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if!:..22("..I .o " ur ru ....{/...i. (2). Ua.. .d$ P"o 2' -116...t .....".-... 10S3 rn 2' U-.. baOOoII' i!... ). ...... """.]I lor I"l'qIlCN!d one! pab 4... P• ody aIi.x. tbo 1iIu&I"" (rallic bel . ina-etiI".n~ ~ ca. <0 ~ UpaJ _di<lon.ht.$j!o~SUf""7 iTT tllf . &1'1(1 mobile ..... and <>O.odM durrr.be ~ (MJ>"l'ioPy ror hi"...y boo IcA.han P•..P... (3) . opeod mobil ._ P...J/O" -29Jog.... "' ~ oeveral cr.d.""" """'" .{d. oipIJ O>Ddilion dun". rad>cs P.. '" U -""" (2) re"......! 11/7.....)WU/(C) .-) ... (MSC)." (el (0...rR'~ • T!..be .8 dBm (0) !o . ~~ tk 6.d _ Q d... Fm.. handot d... is "'" tmAll <1>&• ..o!d"o) Uoi".. J..6 jut"..= Fn..Me· Set. M if{. too o.).. ur 4- co.lb . W( Car. .JIO P•. ...IY """"""" . 2' 1... b) If ." sutn-i--t ..H.. BS..r.. 5tE . d""... ) ...be b&oe QUo.! tkJ fui"(J7 0/ 12h .. mobile ape«! ..lJO ..... " . !:. ..• <0 ..d.. tty !wW!s . d .P. 21 fA. 1083 _ 10-1"· 0 0{71 :n. ~ P. d. [(0/1 (D.r..r/~ by .-29Ioc. to (OItIpieI.. otbo:" hoAd. BS.JI(J. 10-"'-"" .A) Call< ur "'" loa d"" d~ • <!... Ie< !:.t..."ill _ Ior~ lime.i"'.2dB..

loaJ .at!C< Wtwtc:ll the IIIObilc and Ib. 2.be nOL of .oblffl>.-.otal i • . • ".... '" . ~1" ...d 'be mobiio. co ''''''s. ... 10 this p.....5 -vIA& but OIalio:a ..II< i... tW lou• ... ..D'o1 baH ••• ...'".. In _ .u.e l·th hue _ iD the r. mohlle is \hecell bowIda:r (....sl d .. 10' 01"" ...... ' ..be IIItIbIle iI.1. mobile 111< ... 3. by p.m it .. I.»o..."""""nel ' .. .. 1". • . Tabl . ir«l lipoJ 1:0111 ..... 3...he _bile..\." .lot """bile channel i~terrc .rib...-jtb P. lor dl1lloer Ii.. ..ho ~ ..b /r0l%l 'b_ ... 5 Ihr<uF> 7 .. . btr... N ~ 3.. j .10< 1. tb..bile. it. d 7. I• . ..P..b '... . 1":" .... 10: eod> 'ier.. The.nor Ii...... • j Co.". N _ 1. ti(IDJ i •• 10< I·th ... _ FiJW' 1: Cel!~lu 0)'0"" uio.be .D of eo-cl>'.... ..mf«l<'O" . . iaD iD the Hh ti .."m""".."d 4 and .. ""d pa. rf. l...'..'" diot..... reoti. D !..3 . the l'lh but ."" of <"... . iii.. ..I.] i. Joe"td...<IkA ._ ...b..". Iberdo~.d 7... r igurt I . Table I show> t~1 D. (~r (l) ..<r. &nd SIR at tb...a.:l. 11" .h I"" . the to •• l .. d.0 the IOUI eoeII&ZI.... 4 ..... . N ......f Fr'." si_ N . . I bMc nail"".O'-' .i...... the Ioca'~ fA bue . poo...h..be lim ...... m< tba..I.. d.nu ~ .. ........ tioo). • • I-I: E~1 · <oj . 1...0recoivtd at .1St caoo lit .~ _~r 01 'he ""..oJi1od . ttce.1"".but..b .. '.......r t.

. J lO T x • o.. path 1000 ".: du"" 3 &ad~... ~ ODd 7. 2. "..h ka~=" . d.".. I..." it.. .. ' i••• io tho .1i..tio."". n. tier.. 7 ....t>It ~. 3. 3."fI...3. 2.ch lia 10 "...mo .. ••1 b.......... aa<l pa...·ct.. F""" 2 ~ 0') for..r....tiOIl... pal... lO. d""" w.30Dd •• T...o<ribu. ...l i • It>..... N . I. ..he ""Ill C(>1Ii_ foo' . "..... I. CHi of ~li __ ..act.poo••10 n . w.....I.. _ !:Cp""eat.. Table 2 . 3 .Table 1..... uaioS C"'I ."".t.. N _I..III< '"'.0 .. Co.......d 7. dult<rsi .""".< n = 2...eIl&ll • • ' i. lOO1li..... . JlQ I....t<OO of ...... r.".I ...

