A dual adaptive control theory inspired by Hebbian associative learning
June Feng, Chung Tin and ChiSang Poon IEEE Fellow
~Hebbian associative learning is a common form of
neuronal adaptation in the brain and is important for many
physiological functions such as motor learning, classical condi
tioning and operant conditioning. Here we show that a Hebbian
associative learning synapse is an ideal neuronal substrate for
the simultaneous implementation of highgain adaptive control
(HGAC) and modelreference adaptive control (MRAC), two
classical adaptive control paradigms. The resultant dual adap
tive control (DAC) scheme is shown to achieve superior track
ing performance compared to both HGAC and MRAC, with
increased convergence speed and improved robustness against
disturbances and adaptation instability. The relationships be
tween convergence rate and adaptation gain/error feedback
gain are demonstrated via numerical simulations. According
to these relationships, a tradeoff between the convergence rate
and overshoot exists with respect to the choice of adaptation
gain and error feedback gain.
I. INTRODUCTION
The remarkable ability of the nervous system to discern
unknown or underdetermined changes in the environment has
attracted much attention in the control systems and computer
science literature. One reason of its rising popularity is that
it inspires new insights for tackling some dif issues
such as robustness and computation ef y, which are
important for control systems in reallife problems. After all,
the brain is an excellent example of an intelligent controller
in many aspects.
In this regard, a biologically plausible adaptive control
strategy will be of extreme interest to the parties of both
control theory and their biological counterpart. Questions
of biological realism are important not only for the sake
of physiological validity, but also because they may reveal
important design principles that are unique to biological
neural networks. Such biologically based principles may lend
improved control performance more compatible brainlike
behavior that is otherwise not possible. Biological plausi
bility is also essential consideration in any hardware (e.g.
VLSI) implementation of the model for massively parallel
computation.
On the other hand, the theory of adaptive control has
been extensively studied in the last several decades, and has
This work was supported by NIH grants HL072849, HL067966 and
EB005460. We thank Dr. Anuradha Annaswamy for helpful discussions.
June Feng is with the School of Mathematics, Shandong University,
Jinan, 250100, P.R.China, and also was with HarvardMIT Division of
Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA 02139. feng_une@sdu.edu.cn
Chung Tin is with HarvardMIT Division of Health Sciences and Tech
nology and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139. c·in@mi·.edu
ChiSang Poon is with HarvardMIT Division of Health Sciences and
Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139.
Tel: +16172585405; Fax: +16172587906 cpoon@mi·.edu
inspired many applications in the areas of robotics, aircraft
and rocket control, chemical processes, power system and
ship steering, etc. These theories may lend new concepts
to the characterization of biologicallybased neural control
paradigms. In particular, highgain adaptive control (HGAC)
and model reference adaptive control (MRAC) are two basic
adaptive control strategies that have found wide applications
in these areas [7], [8], [12], [21]. However, there have
been few studies on the dependence of convergence rate
on various control parameters. Paper [20] establishes an
adaptive observer for a class of nonlinear systems with
arbitrary exponential rate of convergence. Tracking errors
and prediction errors are combined in [29] in order to further
improve the performance of the adaptive controller. In [30],
the adaptive controller is constructed using an estimate of
prediction error and the proportionalintegral or integral
relay adjustment law. These previous results suggest that
suitable combinations of different adaptation strategies may
be advantageous in improving the overall performance of the
resultant adaptive system.
In this paper, we propose a biologically plausible neural
control paradigm based on the theory of classical condi
tioning and operant conditioning [1] and show that they are
analogous to a combination of HGAC and MRAC. Figure 1
shows a hypothetical neuronal mechanism of reinforcement
learning based on operant conditioning. A strong stimulus
(unconditioned stimulus, .
IS
(t)) arriving at a synaptic site
may induce changes in postsynaptic potential
which, when paired with a weak input (conditioned stimulus,
.
CS
(t)), may strengthen the synapse in the conditioned
stimulus pathway through some associative form of Hebbian
longterm potentiation [2], [3]. In operant conditioning, the
reinforcement signal .
IS
(t) may derive from the behavioral
response j(t) in a closed loop. In particular, if .
IS
(t) is a
feedback error signal (e.g. tracking error in a movement task)
the resultant learning rule is same as the delta rule commonly
used in feedforward neural networks [4], [5], [6] and MRAC
[29], [8].
