Biologie Horticultură Tehnologia prelucrării produselor agricole Ingineria mediului

KEY WORDS: astringency, red wine, tannin ABSTRACT One of the most important sensory attributes of a red wine is the astringent feature, that in most of the cases is estimated by tasting the product. The esteem has to be done by a group of expert tasters and it is not always objective. There is the possibility to make some esteems,by determining the “Index of the gelatin”, (Glories, 1978) or by using an other new method, elaborated by a group of scientists from Spain (Llaudy and the collaborators 2003). In this work we present by comparison, the results obtained by using three methods of evaluation of the astringent characteristics of some red wines from the 2002 harvest, obtained by the treatment with enzymes at I.C.D.V.V., Valea Calugareasca. 1. INTRODUCTION

The present oenolog has well defined technologies and modern practices, which allow him to elaborate wines with organolepctical features wanted by him or by the consumer. The astringency of the young red wines is not always a well-appreciated feature, specially by the wine consumer who doesn’t know very well the changes that take place during wine maturing and getting older process. To evaluate the astringency of the red wines obtained by the experiments with enzymes preparations from the autumn 2002 at I.C.D.V.V. Valea Calugureasca, we have made a comparative study of the results obtained through sensory analysis and through two chemical methods. In order to evaluate the level of their astringency after the methods described by Glories (“the index of gelatin”, 1978) and Llaudy and the collaborators (2003), there have been chosen and analyzed twelve red wines from the twenty-eight experimental varieties obtained with different enzymes preparations at different work conditions. At the same time with the lab analysis, a group of five expert authorized tasters have done the organoleptical evaluation of the wines. The total polyphenol concentration of the studied wines was determined as the Index of the total polyphenol (Ipf) by measuring the absorbing waves of the diluted wines 1/100 at 280 nm.

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I.C.D.V.V. Valea Calugareasca SC. Doljchim SA Isalnita


The aggressive tannins have been calculated by the difference from the total concentration in the tannins and the tannins remained after deposing the gelatin.Wine – lower ph (Ca carbonate added) with pectolitical enzymes (Vinozym) 11.0 g/l) and tannic acid (with 366 . this corresponds to a concentration of 7 g gelatin in a litre of wine. The “index of gelatin” can be seen as a reflection of the astringent feature of the wine and when it is higher than 50. Work method: in 50 ml of wine there have been added 5 ml from a solution of “solved gelatin” of 70 g/l.Wine – 60 mg/l with pectolitical enzymes (Vinozym) with short time fermentation 12. Wine – 60mg/l SO2 without pectolitical enzymes 3. The tannins were determined in the diluted wine 1/50 through the acid dipolymeric reaction and by measuring the red color at wave length of 550 mm obtained due to the formation of the composed (Vivas and the collaborators. Wine – 90 mg/l SO2 with pectolitical enzymes (Vinozym) 6.Wine – 60 mg/l with pectolitical enzymes (Vinozym) long term fermentation The obtained wine have been analyzed and submitted to some conditioning and stabilizing operations and surveyed during the maturation process for 1 year. It has been kept for three days at 100 C for completing the tannin reaction with the gelatin and then used with the centrifuge for 10 min at 3500 rpm and it was determined the content of tannins. Basic wine – without SO2 and without pectolitical enzymes 2.2.0 and 8. Wine – 60 mg/l SO2 with pectolitical enzymes (Vinozym) 4. So the index of the deposed tannins with gelatin or the “index of gelatin” is given by: I = [(C0 – C)/ C0 ]*100 where C0 represents the concentration (g/l) of the tannins from the basic wine and C represents the concentration (g/l) of the tannins after the reaction with gelatin. 2.120 mg/l SO2 with pectolitical enzymes (Vinozym) 9. Wine . Wine – 60 mg/l SO2 with pectolitical enzymes (Ultrazym) 5. Glories (1978) applied this property for determining the “index of gelatin “. Wine – 90 mg/l SO2 with pectolitical enzymes (Ultrazym) 7. THE DETERMINATION OF THE “INDEX OF GELATIN” As it is known the tannins have the property to react with the proteins forming stable combinations.2. 2003). astringent. The analyzed wine samples were the following: 1. Wine – 90 mg/l SO2 without pectolitical enzymes 8. 2. MATERIAL AND METHODS The twelve red analyzed wines were that from Cabernet Sauvignon variety and were obtained through the classical process of fermentation of the grapes in metal rotative vessels by the help of the enzyme preparations. There have been determined the tannins from the basic wine (to 50 ml of wine there have been added 5 ml of distilled water and was diluted 1/50). with different contact time depending on the temperature.1. THE METHOD WITH THE OVALBUMIN (Llaudy and the collaborators 2003) In the method elaborated by Llaudy and the collaborators there have been used ovalbumin solutions (with concentration between 0. Wine – 120 mg/l SO2 with pectolitical enzymes (Ultrazym) 10. the wine can be considered rough.

