CIM 334/September 1994

A Chronology of U.S. Marine Corps Humanitarian Assistance and Peace Operations

Adam B. Siegel

Center for Naval Analyses
4401 Ford Avenue • P.O. Box 16268 • Alexandria, VA 22302-0268

Copyright CNA Corporation/Scanned October 2003 Approved for distribution: September 1994

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MarvinA. Pokrant, Director Fleet Tactics and Capabilities Program Policy, Strategy, and Forces Division

This document represents the best opinion of CNA at the time of issue. It does not necessarily represent the opinion of the Department of the Navy.

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Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D e f i n i t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Humanitarian assistance operations . . . . . . . . . . . . Peace o p e r a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How these definitions relate to the chronology . . . . . . Types o f operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Location of U.S. Marine Corps responses. . . . . . . . . . Operations in 1994 to date . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Is the historical record relevant? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sources a n d limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other service/national involvement . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems with quantification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R e f e r e n c e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List o f tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distribution list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 3 13 14 15 18 19 21 23 25 26 27 59 69 73 75

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This information memorandum fills part of that gap by providing a chronology of U. This information memorandum is part of a Center for Naval Analyses study on the Marines in humanitarian assistance operations. Similarly. These requirements are being identified through a variety of methods including (1) examining past HA/POs. and equipment to prepare for and conduct HA/POs. organization. as discussed below. military. Large disaster relief operations from Mississippi to Somalia and rapid growth in the number of UN military operations seem to prove the validity of these arguments. by the source material and criteria for selection. (2) running humanitarian assistance seminar games. many pundits have commented on the "new" role for the U. despite the seeming novelty of recent events. Designed and trained to operate amidst the chaos and mayhem of warfare. is a simple fact: these humanitarian assistance and peace operations are not new to the U. This chronology is limited. Lost amongst the rhetoric.S. . The study is examining the Marine requirements in the areas of doctrine. however. military forces have assisted civilians following natural (or man-made) catastrophes—for example.S. The chronology documents 154 cases of Marine Corps HA/POs from 1811 through 1993. Since the formation of organized militaries in ancient societies. however. Marine Corps (USMC) humanitarian assistance and peace operations (HA/POs). the U. both within the United States and abroad. a Roman legion marched to the rescue of Pompeii's survivors.Introduction Since the end of the Cold War. training. military. military has a long tradition of providing humanitarian assistance. This tradition. has been poorly documented to date.S.S. armed forces can also provide governments a means for succor amidst natural or other disasters. and (3) through examination of how other services and other nations approach HA/POs.

Second. this chronology and analysis should provide one window for understanding what is—and is not—new for the USMC in conducting HA/ POs.The material in this information memorandum supports the study effort in several ways. . the chronology presents a list of operations from which to choose case studies. First. the analysis and chronology support the choice of case studies and scenarios by ensuring that the selected case studies and scenarios are representative of past operations and trends in the history of USMC HA/POs. Third.

Motivation might provide a basis for a definition: if an operation aims to help people. all operations have a layer of humanitarian assistance— sometimes that is the dominant feature of the military's activities and. In essence. The issue of motivation can raise many other problems. The discussion below does not provide a set of over-arching definitions. we need a common definitional basis. This chronology deals with two categories—humanitarian assistance and peace operations—about which there is much definitional confusion and even controversy. after all. but instead provides an indication of the level of controversy surrounding these definitions. does one mean by humanitarian assistance operations? One could ascribe humanitarian goals to almost any military operation. This problem makes motivation a poor basis for defining what is or is not humanitarian in nature. from domestic flood relief to the coalition assault against Iraq in 1991 (which had as one of its motivating principles a mission to relieve Kuwaitis from their suffering under Iraqi occupation). humanitarian assistance is clearly subordinate. For example. This would not work for all cases because reasonable individuals could easily disagree on the true motivations behind a specific operation. This section also clarifies the criteria for including Marine Corps activities in the chronology.Definitions To catalogue a type of operation. sometimes. how does one consider humanitarian actions that occur within the context of other operations that are not motivated by humanitarian purposes? Such actions range from incidental medical care for . many people use these terms without a common understanding of their meanings. it is humanitarian in nature. In essence. Humanitarian assistance operations What.

wounded civilians on the battlefield to the rescue of shipwrecked mariners to the diversion of units for disaster relief amidst an ongoing war. In determining what falls under the rubric of humanitarian assistance operations, are (or when are) these civil affairs issues separate and distinct from the operation for which they are a part? Or, are these issues simply the humanitarian "layer" discussed above? As part of this, we should attempt to differentiate as well between humanitarian assistance operations and activities. For example, many U.S. Navy ships deploy with charitable goods aboard as part of the "Hand Clasp" program (often amphibious ships with Marines involved in the loading and off-loading of the supplies), sailors and Marines typically do charitable work during port calls, and most U.S. military bases have some form of charitable activity ongoing with the local community (the Marine Corps' Toys for Tots program is a prominent example of such community service activities). These activities—morally admirable as they may be—do not fall within the rubric of humanitarian assistance operations.

Joint Staff definition
While academic literature does not seem to provide a ready-made answer, neither do official Department of Defense definitions. Until 1994, no formally published Department of Defense dictionary had contained a definition for "humanitarian" or "humanitarian assistance." Ajoint working group moved to fill this gap in early 1993 with an "approved" definition, which reads as follows: Programs conducted to relieve or reduce the results of natural or man-made disasters or other endemic conditions such as human pain, disease, hunger, or privation that might present a serious threat to life or that can result in great damage to or loss of property. Humanitarian assistance provided by U.S. forces is limited in scope and duration. The assistance provided is designed to supplement or complement the efforts of the host nation civil authorities

or agencies that may have the primary responsibility for providing humanitarian assistance.1 This Joint Pub 1 definition seems overly restrictive as, for example, it focuses on limitations "in scope and duration," an aspect that has little relevance to the question of what is or is not humanitarian. Does this limitation imply that Operation Provide Promise, the airlift into Bosnia, is not a humanitarian assistance operation because it has lasted over two years (begun in July 1992), with no end in sight? Similarly, the military might not supplement, but rather have the primary responsibility in certain situations. We can, however, take another cut at the JCS Pub 1 definition if we focus on the first sentence. In this case, humanitarian assistance operations involve the use of military forces to alleviate human distress originating from (1) natural disasters (such as storms or earthquakes), (2) disasters incidental to human activity (such as urban firefighting or cleaning up an oil spill), and (3) disasters resulting from purposeful human activity (such as riots or warfare). If we conceptualize humanitarian operations along the lines of this trilogy, it seems that the likelihood of a military unit involved in humanitarian assistance having to employ combat capabilities differs greatly between the first two categories and the third. While military forces require some combat capabilities in the first two categories (such as force security in almost all operations and to help police patrol the streets against looters following a natural disaster), when military forces deploy in response to purposefully destructive activities, in general, the possibility for actual combat operations seems to rise greatly. Table 1 lists the 154 cases included in the chronology for 1811 through 1993 and indicates which of the three categories each operation falls This definition first got wide distribution in the JCS J-7 CD-ROM Joint Electronic Library, 1 April 1993 (Joint Military Terminology Group Memorandum (JMTGM)# 002-1369-93 modifying Joint Chiefs of Staff Pub. 1-02, Department of Defense: Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, Washington, DC, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1 Dec 1989. The 23 March 1994 Joint Pub 1-02 included this definition.

into. In the listed operations, the first and third categories dominate, with 77 and 58 cases, respectively. The first category is generally vise of Marine Corps forces to contain a natural disaster (such as through fire-fighting), to minimize the damage following one (e.g., medical care), or to help reconstruction. The third category principally involves two very traditional Marine Corps activities (police support and the protection of non-combatants, especially Americans) and one of seemingly growing prominence—relief assistance to non-combatants amidst or following conflict. The second category, responses to inadvertent human activity, includes 19 cases, the majority of which are fire-fighting activities in urban areas. The support for oil clean-up following the Exxon Valdez spill falls into this category as does, less definitively, the transportation of eight whooping cranes from one research facility to another.

Title 10 definition
The legal definition for "humanitarian and other assistance" in title 10 of the U.S. Code confuses the issue further. This section focuses on "humanitarian and civic assistance" (H/CA) and transportation of nongovernmental relief supplies. Section 401, Chapter 20, Title 10 of the U.S. Code defines H/CA in four categories: 1. Medical, dental, and veterinary care provided in rural areas of a country 2. Construction of rudimentary surface transportation systems 3. Well drilling and construction of basic sanitation facilities 4. Rudimentary construction and repair of public facilities.

2. Serious problems exist with any quantitative analysis of material such as that in the chronology. Even totaling the number of cases creates a potentially misleading impression. Some of these problems are discussed in the section on sources and limitations.

Table 1. Date

List of operations and categorization by cause of response Location Boston, MA Washington, DC Falkland Islands Type of activity Police Support Police Support Evacuation Natural Incidental Purposeful X

12 Mar 1824 1831 Fall 1831/

Jan 1832
19 July 1835 Sept 1851 11 Sept 1853 16 June 1858 17-20 6ct 1859 7 July 1866 New York City Pennsylvania China Washington, DC Harpers Ferry, VA Maine Fire Fighting Police Support Police Support Police Support Police Support Police Support, Disaster Relief X X

April 1867 28 Mar 1870

New York New York

30 May 1873

Boston, MA

DC Disaster (Rescue) Relief 11 June 1927 Washington.Table 1. Date List of operations and categorization by cause of response (continued) Location Arctic Bering Sea Type of activity Rescue Environmental Law Enforcement D isaster (Tida I Wave) Relief Fire Fighting &238&88&&f£838fr Natural Incidental Purposeful Apr 1884 2Julyl891 27 Aug 1893 South Carolina X mJan 1901 2 4 Mar 1895 Trinidad Hl il Alaska California Fire Fighting 18 Apr 1906 Disaster (Earthquake) Relief X 5 Sept 1913 12 Oct 1920 Mexico Dominican Republic Fire Fighting 28 Jan 1922 Washington. DC Police Support 31 Mar 1931 Nicaragua Disaster (Earthquake) Relief Police Support Fire Fighting X 2 May 1946 Mar 1948 California • China Haiti 13-19 Oct 1954 Disaster (Flood) Relief X 8 .

Table 1. Date List of operations and categorization by cause of response (continued) Location No rth Carol i na Type of activity Fire Fighting Natural Incidental Purposeful 23-30 April 1955 20 Sept 1955 California Fire Fighting X 1955 Cal^^^^ 12 July 1958 6 Dec 1958 14 June 1959 5 Nov 1959 29 Feb 1960 California North Carolina North Carolina California Morocco Fire Fighting Fire Fighting Fire Fighting Fire Fighting Disaster (Earthquake) Relief X X 23 Sept I960 Connecticut Disaster Disaster (Hurricane) Relief Relief Aid Disaster (Earthquake) Relief X 20 Jan 1961 20 May 1961 Congo Turkey 1-17 Nov 1961 British Honduras Disaster (Hurricane) Relief .

List of operations and categorization by cause of response (continued) Date 20 Nov 1962 Guam Location_____Type of activity (Typhoon) Relief Natural Incidental Purpowful 20 Oct 1963 Halt! Summer 1964 Peru Medical Aid 14-50 Sept 1964 Vietnam Relief (Typhoon) 27Aprl965 Dominican Republic Evacuation 1 Nov 1966 California Fire Fighting (Flood) Relief X 25-27 Feb 1969 California 21-25 Oct 1970 South Vietnam Disaster (Typhoon) Relief 22Jul 1974 12 Apr 1975 Cyprus Cambodia Evacuation 10 .Table 1.

