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The Amateur's Book of

PLANNING YOUR GARDEN

The Amateur's Book of

the

Garden Series
of

Under the General Editorship

LEONARD BARRON

The Amateur's Book of

The Vegetable Garden
Planning Your Garden

Lawn-Making
House Plants

The Flower Garden The
Dahlla.

Gardening Lnder Glass

This suggestion for a small garden, looking east, embodies the author's ideas of having several points of interest. The placing of the walk to the north side and its change of direction at the dial takes full advantage of the conditions.

The Amateur's Book of the Garden Series .

INCLUDING THAT OF TRANSLATION INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES. BY DOUBLEDAY. T First Edition THE COUNTRY . PAGE & COMPANY ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. GARDEN CITY. INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIAN PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES AT LIFE PRESS. 1911.COPYRIGHT. 1923. N.

PUBLISHER'S PREFACE There are several is justifications for the ap- pearance of a book on Garden Planning. methods. designed for those use of the serviEither who are not inclined to make ces of a professional garden designer. excessive cost or intense personal interest in the development of the effect this result. however. importance of the subject. outdoorward tendencies. is This volume. received One the meagre treatment the subject has hereas tofore compared with the more mechanical phases of garden making ing. Another is the though often unappreciated. In either case he home grounds may who plans familiarize him- his self own garden will do well to with the principles. etc. the cash valuation of the The significance of work of the land- scape architect when contrasted with that of the gardener is not often grasped. — plantvital. and probable V results as set forth herein. cultivating. especially in this day of countryward. .

VI PUBLISHER S PREFACE The ultimate ideas of art. and harmony are not local but universal and this volume carries to the reader both the author's originality of treatment and the conventionality of theories well founded in long experience. judgment. . taste.

279 291 . IV.. IX. 207 212 229 236 263 XIX. Introductory 3 II. Grass as a Foundation to Plan a Garden Sloping Gardens 70 87 108 127 141 How XIV.. XI. The Factors in Detail The Garden Picture The Rectilinear Principle . XVIII. XXI. XVI... XX. 9 28 45 51 ...CONTENTS I. X. VIII. Construction of Walks and Drives . VI. XVII. III. The Rock Garden The Rose Garden Water in the Garden The Vegetable Garden Glass Fences and Hedges Tile and Other Artificial Edgings Garden Plans Planting Further Considerations in Garden . Making Evolution of an Ideal Lot . V.. VII. XII.. XIII.. The Elements of the Garden Plan Making Beds and Borders . 152 173 183 197 XV.

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. 13..ILLUSTRATIONS Perspective View of Garden FIGURE 1. . 20. Trenching Drainage for Beds and Borders Shapes of Beds Shapes of Beds Relation Between Beds in a Group Entrance to Drive . 6. 12. 17.. 7. 14.. 76 80 81 . Frontispiece PAGE 2. 23. Diagrams Illustrating Aspect Houses on Plots of Irregular Shape Garden Styles Compared Expansion of Path Expansion of Path Expansion of Path Path Junction Curves in Paths The Grouping of Beds Correct Form for Group of Beds . 16. . 5. 11. 3. 25. 15.. 98 100 102 21. 8. 10. 9... 4. 24.. 83 The Carriage-turn Path Foundation Design for Brick Path Section of Brick Path Design for Composite Path Design FOR Stone Path Design for Stone Path Level and Straight-edge Tennis Court ix 89 90 95 18. 21 25 48 54 59 60 61 62 65 68 73 . 22. 19... 106 106 116 117 .

X PICnXX ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE 26. 51. 54... 146 149 150 160 161 38. . . 37. The Method 32. 165 166 176 176 178 180 185 A Water Garden A Water Garden Soak-away Drain Ponds Tub for Water Plants Borders Through the Vegetable Plot Position for Vegetable Plots 187 189 53. 5556. 47. 49. 27. 50. 42. Earthwork in the Rock Garden RocKWORK Section . 34. 198 204 . 45. Croquet Court Acute Angles IN Grass Beds in Relation to Grass Shapes Typical Garden Plan OF Off-sets Arrangement OF Trees Terracing Sectional View Terracing Sectional View Terracing Sectional View Steps in Paths 118 121 .. .. 28. 144 . 46.. Rocks in Relation to Soil Arrangement of Rock Masses Arrangements of Rock Masses Arrangements of Peat in the Rock Garden Rose Beds in Grass Rose Beds in Gravel A Long Rose Garden Planting Roses 162 163 . 123 131 131 30. 40.. 52. . . 36. 33. 41. Dealing with a Transverse Slope Dealing with a Transverse Slope Steps Spreading Steps 145 . 39. 190 195 . 44... . 48. 29. 31.. . — — — 136 142 142 143 35. 43.