. tIIo. 1a this pt<Ibl. SIRIT'J_SIR<' 1 1_1. «>mputio.' erf...-.......poe. -_. The "LImber 01 Ii ... """Irib". ~b... th... ..--'-"""""'=::1 H:!! I I " . I...o-ln . &II of M as .l''' 2: Coctribu..>a>dI ca lhoe cIe.o" of . n .i"" t<>-do". rret<D« .1.tio".. . pood.< I' \. ..... ".... the 1'0"'" of .Iud.ticAI ill • &1..0: !. ....he path _ "<po. . med.&%Inell. srll"'-'Olos" .. thaI tb.~ :.io flo"... SIR.1!Ot<d b....c E'f..he Hier 10 tb< IOta! Tbe oi".... 0<11)" T tim.:. • t::::j ... 2 (iDdB).-.. Piau'''' 2 ancl 3.]y.\..·b... of SIR.iJf!d ...t>It 3 &lid F\tu .. " -_.. ti .. ' F'ir......n. "--_.. ... ..111.. 2../ore.:! bjr .... mcb~ Is SIRC' ) ICIer"..j '.cl1O ~ . " " .. 51 Rf'l....4 &Dd 7 OJ><! poth '''''' ""... . if """"p.. b) c:o.11 .. Po. C""i of <:<>-chanu. ""....... T........."'" thol we ..ue. ..tier dopmds mainly OIl .. oecUliblc i.. _ P.ct.... 01 ... SIR de.' -- -' : :::::.0 ..bile &lid &1_ byP.... "::::: . tht <StI"' ... b..1>tI i. . ..).. ".. lirst Lion prod_ <:onsi~~ UII~.ll. .... :.{ "... lho I'OS\!lu p. i... only b.<" p~ ... . 1...~a!.. ....he .-. dtoi:od ' ipo..R-". . .. . Tbor.. we.... rttti.m-... i.3. .-.".... au. A E£J I... """..... 1·.. .ca.. N . d.1b:! i.\. . SI ft........ ... .... ..wm..3 and~ .rence . TIQ .b..t <be ".. 3 ohrJr SIIf'I lor duotu .b..li<w in ""'''' distaD.....1 bN< "'.. We 1:00....') . _ ..J..h..

-o • •. Tti ...'<ff. coIIJjdered ...0 ___ _ _ • • -.. l. t M 0011 bwudory. ---'O'-'-'-""'-"--..~.. -..urt l Sipol_l->-in\ ..'=. ---.-'-":-'-1.' Gl'" .n ~ " .b. Iy <he Tab!< 3 SipaJ . cl .... . _. --~.. . 3... IOelled .-.~. "-. tf. - ---.h..... • .. ~ ODd 7 o.. -..'.od p. tho mobil..".••..-.-... N .--1.. " -------. ..--". .w...."1><00 ..--.... -.-. --"••.'h I. 0 ..-. I..u --0 ~ o '. rot ioo.r---.. rlr. when ~rr. T tim ot' co-<:h&o . - 0"..... 1. . _---. -. on<OUidued.-....... .... . _.-oc'c-c'.' "r Gl'-' 1 .. "I' ~ ---. . i... " 3 ODd ~ .... £.... «110 ...-.\ .. _ .-.. « II oou"d&ry.e ""io .. . <!....-''j.. of~ <ell... t tho mobile located .-. ~ . 1-_ ----"---.. x po n...". _.

... /If .. ..... n" .. U'. I!nt 11. "" . . 2.th lou "PODell.. " .. 5\100 2. ... ~ .. We need '" _ri""........ ...5981 -2..~.. 4 ODd 7 &a<l path \000 ""1>0""'' ' '''' 2. onl. for cIu." 1. Raulu or< _ _ io T. 4 -3....5931 .. i~ tbe _ _ 0/ SIR... ..... -1.. ..n21 oj..... J &lid 4.. U ilS l -1. .b.... U p O<>eDt n .. <OJWder 1110 5 . _dud... 7 &od pt. of(/) .. .. 1....Path \aq upotle.ie. . s..4641 ..... N .. . 4 ..m"..udbs '" clur.7321 ·UOOO N ...bk4.wi ~ .. MIld 1. Ik....... • . lbr Loca:"". 3. ... . ""Iy the E... .. . W. ......It.... 1.. .Om..... . ""yl.3301 . • . l .. titts... .. T ti . U32! U54 1 . 6"...SOOO _1 ...7321 -3. t(lmputf (Of d .. .0 rOt 01"' ... . lor <I . n . 0«<1 to "".. l buo lUno. .• . • . ... '. Coordi ... ..'''' N ...•'" . U ..... 1.... J tJ>d 4.... • U ...0. -..nl th....J "*" ET'A N..lioed "..'~ crili" or "'" coordi:>ate 1)'$'""'..<: Ii..7321 -). rOt "... 3.i. .1321 ~ _3301 4.598\ 26 .P at b 10.."" .Path w.. ~::I 1... r""" f~" 3.' D" 4: W..... .. Ii ... . Table 4" Enot Toblt~: • .0<1 7• .... " • • ... exp o " " n.. "p'dl....2...0000 -UOOo ·1..... . .... ..110 R. ..... J .. 4 . <: 0... . ... . '1O\l . c:dl is loa .. '" cl .3-' (fti .. all th_Ii<~ .5 dB... l. we ""Y cowd ..i<kr s....