It turns out that implementing MRAC with Hebbian learn
ing rules concurrently brings about HGAC, since .
IS
(t)
itself is a powerful input that may exert
on system response. The resultant dual control model is
interesting in two respects. From an engineering standpoint,
dual adaptive control proves to afford improved system per
formance that is not possible with either mode alone. From
a biological standpoint, dual adaptive control by Hebbian
learning suggests a possible mechanism whereby intelligent
control may be achieved by biological systems.
This paper is organized as follows. We begin in the follow
Joint 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and ControI and
28th Chinese ControI Conference
Shanghai, P.R. China, December 1618, 2009
9781424438723/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE 4505
ing section with a brief overview of HGAC and MRAC and
a necessary lemma to be used in the subsequent analysis. We
also examine the stability and convergence rate of HGAC and
MRAC and their relations to the corresponding adaptation
gains. In section III, we will formulate the dual adaptive
control (DAC) strategy. Its performance is tested against sev
eral types of uncertainties via numerical simulation. Finally,
section IV concludes the whole paper.
Error
Feedback, e(t)
Conditioned
stimulus, z
CS
(t)
Output
y(t)
Reference,
y
m
(t)
e
Fig. 1. Feedback error learning based on operant conditioning.
A conditioned stimulus
with weak connectivity may be
come sensitized after repetitive pairing with a strong conditioned
stimulus,
. In this case,
is the error feedback
sign and is itself a powerful input that may exert profound
on system respose. The
or pathway also
undergoes homosynaptic Hebbian learning so that its connectivity
is strengthened by the continued presence of the feedback signal.
II. PRELIMINARIES AND BACKGROUND
In this section we give a brief outline for two stable adap
tive control strategies: highgain adaptive control (HGAC)
and model reference adaptive control (MRAC). Both strate
gies have been extensively studied in traditional control
literature. In what follows we consider only linear, strictly
minimumphase SISO systems unless otherwise stated.
A. Highgain adaptive control
Let j
n
, j
¡
be the reference target and output of the closed
loop system, respectively, and /
¡
(:) = q
¡
c
¡
(:),u
¡
(:) be
the process to be controlled, where c
¡
and u
¡
are monic,
coprime polynomials and q
¡
is a nonzero constant. Assume
that:
(p1) The sign of q
¡
is known.
(p2) The relative degree (pole excess) ´
¡
= dcq[u
¡
(:)[ ÷
dcq[c
¡
(:)[ is 0 or 1.
Suppose the target is zero origin, i.e., j
n
= 0 for all
t 0. Then, from classical control theory the control n =
÷:qn(q
¡
)/
c, where c = j
¡
÷j
n
is the tracking error, will
stabilize the system for some gain /
0 that is suf
large. For any ed /
, the system structure represents a
proportional feedback controller.
In practice, the value of /
needed to stabilize the process
may not be known a priori because c
¡
and u
¡
are not
completely In this event the feedback gain may be
adaptively tuned, starting from an arbitrary initial value, by
using an adaptation law that causes /
to increase whenever
c ,= 0. A commonly used law is
`
/
(t) = jc
(1)
where the adaptation rate j 0 is an arbitrary constant.
It is well known that c decays to 0 asymptotically as
/
(t) converges to some limiting value. This adaptive
stabilization scheme using highgain negative feedback may
also be generalized to other situations where the sign of q
¡
is unknown [26], [32]; the pole excess is greater than 1 (see
[22], [23]); the process is nonlinear [18]; and plants are with
multiple inputs and multiple outputs [13].
On the other hand, the highgain adaptive controller (1)
suffers from a lack of robustness with respect to bounded
disturbances. Sigma achieves boundedness of
all solutions [14], [17], but it does not maintain stability in
the noisefree case [27]. In [28], two datadriven stability in
dicators have been introduced in order to improve robustness.
However, if j
n
is nonzero and/or timevarying, then c does
not generally go to zero for any /
. Thus HGAC is not
applicable to problems involving regulation about nonzero
targets or tracking of timevarying targets.
