Ed

s

⋅

·

1

• for , we obtain the resistance moment of the plate: M

Rd

=M

plate f

h x · ⋅ λ

≅

the T section is designed as

a equivalent rectangular

section h x b :

Singly Reinforced Flanged Section –

( )

f

h x ≤ ⋅ λ

5

f

h x > ⋅ λ Singly Reinforced Flanged Section –

• if , then:

f

h x > ⋅ λ

,

_

¸

¸

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ >

⋅ ⋅

·

d

h

.

d

h

b

b

f d b

M f f

w

cd w

Ed

5 0 1

2

η µ

2 1 , Rd , Rd Ed

M M M + ·

2 1 1 1 1 , s , s s

A A A + ·

2

1

x

d z

⋅

− ·

λ

2

2

f

h

d z − ·

,

_

¸

¸ ⋅

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ·

2

1 1 1

x

d f x b z F M

cd w c , Rd

λ

η λ

( )

,

_

¸

¸

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · ⋅ ·

2

2 2 2

f

cd f w c , Rd

h

d f h b b z F M η

and lim s

µ µ ≤

1

6

f

h x > ⋅ λ Singly Reinforced Flanged Section –

( )

,

_

¸

¸

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − − · − ·

2

2 1

f

cd f w Ed , Rd Ed , Rd

h

d f h b b M M M M η

cd w

f d b ⋅ ⋅

⋅

2

1

( )

cd w

f

cd f w

cd w

Ed

cd w

, Rd

f d b

h

d f h b b

f d b

M

f d b

M

⋅ ⋅

,

_

¸

¸

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ −

−

⋅ ⋅

·

⋅ ⋅

2 2 2

1

2

η

,

_

¸

¸

⋅ − ⋅

,

_

¸

¸

− ⋅ ⋅ − ·

d

h

.

b

b

d

h

f

w

f

s

5 0 1 1

1

η µ µ

and

lim s

µ µ ≤

1

Double Reinforced

Section

Singly Reinforced

Section

lim s

µ µ ≤

1

lim s

µ µ >

1

7

• we check if the tension steel yields:

lim s

µ µ ≤

1

• if , then the flanged section is simply reinforced:

0

1 1 1

· −

, c , s

F F

yd , s cd w

f A f x b ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

1 1

η λ

yd

cd

w

yd

cd

w , s

f

f

d b

f

f

d b

d

x

A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

,

_

¸

¸

⋅ ⋅ · ω λ η

1 1

0

2 2 1

· −

, c , s

F F ( )

yd , s cd f w

f A f h b b ⋅ · ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ −

2 1

η

( )

yd

cd

f w , s

f

f

h b b A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · η

2 1

( )

yd

cd

f w

yd

cd

w , s , s s

f

f

h b b

f

f

d b A A A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · + · η ω

2 1 1 1 1

yd

cd

w

f

w

s

f

f

d b

d

h

b

b

A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

1

]

1

¸

⋅

,

_

¸

¸

− ⋅ + · 1

1

η ω

x

x d

cu

s

−

·

3

1

ε

ε

s

yd

yd cu cu s

E

f

. · ≥

,

_

¸

¸ −

⋅ ·

,

_

¸

¸ −

⋅ ·

,

_

¸

¸

− ⋅ · ε

ξ

ξ

ξ

ξ

ε

ξ

ε ε

1

0035 0

1

1

1

3 3 1

8

f

h x > ⋅ λ Double Reinforced Flanged Section – and

lim s

µ µ >

1

3 2 1 , Rd , Rd , Rd Ed

M M M M + + ·

3 1 2 1 1 1 1 , s , s , s s

A A A A + + ·

2

1

x

d z

⋅

− ·

λ

2

2

f

h

d z − ·

2 3

d d z − ·

,

_

¸

¸ ⋅

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ ·

2

1 1 1

x

d f x b z F M

cd w c , Rd

λ

η λ

( )

,

_

¸

¸

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · ⋅ ·

2

2 2 2

f

cd f w c , Rd

h

d f h b b z F M η

( )

2 2 3 2 3 3 1 3

d d f A z F z F M

yd s s , s , Rd

− ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ · ⋅ ·

9

• if , then the flanged section is double reinforced, and :

lim s

µ µ >

1

cd w lim , Rd

f d b M ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ·

2

1

µ

( )

,

_

¸

¸

− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − ·

2

2

f

cd f w , Rd

h

d f h b b M η

2 1 3 , Rd , Rd Ed , Rd

M M M M − − ·

( ) ( ) ( )

f cd f w cd w lim Ed yd s

h . d f h b b f d b M d d f A ⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · − ⋅ ⋅ 5 0

2

2 2

η µ

cd w

f d b ⋅ ⋅

⋅

2

1

( ) ( ) ( )

cd w

f cd f w

cd w

cd w lim

cd w

Ed

cd w

yd s

f d b

h . d f h b b

f d b

f d b

f d b

M

f d b

d d f A

⋅ ⋅

⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ −

−

⋅ ⋅

⋅ ⋅ ⋅

−

⋅ ⋅

·

⋅ ⋅

− ⋅ ⋅

2 2

2

2 2

2 2

5 0 η

µ

( )

,

_

¸

¸

⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

,

_

¸

¸

− − − ·

⋅ ⋅

− ⋅ ⋅

d

h

.

d

h

b

b

f d b

d d f A

f f

w

lim

cd w

yd s

5 0 1 1

2

2 2

η µ µ

( )

yd

cd

w

f f

w

lim

s

f

f

d b

d d

d

h

.

d

h

b

b

A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

−

,

_

¸

¸

⋅ − ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

,

_

¸

¸

− − −

·

2

2

2

5 0 1 1 η µ µ

yd s yd , s

f A f A ⋅ · ⋅

2 3 1

2 3 1 s , s

A A ·

10

( )

cd lim w yd , s

f d b f A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ⋅ η ξ λ

1 1

( )

yd

cd

lim w , s

f

f

d b A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · η ξ λ

1 1

( )

cd f w yd , s

f h b b f A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · ⋅ η

2 1

( )

yd

cd

f w , s

f

f

h b b A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − · η

2 1

3 1 2 1 1 1 1 , s , s , s s

A A A A + + ·

( )

2 1 s

yd

cd

f w

yd

cd

lim w s

A

f

f

h b b

f

f

d b A + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ − + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · η η ξ λ

( ) [ ]

2 1 s f w lim w

yd

cd

s

A h b b d b

f

f

A + ⋅ − + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · ξ λ η

11

yd

cd

w

f

w

s

f

f

d b

d

h

b

b

A ⋅ ⋅ ⋅

1

]

1

¸

⋅

,

_

¸

¸

− ⋅ + · 1

1

η ω

12

Effective width of flanges

The effective flange width of T beams,

depends on:

• the web and flange dimensions,

• the type of loading,

• the span,

• the support conditions,

• the transverse reinforcement.

The design of the effective flange width is

based on the distance l

0

between points of

zero moment if:

1 , eff

l

2 , eff

l

3 , eff

l

1 0

85 0

, eff

l . l ⋅ ·

( )

2 1 0

15 0

, eff , eff

l l . l + ⋅ ·

2 0

7 0

, eff

l . l ⋅ ·

3 2 0

15 0

, eff , eff

l l . l + ⋅ ·

Section 1-1

2 3 3 2

1

/ ... /

l

l

i , eff

i , eff

·

+

2 3

5 0

, eff , eff

l . l ⋅ ≤

13

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