Fig.D. 3. There have been noticed significant differences in evaluating the astringency of the wines using the two methods with the samples No.4.8. it has been used the ovalbumin solution of different concentrations 0. 0.0 g/l) which had been prepared in a synthetic wine solution (4 g/l of tartric acid. 10 and 11.4. 0.2. 0. 1. 4.1 THE METHOD OF DETERMINING THE “INDEX OF GELATIN” “GLORIES” From fig. and the sample with the less important astringency of the wine was sample No.2 and 8. 2. regarding the value of the “index of gelatin” and the organoleptic determination. All the data were statistically expressed by an average of three repeated tests. and the sample No 367 . 3. The estimation of the astringency using the method of the “index of gelatin” (Glories.concentration between 0. Then it was measured the absorbing wave length at 280 nm in a quartz bath with the optical stratum width of 1 cm. 2. After shaking and letting it for 10 min. Valea Calugareasca. 0. 1978) and the mark after tasting 3. THE RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The obtained results by the two chemical methods were compared to those resulted after the organoleptical determination.V. As protein for deposing the astringent tannins. 12 took the first place.3.0.6. that the sample No.8. THE SENSORY ANALYSIS As a result of the sensory analysis made by the five experts in testing the wines from I. 3. 2. was sample No. the astringency of each wine was marked with values from 1 to 100 points. 6.6. In each test tube has been added the tannic acid solution or the analyzed wine.5 with NaOH). 7.2. as being the most astringent sample.2. The solutions of tannic acid (0. 1.4. 4. So the sample No. THE METHOD WITH OVALBUMIN Following the results presented in fig. There have been taken twelve test tubes where have been put the ovalbumin solution (0.V. it has been noticed as above.4.1 it can be seen that the sample with the most astringent feature of the wine. 11seems to be the most astringent sample.0 and 1.0 and 8.0 g/l). 5. 95 g/l ethanol. 0. 7.C. it has been used the centrifuge and the solution was diluted 1/50 with distilled water.7 seems less astringent than it is indicated by the “index of gelatin” and sample No.8 and 1 g/l) have been used as standard. adjusted at ph 3.0.

12 the most astringent wine) (table 1) The marks obtained at tasting the wines for samples No.9 39.2 (the wine No.07 66.46 37.7 53.129 0. The determination of the astringent feature using the method with ovalbumin and the mark after tasting 3.5 57.7 42.2 44.5 34.29 63.294 0.8 68.5 64.192 0. THE SENSORY ANALYSIS The marks obtained after the organoleptical determination of the twelve samples varied from 25. 1 and 12 depended on the total polyphenol content expressed through Ipf as well as the content in tannins remained after deposing the gelatin and ovalbumin.2 61. Table 1 The results in evaluating the astringency of the analyzed wines Sample No.02 29.338 0.1 (the wine No. 2.56 41.318 0.04 38.4 35.26 69.1 368 .289 0.381 0.89 31.3 65.4 The ovalbumin method (g/l – acid tanic) 0. as being the less astringent sample.8 45.5 38.6 56.87 36.3 39.6 51. 1 the less astringent wine) and 75.64 Igelat 29.329 0. This time the differences between the organoleptical determination and the determination of the tannins after ovalbumin deposing were less significant than presented above. 11 between the organoleptical determination and the tannin determination after gelatin or ovalbumin deposing.1 51.4 42.3 58.156 0. A close difference has been noticed with the sample No. Fig.172 0.1 took the last position.08 37.5 75.2 66.2 49.571 Tasting mark 25.144 0.26 35.3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Ipf 21.

we can say that sometimes the evaluation of the astringency using the sensory analysis can be subjective. 2 took the 9th place comparing to the 7th place according to the tasting mark and according to Llaudy method took the 11th place. 4th but after using the other methods took the 5th place (Glories) and 6th (Llaudy). 8 took the 4th place after the organoleptical determination (tasting mark = 58. we notice that by using the methods Llaudy. 369 .The differences among the three methods of evaluating the astringency feature of the wines have been evidenced in fig. after tasting mark was situated on the 8th place. as well as the sample No. If we compare the top of the wines in their astringent decreasing order. sample No. CONCLUSIONS • • • For improving the technologies of processing the black grapes in order to obtain red wines of high quality it is necessary using a more precise method to evaluate the astringency of the wines. after using the Glories method only the positions 1 and 12 have been the same with the results after tasting the wines. the positions 1-5.12 and the less astringent one was sample No. 4 – 7 and No. So. 9 – 11. 3) that the most astringent wine was sample No. 5. 10 and 11 were identical to those from the organoleptical determination. and according to the Glories method it was situated on the 7th place.6) and after the Llaudy method. 3. As a result. 11 and 12. 3. with little differences between them. The sample No. after the Glories method. The 2nd and the 3rd places were taken by the samples No. If we compare the tasting mark to the results obtained through the other two methods. The sample No. In general there is a well defined relation between the sensory analysis and the astringency of the red wines. The evaluation of the astringency feature of the wines by the three methods It has been noticed (fig. 1. obtained through each of the two chemical methods comparing to the tasting mark. significant differences between the astringentcy appeared in the samples No. Fig. this sample of wine was considered by the expert testers as being more astringent than it was been considered after using the other two methods.

p. Canals. “A new method for evaluating the astringency in red wine” In vino analytica scientie. F. L’OIV. “Recherche sur la matiere colorante des vins rouge”. 1978 2. 865-866. Yves. N. M.F. there have to be always made more determinations comparing to the “Index of gelatin” and sensory analysis in more labs for studying the chemistry of the wine in our country.Zamora.Bull. p. 2003 370 . N.294. 2003 3. J. THESE – Docteur d’Etat es Sciences. Glories. R.Vivas de Gaulejac.• To firmly pronounce upon the precision and results of this new method.Vivas.C.123. Llaudy.. of deposing the astringent tannins with ovalbumin. Nonier “Sur l’estimation et la quantification des composes phenoliques des vins. Rozes.M.2003. p. N. Canals. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.

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