B. Model reference adaptive control
Suppose the process as above is to be controlled to
track a nonzero and timevarying target j
n
(t) derived from
a nth order reference model with given transfer function
/
n
(:) = q
n
c
n
(:),u
n
(:), where c
n
and u
n
are monic,
coprime polynomials. Assume that /
n
(:) is strictly proper
and, further, is strictly positive real (SPR) [8], [24], [29],
which implies that ´
n
= 1, where ´
n
= dcq[u
n
(:)[ ÷
dcq[c
n
(:)[ is the pole excess of /
n
(:). Systems satisfying
the above conditions are said to be dissipative. For simplicity
and without loss of generality we assume that q
n
0 and
q
¡
0. In addition, we assume that the order of the process
is related to the model order as follows:
(p3) dcq[u
¡
(:)[ _ n.
(p4) 0 _ ´
¡
_ ´
n
.
Compared to HGAC, more assumptions about the process
dynamics are needed here. If /
¡
(:) is completely given, one
may readily design appropriate feedback and feedforward
compensators that would balance any differences between
process and model dynamics.
If /
¡
(:) is not completely known, the above compensation
gains must be adaptively tuned to achieve perfect tracking.
A common controller
n(t) = /
T
(t) .(t) (2)
and the corresponding adaptive law is the delta rule [8], [24],
[29]:
`
/(t) = ÷:qn(q
¡
)jA.(t)c(t) (3)
where / =
/
/
i
T
i
T
T
, . =
v j
¡
·
T
·
T
T
, ·
and ·
are the outputs
of the compensation :qn(q
¡
) = 1 (by
assumption), and A = dioq
`
`
... `
n
with
`
I
0, i = 1, 2, ..., 2n.
Such tuning may not always be feasible because the adap
tive system may not converge. However, the SPR condition
ensures global stability for the above adaptive system, such
that c goes to 0 asymptotically. Under this condition, the
4506
gain / will converge to the desired values provided . is
persistently exciting [7], [8], [21].
In the more general case where ´
n
1, the SPR
condition no longer holds but stability may be achieved by
using an augmented error¨ for gain adaptation [8], [24],
[29]. In this paper, however, we will only consider reference
models that satisfy SPR condition unless stated otherwise.
Finally we introduce one lemma which is called
MeyerKalmanYacubovich Positive Real Lemma or Popov
KalmanYacubovich Positive Real Lemma [7], [8], [21].
Lemma 1. Let H(:) be a SPR rational transfer function
with H(·) = 0. Then H(:) has a minimal state variable
realization ¦¹, /, c with H(:) = c(:1 ÷¹)
/, where
¹÷ ¹
T
= ÷QQ
T
÷¸
1, / = c
T
(4)
for some nonzero matrix Q and nonzero constant ¸.
III. CONVERGENCE RULES FOR HGAC AND MRAC
A. Convergence of HGAC
From(1) it can be shown that convergence speed of HGAC
is increased with increasing j. The maximum convergence
rate that can be achieved by increasing j is dependent on
´
¡
. For ´
¡
= 1, convergence of the adaptive system can be
made arbitrarily fast by increasing j toward [19]. In
the limit, the response of the closedloop system is dictated
by the highgain feedback. For ´
¡
= 2, convergence rate is
limited by system dynamics which is characterized by a pair
of complex conjugate poles whose real part is independent
of the loop gain (as long as it exceeds a critical value) [22].
For ´
¡
2 , the adaptive system may become unstable for
larger j since some complex pole pairs of the closedloop
system may move toward the right handplane as the loop
gain is increased [12], [23].
B. Convergence of MRAC
Although MRAC is known to be stable, factors governing
its rate of convergence are poorly understood. Generally, one
cannot increase the convergence rate of MRAC by simply
increasing the adaptation gain. Transient behaviors of adap
tive control have not been well considered in the literature
until [34]. Afterwards, there has been increasing interest
in this subject (see [11], [25], [31]). A MRAC algorithm
which utilizes multiple models is proposed in [11] to improve
the transient performance under large parameter variations
for a class of SISO systems. Reference [25] develops a
strategy for improving the transient response by switching
between multiple models of the plant. In [31], the estimation
error generated by the scheme is used as a
control signal to counteract errors resulting from the certainty
equivalence design for improving the transient performance
of adaptive systems. However, none of these references deals
with the relationship between the convergence rate and the
adaptation gain/feedback gain.
