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Definitions •behavior: what an animal does and how it does it; pattern of responses in an animal •stimulus: a change in the environment a. Internal (pain) b. External (light, sound) •response: a change in an organism, produced by a stimulus •reflex: a rapid unconscious response -ex. young rabbit touches a stinging nettle plant B. Reflex Arc 1. Receptors: sensory cells or nerve endings 2. Sensory Neurons: to receive messages across synapses from receptors and carry them to the CNS. 3. Relay Neurons: to receive messages, across synapses, from sensory neurons, and pass them to motor neurons. 4. Motor Neurons: to receive messages, across synapses, from relay neurons and carry them to effector. 5. Effectors: carry out response after receiving message from motor neuron -ex. muscles contract -ex. glands secrete C. Sequence of Events in Response to Pain—“Coordination” 1. Nerve endings (nocireceptors; nerve endings of sensory neurons) in the skin detect the pain. 2. Synaptic Transmission: impulses travel to the ends of the sensory neurons and synapse with relay neurons. 3. Relay neurons synapse with motor neurons that carry impulses to muscles. 4. Messages are passed across synapses from motor neurons to muscle fibers, which contract. II. Perception of Stimuli A. Types of Receptors a. Mechanoreceptors- mechanical energy in the form of sound waves -ex. hair cells in cochlea; perceive movements b/c pressure/gravity -ex. pressure receptor cells in the skin b. Chemoreceptors: perceive chemical substances dissolved in water -ex. receptor cells in tongue -ex. nerve endings in the nose (chemical substances as vapors) c. Thermoreceptors: perceive tempterature -ex. nerve endings in skin detect warm/cold d. Photoreceptors: detect electromagnetic radiation, usually in form of light -ex. rod/cone cells in eye B. Vision a. Vertebrate Eye 1. Structures
a. Eyelid - What: • accessory structure • includes conjuntiva - Functions: • shade eyes during sleep • protect from excessive light and foreign objects • spread lubricating secretions over eyeballs b. Conjunctiva - What: • thin, protective mucous membrane c. Cornea - What: • nonvascular • transparent • fibrous coat • covers iris - Functions: • helps focus light d. Pupil - What: • hole in center of iris e. Lens - What: • nonvascular • transparent - Functions:
• fine-tunes focusing of light rays for clear vision f. Iris - What: • suspended between cornea and lens • attached to ciliary processes • circular and radial smooth muscle - Functions: • regulate amount of light entering posterior cavity of eyeball g. Ciliary body - What: • includes ciliary muscle - Functions: • alters shape of lens for near/far vision h. Aqueous humor - What: • watery fluid - Functions: • nourishes lens and cornea i. Vitreous humor - What: • jelly-like substance • contributes to intraocular pressure • embryonic - Functions: • helps prevent eyeball from collapsing j. Sclera - What: • “white of the eye” • coat of dense connective tissue • covers all except cornea - Functions: 1. gives shape 2. protects inner parts k. Retina
• 3rd and inner coat of eye • beginning of visual pathway 1. Contains 120 million ROD cells - more sensitive to light - night vision - no color - shapes and movement - wider field of view - best in dim light 2. Contains 6 million CONE cells - distinguish color (red, green, blue) - high visual acuity - 1 of 3 kinds of photopigments • consists of: a. Pigment epithelium (nonvisual) - sheet of melanin-containing epithelial cells that lies between choroid and neural retina - absorbs stray light rays - prevents reflection and scattering of light within eyeball b. Neural portion (visual) - processes visual data before transmitting nerve impulses to thalamus, which then relays nerve impulses to primary visual cortex of cerebrum - 3 layers: 1. Photoreceptor layer • transduce slight rays into receptor potentials • synapses on bipolar cells 2. Bipolar cell layer • synapses on ganglion cells 3. Ganglion cell layer