Cuba Type of activity Evacuation Natural Incidental Purposeful Police Support 24 June 1982 Sept 1982 Lebanon Lebanon Evacuation Peace Support X X 29 May 1983 18 Apr 1989 Louisiana Alaska Disaster (Flood) Relief Environmental Clean-up X Oct 1989 California Disaster (Earthquake) Relief Disaster (Earthquake) Relief X 18 July 1990 2 Jan 1991 May 1991 SS&jSSsiHi Philippines Somalia Bangladesh Guantanamo Bay California Iceland Evacuation Disaster Relief Police Support Police Support Search and Rescue X X Nov 91-May 93 May 1992 July 1992 X Aug 92-Feb 93 Somalia Relief Aid 11 . Date List of operations and categorization by cause of response (continued) Location June/July 1976 Aug-Sept 1977 Lebanon Guantanamo Bay.Table 1.

neither part of the Title 10 definition of humanitarian assistance seems to adequately cover what USMC forces have done in the past or what they might have to do in the future. rather than why.Table 1. although Marine Corps forces do conduct such H/CA activities in conjunction with overseas training and deployments. the Tide 10 definition seems an overly restrictive definition for what constitutes a humanitarian assistance operation.S. Interestingly. In general. in a broad sense. discusses use of military transportation assets to carry non-governmental relief supplies. this results from a differing conception. not a single one of the operations listed in this chronology fits within this legal definition . military activity in South America under the rubric of "humanitarian assistance" during the early years of the Reagan administration. on the other hand. 12 . Again. The Title 10 definition. List of operations and categorization by cause of response (continued) Date Location Type of activity Natural Incidental Purposeful Aug-Sept 1992 Guam Disaster (Typhoon) Relief Dec 92-May 93 Aug 1993 22 Sept 1993 Somal ia iS:&8t:.S.SSs5 Relief Aid Tunisia Alabama This restrictive definition resulted from a Congressional desire to limit U.The follow-on section of Chapter 20 of Title 10. even with this differing approach. emphasizes why the operation was conducted—what caused the military actions. however. Some of the operations in the chronology fall into this category. Section 402. In part. seems to focus on what happened. This chronology.

Peace operations Official U. • Peace enforcement: Military intervention to forcefully restore peace between belligerents. The Marine Corps has not conducted many classical "blue-helmet" peacekeeping operations in the past. all-encompassing definition is "Peace Support Operations.. Definitions drawn from Joint Pub 3-07.g. GUI 13 . and Procedures (JTTP) far Peacekeeping Operations (Proposed Final). in addition to humanitarian assistance. and academic definitions for peace operations are in even more flux and open to more interpretations than humanitarian assistance operations. which are defined as follows: Q • Peacekeeping1. military forces for relief operations and/or to protect an endangered population amidst an on-going or potential conflict—might represent a new phenomena. The definition for "Peace-building" is also relevant: • Post-conflict diplomatic and military action to identify and support structures which will tend to strengthen and solidify peace in order to avoid a relapse into conflict. June 1993. 3. at the request of the parties to a dispute to help supervise a cease-fire agreement and/or separate the parties.S. interests (e. Nevertheless. Joint Tactics. looking to the past. (These earlier operations are not listed in this chronology because they did not have such international sanctions and were more clearly tied to direct U. peacekeeping and peace enforcement. many of the so-called "banana wars" resemble operations that could occur under peace enforcement missions sanctioned by the United Nations. operations like Provide Comfort—the deliberate deployment of U. Techniques. The USMC presence in China at the end of World War II provides another example." under which would fall. On the other hand. Operations. who may be engaged in combat.S.3.S.. commercial) than operations like those in Somalia.) Peace-building operations also do not seem to be a new kind of operation. the Reconstruction Era following the American Civil War provides a prominent example of a similar activity.. A new.

the listed cases stretch definitions so that the chronology covers the spectrum of Marine Corps operations. Thus. For example. and to support environmental activities (like the transport of endangered species). 14 . the chronology (and the typology of operations) also includes operations conducted to enforce international or domestic environmental laws.How these definitions relate to the chronology In general. although perhaps not precisely /rajnaratarian. in addition to UN peace operations. this document's working definition includes operations conducted by military forces to maintain or restore civil order. to clean up after environmental disasters (such as the clean-up following the Exxon Valdez spill). the chronology relies on a somewhat broader definition of peace operations. In some ways. Similarly. this chronology attempts to apply these unclear definitions as consistently as possible. The chronology therefore includes many instances of USMC forces committed to reinforce police operations (such as breaking up illegal distilleries in the nineteenth century) or otherwise help enforce laws (such as combatting mutinies on civilian ships). whether domestic or foreign.

natural or man-made as discussed above) and in terms of the demands placed on the Marines involved. Nation-building activities 5. Policing functions 6. In essence.e.. both in terms of the causes of the operations (i. Humanitarian intervention and military peacemaking/enforcement/keeping 2.Types of operations The operations briefly documented in this chronology cover a wide range of activities. Table 2 represents one attempt to break this spectrum of operations into more meaningful conceptual groupings. 15 . this typology falls into six broad groupings: 1. Movements of people 3. Natural disaster relief 4. Other activities.

1973.1974) (Can also occur in domestic disasters. 1991-3. Bangladesh (Operation Sea Angel).) • Population movement (support of treaties/otherwise) Cases include: Korea. Eastern Exit. 1991-3). 1892. Iraq. enforcement. Philippines. II (N.1966. 1947-9. Marine Corps humanitarian assistance and peace operations Humanitarian interventions/military peacemaking. Cubans (Mariel boatlift). 1982-4 Movement of people (principally foreign operations) Non-Combatant Evacuation Operations Cases range from: . Operation Provide Promise (Bosnia. Vietnamese since 1975. flooding from major storms Foreign cases include: Tampico Flood Relief. 1993-4) ______________Disaster relief. Haiti. Mexico. 1991. I960. Philippines. June 1982. 1980 • Quarantine Cases include: Protection of Staten Island yellow fever isolation area. Lebanon. July 1974. keeping (foreign operations) • Intervention to protect international humanitarian relief operations Cases include: Operation Restore Hope (Somalia. Lebanon. 1965 Peacekeeping/cease fire observation Cases include: Support to UN in Palestine/Israel.000 people from North to South Vietnam under the Geneva Accords). Sept 1982 (12. Vietnam Jan-Feb 1995 (300. Lebanon. 1858. 1958. 1975) .S. 1991 • • • 16 . 1955. Philippines 1972. A typology of U. 1992-3). 1970. post-Hurricane Joan. Ceylon.Table 2. 1992-3) Intervention to end conflict/to enforce cease-fires (rather than observe) Cases include: Dominican Republic. Operation GTMO (Haitian refugees.Evacuating from Natural Disasters (Fiery Vigil. guarding of Sandy Hook./otrier threatened foreign citizens in times of crisis/internal conflict (intermittent-core mission: examples: Cyprus. immigrant camp during a cholera outbreak.Evacuating U. NY. 1953 (movement of Koreans from islands above 38th Parallel to South Korea). both domestic and foreign______________ • Typhoons.000 Palestinians from Beirut) • Refugee assistance Cases include: S.S. hurricanes. Somalia.Operations at the outbreak of major conflict (Korea) or amidst major conflict (Vietnam. 1991) . Tunisia. Operation Provide Comfort I. tropical storms.

1992) Other activities • • Search and rescue Environmental enforcement and clean-up (domestic and foreign activity) Cases include: Bering Sea. Italy. 1920s). 1993 Earthquakes and volcanos: Foreign cases include: Algeria. mainly reservists) ____________Police functions (principally a domestic response)____________ Cases include: Guarding Mail Delivery (U. Sept.Table 2.A. California.S. 1955. 1891 (patrols against seal poaching). 1992 Domestic cases include: Alaska. A typology of U. on port calls) • Building infrastructure (U. 1983. Aug 1993. Nov 1993 Famine relief: Cases include: Somalia (Provide Relief). 1906 and 1989 Fire fighting (both urban and rural) Cases include: North Carolina.. 1992-3) Drought relief: Cases include: Chuuk Islands. Mississippi River. Florida. Alaska Oil Spill clean-up.S. post-Hurricane Hugo. volcano. post-earthquake. 1990 and post-volcano. post-Earthquake (Operation Helping Hand). Army in Central/South America. 1989 17 . Operation Garden Plot (L.S. 1964. South Carolina. and Guam. 1969. 1970. Philippines. 1980. Hawaii. 1992. California. Louisiana. Tunisia. post-Hurricane Camille. 1991. Marine Corps humanitarian assistance and peace operations (continued) Domestic cases include: Mississippi. 1989.. 1992 • • • • __________Nation-building (involves the following types of activities)__________ • Training police • Training military • Providing medical care • Goodwill (painting school-houses/etc. Micronesia. Louisiana. post-Earthquake. post-earthquake.

Table 3 breaks down the 154 operations in the chronology by operation type and chronological period. with both domestic 18 .19.S. looking to the operations in Somalia in Operation Restore Hope. Natural disaster relief 4. Policing functions 6. however. Marine Corps responses The 154 examples of Marine Corps HA/POs do not only cover the spectrum of operations but also span the globe. these types are by no means exclusive. "disaster relief. The first. Second. peace operations 2. Humanitarian intervention. Other Totals To 1897 1897-1945 1946-1989 1990-1993 Totals 2 9 27 2 40 2 9 4 0 1 11 58 3 4 77 4 4 11 1 5 19 87 35 8 154 2 22 15 Several important points deserve emphasis. the fourth grouping has no unique cases. For example. 1900) might logically fall within this conceptual and analytical grouping. First. Marine forces engaged in activities in all six categories even though category 1 dominated (it was the purpose of the operation). it seems that Marine Corps forces have long engaged in operations across this entire spectrum of operations. Only the first grouping does not clearly have USMC precedents before World War II. and 8 examples. second. Even this. Location of U. respectively. An operation might require a Marine unit to engage in activities across this entire spectrum at the same time. Table 3. and sixth groupings have 5. Most dominant in the chronology is the third grouping. could be misleading as a number of operations (such as the international coalition sent into China during the Boxer Rebellion. Population movements 3. Police functions comes next with 35. Due to the definitions used for the chronology. Nation-building 5. Summary by type of operation Type of operation 1 ." with 87 cases.

this breakdown indicates that the majority of pre-Spanish American War actions occurred inside the United States. Natural disaster relief 5. the USMC has been involved in at least seven different HA/POs (see table 5). Humanitarian intervention. Summary by type and location (domestic /foreign) To 1897 Dom/For 1897-1945 Dom/Fbr - Type of Operation 1. These actions were mainly police support operations. however. four have been in the continental United States and three have been overseas (one in the Caribbean and the other two in Africa). other operations similar to HA/POs continue (such 19 . Not surprisingly. Population movements 3.and foreign operations. Since the end of World War II. category 2 (population movement— Haitian migrants and Rwandan evacuation). Table 4 breaks the information in table 3 down in terms of domestic and foreign operations. The items in the chronology are about evenly split between domestic (78) and foreign (76) operations. Table 4. The operations fall into category 1 (peace operations—Somalia). Other Totals: domestic/foreign Grand total 1946-1989 1989-1993 Dom/For Dom/For 0/1 1/10 0/4 0/4 6/5 1/0 1/1 8/14 22 Totals Dom/For 0/5 2/17 41/46 32/3 3/5 1/1 3/6 24/3 0/2 28/12 40 0/2 4/5 4/0 8/7 15 28/30 3/0 2/2 34/43 77 78/76 154 Operations in 1994 to date Operations in 1994 appear to continue the trend of recentyears of an increase in the rate of USMC involvement in HA/POs. Policing activities 6. As of early August 1994. Although USMC forces have been involved in seven explicit HA/POs to date in 1994. Of these seven. the vast majority of operations have fallen into the third grouping (disaster relief)—69 of 99 total cases—and these have been split almost evenly between domestic (34) and foreign (35) actions. peace operations 2. and category 3 (disaster relief—the four domestic cases).