For MRAC (2) and (3), the error equation is
c(t) = j
¡
(t) ÷j
n
(t) =
q
¡
q
n
/
n
(:)[.
T
(t)c/(t)[ (5)
where c/(t) = /(t) ÷ /
and /
is the set of optimal
parameter values for the controller. From (3), we know that
c/(t) the following differential equation:
`
c/(t) = ÷:qn(q
¡
)jA.(t)c(t) = ÷jA.(t)c(t). (6)
Now we present the general result on the convergence of
MRAC for SPR models. The proof of exponential stability
for the adaptive system (5) and (6) can be obtained from
Lemma B.2.3 in reference [21] via some system transforma
tions and a coordinate transformation.
Lemma 2. (Exponential stability for MRAC) For any
positive j 0, the adaptive system (5) and (6) is exponen
tially stable, if
(1) /
n
(:) is SPR;
(2) .(t) and  ` .(t) are uniformly bounded;
(3) .(t) is persistently exciting.
Proof. Let ca =
a
a
... a
n
T
be the model state
and ¦¹
n
, /
n
, c
n
 be a minimal realization satisfying (4) in
Lemma 1, and c(t) = c
n
ca(t), which means that /
n
(:) =
c
n
(:1 ÷¹
n
)
/
n
, ¹
n
÷¹
T
n
= ÷QQ
T
÷¸
1, /
n
= c
T
n
.
Then the error equation can be written as
c ` a(t)
c
`
/(t)
=
¹
n
¸
¸
/
n
.
T
(t)
÷jA.(t)c
n
0
ca(t)
c/(t)
.
(7)
Taking
¯
/
n
=
¸
¸
/
n
and ´ j = j
¸
¸
, we get the equivalent
form of (7):
c ` a(t)
c
`
/(t)
=
¹
n
¯
/
n
.
T
(t)
÷´ jA.(t)
¯
/
T
n
0
ca(t)
c/(t)
. (8)
Without loss of generality we assume A = 1. Indeed, if
A ,= 1, consider the change of coordinates
ca = ca,
¯
c/ = (1
T
)
c/, A = 1
T
1, 1 ÷
nn
.
In the new coordinates, ¯ .(t) = 1.(t), then (8) can be
equivalently rewritten as
c ` a(t)
`
¯
c/(t)
=
¹
n
¯
/
n
¯ .
T
(t)
÷´ j¯ .(t)
¯
/
T
n
0
ca(t)
¯
c/(t)
. (9)
Let ´ j
´
c/ =
¯
c/, then we can describe (9) equivalently as
c ` a(t)
`
´
c/(t)
=
¹
n
´ j
¯
/
n
¯ .
T
(t)
÷´ j
¯ .(t)
¯
/
T
n
0
ca(t)
´
c/(t)
.
(10)
Furthermore, it is easy to check that ¯ .(t) is persistently
exciting and that ¯ .(t) and 
`
¯ .(t) are uniformly bounded,
since ¯ .(t) = 1.(t) and 1 is nonsingular. Hence we have
v that system (10) all conditions in Theorem
2.3 of reference [7]. Therefore, system (10) is exponentially
stable.
C. Relationship between convergence rate u and adaptation
gain j for MRAC
In this subsection, we shall discuss the relationship be
tween the convergence rate u and adaptation gain j for
MRAC via numerical example, which will show that, when
adaptation gain exceeds a certain threshold, the system
4507
converges more slowly as the adaptation gain increases.
Therefore, there is a limit for improving the convergence
rate by increasing the adaptation gain j alone.
Example 1. Consider the secondorder system with
¹
¡
=
0 1
1 0
, 1
¡
=
2
0
, C
¡
=
1 2
.
Take the model reference system with
¹
n
=
÷4 1
1 ÷4
, 1
n
=
1
0
, C
n
=
1 0
,
v(t) = :in(t) ÷:in(10t), and the initial values a
¡
= a
n
=
0 0
T
, .(0) =
1 1 1 0
T
, c(0) = 0, c/(0) =
0.6 2.ò 7.ò ÷8.ò
T
and compensation initial
values ·(0) =
1 1
T
.