•sends axons into optic nere • horizontal cells/amacrine cells - modifys signals - helps with integration l. Choroid - What: • posterior portion • lines most of internal surface of sclera • melanocytes - Functions: • provides nutrients to retina m. Fovea - What: • small depression in center of retina • high density of cones • no rods - Functions: • sharpest vision n. Optic nerve - What: • bundle of axons - Functions • transmits nerve impulses from retina to brain o. Blind spot - What: • small area of retina with openings through which fibers of neurons emerge as optic nerve • no rods/cones 2. Visual pigments •colored proteins that undergo structural changes upon light absorption •bound to membrane protein opsin •in rods, combination is rhodopsin •cones have photopsins—different for R, B, G •color blindness=absence of certain photopsins b. Other Types of Eyes • Planaria eye cup - small layer of epithelial cells - intensity and direction - allow to move away from predators -ex. flatworm • Compound eye - 1000 light detectors (ommatidia) - good for motion - image is mosaic of dots - UV image possible -ex. Black-eyed Susan c. Visual Processing 1. Edge Enhancement A. Explanation #1 • intensity at a point is not simply result of single receptor, but result of group of receptors called receptive field • in the center of the receptive field, receptors act excitatory on resulting signal and receptors in surrounding area act inhibitory on signal B. Explanation #2 • each ganglion cell is stimulated when light falls on a small circular area called receptive field • there are 2 types of ganglion cells: 1. ganglion stimulated if light falls on center of receptive field, but stimulation is reduced if light ALSO falls on periphery 2. light falling on periphery of receptive field stimulates ganglion cell but stimulation reduced if light also falls on center 2, Contralateral processing • Optic chiasma: deduce distances/sizes 3. Convergence • Bipolar cells in retina combine impulses from groups of rod/cone cells and pass them on to ganglion cells - neurons continue to thalamus where processing behins - processed into to visual cortex; image formation - 30% cerebral cortex in processing vision C. The Human Ear a. Structures 1. Outer Ear 1. External Pinna: collects sound waves and channels them to tympanic membrane (eardrum) 2. Auditory canal: collects sound waves and channels them to tympanic membrane (eardrum) 2. Middle Ear 3. Malleus (hammer) •attached to eardrum 4. Incus (anvil) 5. Stapes (stirrup) •attached to oval window 6. Oval window •beneath stapes 7. Round window 8. Eustachian tube: connects with pharynx and equalizes pressure
3. Inner Ear: labrynth of fluid-filled chambers within the temporal bone of the skill 9. semicircular canals: equilibrium 10. coiled cochlea: hearing b. Perception of Sound 1. Eardrum: vibrate with same frequency as sound; rapid movements 2. Bones (ossicles) of middle ear: amplify and transmit sound waves; reduce amplitude while increasing force; amplifies sounds by about 20 times 3. Oval window: membrane transmits sound waves to incompressible fluid in cochlea. 4. Round window: moves away from oval window when oval window moves toward cochlea so fluid in cochlea can vibrate freely with volume remaining constant Tympanic; Oval; Round 5. Hair cells of the cochlea: membranes inside tube with hair cells (receptors) attached; themoreceptors in Corti (membranes) • different frequencies distinguishable because each hair bundle only resonates with particular frequencies • hairs vibrate, send messages across synapses then on to brain via auditory nerve
III. Innate and Learned Behavior A. Innate Behavior 1. Natural selection/fitness - Innate behavior may have maximized fitness to the point that genes for variant behaviors were lost -ex. gulls that nest on cliff ledges (kittiwakes); innate aversion 2. Invertebrates a. Taxis • towards/away from directional stimulus -ex. woodlouse away from light (negative phototaxis) -ex. flatworm toward food (positive chemotaxis) -ex. movement of insect larvae (maggots; live in carrion) away from light (negative phototaxis) •ensures that larva remains insie carcass away from predators and near food b. Kinesis • towards/away from non-directional stimulus where rate of movement/turning depends on stimulus level but movement direction not affected. -ex. # of turns and speed of movement of woodlice (slaters) with changes in relative humidity - found in moist habitats; tracheal gas exchange - move slowly/irregularly in humid area - quickly and straight in dry areas - hydrokinesis B. Learned Behaviors 1. Habituation • loss of responsiveness to unimportant stumuli • ensures that energy not wasted in unnecessary responses -ex. hydra and regular water currents -ex. birds to predator shapes 2. Maturation: changes in neuromuscular system with development • not really learning -ex. flying behavior or feeding responses 3. Conditioned Responses - associative learning: organisms learn to associate one stimulus with another • classic conditioning • Pavlov’s Experiment - ring bell before meat spray, causes salivation; eventually bell caused salivation i. Unconditioned