JTF 160 formed to handle the housing and processing of Haitians picked up at sea by U.S. if required. Two USMC expeditionary units conducted the final withdrawal of U. 36 Marines from the 6th Motor Transportation Battalion's Emergency Action Platoon assisted local authorities at the disaster scene. In June. forces from Somalia. The 11th MEU remained off the coast into April to conduct an evacuation. an outflow of Cuban refugees added Cubans to the camps at Guantanamo Bay. another MEU moved off the coast as the situation grew tense again. 20 . aided disaster relief efforts. Marines have deployed or otherwise been alerted for a number of peace operations including deployments off Haiti (with a potential operation in the near future under UN sanction). A Marine FAST platoon remained in Somalia to protect U. This included rescuing over 1. CG 2d FSSG commanded the JTF. diplomatic personnel. Marines from Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany.as operations related to events in the Former Yugoslavia and Operation Southern Watch (the no-fly zone over southern Iraq)). Navy ships. Cuba. With numerous fires stressing fire-fighting assets. USMC KC-130s and CH-53Es moved 330 Marines from the 11th MEU from USS Peleliuto Burundi to support the evacuation of Americans from Rwanda. two I MEF battalions and Army units deployed to Washington State to aid fire-fighting efforts. Coast Guard cutters and U.S. New Jersey.S.700 people stranded by the floods and providing support to the Georgia National Guard and local agencies.S. In midAugust. which included over 1. USMC HA/POs in 1994 (as of early August 1994) Location California Date January 1994 Type Disaster (Earthquake) Relief Peace operation FebruaryMarch 1994 Somalia March 1994 New Jersey Disaster (explosion) relief April 1994 Rwanda Evacuation June 1994 Caribbean Police Support July 1994 Georgia Disaster (flood) relief August 1994 Washington Fire-fighting Remarks Marines provided Korean linguists and some equipment to aid disaster relief efforts following the 17 January Los Angeles earthquake. Following an underground pipeline explosion in Edison. Georgia. Table 5.000 Marines plus other service personnel. Amidst major flooding.

With growing environmental awareness and increasing numbers of international treaties. disaster relief. A reasonable prognostication suggests that this type of operation. The first grouping—humanitarian intervention and various "peace" missions—has flowered in recent years. or support to police authorities will disappear from the list of military missions. has been part of the military's mission at least since the Spanish-American War and the subsequent training of indigenous militaries in the lands acquired from Spain. in conjunction with or under the auspices of the United Nations. While changes in force levels. the national leadership might task the military more often in this arena. which is included in the catch-all "other operations" category. not covered in the chronology and not a focus of this study. The only other area in which it seems sensible to predict a growth in military involvement concerns environmental enforcement and clean-up. operations in 2 (population movements). Growth in this field seems most likely either in conjunction with a growth in humanitarian interventions and other peace operations (grouping 1) or as a tool to avoid direct U. deployments. 21 .S. will continue its growth in terms of number of missions. for a long time.Is the historical record relevant? With the historical record in mind. and events might affect the number of missions the military conducts in these types of operations. 3 (disaster relief). and 5 (police activities) have. the six-part typology can provide a useful tool for understanding at least one dimension of the changes in USMC HA/POs. nothing indicates that missions such as non-combatant evacuations. The fourth grouping. Across the five categories with examples in the chronology. been traditional missions. with four major operations in the past several years (and others looming from Haiti to Bosnia to Rwanda). military involvement in a conflict or near-conflict situation (such as has occurred with various training missions in Central and South America over the past 20 years).

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however. command chronologies. 23 . inconsistencies and gaps in source material have probably led to an understatement of actual activity. makes this a difficult path to follow. uncover other instances of USMC involvement in humanitarian operations and certainly would uncover more detail.7]) and studies [8 through 15]. Marine biographies might provide another fruitful source of information. A comprehensive examination of the Secretary of the Navy's annual reports and of Marine Corps Command Chronologies (which date from the 1960s) might lead to a longer list of operations. Several long periods with few or no cases indicate that the consulted source material does not comprehensively document all relevant U. but USMCR activities are not well-documented in the sources used in this research. ship logs. In part. Also valuable are general histories of the USMC [16 through 20].) The haphazard nature and sheer volume of these sources. There are likely far more than reflected here. These are cited with the appropriate operation. therefore. and annual reports seem sensible sources for further information on particular operations.S. Other sources include journal articles (most commonly in the Marine Corps Gazette} and a few books. the chronology only has a few examples of United States Marine Corps Reserve (USMCR) actions. It seems self-evident that many appropriate situations are not included. Marine Corps activity. For example. does not comprehensively list all USMC operations. This study also builds on earlier CNA work [21]. without doubt. which relied on [22 through 26]. (See entry for March 1948 for an example of information from such a source [27]. As indicated in several footnotes. This chronology. Additional research might.Sources and limitations The information below derives principally from various Marine Corps Historical Center (MCHC) chronologies (both published [1 through 5] and unpublished [6.

In terms of the first objective. but clearly not all non-combatant evacuation operations (NEOs). and 29]. by including some NEOs. such NEOs are a long-standing Marine Corps specialty. On the other hand. which the Marine Corps has long studied and exercised.In addition. 24 . Thus. the potential "rate on return" for NEO case studies seems less than that for other HA/POs. areas such as NEOs. 4.S. the researcher's bias (whether conscious or not) and/or purpose colors the record. the chronology documents that the national command authority has called on the Marine Corps to conduct these missions. with the first as early as December 1831/January 1832 when Marines from the sloop Lexington went ashore in the Falkland Islands to protect American lives and property. As seen in the chronology. as with any attempt to provide a historical record. in the end. NEOs resulting from natural disasters or from enforcement of international peace treaties are included. For some discussions of NEOs. the Marine Corps has long studied and exercised NEOs. even though these are clearly humanitarian assistance operations of the third category (responding to purposeful human action). however. Not included at all are the numerous contingency deployments of USMC (and other U. see [9.28. This document has two major purposes: • To demonstrate the range of HA/POs which have involved Marine Corps forces • To suggest relevant case studies for further research. in terms of the second objective.4 This exclusion results from several analytical imperatives. because the overall study seeks to help the Marine Corps identify potential ways to improve capabilities for HA/POs. Therefore. For example. Unlike many other HA/ POs. get executed. do not seem logical candidates for examination in this research effort. this memorandum does not comprehensively document NEOs resulting from military threats. military) units for potential evacuation operations that did not. this chronology includes many.

Marine Corps forces. unlike most other HA/POs. Reference [31] provides a similar listing of U. the MIOs against Iraqi shipping from August 1990 to the present and. (See [28] for numerous examples since World War n.S." see [30]. Army operations while [33] provides infor5. As such. Although the chronology includes many exemplary NEOs. the listing does not include any of the hundreds of deployments ashore or off-the-coast to protect American citizens and property amidst internal disorders or international conflicts. Table 6.S. see [1]. from September 1993. it clearly understates other service and other nation's activities and contributions. Some early USMC maritime interception activities3 Date Activity 5 Apr 1820 21 Dec 1821 30 Nov 1845 Marines participated in the capture of five slave schooners by the U.S. For these and other 19th century examples.) The chronology does not include interdiction efforts (such as antislave trading patrols or drug interdiction5) and antipiracy operations.S. For a brief discussion of the Marine Corps' involvement in the "war on drugs.S. Africa a. Table 6 provides a few early examples of USMC support of maritime interception operations (MIO). rather than secondary. 25 . Air Force operations. in the embargo against Haiti). which continue to be a USMC mission occasionally to this day (for example. it seems clear that mostNEOs (protecting the lives of American citizens) are primary. sloop Yarktownoff Kahenda. Reference [32] contains some information on U. corvette Cyane off the west coast of Africa Marines participated in the U. missions for the armed services.S. brig Enterprises capture of a pirate schooner at Cape Antonio. Other service/national involvement This document focuses on activities and operations that involved U . Cuba Marines participated in the capture of the slave bark Ponsby the U.Also.

which involved thousands of Marines and a national debate over involvement (such as Operation Restore Hope). 6. quantitative or statistical analysis of units that represent such disparate cases quickly becomes not only meaningless but also misleading. and perhaps more important. are "counted" in the same manner as smaller. Second.nation on Army involvement in domestic police operations. in terms of the typology of operations. Problems with quantification Due to a wide variety of problems. See [35] for a discussion of USN and USMC activity in China for the years 1925-1928. See [34] for an excellent history of U. For example.S.S. none of the myriad of evacuations in China from the Boxer Rebellion through the evacuation of the Tachen Islands is included6). First. category 2 (movement of people) is understated as the chronology does include all NEOs (for example. With a count of 154 actions. This study does not document activities by other U. government agencies or similar operations by the armed services of other nations. this chronology and any quantitative analysis of it (such as done above) should be used for illustrative purposes as to the range and type of USMC HA/P operations rather than for a detailed statistical analysis of past USMC activity. This is simply not true of the chronological listing in this paper. Clearly. attempting to use a list of operations quantitatively implies some degree of equivalency between operations. Thus.S. large-scale operations with a long duration. Navy operations. and the subjective decisionmaking nature of many decisions as to which cases to include suggest that this is not a comprehensive listing. as discussed above. readers should avoid using this chronology for detailed quantitative analysis. problems in source material. See [21] for some information on U. 26 . Army medicine in disaster relief. less controversial operations (such the 1989 airlift of eight whooping cranes).

DC. [1. Fire Fighting Marines and seamen from USS Grampus (schooner) went ashore to help fight a fire on St. Evacuation In late 1831. [1. p. 47. p. 10] 12 March 1824. 61-4] 12 February 1825. Massachusetts. v. Falkland Islands. Boston. 66. Police Support Following Nat Turner's revolt. soldiers from Fortress Monroe and Marines from USS Warren and USS Natchez in Hampton Roads marched to put down the revolt. II. Southampton County. Police Support In 1831 Presidentjackson ordered the Headquarters battalion to riot duty in Washington when he feared a mob might attack some public buildings. MA." [1. New Orleans. 35] 27 . Thomas. 17. [19. p. vol. 10. p. p. Early in 1831. St. p.Chronology January 1811. [20. [9. chap. Washington. Chap. Thomas. 18. Virgin Islands. 197] Fall 1831. 1. p. p. Police Support Marines from the Boston Navy Yard subdued a riot at the Massachusetts State Prison in Boston. in which 55 whites were killed. Virginia. Lexington evacuated 38 Americans. Virgin Islands. 28-9] 1831. Winter 1832. LA. 66. the sloop-of-war Lexington landed Marines to secure release of diree American whalers and their crews. Police Support A detachment of Marines from New Orleans deployed against "Negro insurgents. p. 16. p. 76. 68] Summer 1831. 10. 3.

pp. Police Support Marines from the U. p. Washington.[l. Nicaragua. 20. Washington. 85-6] 28 .S.C. p. 36. Fire Fighting Marines from the Brooklyn barracks aided fire fighting and protected property during a major fire in New York City. p. 60 miles above Hong Kong. 36. [1. 150] 1 June 1857. [18. p. China. Fire Fighting Marines and seamen from the U. sloop-of-war Dak put down a mutiny on the bark Paulina in Johanna Island Harbor (which is now Anjoan of the Comora Islands in the Indian Ocean). [1. p. men from the barracks at Eighth and Eye Streets helped to quell the flames and guard the funds. 77. p.31 March 1833. 39] 19 July 1835. Nicaragua. DC. 68] 6 June 1851. Johanna Island. 80. steamer Mississippi put down a mutiny on a Siamese vessel in the Canton River. 78. Police Support In 1833. 187. Treasury in Washington was set afire by an arsonist. in apprehending people who committed murders during a riot in the town.S. Police Activities Marines from the U. p. [16. [1. p. 17. 77. 120] 11 September 1853. 9. Police Support Two companies of Marines restored order during rioting by "PlugUglies" at election sites in Washington. 77. sloop Albany assisted in fighting a fire in San Juan del Norte. p. Pennsylvania. PA. [1. 40] 5 February 1852. p. when the U. p.S. Police Support Marines from the Philadelphia Navy Yard assisted authorities in Christiana. 9. 11] September 1851. DC. 9. B. New York City.S. p.