. 295-297 ) . 61. Hedge Tops Planting Box Edging Edging Tile Brick Edgings The Plinth Brick as an Edging Stone Edgings Sections 226 227 230 232 233 — .ILLUSTRATIONS riGimE XI PAGE 57.. 221 Hedge 225 63. 220 . 69 lOI 102.. 62. 59. 58. 65.. 105. 68.. 234 239-262 .. d^.) 104. Garden Plans Arrangement of Herbaceous Border >• 270 103. 64. . 66. Wooden Fencing Stretching Wire Fencing Open Wooden Fencing Larch Fencing Construction OF Trellis Screen Sections of 214 217 218 60. Progressive Plans for a Typical Lot ..

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PLANNING YOUR GARDEN .

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Each when I come to details. Though garden making 3 in a large . particular site presents a problem in and the art of the garden maker must be exercised first in studying the factors. position.PLANNING YOUR GARDEN CHAPTER I Introductory to The planning of a garden involves many considerations connected attention with the its character and position of the site and sur- roundings. as well as to those questions in which both horticulture and good taste play important parts. What these factors are will appear itself. It is sufficient at the outset to state that they include such inherent conditions as soil. aspect. and envimeasure ronment. and then in permitting them to guide him to a good result.

and the comfort and convenience of those who use the garden. as I shall show. only is too frequently the mistake made of supposing that well-filled beds and borders. as the in to grow one's flowers his it were better market gardener grows sion of cabbages will — rows. Mere is profu- bloom not condone any ill-planned enthusiast garden. and neatly kept grass and walks are the sole desiderata of gardening. without in the slightest measure discounting the value of the garden from a horticultural standpoint. due weight to the picturesque. The gardening too apt . would be to ignore the beauty of the It is garden picture. so in garden making the conditions which make for the welfare of the flowers. purely artistic considerations can only serve the designer when they are subordinated to the practical needs of horticulture. to give possible. This does not imply that successful flower culture is for that the be-all and end-all of gardening. abundant blossom. On the other hand. If that were so. must always receive attention. As in other first branches of applied art utility claims consideration.4 is GARDEN PLANNING controlled by principles based upon art.

is amenable to and the thing to recognize It should that it must be homoEvery- geneous. is artistic principles. be agreeable and plain features. thing in the garden must be interdependent. based upon full knowledge and recognition of the governing factors of the problem. be allowed to control the design. 5 him He sees the individual but not the crowd. will sailing. before it appeal to the eye as a whole claims attention in detail. the result will not only make for beauty. unity of effect.INTRODUCTORY to permit his pride in the flowers to blind to the value of a garden picture. effects. but gardening. and a studied harmony of line and mass. It were better he should adopt the standpoint of the landscape gardener. There must be no exaggeration of special no discordant note to worry the eye. who thinks less of plants as plants in a composition. in the than as elements way of a painter of pictures. The garden. and the general picture must be distinguished by balance. no forcing of The size of the garden . however treatment on truly first small. If common-sense principles. in the sense of successful flower culture.

How often do The inference is we not see. but the same in all.6 GARDEN PLANNING It is hardly enters into the question. all planned to a common type. of scale. or attention to. The same It is general principles largely a question apply both cases. essentials. just as and just in as difficult. probably conceived and made by the speculative builder's foreman. garden after garden in monotonous succession. easy. which is hardly ever consistent . Possibly the commonest error is to ignore aspect. Gardens which are made haphazard are rarely successful. the result is often than not marred by mistakes which from hastiness and an inadequate knowledge of. to plan a large garden as a small one. When the gardener himself has taken the pains to model his garden to suit his own more arise views of what it should be. obvious. from the vantage point of some suburban railroad journey. others neglected. planning for symmetry. yet the majority of small gardens have been so made. whose knowledge and skill can hardly be expected to rank high in this department outlines are the of his work. Some may be neat and well kept.