5000 ·~..00c0 ·3. •.s981 5..0000 .] baoot .l962 ·3.lr. OOOO ' .\ioo of J.. Tobie 7.000 _25Ml "" "" '''''' ·a.19<12 -.«..:.... 1..00:10 .92S2 .sJ ••.~ 2 . R .4641 .-.0000 I . .732 1 -'0000 ·H9t'...- .7321 ·10. • 'J"""'.." _ Coo..m2 -4...l •. .."'" ..0000 S..."'" . • ... tb..SO(XI ' .""" .na.:. ..7321 ·G.. " ...... oec:ond tier..1962 ·5.46tJ 519(. 0000 -6.WOO 5.0301 ...12«< -!a904 _9_00r0 '.7J21 _uooo ·11_0000 · 1.. .'ah R. ."" _MOOO -.OOOO ~.""" of to-do. r Uld ~ &rt Dorm>.. ".46<11 -2..1321 ·3."'" ..!..o...~ -U9G2 ·2..5000 lO.m3 ."'" ·B!I!Il 1.0000 · 2~L 13.H9!1 _1."" 12."" -10...l2~4 ·9. ..-. ~1 ~ .£..4.6&03 ·10.""" . • -..OOOO -U301 ·3..:1000 ·6.~1 962 -J." Coordinate> r and ~ &r< D(>mIali1!Od T.951 ·1..10.21 · ll_2M3 ·U2& ·um:! . .....O!\Z! _.WZJ ~ lU:."" 606:!'2 ~OOOO 6. . ..~ .0 .~82 -12.\0000 ·3.7321 6. .0000 '...73. lb...5951 "" • ~ . _rdi~.. 0000 _."" H6tl .oo outloao I.9282 ·1. .0000 _~ ..9904 .II....I 9G:! 7.."" "'" '. • 2.0000 ''''''' 10.0000 -8.. • 25\181 H9Q 7.1 962 '1 .m2 _1.oem "" ''''' • . . ....5000 ~ " UOOO ..:.0000 . I. '''''' '.~9SI .J9'2l -M282 _12.~ 10.."'" "'" ·2. "" W .l9Q 2.5000 .3301 .0000 -519'32 ·:.... ••" ·3. N· 4 • .1962 6.• n " '0000 . IXXI(I ·3.!nS2 7..-. wid..7942 7m2 U9G2 .. .19(j2 .7942 7.t.5QSI ·1... otll is Ioatod . .9252 ""'" "'" .. • . .500(1 . "" -J."'" " """ ·1_'0000 ...0000 1O.1962 -.59U -17321 ·~..... ...0000 · 86603 ·5.lI9!Il ..0000 -...ml ·30000 -30000 _\.~ 3..-...1&11 ·0.. !I. .~.000Il U9S1 ~. ~ 6.....bIo 6....5000 ·7.0000 ""''' -. " ·3...SOOO 2. ~ 3.. . ..~. • ..1962 '0000 _5..«d al ... . cell is <>riB" nl .(16n '..79n ..0000 _uooo 2.m '0000 '0000 ... "ys. .... '-'00' •• .....464 1 -4. .IS162 12.1962 Se".oca. ~ ·~ . Grir. ..4641 _2. S."" .59S1 -2.. ~!1 .5000 -1.~ 4 " • 3 • l.1 17J21 -7.WOO ·2....000 2. S<rvin. ·3. 1..5981 -3.5981 · UlOOO ·6.. .#-11 .•' .19G2 -13.. third tin."" .-..0000 1.~ ..'"..1942 7.7321 .d.1\IG2 ·7... .7942 ·7..7J'~012 ~.in of (M <OOC<Ii:at.4(1) ~ 2 ..3 ... .. 5000 11. .51lS] ·6._5000 ·lo. ....c4-J )_j ~ bo.m2 ·~... "" " '''''' 3.

"" 1/Uph .) aos 37. C"/OIJ usa:..P'{." "2:.750 users jpo ~11s ~ ke1( Kb. (1"') 15' Ii A. ~'. U..u.91X! of... 003 fi= rph (n~ 3·. • U(OI) _> U.Hoi fa) JI MIA ~ too CflaMek 2 ·30kJl.. .UA.!<.j.r. (bJ q. 250 "'3 s(.CiDIJ'PS 500 x 900 r6:rS .(!. (."''''''/."" "'" 333 ". 6<>5·3% . . (0) EaoJ.Z (0) oF 100 "'''''3' ' qo oel""l' qo..''9'/sdo.) ~ (j ../ors ~t:) 'f:/"'" ."d 90l .

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=> 010 ('1J-'. """"'" fa d.fJ" =/ ).01 m 01>0..J."V (24) TbID... Gmt 'd j.) 1..SS.12 m (~) 1'01' II>< fit1\ Frconel zone: n_ L The maximum Fran.. FOf" I kno link at 1.d..: the WtttllClioo 10 . lhis l)"Itetn" 3MI0' < A_ J* 2_~" III' _0...OOxSOO B ~ + ~OO ~~.4 m .-.1 <bitn 1\11< for mi~.-rd. be n>... d..J.J." Ii.: US ~:-.12x[. =- A· rA"---"~"~d2 d. ~ AI dr'd...."... mquirud ro.. • dl . b-Io ..1....o'i\ _ 3...dl /1 xO.:. fow'!cI.. .."'. mwlltWll fil'Jl FI'<SJ>tI :..~ C14 • ....s"e1 .1 .... PI".IIe dtatance would require at lta. J... if..hoWilIn the .=-ol·~ =:> y ) '(1.h ..hal • Ih. .... EQ<=<Dn (06ll)< Freond:roo< rod' .he WS p...""hco' \\"Ul clear. 0< ' / 'a.. Fresnel Zone Clearance Tx .1. rod.""'''''.. U. links iJ SS~ deaTonoo oj II>< firt' !'I-ernel oone.17/ A 8"""'.. 500m.