The simulation results are shown in Figure 2. Figures 2(a),
2(b) and 2(c) show the tracking error for j = ò00, j = 1000
and j = 1ò00, respectively, over time. These show
that the error converges the fastest with j = 1000, compared
with j = ò00 or 1ò00. Hence, by further increasing the
adaptation gain from 1000 to 1500, the system performance
actually get worse. A more sophisticated tweak to the control
strategy will be necessary to further improve the system
performance. The following section will introduce more
ef controller, DAC.
IV. DUAL ADAPTIVE CONTROL
A. Establishment of Dual adaptive controller
We now derive the dual adaptive control (DAC) scheme
that draws together MRAC and HGAC, and discuss the
relationship between convergence rate and error feedback
gain. First introduce the error feedback into controller (2),
i.e.,
n(t) = /
T
(t) .(t) ÷/
c(t) (11)
where /(t) still (3). We call the corresponding
control scheme dual adaptive control (DAC); see Fig.3.
In this case, the equivalent error equation for DAC system
is
c(t) =
q
¡
q
n
/
n
(:)[.
T
(t)c/(t) ÷/
c(t)[. (12)
The corresponding error equation becomes
c ` a(t)
c
`
/(t)
=
^
n
¸
¸
/
n
.
T
(t)
÷jA.(t)c
n
0
ca(t)
c/(t)
.
(13)
where ^
n
= ¹
n
÷/
¸
¸
/
n
c
n
. Since ¹
n
÷¹
T
n
= ÷QQ
T
÷
¸
1, we have
¹
n
÷/
q
¡
q
n
/
n
c
n
÷ (¹
n
÷/
q
¡
q
n
/
n
c
n
)
T
= ÷(QQ
T
÷¸
1 ÷ 2/
q
¡
q
n
/
n
c
n
)
= ÷(1 ÷ 2/
q
¡
q
n
/
n
c
n
)
= ÷(1 ÷ 2/
q
¡
q
n
/
n
/
T
n
)
÷
¯
1.
0 20 40 60 80 100
~0.015
~0.01
~0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
Time [s]
T
r
a
c
k
i
n
g
e
r
r
o
r
e
=500
(a)
0 20 40 60 80 100
~0.015
~0.01
~0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
Time [s]
T
r
a
c
k
i
n
g
e
r
r
o
r
e
=1000
(b)
0 20 40 60 80 100
~0.015
~0.01
~0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
Time [s]
T
r
a
c
k
i
n
g
e
r
r
o
r
e
=1500
(c)
Fig. 2. Simulation for Example 1. 2(a), 2(b) and 2(c) are about the
tracking error for , and . These
show that the tracking error for conveges faster than those
of and .
Noting that error equations (13) and (7) have essentially
the same structure, we obtain the following convergence rule
for DAC, by direct applicating of Lemma 2.
Theorem 1. (Convergence rule for DAC with given /
)
For any positive j 0 and /
0, if the DAC system (13)
all conditions in Lemma 2, then (13) is exponentially
stable.
The advantages of introducing of error feedback into
MRAC will be shown via the following example.
Example 2. Consider the system in Example 1. In order to
improve the speed of tracking, we introduce error feedback.
Figure 4 shows the tracking errors for error feedback gain
/
= 100 (pink line) and /
= 0 (black line) under
adaptation gain j = 1000. It can be seen that the tracking
error converges much faster with error feedback than without.
4508
e
d
e
e
e
r
u
0
y
p
y
m
W
1
W
0
W
2
Plant
G
+
+
_
Fig. 3. Dual Adaptive Control
0 20 40 60 80 100
~0.015
~0.01
~0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
time [s]
t
r
a
c
k
i
n
g
e
r
r
o
r
e
k
0
=0
k
0
=100
Fig. 4. Tracking error curves for and under
adaptation gain . Compared with the tracking error without
error feedback gain (black line), the tracking error using error feedback
converges much faster.
Remark 1. Advantages of introducing error feedback
into MRAC: (1) It can improve the convergence rate, which
cannot be achieved by simply increasing adaptation gain j;
(2) It can reduce overshoot, as shown in Example 2.
B. Robustness analysis
Adaptive systems are known to be sensitive to unknown
disturbances or uncertainties in the system structure. Such
nonrobust behavior may be exacerbated by overadaptation
with excessive adaptation gains. Therefore, robustness of
adaptive control has received much attention in recent years
(see [9], [10], [15], [16], [33] and the references therein).