and the very flower. when applied to gardens of limited includes economy of space. futility of expecting nature to heed our notions of Sunshine. or. making the most of the space available. Another mistake to over-elaborate. in other this is words. do not intend to enumerate here all the shortcomings of the modern suburban garden. whose sorry condition proclaims the equal-sidedness. necessity for the must have full access to our beds and . thereby destroying sim- and breadth of effect. Skilful planning. Grass and gravel are allowed to usurp positions best adapted to flower culture. I hope to make them sufficiently apparent when I enter into a more detailed statement of the principles which I believe should govern the plicity I planning of such gardens. the life and soul of the vegetable first kingdom. in The craze for symmetry prevails too strongly modern garden planning. particularly size. whilst long stretches of bor- der in perpetual shade hold a few starved plants. And only possible by giving proper consideration to aspect.INTRODUCTORY 7 with the best arrangement for flower growing in is a plot of limited size.

and permanent premises. receives no sunlight. unless circumstances (as in the case of redundant trees) permit of our bodily removing their cause. things to be given a wide berth. a necessary preliminary to the planning of a small garden to observe which parts of it enjoy full sunshine and which parts lurk in perpetual shadow. to be contrived bysunlight can placing reach them. . in northern latitudes. shadows may be cast by trees and buildings on neighbouring These shadows are as rocks to the careful navigator.8 GARDEN PLANNING and this is only them where the Therefore it is borders. The north side of the house or of a garden wall.

equally desirable. with the object of securing the best possible arrangement of the outlines before he commences to plant it. he will naturally decide upon that one which has the best garden site.CHAPTER The Factors The ing a II in is Detail question of site so one from the gardener's standpoint. Whatever may have been done before he takes possession should not deter him from starting de novo. a highly important In acquirnot always pos- home for many considerations carry weight it is with the purchaser that sible him to be» over-fastidious if about the garden. If the house has been previously occupied he will find the garden already made.. he have the choice bein other respects tween two or more houses. not. after a if fashion. the same may hold good. 9 . On find a stretch of virgin it the other hand he soil may awaiting his good pleasure to give shape. though.

amongst which the absence of shelter may be the most important one.lO GARDEN PLANNING In considering the desirability of a garden site is under these circumstances the main thing to see that the plot receives a fair measure of sunshine. In the open country different considerations may prein connection with sent themselves. it not possible to avoid a considerable shadow itself. Gales from the west and south-west are often very destructive to trees and plants by reason of their force alone. Naturally such questions arise most often town and suburban gardens where houses and gardens adjoin. north-east. Most generally the country plot has no lack of sunshine. the cold On the other hand. from the house will but intelligent planning meet this case. The tenant. therefore. A garden surrounded by a high wall also will have the disadvantage of the wall shadows on the southern boundaries. should see how the site lies. their low temperature and east do damage by . is With a house facing south. both in relation to the prevailing winds and to the cold winds of winter and spring. But other disabilities may exist. winds from the north.

partly by higher ground or trees to the west and south-west. and wholly sheltered to the north and north- Such sites are not easy to find. the country the its is the question of the dryness of is soil. and thus affects the welfare of the flowers. as I shall show. . The following table. assuming lOO as the standard: Sand with some lime Pure sand Light clay . compiled shows the relative heat-absorbing capacities of various soils. therefore.THE FACTORS IN DETAIL II and dryness. he may do much by artificial means to make good the shortcomings of the site. Another point more likely to crop up in east. ''cutting" and destroying growth. lOO 95-6 76. influenced by the nature by Schiibler. but. and in most cases the tenant has to be content with something short of what he would wish. one which sheltered is open to the south and preferably sloping slightly in that direction. which intimately connected with temperature.9 . of the soil. other things being equal. The is ideal site for a country plot. . The warmth is of a site. and retarding the life young progress of plant generally.

but scape beyond. a cemetery. factory. site.8 49-0 The coldness of a damp site is due to the is absorption of heat resulting from evaporation. may value the panoramic prospect to the be obtained from an eminence. Other considerations in all cases the may have proximity of an eyesore in the immediate surroundings is to be avoided.4 61.12 GARDEN PLANNING Heavy Chalk clay 71. waste land scattered with rubbish. Individual tastes differ greatly on the ques- tion of what is or is not a valuable seclusion.1 Brick-earth Humus 68. One person may account may another desire prefer his and on that small domain circumto scribed by natural limits the view. or gas works should disqualify an otherwise desirable . small property inhabited by undesirable people. Ugly buildings. When the prospective garden owner able to purchase rather than merely to rent the property the question of the garden site receive may well more earnest consideration. finding pleasures of his garden enhanced by the landweight.