Disaster Relief Two companies of Marines from the Portsmouth Navy Yard. Police Support First Lieutenant Israel Greene and 56 Marines deployed from Washington. to quell a riot. 29] 29 . p. Police Support In the Caribbean. 16. p. Fire Fighting One officer and 46 enlisted Marines and seamen from the steamer USS Wachtisett landed at Shanghai. 91. 188] 17-20 October 1859. the Marine guard from the sloop USS St. China. Marys boarded the Panama mail steamer USS Golden City. 38] 30 April 1866. 40. 80. p. Maine. to assist in fighting a fire. the Marines recaptured the arsenal. Virginia. Police Support Marines from the New York Navy Yard Marine Barracks and from the steamer Safnne occupied government buildings (yellow fever isolation area) on Staten Island and protected them against mobs seeking to burn them. p. 91. [1. Under orders from the War Department's representative. 80. p. Police Support The Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV) ordered 20 Marines to help restore order at the Washington.16 June 1858. Police Support. Caribbean. 91. p. Brevet Colonel Robert E. DC. 17. [1. 9. to aid in restoring order after a fire. Lee. Washington. p. ME. p. DC. New York City. [1. 39] 2 September 1858. [37. jail. New Hampshire. DC. [1. 23 January 52] 7 July 1866. to Harper's Ferry after John Brown had seized the Federal arsenal there. arrived in Portland. at the request of her captain. [1. China. 195] 9 August 1866. Harper's Ferry.

11. New York. p. p. p. 16. 83] 14 January 1871. [1. 40. PA. p. 93. 11. p.1 Jun 53] 2 November 1870. New York. p. assisted revenue officers in raids on illegal "Irishtown" distilleries in Brooklyn." Brooklyn. 93. Police Support Marines from Brooklyn Navy Yard occupied 14 legitimate distilleries to protect workmen from attack by workers from illegal distilleries. 17. [1. Police Support Marines from Brooklyn Navy Yard were called out to break up street fighting during raids on illegal distilleries in "Irishtown. p. 93. New York. p. 93. seized and destroyed a number of illicit distilleries in "Irishtown. [1. Police Support Marines from the Philadelphia Navy Yard helped quell disturbances in Philadelphia when "negroes" cast their first votes under the 15th Amendment. 247] 28 March 1870. New York. Police Support Brooklyn Navy Yard Marines (245) assisted revenue agents in raids on illegal distilleries in "Irishtown. and the USS Vermont assisted revenue authorities in seizing and destroying several illicit distilleries in "Irishtown. p.April 1867. 82] March 1868. [1. p. 16. New York." adjoining the Navy Yard. Police Support 129 Marines from the Brooklyn Navy Yard. New York. [1. p. New York. p. 91. New York. 11. Police Support Four companies of Marines from the Brooklyn Navy Yard. [1. 82] 11 October 1870. p." Brooklyn. Police Support Marines from the Brooklyn Navy Yard. [1. Philadelphia. New York. 92. 92." Brooklyn. 200] 14 July 1871. 201] 30 .

[1. 16. 11. p. [1. to protect railroad property during labor rioting. VA. [1. PA. p. U. Police Support Marines from the Boston Navy Yard aided in restoring order after a fire in Boston. 16. Police Support Marines from the Brooklyn Navy Yard boarded the tugboat USS Catalpa to assist revenue agents in the seizure of vessels carrying contraband whiskey in New York harbor. 216] 26 July 1877. p. 212] 25 June 1873. 202] 17 October 1871. and from several Atlantic Squadron ships assumed guard of the Washington. p. [1. DC. MA. p. Police Support 68 Marines from the Boston Navy Yard plus 15 Marines from USS Ohio and. Arsenal and later guarded railroad property in Baltimore. 16. MD. Police Support Marines from the Brooklyn Navy Yard established a guard over seized illegal distilleries in "Irishtown. MD. 16. p. 88] 21 July 1877. 224-231] 31 . p. pp. p. 93. 202] 10 November 1872. 94.September 1871. 94. New York. Police Support A Marine battalion from the Washington Navy Yard moved to Baltimore. 95. 93. p. Peru. Police Support A battalion of Marines organized from Marines at Norfolk. MA." Brooklyn. [1. Boston.S. East Coast. p. Mary assisted in putting out a fire aboard the Italian merchant ship Delaidein the harbor of Callao. Boston. 16. Maryland and Pennsylvania. and then to Philadelphia. New York. p. 21 Marines from USS Powhatan aided in restoring order after a fire in Boston. 87] 30 May 1873. 93. Peru. p. p. 11. Fire Fighting 22 Marines from USS St. 93. [1. and in western Virginia. [1.

pp. 11. NY. p. USS Charleston. Fire Fighting Marines and seamen from the steam bark USS Omaha landed at Hodogaya. [1. 14-5] 14 September 1892. USS Mohican. 105] July 1894. 16. 98.April 1884. New York. Japan. 9. p. p. Rescue USS Alerts Marine detachment took part in the relief expedition searching for members of the Greeley Expedition west of Greenland. California. South Carolina. Police Support A Marine battalion from various east coast Marine barracks. [1. to assist local authorities in fighting a fire near Kan- agawa. pp. [1. 104-5] 2 July 1891. 225] 8 February 1890. 97. Disaster (Tidal Wave) Relief The Marine Detachment from Marine Barracks. Port Royal. p. USS Monterey. Arctic. USS Independence. 98. p. and USS Thetis assisted Army troops in guarding the mail during railroad strikes in California. 299] 27 August 1893. guarded the Sandy Hook. assisted in preserving life and property after a tidal wave. USS Thetis. Japan. South Carolina. immigrant camp during an outbreak of cholera among the immigrants. USS Atlanta. p. and USS Minnesota. [1. Bering Sea. 95. 9. 95. USS Alert. 16. and the receiving ships USS Vermont. 17. Environmental Law Enforcement Five officers and 113 enlisted Marines served aboard ships (Pacific Coast Steamship Company vessel Al-ki. Police Support Marine detachments from Mare Island Navy Yard. 308-310] 32 . p. 97. p. and the USS Marion) in the Bering Sea to prevent seal poaching by various nationalities (mainly British). [1. [1. p. p.

354] 2 January 1901. 140] 18 April 1906. 110. Trinidad. Alaska. 11. to assist local authorities in fighting a fire. 65. 9.4 March 1895. [1. p. ships landed at Kingston. USS New York. 17. p. 63. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief A Marine detachment from Yerba Buena Island and a detachment from Mare Island aided civilian authorities after an earthquake and fire in San Francisco. May 1953. 7. with the start of the RussoJapanese War. Non-combatant Evacuation USS Cincinnatis Marine detachment aided the evacuation of Americans from Chemulpo and Seoul. 41] 7. Fire Fighting Marines at Sitka. [1. USS Minneapolis. Korea. 5 Dec 52. Alaska.W. p. p. South Carolina. Jamaica. 309. 109. California. Jamaica. 66. [1. Fire Fighting Marines and seamen from USS Cincinnati. Ralph A. 16.7 12 March 1904. 101. SC. helped fight a fire that threatened the city. and 68] 17 January 1907. during a severe tropical storm. H. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief Marines and seamen from U. p. Disaster (Storm) Relief Marines assisted in saving and protecting government property at Port Royal. 110. Miller by LtCol. 33 . 64. [1. Trinidad. Korea. 67. Letter to Mr. p. Edwards on the history of the USMC in Alaska [40. USS Raleigh. 98. 10 Jun 1953]. CA. to assist local authorities in rescue work following a severe earthquake. 40. USS Columbia. p. and USS Montgomery landed at Port au Spain.S. p. [1. p. 156] 2 October 1898. p. AO3E-gjb.

122. President Harding directed the Secretary of the Navy to deploy Marines to protect registered mail deliveries. Lindbergh after his transatlantic flight. p. Continental United States. Dominican Republic. YA. [1.S.500 Marines to guard the U.5 September 1913. 114. p. Continental United States. collapsed following a major snowfall. 7] 12 October 1920. p. 2 Dec52.l26. p. Washington.S. Mexico. [42] 28 January 1922. nationals from Ciaris. Fire Fighting Marines from the 4th Marine Regiment helped fight a severe fire in the center of the Santiago. p. pp. Disaster (Rescue) Relief Marines assisted in rescue work after the roof of the Knickerbocker Theater in Washington. 42. p. DC. 40.26 May 53. Police Support Following a series of postal robberies. [1. 9.40.300 Marines participated in mail patrols. mails. Police Support President Calvin Coolidge approved the use of 2. Washington. during local unrest. 5] 7 November 1921. p. 40. 40. DC. 121. 10] 20 October 1926. 122. 125. 51-2] 11 June 1927.1 May 53. 115] 22 July 1919. Police Support Two companies of Marines from Quantico. p. DC. business district [1. Washington. 5] 34 . Mexico.p. DC. p. 12. Police Support Marines from the Washington Navy Yard assisted crowd control in the welcome of Charles A. p. which ended on 15 March 1922.. after severe race riots. 112. assisted civil authorities and other military organizations in restoring and maintaining order in Washington. Non-Combatant Evacuation USS Buffalo Marines aided the evacuation of U. Some 2. p. [1. [I. Dominican Republic. DC. [1. !Aug53.