" .:: ..- _ _ d .) :.q..1." '1 -flI 6 " . _ Fe. l :. 6r::.0-3 n f: (47/j'd'.--.Tlo/u... do-. Gr-t. "".1 ~_ .. d=5P<>D1"bC~=5cIXi"' ..f'Tlx""-'!ti?ho· o• \. ... r..4.><ocr .../~~/.)'.6h\J (1 by Md flff 'f"t~ h!CM'!...:.... '" . u.1 . fn. We Iv. At' _ lo. d." . .r...._1_ I '" •r I: :Lo .~. kli'w M (f!i)'i<.r A( : f. $$J' i'fly- QJcotN. (I») - f1 x/o" r".de:f /')!>f G.. ). j< =9Dcf1th..=. Di... :.-5 (WI dB"" "rl:~ Ii ".li)d8~/{)..'i -5... er..{5~o.1tfg.". tr./ /i .>'t ~....'(/1 h::..L..'1 F~ ~ r~~'J 5~ Y.

M IiJf (...) ).·1S5 f~~.> oI-/r.. ..) { o .3 :-9~·~ Pr~r--':: ft dEl<') .) .... .. 6 )t(~.." 1I >. 5i-s ..<{I. aJUi v= (rod) l>'U~"{$_ • .'0P- ::.571 dB".tI =: ).:." .d = Ij~sr'< (dB.}(.a .'..) T =. 4..22-4f<1e".!!.£:!!1) J" L6 .p " ~ 1I115... 6 1'1 4r A' :: l45.:: ...<-0/"" ( '?:!... .2ol(~)!. Ar~T :' til =.) U$Vtj ti. we o/. 01 .f.t~.t= ..t..y (. 7e18 7/". 2j..~8· 7 = .~ . d" L' =: - V 4' ~ 31) dB ..7g = ()·3018''12..:. .£:!.If~f t C.=> "" = (?i . P!W~~" 4d (dt)=: .-<_) :.'' ~h.uo·6(w):d:..~.11.-?!5 ./) = ·fJ..J crJlOYimni(fo.fil"".) (~lfJ'· d'· U:: C.e) (3 - =zt-/2 .. :. 1-/56 (O~~S )~-./ 211. :> P"ro<.l ...501-1ffl ~ =.!i ) d'~ 1/ :5J. G... 307b/ll~'.'{1'!!:!.'::-.4..'.:'d~..::: p. dB. .? ~ :: ). 11.

Gd:= 1-'f.". rPr(d.7 ..-.0'.=.l ) p.~e(. • 10. • =) 0(7}) ::. dB + (id "-6D-n.s d8 P/.2. C.... _ Pt.r' :::." (/ 3". ) .-'5~~f.H·5 d:. tor.) 0 78)2.~/"'DfoIHz => A=j.=(N58(M) (b) '"' PI"''''''' = . 6..)(d81'?) :: ..-/4<.t.2...d = ..j) ( d81') ::..5:~'. " I j~d. /4)· " t. (04) _ PLo • 10tI"".. ('Iff) .-l tb< pn6<\- .1.. V= Pr- {j...cI"'~d.._ .1 11= >. (""5):: do &<t( £....b U : ..(. PrLI>Id!>V)'O(Y-P.i...f (IV) = _~ ( dB.J5) = .. ~"".. =3?~ 6'1$1 >' S_ .(o') _ PLo • '''kcl(l40) PL.iiJ) 0- ~ () (-lS-f.) ():: 175 dB %/' .15'&./oJ cr ~= 1-.fLo - 42. 10 .H)) =..42 0 Cent 'd f.) l :0-3 }. cJ }.- => P'f~I""'= fJ-."I/1'"0=--55 d8'" F<r !'o-»dBn.

. f ..{ pr:: p~:: /c"J( w) = -3cdBm."'.. '" -14 dB".. I" 1<. fr _" -5od8m Pr :: -56".1".. d~= 1/(11'1 p~.. F~ d ~ }K. .!V(II Fer int ytv..r d Z" p. fP./o-~" r/ /:2"s x/c"'{w) ":-UdCm d: 5tl'l Ft..) C.. 5."~..rp.4231 (e...