stimulus: • natural stimulus • yields unconditioned response -ex. meat spray, or smell or sight of food ii. Conditioned stimulus: -ex. bell ringing, or flashing of a light, a metronome ticking or musical box playing iii. Unconditioned response -ex. salivation iv. Conditioned response • after pairing conditioned stimulus yields conditioned response • increase survival chances 4. Misc. Types • Operant conditioning: trial and error learning • Imprinting • Observational Learning • Play Behavior: learn important goal-directed behaviors -ex. cheetahs, polar bears • Insight learning: ability to solve novel problems -ex. ravens -ex. chimps making tools • Cognitive learning: make judgments about environment 5. Animals -ex. chimpanzees learn to catch termites by poking sticks into termite mounds -ex. birds learn to avoid eating orange/black striped cinnabar moth caterpillars (coloration=unpleasant taste) -ex. birds take avoiding action when hearing alarm calls -ex. foxes and electric fences -ex. British hedgehogs run across roads instead of rolling up into a ball -ex. Vervet monkeys and alarm calls -ex. Belding ground squirrel alarming -ex. Birdsong 1. New World Flycatchers • reared away from adults of their species will develop song characteristic; innate 2. White-crowned Sparrow (songbirds: sparrows, robins, and canaries) • sensitive period for developing their songs • if isolated for first 50 days of life, fails to develop adult song of species • young sparrows do not sing, but listen and memorize song 3. Chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) • male chaffinches use song to keep other males out and attract females • song varies between males; allows for identification • recognizable features • reared in isolation, male chaffinch’s song will have some similar features (length & note #) • these characteristics are innate • however, narrower range of frequencies and fewer distinctive phrases C. Birds—Natural Selection and Responses a. Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) • breeds in summer Germany • recently migrated SW to Spain/Mediterranean areas in winter
• 10% W to UK instead • Experiment 1. Eggs collected from parents who had migrated to UK previous winter - These birds tended to fly W 2. Eggs collected from parents who migrated to Spain - These birds tended to fly SW * Results: - same migration routes as parents - Speculation- the increase in # of blackcaps migrating to UK for winter may be due to warmer winters and greater survival rates in UK. b. Great Tit (Parus major) • breeds in spring/early summer throughout Europe • egg timing genetic • early breeding=greater reproductive success • due to: a. opening of leaves on deciduous trees b. earlier peak in biomass of invertebrates feeding on tree leaves c. Blue Tit (Parus caeruleus) • In Southern France, some island populations reproduce 3 weeks earlier than mainland varieties
IV. Neurotransmitters and synapses A. Neurotransmitters • bind to receptors in membrane of postsynaptic neurons and cause temporary change to membrane permeability • some cause Na+ or other positively charged ion channels to open = excitatory synapses • depolarizes the post-synaptic neuron • some cause negatively charged chloride ion channels to open, increasing cell’s polarization = inhibitory synapses - or cause K+ ion channels to open • hyperpolarization makes it more difficult to depolarize a neuron sufficiently to cause an action potential B. Summation • integration by typical neuron in CNS of 1,000-10,000 synapses; additive effect from multiple releases of neurotransmitter • occurs at trigger zone • greater the summation=greater the probability a nerve impulse will be initiated • release of neurotransmitter from one of pre-synaptic neurons is insufficient to trigger an action potential • either one pre-synaptic neuron must repeatedly release neurotransmitter, or several different pre-synaptic neurons must release neurotransmitter together • single postsynaptic neuron receives input from many presynaptic neurons • some produce excitation, others inhibition • sum of all the effects determines the effect on the postsynaptic neuron C. Psychoactive Drugs • How they work: 1. Mimic neurotransmitter; bind to receptors for that neurotransmitter in post-synaptic membranes; block receptors so neurotransmitter cannot have usual effect -ex. heroine and morphine + endorphin receptors; block activity of endorphins 2. Mimic neurotransmitter with same effect, but not broken down so effect is much longer lasting 3. Interfere with breakdown or reabsorption or neurotransmitters