[1. 4 October 1939. MCHC. Fleet Marine Force.9.September 1930. Marine Corps planes flew in emergency relief while Governor Theodore Roosevelt. 45] "Managua Earthquake File. China. The Japanese blockade of the area limited outside relief efforts.S.S. Disaster (Flood) Relief Flood covered the city of Tientsin in late August 1939.6." n. 12Jan53. 346] New York Times. In addition to helping to protect the U. doctors. Marine Barracks. 128. Quantico. and set up first aid stations.000 people. 16 November 1930. "Record of Events during the Tientsin Flood of 1939. 10... Disaster (Hurricane) Relief A hurricane in the Dominican Republican killed about 3. DC. and nurses. furnished guards to prevent looting in the city. p. Nicaragua. Dominican Republic. Washington. p. 230] HQ. Navy ships. Package of Tientsin Flood Diary. 40. Virginia. 1st Marine Brigade. Marines conducted search and rescue operations in the heavily damaged city. JT Selden." Reference Branch. Q 31 March 1931. the 170 Marines in the city provided assistance to endangered Americans and other foreigners. [20. Sept. p. Navy Yard. Nicaragua. U. HQ Marine Det. Any incoming supplies not on U. 9. both in the Country file "China 1939: Primary Documents. MCHC 35 . [43.10 8. facilities. and transport aircraft also participated in the earthquake relief operations. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief Following a severe earthquake in Managua. Army engineers. of Puerto Rico sent government vessels with food. Tientsin.S. 17-8. pp. The Marine commander turned over excess food supplies to local relief agencies. food centers. U. Navy or Royal Navy ships required Japanese permission. 028/204. serums.d. 44." Reference Branch. 5. Maj. and tents for the homeless.S.9 20-29 August 1939. USMC. Jr.

p. CVA-38 Franklin D.S. with Battalion Landing Team (BLT) 2/6 (Reinf. 3. California. The relief operations forced the cancellation of exercise Tyrrhenian Weld. Greece. and Greek ships. 5. Relief Aid Marine Corps forces in Tsingtao supported United Nations Refugee and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) relief supply distribution. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief The Sixth Fleet's Amphibious Task Unit. British and Israeli ships aided the relief effort. p. 8 September 1953. assisted civilian police in combating rioting prisoners on Alcatraz Island.) embarked. 12 Nov 1953. 2-3. 15-6] March 1948. [2. China. MCHC. California. Subject File. China. 267] 14-19 August 1953. Globe. pp." FB/23/A4-3 (Nl:has) Serial: 576.S.11 November 1946-47. assisted in relief operations following earthquakes in the Ionian Islands. Fire Fighting Marines aided Chinese authorities to fight a fire and treated more than 700 injured after a warehouse exploded in Tsingtao. Commander Transport Division TwentyThree. In addition to U. Alcatraz ("Marines' Guards Open Major Battle to Subdue Convicts on Alcatraz Isle") 12. CA-139 Salem (the Sixth Fleet flagship). CINCNELM Annual Report FY 54 p. commanded by Major Albert Arsenault. 4. Police Support Marine volunteers. 12 November 1953. [14. [27. "Commander Transport Division TWENTY-THREE NELM Diary No. Globe. This did not occur. p. Navy Operational Archives Disaster/Catastrophe Relief folder. pp. 11. The explosion killed more than 100 Chinese and damaged or destroyed more than 100 homes. the destroyer Gyatt. The Marine commanders hoped that distributions in Communist controlled areas would lead to reduced attacks on Marine Corps forces. p. 36 .2 May 1946. Roosevelt. and ships from Transport Division (TRANSDIV) 23 aided the relief efforts. 3. U. See also. 134] Reference Branch. Op-09B92 coverage.

Fire Fighting Some 600 Marines from the 2d Infantry Training Regiment at Camp Pendleton. [6] 20 September 1955. Fire Fighting Detachments from 1st and 2d Battalions. helped battle fires in the Los Padres National Forest near Santa Barbara. Helicopters from HMR-261 delivered food. p. clothing.S. extending humanitarian aid to victims of Hurricane Hazel (code-named: Operation SANTE). [6] 17 August 1955. North Carolina. CVLr48 Saipan operated off the southern coast of Haiti. p. North Carolina. 6th Marines. B. QNCLANTFLT Annual Report FY 55. Disaster (Flood) Relief Helicopters of Marine Air Group (MAG) 26. Mexico. 1] 2-13 October 1955. North Carolina. 32: Scout. Camp Lejeune. Op-09B92 coverage. Mexico. Navy Operational Archives Disaster/Catastrophe Relief folder. medicine. Disaster (Flood) Relief A detachment from the 2d Amphibious Tractor Battalion assisted evacuations amidst flooding of the Pamlico River in North Carolina. Fire Fighting 989 Marines from Co. and 1st Battalion. Marine Transport Squadrons (VMRs) 153 and 252 of MAG 35. aided fire fighting efforts in North Carolina. Haiti. California. 2d Shore Party Battalion. leveling towns and killing 98 people. U. p. California. 26f.13-19 October 1954. and other supplies. and certain specialists of the 2d Marine Air Wing (MAW) aided in rescue work at Tampico. Hazel hit the southwest area of Haiti on 12 October. Elements of MAG-35 13. 2d Marines helped fight North Carolina forest fires.13 4-9 April 55. [6] 23-30 April 1955. when flood waters inundated the city. Disaster (Flood) Relief From 13 to 19 October 1954. [3. 37 . 20 September 1955.

017 pounds of food and medical supplies. p. During these operations. 1. 21." AO3E:jhm. Additional ships involved included USS Washtenaw County 14. Israel. [3.14 25-27 December 1955. Egypt and Israel.S. p. the helicopters rescued 5. USS Lake Champlain (CVS-39) with Marine Helicopter Squadron 262 embarked. and UN observers from Gaza. and medical supplies to flood-stricken areas of northern California. clothing.15 16 October 1957. p.8.500 people from Alexandria. 25: 6. and rescuing victims of a severe flood in the area of Valencia.3] 30 October-1 November 1956. [48] 17-27 March 1957. Search and Rescue With the crash of a C-47 carrying President Ramon Magsaysay and 24 others. pp. Philippines. Navy Operational Archives Disaster/Catastrophe Relief folder. 32. p. Spain. Noncombatant Evacuation The Marines afloat (the 1st Provisional Marine Force. 3. 30 December 1955. Egypt. Disaster (Flood) Relief Starting on 16 October 1957. in MCHC reference branch file "Operations" 38 . 17-21 Mar 1957. "Philippines. California. Spain. 33: Right Jacket. 1. and Haifa. pp. Disaster (Flood) Relief VMRs 152 and 352 from El Toro flew food. HQ USMC point paper. 28 October 1955. 15. with BLT 3/2 (reinf) as the major unit) in the Mediterranean helped evacuate 1. 26. 46. CINCLANTFLT Annual Report FY 56. [3. Globe. feeding. Egypt. p. 108-9] Windsock. U.439 persons and delivered 183. pp. two helicopters from Marine Helicopter Transport Squadron (Light)-16 supported search operations and provided support to Philippine authorities in removing the bodies after discovery of the plane. aided in locating. 29 May 1958. Op-09B92 coverage. 2.assisted in relief efforts as well. with the opening of the Israeli Suez campaign. 14 October 1955.

DESRON 5. Fire Fighting Some 1. USS Princeton (CVS-37). p. Ministry of Defence. California. Two destroyers (Eversole and Shelton) from the 7th Fleet and the tender Duxbury Bay from the Middle East Force aided the relief operations. 39: Scout. Ceylon. [6] 12 July 1958. [3. Morocco. Air Historical Branch (RAF). 37. The torrential rains of 28 December 1957 had left over 300. p. [3.000 people homeless and in need of food and medicine. California. Fire Fighting About 650 Camp Pendleton Marines of the 2d Infantry Training Regiment assisted fire department and forestry service personnel in fighting a forest fire in the Malibu area of California. 11 Dec. 1] 16. p.p. Naval Accomplishments Quarterly. RAF. U.(LST) and Thuban (AKA) with embarked Marines from the Mediterranean Amphibious Ready Group (MARG). London. 86. Three Royal Air Force helicopters also operated off Princeton. Jan-Mar 1958. Navy Archives Disaster/Catastrophe Relief folder: ships involved: CARDIV15. which embarked them in Singapore.S. p. 2 Nov57.500 1st Marine Division and Marine Corps Base Marines from Camp Pendleton.16 28 April 1958.6] January 1958. Disaster (Flood) Relief Navy and Marine Corps helicopters (20 from HMR-162) operating off CVS-37 Princeton engaged in rescue work in Ceylon from 2 to 7 January 1958 following major flooding. Morocco. 4Jul 1958. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief A detachment from VMR-252 aided earthquake victims at Port Lyautey. 39 . [3. RAF Helicopters: The First Twenty Years. 1992. 21. CA. ANAFJournal. 1] 2 December 1958. joined Forest Service personnel in fighting brush fires in the Cleveland National Forest of California. p. Southeriand. Wing Commander John Dowling. 1958. Windsock. Henderson CINCPACFLT Annual Report FY 1958.

1st Marines and the 1st Force Service Regiment at Camp Pendleton assisted civilian fire fighters in putting out forest fires in the Topanga Canyon area about 10 miles north of Santa Monica. battled a fire which burned over 700 acres of Camp Lejeune's forests. Fire Fighting About 300 Marines from the 1st Infantry Training Regiment and the 7th and 5th Marines at Camp Pendleton.6 million pounds of relief supplies and 855 refugees. 1] 14-20 August 1959. [3. [21] 5 November 1959. Helicopters from Marine Helicopter Squadron (HMR(L)) 261 flew 897 mercy missions from the ship. 18 December 1958. p. 41: Globe. airlifting 1. [3. p. California. Fire Fighting Marines from the 1st Battalion. p. CA. 1] 14 June 1959. [3. 12 November 1959. p. [3. Taiwan. p. 42: Scout. 8 January 1959. p. NC. forest service personnel. CA. California. North Carolina.000-acre forest fire near Pungo Lake. 8di Marines. LPH-6 Thetis Bay provided assistance from 14 to 20 August 1959.6 December 1958. Disaster (Flood) Relief During a major flood in central Taiwan. p. p. p. [3. North Carolina. Fire Fighting 64 Marines of the 3d Battalion. 1] 40 . joined by North Carolina Forestry personnel. 18 June 1959. assisted fire department and forestry service personnel in fighting forest fires in the Las Pulgas and Aliso Canyon areas of California. 1] 20 November 1959. 39: Globe. 42: Scout. 3] 1 January 1959. 25 November 1959. California. 39: Scout. and civilian volunteers in combating a forest fire in the Roblan Canyon of the Cleveland National Forest in California. p. Fire Fighting Over 100 Marines from the 2d and 6th Marines. Fire Fighting About 200 Marines from the 5th Marines joined Camp Pendleton firemen. joined state forestry service personnel and civilian volunteers in fighting a 3.

[21. Marine Assault Construction Battalion personnel constructed a new bridge and 6. Briefers Dispatch File: Morocco Disaster. 4. Sub-Unit No. Globe. [6] November-December 1960. 6-7] 17. 26 June-15 July 1960.29 February 1960. p. p. From 26 June through 15 July 1960. 21] 20 January 1961.S. pp. 41 . The emergency phase of the disaster relief opera1 *7 dons ended by 5 March. Navy Archives Disaster/Catastrophe Relief folder. 1.S. Congo. 25 March 1960. HMR(L)-264 unloaded foodstuffs from USS Hermitage (LSD-34). U. 8. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief Late May and early June earthquakes injured and killed many Chileans and damaged thousands of buildings. U. Chile. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief Marines from Marine Barracks. [3. Connecticut. 29 Apr 1960. p. Congo. p. 16 Feb 1961. Naval Accomplishments Quarterly. Disaster (Flood) Relief Flooding of Lake Miragoane washed out a bridge linking a portion of southwest Haiti with the remainder of the country. Relief Aid Elements of the SOLANT AMITY task force in East African waters assisted in famine relief work at Matadi. Haiti. [3. 47. Disaster (Hurricane) Relief Marines Reservists from 3d Truck Company (USMCR) aided hurricane recovery operations in New Haven. aided in rescue and relief operations following an earthquake at Agadir. 2. p.] 23 September 1960. Briefing Items. Morocco. USS Catamount (LSD) and an embarked boat group conducted flood-relief operations in the area of Valparaiso. Port Lyautey. 9 Feb 1961. 48. Morocco. 1. Chile. See also. Naval Activities. 44] Windsock. [4.5 miles of improved road in 29 days. p. CT.