..' (111)' d.t.)Pr~ Pdd.odd f."..)= fA...6. Fr:-7QdBI>l hrd:J~t""j>r: -F'dt"l (d) hr r.·J' ":'S.... 1N I. PI" .) (fl<)'·((' d- ==> PI' €X1Jc! ). : 01"7". ~· d8fr1 1· 8~Y nds "U.> tnhkn 4. pr=·>"8dg..111) - =) f"if..lk)" p. ..&i1 t....~d ~71f. ..\' . €F..../tV'J.J- t9~ .: ~ 9''1 .1(.11(-.4.' j>.. fr Frn d " hr. ::- wh".) (-tri)'4-' Cir q.. W J'. . .t1< .. /2...10' ~rc.)l Y lo..r1j/ (c)Flfr IF 4 [. FI17 d: l)::M Ftfr (1=5/(11 fr=-5 Itf Bm f"..A". 2 .Ilo· tr w ) =~'~~ Fer d: Id:"./'...fJd8M F"..: -3n~ o.5S1t1 -. J' .. ... 6l: ~ f SlIb PI': .d£ = (4/(J'.1.671 ' () 6"f'n 1. c ~ <9 •• ): Jl-... Pr : -braem 0 - 6~ dB".}... d .' ~U.5'"'7d/3"l 2/".~. Pr: p..A.d:S}' m.(#/10 )' /. ~ ~ _ .}j:... Pr::..: /O-'IV..S5u.OttO S 71 X(o". Frfd):: r rz.x_ ( '... tf ' (Or" .1 d'l/<m.. FtfT d ~ IW"'.T(w): ~ ~rdB.4·/3 (~t'd Pr:(~-b·(dl~/ . t}.. tip: /I<'m..b 5"" "'..[ j/fXIII...d r!'{i'''ff»> ."" S"m. tH · 6r:od8 : =::> ~:: }o·~ " (f!. > --tT i> <1 )" rl'.0 ' (I'o'j""': . (":NY".) Ffl d= 5/C1>1.J ~ 7 6 "')..(rf.n R'ur 1<....

.. . [ :-.. ." " "" """.". ..j .' < . 58 . "" .~ - .' ~ . " :1.. ~ . ~~"'"'~..~ . ....._______-'.I .... ... .. .•. I . " .:c '.'.-....... ~ '. . . .. -'.::.. -- '''. .- . -'... ' . ________.".~ -- ~ J '" . '...:..

~ (J /- L~ b (/K"l) =./ ) .r"J''''' t/"J tyf.l. _> Pr = 5. f8~ .1~'J·3 ciB Pr= P.) · ~.If) rII'> . / " . d -I (t. MIt~ i-}' l.6 S5~y 1o)..1/~.s'.u.{fj:M )] " '· lo. '1'0_ f119. fr i" L- 5" 11D d: fD th> .. t.d1~.(Hf! .!f d~". = I'i-~'Il dB S.) ...c} dB¥) p. tk ~( t."'~ . M ~. d" ty.~ 63 de.f_2~ j~'" ~ I'... fl.f..?I· ..h s.J hj. d > 5 k. It am . IU'. <iCy WA. Wi"." "8 f~ ().tlel. d...... )::: +t ~rH ~·6~ t f./ r.dJ]'. : -lH "8m d...-D....t:J.1. (e) f(. .//'15/"~)'_ Lt. c..(1I1S. oI>. 1 }.1:?. (111.'i? dE (~ jr_..1B (N'd F.) = .. fr ~1.k"..~ Pr -= -51.....0(1.-~ ModeU " a. 1~ 1-7...M d<5f:m./.f"~/.6H~ (/" ~ == -) Cd!.J 1"1'''"' Ry' r -z..Ertrr-itd H«Ut lII.. I1ATlA8 rrm Stt tAt f1ArLA~ pw.l\t ..[ls.(2)( /0"'-( w) 6'6:= "·isl r"uh =..). S ty.(.t.r"~ !~r"'ltd Dj ~ ... 11'3 (I'. J/'m .Jk.8Jfg'.. 6·31 H ·t (W'/. ..r d:doJ<m.?..&. d/i<t. L50 ({.(ri8"."-. tN m-:ddt.( At ) ...".:. (~.. =.) == Fa.] ~ .(fl.. tJ.."·'17 =~·67d5 d = ]):M • L 'i~ (2k!.

r ' ind.we tbe probaboh. < P'Jlo) ~ Pt{p...<t.fI ~ 1"Hleuloj :N eK4c1 (1ftS1i. Prr w.titu'i". '" J.. p..• "J &lid PrlP.... b) rro". Th ."..... tho< dinatt« d.~oJ Is .w( 7rJ (1m uM: tIv (et~ tt~/rn. at as...... or th. .. i""". do!!' occurs u equal to m.~ .~ • P. "'" prcbabU. ( Th<trl"". thaI ...J..dolf J.ty .. ... I(D - -. ond ...e' ~t" p. dio> .... with tb< PfObabilitica AlP•. P.be probabl1ily thaI' . /'fi P. < P.. llo. f'lpre J .. a-h .d 11100II1 m. P"." < P.dl h. . d.. IDe m.t.iobl. ....fu""Ooe. ..m.."uioff .d P.._ by 'IlItfdon...I &lU _ _ _ . i. 3._I..t both _ statioaf (m... a:t<l ns" (2) respoai"......"to (2) . h . OD(! p.ivdy. :b.._ th.). fo •• li_ c!::Iu""" d. ..Jlo ..von try ~ ""..IOn 1oc .. 2 . < P•.. 1" I.""''''' &10".bo.--..ly <>.al. .o ....) H..exp[-(z."". lbe _ .ia.k!j ..be plot ill r. deJ.. pr(Obobility tbot a b. t.. 1000 ". .ba' a h""dolt <><ell. tho Q.. > p•. "ith """dud d ... a mOCt".) (1'(01 r~ . tht.. (3)-(7) ."dolt . .."' - (" s. mp«1.. 10 do." I.y o/!1f)YIN. ri".)!41 ~x... .~ > p•.). •• ""d P..r I _ l_Q (P•. tbe PfOblbility PdP.~nd...~ p. (" ""l'l " (z ..~ G.".mOO<! oI". Q(r) m. budol! _un 10 .>. &.[" _ $" :z. .~ > P....