in synapses; prolongs the effects -ex. cocaine prevents dopamine reuptake, causing build-up in synapse -ex. prozac is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, increasing serotonin levels (depression) • Addiction 1. Dopamine secretion • some drugs addictive, some not • feature of many is that transmission is stimulated at synapses using dopamine as a neurotransmitter - involved in reward pathway • users become dependent on the feelings promoted by dopamine 2. Genetic predisposition -ex. alcoholism 3. Social factors -ex. cultural traditions -ex. peer pressure -ex. poverty -ex. social deprivation -ex. traumatic life experiences -ex. mental health • Types 1. Excitatory -ex. nicotine -ex. caffeine -ex. cocaine (crack form) • stimulates transmission at synapses in brain that use dopamine as a neurotransmitter • binds to membrane proteins that pump dopamine back into presynaptic neuron • blocks these transporters, causing buildup of dopamine • increased energy, alertness, talkativeness, euphoria •absorbed through skin of nostrils; causes constriction of blood vessels, delaying absorption -ex. amphetamines (ecstacy is a derivative) 2. Inhibitory -ex. benzodiazepines (valium, temazepan, tranquilizers) -ex. alcohol -ex. THC • affects transmission at an unusual type of synapse, where the postsynaptic neuron can release a signaling chemical that binds to receptors in the membrane of the presynaptic neuron • binds to cannabinoid receptors; blocks release of excitatory neurotransmitter; inhibitory drug - receptors found in synapses of cerebellum, hippocampus, and cerebral hemispheres • Effects: memory impairment, intoxication, appetite stimulation -ex. dopamine
V. The Human Brain A. Structures a. Hindbrain 1. Medulla oblongata: unconscious process (ventilation rate, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, digestion) 2. Cerebellum: coordination of muscle movements and balance b. Midbrain c. Forebrain 3. Cerebral cortex (cerebrum) • Four lobes (parietal, occipital, temporal, frontal) • Motor cortex: commands to skeletal muscles • Somatosensory cortex: touch, pain, pressure, temperature 4. Cerebral Hemispheres: complex thought (learning, memory, problem solving) 5. Hypothalamus: hormone secretion by pituitary gland; homeostatic regulation 6. Pituitary gland: secretes hormones B. Autonomic Nervous System: Parasympathetic(acetylcholine)/Sympathetic(norepinephrine) 1. Control of the Heart A. Parasympathetic • slows heart rate, body relaxed, less needed • SLUD: salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation B. Sympathetic • speeds up heart rate (fight-or-flight) 2. Iris Control A. Parasympathetic • circular muscle fibers to contract • pupil constricts to protect the retina B. Sympathetic • radial muscles contract • pupil dilated; better image of threat • Pupil Reflex • photoreceptors in retina detect light • message sent through optic nerve • brainstem processes info, sends to circular muscles of iris • absence =brain injury • loss of cranial reflexes/autonomic NS=loss of brainstem functions (medulla, pons), very serious • affected by barbiturates/nerve damage 3. Blood flow to the gut A. Parasympathetic • blood vessels dilated, increased blood flow • blood for digestion and absorption B. Sympathetic • blood vessels constricted, decreased blood flow • blood to heart, muscles, liver C. Pain 1. Control of Pain • noxious, tissue-damaging stimuli, allows us to protect ourselves from greater damage • nociceptors: non-myelinated, naked or free nerve endings • tissue injury releases prostaglandins and kinins stimulate nociceptors 2. Processing Pain • pain signals from nerve endings along nerve fibers to spinal cord • signals pass across synapses to neurons that carry them up ascending tract to brainstem/thalamus • may pass on in other neurons to sensory areas of cerebral cortex causing conscious pain sensation • fast and slow nerve fibers • Endorphins • anterior pituitary • inhibit pain by binding to receptors in membranes and blocking release of another neuropeptide found in sensory nerves, spinal cord pathways, and brain parts associated with pain transmission • secreted during stressful times, after injuries, during exercise • improved memory and learning, euphoria, body temperature control, sex drive, mental illnesses (depression and schizophrenia) D. Lesions 1. History • 19th century, “tan”, Charcot, tumor in lower left side of brain = speech • 19th century, Phineas Gage • Broca’s area, left cerebral hemisphere, dysphasia, but reading and writing still possible • Wernicke’s area, loss of speech comprehension