They operated eight HUS-1 helicopters off the aircraft carrier Antietam. area following a serious storm. p. serving with the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean. 49. CVS-36 Antietam. and two fleet tugs. The ships included CVA-38 Shangri-La. p. p. p. 51: Globe. North Carolina. CA. 1961. 14 September 1961. [3. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief Elements of HMR-262 and the 3d Battalion. The helicopters carried over 57 tons of supplies and transported personnel in areas hit by the hurricane. 1] 42 . 52: 21. The Navy organized Task Force 135 on 12 September to proceed to the Texas coast. [3. two destroyers. 6th Marines. 55: Globe. 27 January 1961. p. British Honduras. 2. 3] 1-17 November 1961. CA. 4. p. 4. 23 November 1961. 6. 21 Sep 61. Globe. Camp Pendleton. 7. 22Jun 1961. assisted civilian firefighters in battling brush fires in southern Orange County. aided Hurricane Hattie victims in British Honduras. p. Disaster (Hurricane) Relief A detachment of 18 officers and 33 men from HMR-264 (MAG-26) from MCAF. 30 November. [3. 21. p. 15 March 1962. p. assisted in relief work following an earthquake atMarmaris. Turkey. p. New River. p. NC. Fire Fighting About 400 Marines from the 1st MARDIV. 48: Scout. Globe. p. Turkey. an attack transport (with embarked Marines). [3. Disaster (Hurricane) Relief About 400 Marines from the 2d MARDIV and MAG-26 assisted in rescue operations in Texas and Louisiana following hurricane Carla.] 8 March 1962. [3. Disaster (Hurricane) Relief Helicopters from HMM-263 assisted in rescue and relief operations in the Outer Banks. Texas and Louisiana. The Navy task force included five ships and helicopters from Training Squadron (HTS) 8 and HMR-264. 53. 1] 20 May 1961. p.20 January 1961. 3] 12 September 1961. California.

p 58: Globe. 23 November 62. 74 helicopters from MAG-26 deployed to NAS Memphis. 5] 8 May 1963. Haiti. p. p. North Carolina. Tennessee. p. [3. attempted to enroll at the University of Tennessee. 63. Police Support On 1 October 1962. Evacuation Forces from the Caribbean Amphibious Ready Group evacuated 2. 4th Marines flew from Hawaii to Guam to provide security and salvage assistance following a typhoon. Disaster (Typhoon) Relief About 400 Marines from the 3d Battalion. [3. The helicopters began redeployment on 8 October. 12 April 1962. Fire Fighting About 400 Marines from the 2d MARDIV assisted civilian firefighters in combating forest fires near Jacksonville. NC. 20 October 1963. p.S.279 civilians from Haiti amidst a worsening domestic situation and deteriorating US-Haitian relations. [13. p. Tennessee. Haiti. Ships participating were CVS39 Lake Champlain. U. 55: Globe. p. James Meredith. Navy and Marine Corps units spent nearly two weeks conducting relief operations. Guam. p. APD-60 Liddle. AKA-61 Muliphen. p. 34] 20 November 1962. 3.4 April 1962. Navy and Marine Corps cargo aircraft delivered supplies from East Coast stations. 1] 1 October 1962.) Helicopters carried about 250 tons of relief supplies into Haiti and landing craft delivered another 125 tons in an across-the-beach operation.S. 23 November 62. Scout. Disaster (Hurricane) Relief HMM-162 (MAG-26) from New River arrived in Port au Prince on board LPH-6 Thetis Bay to deliver food and supplies to areas of Haiti's southern peninsula hit by Hurricane Flora. 31 Oct 63. to support federal efforts to enforce civil rights laws after disturbances broke out after the first black. and LPH-6 Thetis Bay. 21. 4] 43 . [3. offer of aid. 5. Globe. (Cuba refused a U.

pp.000 missions in the largest relief mission to date in Vietnam. for example.136 flood victims to safety. Disaster (Typhoon) Relief Following Typhoons Iris (4-9 Nov) and Kate (16 Nov).. Disaster (Hurricane) Relief On 29 August 1964. Disaster (Typhoon) Relief Marine forces in Vietnam conducted relief operations following Typhoons Violet (14 Sept) and Tilda (21-23 Sept). p. [21. 17 December 1964] August-September 1964. Police Support On 28 March 1964. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief. 5] 44 . January 1965. Peru. Marine Corps Gazette. Haiti. Amidst a major relief operation. Marines from the Naval Station aided the police in maintaining order on Kodiak island. 50] Summer 1964. Rep.21] 14-30 September 1964. 159-161] 10-23 November 1964. 69. Medical Aid Two helicopters from VMO-1 participated in the rescue of 11 sick. Alaska. [3. northern Peru. Dom. LPH-4 Boxer and two LSDs with embarked Marines arrived off the coast of Hispaniola to give medical aid and helicopter evacuation services to people in areas of Haiti and the Dominican Republic badly damaged by Hurricane Cleo. [8. see entry for 11 Dec: Globe. HMM-162 helicopters conducted emergency evacuations of storm victims following Violet (15 Sept). 162. injured. p. 70. operating from USS Princeton. Amongst other activities. HMM-365 helicopters lifted 1. HMM-162. p. 3. a devastating earthquake hit Alaska. USMC forces conducted relief operations in the Da Nang area in Vietnam. or wounded Peruvian engineers from the Amazon Basin jungle near Iquitos. 5. Additional damage from Kate led to the deployment of the Seventh Fleet's Special Landing Force (SLF) to the area for six days (17-23 Nov) to aid in relief operations. Vietnam.March 1964. [5. delivered more than 900 tons of supplies and conducted over 1. p. p. [8. On 11 November. Vietnam.

helicopter placement of "junked cars" in a creek for erosion control. Disaster (Flood) Relief Approximately 1500 Marines participated in disaster relief operations amidst extensive flooding and snow storms in southern California. VA.C. U. two companies of Schools Demonstration Troops from Quantico. The Marines remained until 12 April. California.. Evacuation Amidst a deteriorating political situation and escalating conflict in the Dominican Republic. 3 Mar 1969. Between 27 and 30 April. Marines from BLT 3/6 went ashore on 28 April 1965 to start the fifteen-month U. 1966. D. Dominican Republic. CA. Police Support When riots broke out in Washington. [4.400 people. forces evacuated about 2. p. assisted in riot control.27-30 April 1965. 1] 5 April 1968. Navy and Air Force personnel airlifted food and supplies to Tampico. HQUSMC point paper. other flood control activities. [4.. 25] 25-27 February 1969.v.. "Disaster Relief Operations. 1966. 13: Scout. 3rd MAW helicopters flew over 500 sorties and evacuated over 1500 people from Silverado and Modjeska Canyons. Washington. p." A03H15-dnw.S. Jr. V.C. Oct. 4 Nov. Mexico. 13: Strike. p. following the assassination of Martin Luther King. 1] 1 November 1966. in MCHC reference branch file "Natural Disasters" 45 . Mexico. died while fighting a brush fire in the Piedro de Lumbre Canyon area. Disaster (Hurricane) Relief Ajoint task force of Marine. Fire Fighting Four Marines from Camp Pendleton. no. Washington. 14-16 October 1966. and an LVTP-5 and LVTR-1 on standby for evacuation duty. presence in the country.S. [4. p. California.18 18. These operations included helicopter evacuations. Army. and a composite company from the Marine Barracks. 7. D. In total. to victims of Hurricane Inez in Operation Bold Face. p.

the helicopters transported medical teams into remote areas.S. 1st Marine Aircraft Wing helicopters performed rescue and relief operations for over 9. 51] September 1970. 11 days of relief flights by 16 HMM365 helicopters began. California.000 patients following the hurricane.12-22 June 1970. Initial rescue operations began on 29 October 1970 when MAG-16 evacuated some 900 people. Disaster (Typhoon) Relief Following the ravages of Typhoon Kate with floods that inundated some 140 square miles of Vietnam south of Da Nang. South Vietnam. Philippines." [6. LSD-36 Anchorage. [6] 21-25 October 1970.21] 14-23 September 70. Disaster (Hurricane) Relief Following Hurricane Joan in October 1970.000 South Vietnamese. PI. Disaster (Typhoon) Relief Marines and equipment from 3d Marine Division set up water purification units to aid victims of Typhoon Georgia in Quezon City. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief On 9 June 1970.21] 46 . 21. South Vietnam. USS Guam left Panama for Peru. [6. 21. Fire Fighting Several hundred U. and delivered more than 55 tons of emergency relief items. brought back victims for medical care. On 12 June. and LPD-6 Duluth) conducted relief operations in the Philippines. HMM-164 and a detachment from BLT 2/9 (embarked on LPH-3 Okinawa. USN and USMC medical teams treated over 1. p. Navy and Marine Corps personnel supported local fire fighting operations amidst a series of brush fires in San Diego County. 5-6. [6. Code-name: "Tempest Rapid. pp. During over 800 flights. [6. CH-46 helicopters from HMM-164 flew 70 relief sorties and delivered over 65 tons of supplies in five days of operations. 6] October 1970. following a major earthquake in Peru. Peru.

[6] July 1972. the American Embassy in Tunisia requested military flood relief assistance.000 victims in the Philippines.9 February 1971. During the relief mission. For example. Disaster (Flood) Relief On 28 March. rescuing or relocating 729 persons. By first light 29 March (about 13 hours after the request). and flew in disaster relief teams and evacuated victims. and other flood-associated missions in Tunisia. USN and USMC helicopters flew about 40 sorties. Tunisia. moving 27 tons of cargo. and Libya) helicopters. Disaster (Typhoon) Relief Following Typhoon Rita in July 1972.S. California earthquake victims by delivering food and supplies. Italy. equipment deliveries. USMC helicopters from USS Iwojima conducted refugee rescue.S. and other nations' (Tunisia. Another CH-46 transported California state scientists on surveys of the San Andreas fault. USMC helicopters flew in 350 tons of relief supplies. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief A detachment from 3d MAW assisted Newhall.000 Filipinos threatened by flooding. HMM-165 evacuated over 2. [21] December 1973. including 150 women and children rescued from a flooded island in the Ango River who were brought aboard USS Tripoli. lifting 17 doctors to evacuation centers. military forces provided a wide range of aid to the 500. [21] 47 . Tripoli remained on scene from 22 July until relieved by New Orleans on 5 August. U. and evacuating one village's sheep herd (227 sheep). personnel temporarily based at Tunis airport coordinated the rescue efforts flown by U. France. one aircraft carrier (Forrestal) was in position to provide helicopter assistance. One destroyer (DDG) and two LPDs also supported the helicopter operations.S. Tunisia. Disaster (Flood) Relief From 14 through 17 December 1973. U. California. [21] March 1973. lifting an emergency appendectomy to the CVA. Philippines.

August 1974. [21] 12 April 1975. USN. U. Lebanon. [52] June/July 1976. to USS Coronado.S. USAF support included flying supplies from Manila to Clark Air Force Base. Cyprus. Ambassador on 10 April. USMC.) and on 27 July LSD-11 Coronado evacuated 300 people. helicopters from HMM164 (off LPH-10 Tripoli and AFS-7 SanJose). and British forces evacuated foreigners from the island. Philippines.S.19 48 . as well as USN helicopters. On 24 July. and USAF forces evacuated 287 people from Phnom Penh in Operation Eagle Pull. Evacuations The afloat USMC forces supported two NEOs from Lebanon amidst the civil war there. U. British helicopters carried evacuees to USS "flrentonJJSN vessels received a total of 752 evacuees. Evacuation As North Vietnamese forces overran South Vietnam. On 22 July.S. [52] 29-30 April 1975. Cyprus. military forces conducted Operation Frequent Wind. Disaster (Flood) Relief Following major flooding in the Philippines.S.22-24 July 1974. 498 American. Evacuation Following a request from the U. Evacuation Following the coup in Cyprus and amidst Greek-Turkish fighting. LSD-32 Spiegel Grove evacuated 276 people (110 U. On 20 June 1976. BLT 1/8 and HMM-162 (the 34th MAU) conducted a NEO from Dhekelia. Cambodia. South Vietnam. The operation ended with about 7. flew 244 sorties over six days of operations (18-24 August 1974). The helicopters flew both rescue missions and food-delivery flights.000 evacuees just four hours before South Vietnam's unconditional surrender.