..' r. .. • •• •• ./" '..'US Iftl'd. ..... .- .. ... _- . ..•• ... '. .-• .. " . .~ • • • ~ • • • _..•.. ' .) """-1 .

. I"h\d oC • f)lllTJS&/ 7~ dB. (Hl.{ M ' J > y} dA 0 : . (1.b. relr (I) f O WA-.(M{ a[ y.r.. dt tAry): -IeT (~JL ..!.~ f~ W W-""Pn.#)dr 0 '/ ' (~) tHY): y_).J1nJ (J"".".1...TIl(.) rio... "2To __ e T06l-11_O'* 0 e-'~ It-" -t' ::: 2' ~ if)..J.p.: .d we Ob{...raJt:.er:.or'/l.<4~/1:" (7 1'=-1 .1 tAr}).v.._ . "'ottv.....:r. "'t. (~) Wf old.IjAr j <VVi JAo'" ~.f!r. ~tii< @ f)( Y) Ie ."2 - z!..: ke70~rj(t)0-f. d" f·e-'ii. y("t' ~ o "Re"i.1'04 f J/(lYI>J -ql' trj(lO f bt.. M il = cJ...) co-w... J t: 0. :V-IX O""{l (1 0· ..&./6." Y l...j ) ..k S"'hJtlt.. " b: co.'f(9r Ju.'>"-r (Y'.lOll 7.R>.. der(~?.' ~f ( )1 .d 5" If" J ~ 0..ft.. -t . e e1rt) af I 0 (4) . I e~ f"" _.p-....) ...0 Jp. O.. ....M""d r... j/Pn>b[fdO>yj-yodr ~> :: f/ Or y-. MJ" . b ) __ e ~ erfmdt (~) :. .e{("'J t =().

•• . .•• h .. •• •• .

A(d_ ) c W( h~ -1'645 rs : : -lilf. ):. /. 0 ...} (de~) (41f)' · d.. i:: 6· 5.1 ef.. 2(" ( 5) wkn . To: )10"1'" ~ !1or~ f~~=1)8.) == )J-I /..l. whr'! J< i> &t(~"4J> (pojlA"t. 4171 /l!)I>< fJwt F:::: gdl!.. dtA 8".Pr.. : 3 i> ~HI . (6) . f:. · r ~ r.-= [).fdC/TI) ).' 64 . 6t:/Ja'/~/5·i5_ 6. no.:3"8 2 ..Crrr..f'i.~S 6.Jd _) ) y..J4 Y == nWf j'(}n-(dB"'1+ SIoI!?(a!» = .{ d f 4 .82·04. . 1(118"') -> ~5/. ('€(tIo£f' bwj.) ::0 -95 . ~ f :' ()'I6Il"'.~ il-.. P..a/· ) 1 :to S'hCf Pr[ p. - = ~ Prfd".[I-"fd)]} UlV)o. (5) bUJ»oo.': K·E.( d' M) > YJ = 0 ( y.tlo · nf~O)I()J ~ 6 · $~}rO =1-~6XID-16/W) =-121...". (" 6.~.645 x8 : : ..~ =-/ol. -6r · ar·)' J1 : /5W..

) dd":') ~ kr d o) .[· To ::: -M.. >r"':' /5 · 2 (k.q ~ ~ 0" d. (411)'.d8.. G~. I "o-~ !>J'.)!=T~Hi" Pdt/.(J"".. d") pr IP.)...) 6iw.f>sk(J )..J: B 61-6.: !(. .: g93)1.""1 <G[:J!.{0 -3. we )..C )l...J:.: 0 (..) -= fr (d~) (JE.n DRP~Pt 6l'!(J¢W..157 15·3S .c'-"""J .. (IV) d=IO~"'./(/ '(IV) (4 =-fo'1?dBM 11 ) ' ) U¢~ ·)· P.. - !· IN o/.../·537s) ..5 = -~t.o..t /0>..r = k· d8xIO'~ l)( 3I)XID\la" 270 = .4o::: -51..~ 77.(-iI. 1 [6">' -10<.4 P{d» ~> Hn'.) .l -1:.-1' ..4'1.d.i/.PdJ_J '" .".2J< O·/U.1ol1<j.5 :0-0-911 .t. llilD-·YW) 51(1«'8) ':: .. .t.(d»Y)' =-1-/·5 . )(d8".H) ~ ./!Q'"s<' f&'r (dtln) -1 == /. O{Y-.(18"') j ~ 8..1011 fa_ (d. " (" Prrd.:) .1' .) :::....IIJ.I .(looo)' ..fI.117·. d~dKn..cd!3-.J.:...