as to utilize it is often possible them in the garden scheme. forbidit centre of a ding aspect. is slight and in a southerly direcit preferable to a dead level. which may be utilized for shelter. as ensures . and which will at once confer a certain distinction on the site. variety of contour is the the On a gain. has a bleak. thing to examine its objects by artificial Thus far I have dealt with questions exter- nal to the site. The next is the land with a view to discovering sic fitness for its intrin- purpose as a garden. oflFer- ing suggestions for picturesque treatment and giving character to if the garden picture.THE FACTORS IN DETAIL site. The contour point. and present difficulties to gardener which he had best avoid. A house perched upon a hilltop. The presence of old hedgerows and bushes includes should also be welcomed. other hand. A uniform slope. plot It is therefore a great gain the some well-grown trees. which may take many years to if redeem. or in the treeless field. 1 unless it were feasible to screen those means. which embrace considerable slopes are appointing. of the ground if is an important dis- Sites. tion. particularly of limited extent.

involve In a large plot the matter difficulty. giving due weight to the natural features of the ground and its surroundings as factors in the arrangement. In further considering the desirability of a given site it is well to try to fix provisionally the position for the house. having done so. to endeavour to form a mental picture of the main elements of the garden. otherwise much expense will be entailed in excavating and banking up. how likely to meet one's In a comparatively small plot the process will be a simple one. which in most cases will be suggested by the lay of the ground and by its aspect. and more often than not usurps space that otherwise could be utilized with advantage to the garden picture. or have only a moderate slope. Happy the dener will gar- who is content to forego this feature.14 GARDEN PLANNING natural drainage. By far doing so it is it is possible to judge just ideal. and. but sine when a tennis lawn is a qua non it is desirable that some portion of the ground should be level. may more as alternative . which rarely harmonizes with the other elements of the garden plan. and the artificial contours thus created become unduly obtrusive.

at least four feet deep. The linked question of the house site is so closely up with the treatment of the garden that I strongly advise this preliminary survey before purchasing the plot. not only of the surface the subsoil. . the plot trenches is should be points. Soil — Reference relative soils. say. surface soil is not always very closely related to the subsoil. so that even those accus- tomed to forming may be misled by a judgment on the subject a superficial examination. No decision should of made until the possibilities the site have been thoroughly tested from every standpoint. but of If This can only be done by having of considerable extent. or top soil. the may The vary even within comparatively restricted limits of a garden site. opened out at various and subsoils particularly.THE FACTORS IN DETAIL 1 positions for the house will suggest themselves and be call for consideration. has already been made of to the heat-absorbing qualities various In forming a judgment on the suitability of a particular site for gardening purposes it is essential to ascertain the nature. a series of a trench dug. because soils.

as in some of the clay loam types the condition would not preclude good gardening. effective drainage. when a layer of this material is found near be either the surface. according to weather and rainfall. the rose grower would find a soil of this description one of the best for his particular purpose. consequently. Information on this particular point generally may be obtained from local people well acsite. soils. the surface soil will water-logged or baked to dryness. The dryness of a site depends mainly upon the facility with which the rain-water can soil. Sand. as it is not amenable gravel. is quainted with the A stiff clay subsoil to to be avoided. indeed. available in winter when snow has That ground from which the snow is soonest disappears obviously the warmest. and the distance from the surface of the subsoil Water. Clay percolate through the is relatively impervious to water.l6 GARDEN PLANNING good criterion of the relative warmth of is A soils fallen. A gravelly soil of considerable depth on a . and light loams are preferable to clay but where clay and sand are found in admixture.

provided the surface however. the best. gravel overlaid with the merest film of loam. as such a soil all Is IN DETAIL Is 1 things considered. If drained naturally. unless the purchaser were prepared money in importing material for his flower beds and borders. great detriment. but not uncommonly with stony clays. Soils overlying rocky formations must be judged by their quality and depth. On sloping ground the stones . abilities as stiff clay land. The presence of stones in the surface soil.THE FACTORS gentle slope. it is an ideal one for the is A coarse gravel subsoil soil not objectionable. the surface soil Is When and the rock impervious to water. but if is no they are in sufficient quantity to hamper the gardener he would have to resort to picking or screening to reduce their number. topped with good loam. they suffer from the same disshallow. to find has sufficient depth It Is to admit of proper tillage. not unusual. generally associated with a gravelly subsoil. gardener. with not too liberal an ad- mixture of stones. in which case the land would be unsuitable to spend for general gardening purposes.

and might be perfectly hopeless for horticulture. particularly" the land has been in cultivation. Light. with sand. a naturally undesirable treated Light soils may with clay or muck. and involve labour and expense in heavy manuring. It is therefore rendered more amenable to will advisable. Much may be soils be done by the gardener to improve soil. to select one on which the soil is neither too heavy nor too light. but no meet the case if the subsoil is unsuitable. Another point in the selection of a site is to made ground the composition of which may be anything from gas lime to meat tins. A site of this kind would afford many unavoid pleasant surprises to the gardener. These operations necessarily imply outlay. and clay light. Made ground which has long remained undisturbed — . when the purchaser has a choice of sites. sandy soils suffer from drought.iS will GARDEN PLANNING be found In greater quantity at the lower if levels. ashes. By these additions the of the surface layer may be modified and treatment of the surface tillage. which in a large garden may be a heavy one. and other porous nature materials.