"Fluid Drive-Lebanon. Caribbean and Florida. In Jamaica. Illinois. 20 USMC personnel accompanied each airplane load of 20 refugees returned to Raid (total of 94) . "Haitians at GTMO. This included I&I staff 19. Cuba. and refueling equipment to support the DAST. provided assistance to the Seminole County Civil Defense Group. On 2 September. Fourth FSSG. an unseaworthy sailboat carrying 101 Haitian refugees arrived in Guantanamo Bay. Peoria. evacuated approximately 900 USN personnel. with the approach of Hurricane David.11 August-2 September 1977. 1976" 20. That same day. Disaster (Flood) Relief Fifteen Marines from the Instructor and Inspector (I&I) staff of Company C." The other seven refugees were granted entry into the United States. In Florida. a KC-130 and six CH-53Es from MCAS Cherry Point." Box 5. 21. MCHC reference branch file "Operations-Humanitarian AssL-Emergency" 49 . MCHC Archives account 127-80-0028.20 26-27 March 1979. File 1." Box 1. with one Coast Guard C-130. Disaster (Hurricane) Relief On 1 September 1979. Police Support On 10 August 1977. dependents and contractors from Andros Island. LSD-37 Partland off-loaded units from the 2d Bridge Company (-) to aid in flood relief there. a communications detachment. File 17. 6th Engineer Support Battalion aided damage estimates amidst spring floods. "HQUSMC Command Center Collection of Serious Incident Reports (SIRs) and Watch Officer Logs.21 September 1979. "HQUSMC Command Center Collection of Serious Incident Reports (SIRs) and Watch Officer Logs. USMC involvement included two UH-1N Hueys and six CH-53E Super Stallions for reconnaissance and logistical support. an all-service Disaster Assistance Survey Team (DAST) began deployment to Dominica and the Dominican Republic. in the Bahamas. Truck Company (-) Reinforced from the 6th Motorized Transport Battalion. Guantanamo Bay. MCHC Archives account 127-80-0028.

337] 12 October 1980. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief On 12 October 1980. "HQ USMC Command Center Collection of Serious Incident Reports (SIRs) and Watch Officer Logs." box #1. Evacuation On 24 August 1982. East Coast. Peace Support Following the 16 September Phalangist Christian force massacre of Palestinians in the Sabra and Shatilla refugee camps. near Beirut. HQ USMC MFR 3 Sept 1979 in MCHC reference branch file "Operations-Humanitarian Asst. Evacuation Several weeks after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon. Algeria. began providing assistance following an earthquake in Al Asnam. Lebanon. [53. with their embarked Marines. evacuated nearly 600 people from the port town of Juniyah. 24 August-8 September 1982. MCHC Archives Account #127-80-0028." 50 .' aid to Cuban refugees of the Mariel boatiift. Algeria. a Multi-National 22. USMC helicopters operating from Sixth Fleet amphibious ships. The ships took up positions 20-25 miles offshore to render helicopter support to the disaster-relief efforts. 434 Marines arrived in Key West from Camp Lejeune to relieve National Guard troops engaged in 'Operation Alien Assist. Emergency. "Hurricane David".assistance in running the disaster control center and evacuation of at least 60 civilians via 13 5-ton trucks. The Mariel boatlift lasted into September 1980. Lebanon. Police Support On 7 May. the first of 800 Marines went ashore in Beirut as part of a joint US-French-Italian peacekeeping force. [21] 24-25 June 1982. May 1980. p. Lebanon. 29 September 1982-26 February 1984.000 Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) fighters and supporters. file folder #18. LPD-13 Nashville and LSD-34 Hermitage. These forces aided the evacuation of 12. including USS Guadalcanal.

Disaster (Snow Storm) Relief U.S. and gave medical assistance. Lebanese and the multinational forces cooperated in the operation. MAGTF 89-2 included 11 officers and 46 enlisted Marines.Peacekeeping Force (MNF) went ashore in Beirut to provide a neutral party to assist peacemaking efforts. 7. Lebanon. the situation of the MNF deteriorated as the force became identified as participants. [5. 69. 1989. 21] 18 April 1989. On 31 May.500 Army and civilian firefighters. Marines in Lebanon provided relief in Quartaba. Lebanon. p. Over the duration of the deployment. [21] 10 September 1988. pp.1990. 71] 51 . [5. USMC helicopters flew into Syrian-held territory in Lebanon's central mountains to rescue four Lebanese men suffering from frostbite and exposure. Israeli. 53-4] 29 May 1983. Louisiana. on 29 May 1983 the Marine Corps provided assault amphibian vehicles (AAVs) to assist in flood-control efforts as the rising Mississippi River threatened the Louisiana State Penitentiary at Angola. Wyoming. Disaster (Flood) Relief At the request of the Governor of Louisiana. during a blizzard. 15. [7. Environmental Clean-up A detachment of Marines deployed with USSJuntau when it left San Diego for Prince William Sound to support clean-up operations following the Exxon Valdez disaster. relieved/uweau. 21-24 February 1983. distributed food and heating fuel. The Marines did snow removal. rather than neutrals.1989. Syrian. About 1200 Marines in "MAGTF 5" joined 6. Alaska. in the ongoing Lebanese civil war. Clevelandvnth MAGTF 89-2 on board. Fire Fighting President Reagan ordered Marines from Camp Pendleton to Yellowstone National Park to aid firefighters. 11. p. USMC CH-46 helicopters provided air transportation to cleanup workers and conducted medevacs and SAR missions. 70.

HMM-166. 2 KC-130s.1989. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief Following the 17 October 1989 earthquake in the San Francisco area. Other involved Marines came from 2d FSSG. [21. with a total of 24 U. Wisconsin.S. [7. 15th MEU. 21] October 1989. p. 11. and other equipment used. Marine Wing Support Squadron (MWSS) 273. 21] 8 November 1989. 7. and HMM 362 (providing assistance with road clearing. power supply and transmission line hook-up. Marines went ashore on 5 August to help protect the Embassy. Marines from Camp Lejeune. South Carolina. p. 19.S. with 8 CH-53s. Environmental Assistance A KC-130 from Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 452 airlifted eight whooping cranes from Andrews Air Force Base to Baraboo. 73. 74] 52 .September-October 1989. At the height of operations. Disaster (Hurricane) Relief Following Hurricane Hugo (21 September 1989). and water purification). USN and USMC forces evacuated over 2000 people from Liberia in Operation Sharp Edge. [7. a variety of Naval forces provided relief services. Navy and Military Sealift Command (MSC) ships rendering assistance. 5. over 850 Marines and sailors were involved. Marines from BLT 3/1. 22] 25 May 1990-9 January 1991.1989. p. California. assisted in the Charleston. Evacuation In response to the deteriorating situation in Liberia. From 5 August to 9 January. and general clean up. United States. [72. with Navy medical corpsmen. rescue efforts at the collapsed overpass. p. in early June 1990. the capital. home of the International Crane Foundation. flying damage inspection tours. MAG 42. South Carolina. area through 10 October. Liberia. Navy ships provided relief support throughout the affected areas in the Caribbean. Over 10 U. an amphibious task force deployed off the coast of Monrovia. and others provided disaster relief support ranging from crowd control in the port area.

75.S. 78. On 5 January. Navy and Marine Corps assistance included a Navy Medical Contingency team and a Marine Combat Service Support Team (CSST) transported to Cabanatuan City (about 75 miles north of Manila. 81. Evacuation In Operation Eastern Exit. to the U.18 July 1990. Disaster (Earthquake) Relief On 16 July 1990. two HMH-461 CH-53Es transported 60 Marines and SEALs 466 n. the Amphibious Group Three task force carrying FIFTH MEB elements returning from Operation Desert Storm provided the major U. That night. 77. In total.000 U. servicemen. Somalia. LPH-10 Guam and LPD-14 Trenton deployed south from Operation Desert Shield with forces from the FOURTH Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) on board. and 82] May 1991. 79.S. participated in Operation "Provide Comfort. ten USMC CH-46s completed the evacuation of the compound. U. Embassy compound in Mogadishu. [7. 54] 2-11 January 1991.S. USMC helicopters evacuated 281 people from 30 countries from the Embassy to the ships. Bangladesh. Disaster Relief Marine forces.000 U. Disaster Relief Following a devastating 29-30 April 1991 cyclone." the multi-national relief effort for Kurds in northern Iraq. 80. Operations began on 7 April 1991 and involved over 7. close to the epicenter) on the day of the earthquake.S. Northern Iraq. [See. The Hid Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) provided the command element Operation Sea Angel began on 10 May and involved over 7. [For 53 . 21.S.7 on the Richter scale occurred in central Luzon. Approximately 200 Marines assigned to MAGTF 4-90 helped in search missions and in providing emergency relief. an earthquake measuring 7. Various follow-on operations continue to this date. [55] April-October 1991. the first deployment from the 24th MEU. personnel. Somalia. Philippines.mi. p. for example. contribution to relief operations in Bangladesh. 10. to protect the compound amidst the disintegration of the Barre regime. 1990. 76.

Disaster Relief Following the 12 June eruption of Mount Pinatubo and a 16 June Typhoon. The commanding general. May 1992. Marines assisted in relief operations (including evacuation of Americans) in the Philippines. for example.87. 92. [See. Two CH-53E from HMM-266.S. 2nd FSSG (BG G. Italy. California. elements of I MEF (SPMAGTF Los Angeles) began deploying as part of JTF (LA) in Operation "Garden Plot" to help restore order after the LA riots.H. 93. and 89.] 13 April 1992. this involved the movement of approximately 2.000 per week via USCG cutters. from USS Inchon.000 pounds of concrete slabs to the perimeter to alter the lava's course. [58] 54 . On 9 May. carried over 200. see: 83. Police Support USMC forces assumed primary responsibility for emergency humanitarian assistance to Haitian refugees at Naval Base Guantanamo.. Supreme Court issued a decision which permitted the involuntary repatriation of migrants back to Haiti.information on Sea Angel. With U. Haitians began to flow into Guantanamo Bay and were housed in a tent city.88. Walls. 56.000 Haitians. the temporary camps at Guantanamo held over 15. For background information.86. Philippines.] June 1991. Police Support On 1 May 1992. Navy and Coast Guard assistance. Jr.S. see: 90. 300 Marines from the 8th Regiment deployed from Camp Lejeune to Guantanamo to join 400 other military personnel.85. 84. On 31 January 1992. the U. On 16 December 1991. Disaster Relief Marines from 24th MEU assisted Italian efforts to save the Sicilian town of Zafferana Etnea from an advancing lava flow. At peak. 57. USMC) was the CJTF. 94] 22 November 1991-May 1993. at peak. SPMAGTF (LA) began redeployment back to Camp Pendleton. and the other chapters in 84. Guantanamo Bay. [91.