. • Q-~""""'" - ~1. p.JPo. /'look / .. e".... AT Z~ ''''".'>I. . '<.ll dB".cc.) . b p=> yo::r ""'..'.. ( I).. P'(I.. PL(I) • 0.""""'B4 (d) """".. • 'ty":'. 'IOD.".~) .~~oQ" tA\l::.... (0.1>."1 '13. tiK<liI>:>ool1. <h< =i>ed 'LpW k>-J &l l kin will I>: Il'""'" No .

we -hrtal: " 'e caD . lnlenna... t~. e 1<'00' tb. lilll fr=sac:1 ''''''' beCClnl.. ."too". tUipooid and Ibo" B<>e< to tbe rece.T " ~"'..."..:t JIoIIlI disWl<:C. II "..o >!>own i. ~'" F~""I '(IDe.. obS:!\Iot.l. 0' ."tt.s.: t. The di..1aI .c" by poi"': "" '" So...' d. ....d.r".tlnct from «:1" an'''''''1 lQ • point OIl 11>< . 1 FIl>m 11>0 Pipe'. . As. !be diJ\lllCt for whieh tbe VOUI'd k""10 ob>tt\II:Ill>< lint F""". r. dJ.Ill'" u..' eo: tbe dilUlIU. ' 1 bouo"". 0ttUr .". otI . ' 111'0 """10 silo. ~Jb.~ U 1/1 dilpsoi4 "'hose foci &r<: <he 1m01"'" and rect i.v.eI .l2 &fCI.o "i&ure j Tht brook po'o'l<'ili be c.1<f lUI the dlfe... ". refleCltO<. . i. is..... ~i . poml 0'.red .d.Il'psOId IDd ba:t IOIk other "..

).,'ow . ... e oan"1e

i"""e IhO<Jl)' and ill.

~eom.<ry

Iho .... io Fig,"e"

IOCompl el<~"

derival;on of the expr.nioa f«dr

.. ..
'.

f·- - - < - - - - i

...... '

w. ~ rfom lb. lIe<:otll:try I~'l d; ~ (A, ~ ~.)'

_ .,' >.Od

d; ~ (... - A.)' ••,'. Now.

,I"""" t_A, .-h, ~ 4 _.\,_A.. lllill""dl lod:~I' • •,' aM d;.!:.'
SubiUlUtoOi ;010 (2),

d;. t' -(" .

rr ~

','.4.,

·(H

{H
j(" -,'I-W -*,,'j'

d; +I' _dj +t;' ~~Jd; ~t;'

(I' - t;')' - z(I'

-lI'GJ {U -~'d;. ~'1I'

(I'-1I')'-~HI'-2(H 4'. (H- ~ _A'd;

~iI "

J' {f)' 4' . (H

td; _{I' -4'j -~~ I' :>

df

·± (I '- 4')'- 2{I '~ 4'{H ·(H
.f

_r,'.

4}O (pI,"
b:) (I) For ~e4 tD"imrunc:IIl1 ...., UI.< a ,,"&Ie rogreu,oo. 1>"""" La", model rcl .. io~
pa!b loss '" T·R $tp&mioa. From Tlbl. D ID Ibo paper. W< ""Y ... \be ~.!b 10$$
"p<>n001 .=2 ..s6 for ta:lltru'
h.i~bl of 8.S

"""0"

Ill.

PL(J) - (I!)o)lov. .. (d) ~ P,
wherepl ~ r l(d.)i, tht pa!h 10" io dO II Ibe ,.f.",ooo <lisu= ofd, ,,, I m (II 1900
MHz. PI " 18.0 dB . .., &i'" ill the PII'"' The received "!;!Ill pow'" i, fouod from

" (dO"l) ..

P, (de .. ) • G,{dBI). C,(dB'1- PL(dB)

Si.ce;1 "'.. riveD tho, Ibe U,,".,rul &lid ree,;ve ""enDa, Ole unil)l aaio,
G, .. G• .. I .. OdB;; lb. lnDS.:P'ued pOa'ef is P, .. IH' .. OdBW .. JOdB",
p. (dB ... ) .. 30(.:'8.. ) - l'4,d8). Thl,loa.11 10 tIM: foilOWlO& lesul,,:

<0

''''0

(1) For LOS ""';I'DIIIIle:I!l, we "'" Ibe 4oubJ, reF-Woo model. There 1ft
possibk modols, 00. m whltb!he brnk """" Il fixed 111b, 1irl!'ltSIlel z ....
el,,,,,,,Cl' diWDC',."d "0, i, v.'hich Ibe hr ... poi" i. determi,ed by. e.rvt fit.
Either i. occqubl • .

(10.,)1", .. (4) ~ P,
F=n:1 BOII·FiI: I'I.,(d) ..

(10." )1O$,,(d I d / )

• (10..,)101: .. (4,)

·"

MMSE BesI fit PL,(d) ~

(Ico.:)ICl\l ,, (d) + p,
(10.; )1OI:,,(d I d.)

for)<d<d,

+ (J(I.;)I~,.(d,)

·"

.,

ford>d,

"I 30 Conl·cl

~

Sin,. we." U5:~g the

Io&.n<>:m>l sbadowin~ mod,l. the =eivod 1ip'.1 1>01'·,11 in

dBm "'0\l16 iiI • G.... iilll p,oI:>.billl)' 4"""J fuDctioo . ..-itb m<'iIlI vll11e> ...... 110 tk
pWI Loss values e1I ..... ted l~ pan ~. Ai. resull. we .... y use \be Q-functioo 10
d.. ,rmiDe the m"Hhoo4 th., me reccwed .iJ;nl1 will be gr«ler t!wl Of equal 10
7GdDm. Howe,·." the O-funotiOD tnU51 be .ornuH.,d to hove the d.. im! !IIC"" OIld
"OI>d>Id d<;vralioo.

Frnm Appcrull. D orlh. I..,. tho G.U5';" pclfi. ,;v"" by;
Pr(x ~ x, >.