but can still speak • insula area, craving-center, man lost desire to smoke cigarettes after stroke 2. Disadvantages of Lesion studies • sporadic • difficult to duplicate • difficult to confirm results • difficult to obtain adequate sample size 3. Animal Studies • vivsection, electrodes, removal, damaging parts of brain, exposure to chemicals, guillotine, removal, sectioning, staining -ex. Rhesus macaques, Switzerland, Kiper (electrodes, water intake) and Martin (circuitry of neocortex; tracer chemicals and euthanizing macaques later) E. fMRIs • functional magnetic resonance imaging • flow of blood to active regions of brain; specific thought processes • safe, non-invasive • series of low-resolution scans • different colors
VI. Social Behavior in Animals A. Social Behavior • interaction between two or more individuals or same species -ex. territoriality, aggression, cooperation, courtship, deception -ex. honeybees, white pelicans, chimpanzees, naked mole rats B. Cooperative Prey Capture -ex. White pelicans: herd fish together • maximize own gain C. Honeybees A. Colonies • up to 60,000 • super-organism • lives or dies together • cooperation and role-playing ensures maximum survival of hive B. Castes 1. Queen: fertile, lays eggs, pheremone (controls workers’ activities) 2. Drones: fertile males from unfertilized eggs, ejected by workers at end of season when virgin queens available 3. Workers: sterile, females from fertilized eggs, controlled by pheremone a. collect nectar and pollen b. convert pollen to honey c. secrete wax; build comb d. feed and look after larvae e. guard the hive • sting intruders, kill themselves D. Naked Mole Rats A. Introduction • truly social mammal • burrow systems in East Africa • 20-300 individuals B. Caste 1. One dominant female (like queen), gives birth to young • 27 pups every 70 to 80 days • 1-3 males breed with queen • larger, nipples visible, curved spine 2. Workers A. Duties • search for food • help build nests B. Classes 1. Frequent workers • dig tunnels, bring food 2. Infrequent workers • larger and help with heavier tasks 3. Non-workers • live in central nest, warms breeding female and offspring, defend colony 3. Soldiers • larger than workers • remove dirt from tunnels • defend colony against predators • will sacrifice itself to rufous-beaked snake • Importance: • couldn’t build complex burrows alone, couldn’t defend alone, couldn’t survive alone C. Predator • Rufous-beaked snake • soldier will sacrifice itself E. Altruistic Behavior A. What? • behavior that reduces reproduction or survival of individual performing behavior but increases reproduction or survival of recipients • actions that increase another individual’s lifetime number of offspring at a cost to one’s own survival and reproduction • reduces individual fitness while increasing that of others • inclusive fitness: not only own offspring but close relatives and their offspring • coefficient of relatedness • kin selection B. Examples -ex. alarm behaviors (Vervet monkeys, female ground squirrels) C. Types 1. Reciprocal Altruism • behaving altruistically towards those that are not related to the individual • adaptive if favor is returned in the future • only in species with stable social groups (so aid can be exchanged) -ex. baboon helping unrelated companion with or wolf offering another wolf food -ex. blood sharing in vampire bats • Costa Rica • 2 consecutive days -ex. Rhesus monkeys and shocks
F. Foraging Behavior (food-obtaining) • Optimal Foraging Theory -ex. Shore crab (Carcinus moenas), mussels of intermediate size -ex. Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), daphnia -ex. Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), crane-fly larvae (number of larvae in beak increases/distance) G. Exaggerated Traits -ex. Peacocks -ex. Widowbirds and sexual dimporphism • brown/buff coloration • during mating season, black feathers with red/yellow epaulets/chevrons • long tail up to ½ meter H. Rhythmical Behavior Patterns • Diurnal: woodpeckers, chipmunks, dogs, grey squirrels, groundhogs • Nocturnal: beaver, rats, raccoons, opossums, flying squirrels, moonrats • Examples -ex. Racoons: deciduous, coniferous forests urban areas • sensitive front paws and facial mask -ex. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) • mate in the autumn and give birth in the spring when food is abundant -ex. Great Barrier Reef Animals • mass, syncronized spawning: release egg and sperm at same time a few nights each year during late spring; greater chance of fertilization
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