New Bern. Rescue at Sea In two separate incidents. flagship LHA-1 Tarawa) off the coast of Mogadishu in Sept. In September. 55 . [95. 1992 to provide assistance to the 500 man Pakistani contingent. Daniel Hottle. refueled H-60s of the 56th Air Rescue Squadron that were evacuating three seriously ill Lithuanian seamen from fishing trawlers hundred of miles from Iceland. Somalia. deployed in Iceland for training. Relief Aid In late August 1992. government began relief flights with the U. repaired rain gutters. Disaster Relief HI MEF deployed 72 Marines for drought relief in Micronesia as part of Operation "Water Pitcher. initially from the 26th MEU(SOC) provided SAR assets in the Adriatic Sea. Relief Aid The U. 9 August 1992. August 1992-February 1993. NC. Bosnia. a KC-130 from VMGR-252. the CJCS positioned Marines (the llth MEU(SOC) aboard PHIBRON ONE.May-June 1992. Micronesia." The Marines.S. USMC. Marine forces.23 July 1992 (continuing). Iceland. machine-guns fired on USMC helicopters engaged in a search and rescue mission following the crash of an Italian Air Force aircraft. 24 July 1992." Sun Journal. 96] 17. Kenya. 23. LCpl. Seabees. and assault craft operators delivered water. In February 1993. the Operation "Provide Relief Joint Task Force (JTF) under the command of Brigadier General Libutti (USMC) arrived in Mombassa. "Routine training becomes rescue mission. Air Force air craft into Sarajevo.S. Bosnia. Provide Relief became part of Operation Restore Hope. On 3 September. if it became necessary. and distilled water.

1st MEB Marines departed from Hickam AFB. CINCPAC established JTF Marianas to support disaster relief. High priority equipment off-loaded included generators. Typhoon Omar hit the north end of Guam. and Marines for deployment. and Krome Ave. Hawaii. reverse osmosis water purification units (ROWPUs). ROWPUs. trucks. Guam. Louisiana. water trailers. the USMC component of JTF Miami. 28 August 92. Disaster (Hurricane) Relief Following Hurricane Andrew. That day. Florida. MREs. forklifts. The next day. repaired schools and aided in the general clean-up of Guam. Disaster (Typhoon) Relief On 28 August 92. On C-Day. Florida City) and establish a self-supporting 20-bed clinical facility for triage and immediate medical care and to provide security and protect government property. bulldozers. August-September 1992.August-September 1992.500 man tent compounds (Harris Field in Homestead. The Marines constructed and maintained two 2. USS Belleau Wood transported Marine and Army heavy equipment from Oahu to Kauai. 12 September-6 October 1992. Hawaii. and field light sets. Florida. Navy/Marine engineers constructed a tent city. At peak. The Marines off-loaded MV Lummus equipment to aid in the relief operations. Disaster Relief Hurricane Iniki hit Kauai on 12 September and damaged an estimated 30 percent of the island's housing with some areas reported in the 90 percent range. Marines participated in relief operations in Florida and Louisiana. That day. provided command and control 56 . Hurricane Andrew hit Florida on 26 August 1992 Reserve Marines from 4th ANGLICO. Initial relief efforts concentrated on power restoration and water services. to assist the JTF. II MEF began deploying to Florida elements of SPMAGTF Dade County. The operation ended on 19 September.000 civilians. Marines from the 1st MEB prepared generators. 6th Motor Transport Battalion and 4th Assault Amphibian Battalion provided some of the first military assistance to the area.. these tent cities housed over 2. CINCPAC formed JTF Hawaii to command relief operations.

[22. August 1993. Nebraska. cleared trees and other debris from roads in areas affected by a tornado 30 miles south of Omaha. 102. Search and Rescue In the early morning of 22 September 1993. was the firstU. 101. [59] December 1992-4 May 1993. 22-24 September 1993.182301Z August 93] 2-3 August 1993. [60] 57 . Alabama. dNCPAC ended the JTF on 6 October. Alabama. with Camp Pendleton Fire Department Personnel. AL. 99. 100. assisted the evacuation of 20 civilians. Restore Hope officially ended as UNOSOMII began. 98. Amtrak's "Sunset Limited" derailed over a remote bayou near Mobile. SMCR Marines. military presence on station off Mogadishu on 2 December 92. On 4 May 1993. for example. Disaster Relief Marines from the I&I staff of the Engineering Maintenance Company (-) from Omaha. on their active duty training. Marines from the 1st Force Reconnaissance Company.S. Twelve Marines from the 3rd Force Reconnaissance Company. The Marines landed on 9 December 1992 to initiate Operation Restore Hope.capability and medical augmentation to the relief effort. helped local rescue efforts from 16 through ISJanuary. with the 15th MEU aboard. 103] January 1993. Relief Aid The Tripoli (LPH-lO)-led amphibious task force (with LSD-47 Rushmoreand UPD-WJuneau). Somalia. 97. Mobile. Nebraska. [See. Search and Rescue Amidst torrential flooding. which inundated Camp Pendleton. MARRESFOR. California. arrived on the scene about four hours after the crash and conducted search operations. Fire Fighting Marines from BLT 3/8 and MSSG 26 involved in an amphibious exercise put out a fire in the Tunisian countryside. Tunisia.

Approximately 100 other Marines with six bulldozers aided firefighdng and rescue efforts.320 gallon water buckets in assisting firefighting efforts.] 58 . Fire Fighting HMH-466 CH-53Es from MCAS Tustin carried 1. [See. California.November 1993. 61 and 62. for example.

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5-8 68 .W. Freeman. Mayberry. Secret. pp. Military Relations with Humanitarian Relief Organizations: Observations from Restore Hope. interviewer. John F. Zvijac and Paul W. pp. by David J.1993." An interview with MGen. Patrecia S. "Peacemaking in Somalia. December 1993-4 May 1994 Many disparate efforts are documenting Operation Restore Hope. Dworken. Dworken. The following are some of the CNA publications on Restore Hope. USA. Jan 1994 [98] [99] [100] Research Memorandum 93-140.[96] JOG John Johnson. Somalia. McGrady. pp. Deputy Commander CINCCENT. Field Artillery. 17. February 1993." Marine Corps Gazette. from Center for Naval Analyses studies to work in the military history offices. 2. USN. Hollis. Operation Restore Hope Joint Task Force (U). Mar 1994 Research Memorandum 93-126. by Katherine A. Antal and Capt. Secret. Waldo D. Robert L. June 1993. Logistics in Operation Restore Hope (U). 38-43 [103] "Operation Restore Hope—A Logistical Challenge. Dunaway. Oct 1993 Other articles and studies that have appeared include: [102] Maj. by Antonjareb. Crisis Action Planning for Operation Restore Hope (U). "Operation Water Pitcher. by Jonathan T. Rules of Engagement (ROE) for Humanitarian Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict: Lessons From Restore Hope. by Jonathan T. vol." AsiaPacific Defense Forum. Oct 1993 [101] Research Memorandum 93-120. no. 35-38 Operation Restore Hope. Nov 1993 Research Memorandum 93-114. [97] Research Memorandum 93-96.

Joint Task Force Center for Naval Analyses Combat Service Support Team Aircraft Carrier. Pacific Chairman. Joint Chiefs of Staff Commander. Attack High-Speed Transport Battalion Landing Team or Battalion Commander-in-Chief. Support (antisubmarine warfare) Disaster Assessment Survey Team Guided-missile Destroyer Force Service Support Group Humanitarian Assistance and Peace Operation Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 69 .Glossary AAV ANGLICO AFS AKA APD BLT CINCPAC CJCS CJTF CNA CSST CVL CVS DAST DDG FSSG HA/PO H/CA HMM Assault Amphibian Vehicle Air and Naval Gunfire Liaison Company Combat Stores Ship Cargo Ship. Small Aircraft Carrier.

Dock Landing Ship. Tank Marine Air Group Marine Air-Ground Task Force Marine Division Mediterranean Amphibious Ready Group MARRESFOR Marine Reserve Force MAU MAW MCAF MCAS MCHC MEB MEF Marine Amphibious Unit Marine Air Wing Marine Corps Air Facility Marine Corps Air Station Marine Corps Historical Center Marine Expeditionary Brigade Marine Expeditionary Force 70 .HMR HMR(L) HTS IM JCS JTF LPD LPH LSD LST MAG MAGTAF MARDIV MARG Marine Helicopter Squadron Marine Helicopter Squadron (light) Helicopter Training Squadron (USN) Instructor and Inspector Joint Chiefc of Staff Joint Task Force Amphibious Transport Dock Amphibious Assault Ship (helicopter) Landing Ship.

MEU MIO MNF MRE MSC MV MWSS NAS NEO PLO ROWPU SAR SLF SMCR SPMAGTF TRANSDIV UNRRA USA USAF USCG USN USMC Marine Expeditionary Unit Maritime Interception Operation Multi-National Force Meal Ready-to-Eat Military Sealift Command Motor Vessel Marine Wing Support Squadron Naval Air Station Non-combatant Evacuation Operation Palestinian Liberation Organization Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit Search and Rescue Special Landing Force Selected Marine Corps Reserve Special Purpose MAGTF Transport Division (USN unit) United Nations Refugee and Rehabilitation Administration United States Army United States Air Force United States Coast Guard United States Navy United States Marine Corps 71 .

USMCR VMGR VMO VMR United States Marine Corps Reserve MarineAerial Refueler Transport Squadron Marine Observation Squadron USMC Transport Squadron 72 .

. . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4.S. . Marine Corps humanitarian assistance and peace operations . . . . . . . . 16 18 19 20 25 73 . . . TableS. . . . USMC HA/POs in 1994 (as of early August 1994) . . . .List of tables Table 1. Summary by type and location (domestic / f o r e i g n ) . . Table 5. A typology of U. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of operations and categorization by cause ofresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2. Table 6. . . . . . . Summary by type of operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some early USMC maritime interception activities . .

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March 1994 Research Memorandum 93-40.S.10. by Paul Olkhovsky. Lancaster. by Adam B. Rules of Engagement (ROE) for Humanitarian Intervention and Low-Intensity Conflict: Lessons from Restore Hope.10. Siegel. Answering the 9-1-1 Call: U. May 1993 For copies call: CNA Document Control and Distribution Section (703)824-2943. Sands. October 1993 Research Memorandum 93-114. Siegel. McGrady. 1977-1991. July 1993 Research Memorandum 90-246.W. When America Shoots: A decade of U. combat intervention. Linda D. Blue Hulls: Multinational Naval Cooperation and the United Nations. by Adam B. November 1990 Research Memorandum 94-74. Functions. Military Relations With Humanitarian Relief Organizations: Observations from Restore Hope. A Sampling of U. Marine Corps Crisis Response Activity. Dworken. by Katherine A. Naval Humanitarian Operations. by Adam B. The Use of Naval Forces in thePost-War Era: U. by Jonathan T. Navy and Marine Corps Roles. TheJoint Task Force in Operation Restore Hope. 19461990. Dworken. and Missions.S. Barnett and LCdr. by Adam B. Information Memorandum 229. Navy and U.S.M. October 1993 Research Memorandum 93-120. February 1991 Occasional Paper 116. Siegel. by Thomas P.S. January 1994 Research Memorandum 93-140.S. USN. Military and Naval Crisis Response Activity. Siegel. . by Jeffrey I. Who Will Do What With What: Defining U.S. by Jonathan T. Revised August 1992 Information Memorandum 132.Related CNA studies The following are a number of related Center for Naval Analyses studies that might also be of interest. Case Studies in USMC Requirements in Humanitarian and Peace Operations. forthcoming Research Memorandum 93-237.

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