.!___
, e...· - "·..

.. ,,00/211

' \rt>;

,

"d nu)" be re",li n", 'h'''''~h 'he .... oflht , "bsti ,u,i.., y .. !-:.!. . ~i'·i" ~

..J y>~).

"l
As •

"

~,,"'ndy.
('7(U

j

,,,"It oftbe defioiliOil of the Q-fwlctioo. w,And ,bat

(

...•) ...•)
-/

'" y > ---;- • "'\ - ; - • (II)).

rl ) b ob$lru.::'cd 00";'="011. ror T·R =SO m. III';'lO' = 7.67 It"", Table II.

I

Prp' ~ -70r1B," - l'I r>

J

[

_7th 5149]
H7

a Q( -i .~1) " I _ Q(2 .41)

"'I.e:

U.;D~ T.ble f.1 in Iho "Xl, Q(141)ooO,OOII ....
~ - ?OdS.. ] a Ct99~ . Thus,
,ber. i, • 99.2% m:d ibood lhaL Ill< reociv,d si~n.I I""'" will C'.ff" ·7Od!;\m.
n.. ,-lIues for T·R = 100 '" and T·R· 11)1)0 mOl. caloub.cd in I ,llDilar llUIlD'r.
teadm£ 10 the rollQ>O-ing I'uults:

(b) fo r LOS "",'iroomeDIS, tb< lilelibooo! is

",,1~~I"cd

,. th • .wno ....y IS for
oI>lIN<!o:d "'~lroM1""U .•• cop' ~ 0=7.81 for II.. FreSDo! M$I fit. o.od a=7.23 for
the MMS[ be" r" (lTom Tobie I .flb< ".pa~ Tb;. lad. '" lb. (011""';0£:

d) Th. ovorbollnd moold os Ii'"•• byo. _ .""""' . -""'ere "" is lb. rm1 delly <fWU~ ill
rU:J) "!b e p..h lou in dB. U.in& 'he '-llu •• at"" I".d rot PI th
lou I. pon 1 lead> 10 lb. (olkr<o"" ruu!u:

DJ.:l .... ,ond •••_
uJ

HT..moie" room tCtnperature.be symbol d"~.l87XI 0' " II' • ~ I K97dB"... All oflb. . b.dudes IIOI~ co. B " 200 kllz.. equ. that we sh<>uId .c. from elm 000:05. .uibuti<HI. from I>::Idl the lIl'""" ond 'he ... .J... ell requi. ler"..e '0 0" . Of m&Xlrn.. . coa .8 • (10" XIJSxl O·~ X290X200000J = l... lb. 50 Ibc "'"" . ... thai <be ~O'$< fi~ of 6 dB i.i..' IS-I16 si~nl' . proble' stat.un sym\)<>' so th. doo'..".nt ..... • .:l .... folbo--".. We'lI l'Sume thaI T.ll • I~" _1". B is Ibe rea.136.'101.....cnn:lIC tbe IfIlftun:am <ymbo1 d~".. For [S... II" a Hr.ot w.nd LOS e-avjr(tCm<~1li lr1: 'oN"".. Therofore.." I... ·1B.. &fta.1.. 11(:< ...ti"". JO N " F1-T" B .i~er than the« IfItniIn"". .' say.1 noile is th. of 14 dB..d . Then the Doi" pow. lead.. for rms <icily spread We~lattd j' Deed 10 d<:!.. '0 . COMidef Ibe 1it:\ilaUCIIl ea\UCd by Ibe time dcily $pIU/1.! lhem!..21 dB . Ib. From ..ef".! t SJtrcl. mi:oinwm ""."..Di.. d>t receiYers will !IOI be ooi . lieure.."...91 dB .11...b. 1'_...""'" IItttt h. ..d.ltD lh..e... N_. [So IJ6 has D'I r<qui.. required villi . oceeived ligml_~ ..ootive:.J7 + 13 ..1e<f value. II.loco calcullled ill pm2 fOf both ob'trIt".e. 8iveD(!t!r tJri""..'1 uf ..w be pos:I-ibl.""'" thaI lilt ~Yc cquaHZC" is DOl Dced~ mtJbilc: rc«i.1Ien ... "'" 290 I' For GSM."t1 ..1'_ • ·1 U.. '" .t "'. n. receiver inrut i. r."ct. lc . B &)0 kill. II" . (IO"XUhlO"" X:!90XlOOOO) • 4.nor.~.780:10' " W • ~ 12311<18". IIIOOII: .. I'ytobol duratio. So.'e: bllldwidtb.i~nal power for GSM .8 .."""".'lron". 0 rm:n-• • lcho...dF is Ibe . i.r . l"nilo<i..blll 10 lime. ..' of 13 dB.acH ond In tb .. r..·co! "g:IIl power for 15·1)6 ..& req".m1.-b.1Il. at leut ur to 1 km dl ..di ....loa N .. ...ZIl re:eiv.. CSM .re kz IJg~10'! lJX is Bol:>m:uto'.....ually b.. GSM b. dill. Oily IiDIIdn.

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._ _ • • ... .. .. .. [.. .a I !... t .' H' _ _ .. .... . .... ... ..

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=:> ~ = ~ :. fo (M$) "'Po$oJTj=ol .r 'to = 1.2p' .

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