In this subsection, we shall examine the robustness of DAC,
which will be accessed by subjecting the system to unknown
disturbance input, unknown system dynamics and high
frequency reference input.
1) Unknown disturbance input. For simplicity, we
study plants with disturbance input:
` j
¡
= ÷o
¡
j
¡
÷ d ÷ /
¡
n (14)
where d is an unknown nonzero constant, which can be
regarded as a constant disturbance input. Furthermore, the
corresponding model reference is
` j
n
= ÷o
n
j
n
÷ /
n
v(t) (15)
where v(t) is reference input, o
n
and /
n
are known constant
parameters, and o
n
is required to be strictly positive. Without
loss of generality /
n
can be chosen strictly positive. In such
case, the dual adaptive controller becomes
n = ´ o
:
(t)v ÷ ´ o
¸
(t)j
¡
÷ ´ o
J
÷/
c (16)
where ´ o
:
, ´o
}
and ´o
J
are variable feedback gains. The adaptive
law is
`
´o
:
= ÷:qn(/
¡
)jcv
`
´o
¸
= ÷:qn(/
¡
)jcj
¡
`
´o
J
= ÷:qn(/
¡
)jc.
(Note when /
= 0, controller (16) with the above adaptive
law is equivalent to MRAC [29]). It is obvious that the
controller above is robust for any constant disturbance input
d.
For highorder systems, j
¡
= /
¡
(:)n ÷ /
}
(:)d, where d
is unknown constant and /
¡
(:) satisfying same conditions
as before. Then the corresponding control law still has the
form of (11), but there / =
/
/
´o
J
i
T
i
T
T
,
. =
v j
¡
1 ·
T
·
T
T
. Furthermore, / and . still
satisfy (3), where A = dioq
`
`
... `
n
with
`
I
0, i = 1, 2, ..., 2n ÷ 1.
2) Fastadaptation instability. For convenience of discus
sion, we will our analysis to the following example
of plant with unknown dynamics:
` a = ÷a ÷ /n ÷ n
j ` n = ÷n ÷ 2n
j = a
(17)
where / 1,2 is a constant parameter, and j is a small
positive number which corresponds to the time constant of
an unmodeled state n. The control objective is to track the
output a
n
of a reference model
` a
n
= ÷a
n
÷ v. (18)
For j = 0, the MRAC law
n = /v,
`
/ = ÷jcv, c = a ÷ a
n
(19)
guarantees that c ÷0 as t ÷· and all signals are bounded
for any bounded input v. For 1 j 0, the closedloop
plant is:
` c = ÷c ÷ /n ÷ (/ ÷1)v
j ` n = ÷n ÷ 2/v
`
/ = ÷jvc.
(20)
For large j the above MRAC system may become unstable.
In particular, for any v = con:tont the system is linear and
time invariant. Hence, it can be shown by using the Routh
Hurwitz criterion that (20) is stable iff the adaptation gain j
jv
<
1
j
1 ÷ j
2/ ÷j

1
2/j
(21)
where the approximation in the above inequality is from
j << 1.
4509
Now suppose that in addition to the above MRAC law
there is a negative error feedback with a gain /
1. The
two equations in (20) becomes
` c = ÷(1 ÷/
)c ÷ /n÷(/ ÷ 1)v
j ` n = ÷n ÷ 2/v ÷2/
c.
(22)
Using the RouthHurwitz criterion as before it can be shown
that the dual adaptive control system is stable iff
jv
<
1
j
(1 ÷ /
÷ 2//
)[1 ÷ (1 ÷/
)j[
2/ ÷(1 ÷/
)j
. (23)
For /
= 0 the stability condition is identical to (21). For
b
<< /
< ÷1 ÷ 2/,j, however, the righthand side of
(23) tends to /
,j 1,2/j. This result shows that the
dual adaptive control system is considerably more robust than
MRAC.
V. CONCLUSION
Combining HGAC and MRAC, we have formulated DAC
which outperforms either of the controller implemented
alone. DAC scheme has proved superior in terms of conver
gence rate and robustness properties, which are demonstrated
with several simulation results in this paper. Furthermore,
DAC also shows to be promising in dealing with a class of
nonlinear systems, which is omitted since the space limited.
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