There may be some soil it additional labour needed to bring the condition. Aspect — In gardens of small is size the ques- tion of aspect perhaps the most important factor for the gardener to consider. and thus avoid the necessity for turfing or sowing.THE FACTORS and it is IN DETAIL IQ made — not often offered for sale is when newly is generally so thickly covered with its surface growth that ficially character not supertrench apparent. is Land which has either as arable or garden ground. it may be effectual converting into a good garden. pasture has certain ad- vantages. itself as Here again the trial suggests a wise precaution. because greater depth of surface soil. in it most has a cases preferable to pasture. always pro- vided that the nature of the subsoil permits of draining it thoroughly. but against that into working may be possible to preserve part of the pasture as grass. because . On the other hand. site. however. in because the existence of peat implies waterDrainage. Peat land does not constitute a good logging. and constant it working and manuring have brought to the best consistency for the gardener's purpose. recently been in cultivation.

whilst the east and west sides receive sun only in the morning and evening respectively. not so much by of space also is length and breadth as by the amount Aspect which receives full sunlight. zvhich the ^^ house fronf^ The sun to west in our latitude passes from east sweep to the south. the key to the successful planning of I shall the small garden. the study of which should serve to make the matter clear. and other fixed by a objects receive absolutely no sunshine. Thus the north side of houses. In these three figures I have shown the shadow traces of the house and garden walls.20 GARDEN PLANNING the size of his garden will be measured. trees. I can best illustrate the relative values of aspect by a series of diagrams. as show when I come to treat the garden design in detail. These are cardinal facts to be borne in mind by all who undertake to plan a garden of restricted size. employ the term to to is express that point directed. . / shall have to refer repeatedly to the aspect of a site by the points of the compass^ and to prevent possible confusion I had better here state that I shall J in every case.

or front lawn.THE FACTORS distinguishing full IN DETAIL partial 21 shadow from shadow by the depth of shading. But if has good flower effects the fore-court. he should select a southern aspect. An eastern or western aspect . I. A southern aspect implies that flower culture Fig. — Diagrams illustrating aspect will be discounted a fancy for in the space immediately the gardener in to the rear of the house.

and their shadows. in like house will vary The shadow of manner for the same reason. as The altitude of the sun varies according to season. These shadow diagrams represent a mean of what would actually be found. the shadow question must not be overlooked. thus admitting of flower growing at the side of the house upon which the living rooms look out. and thus the shadow of a wall running east and west will be narrowest at noon in midsummer and widest in the morning and afternoon the in midwinter. side should It the shady be that on which the kitchen and its offices are situated. as well time of day. as trees and other fixed objects may exist on the site or in its immediate vicinity. which may be good or bad according to is circumstances. walls and fences need not be so high. At the same time. The House in Relation to the Site — When the purchaser of a building plot decides upon .22 will give a GARDEN PLANNING shady strip on the north best that side of the house. therefore. In open country sites. where considerations of privacy do not carry so much weight. would be practically negligible.

With a north- ern aspect the house shadow will preclude any ambitious gardening display in the forecourt. elled to fit He assumes in that it may is be modbetter to with the house. A fore-court is only to ensure that the road dust does not find access to the house. so that he may not be hampered when he comes to make his garden. In these days of narrow if frontages there is latitude in a direction transverse to the length of the plot. It is mobiles it is also useful for securing a measure of privacy. into It take both factors consideration when placing the house upon little its site. In a thoroughfare used by autoa necessity. This question will be governed largely tastes of by aspect. if the gardener. he rarely gives will thought to the question of how the garden be affected. economy of garden space is to be considered. the purchaser must give careful thought to the placing of his house. and there is no need to allot more space to it than may be required to secure the two objects just mentioned. and. but to some extent by the always desirable. because they are closely correlated.THE FACTORS the position for his IN DETAIL 23 house. .

and the arrangement creates no difficulty when the task of designing the garden ERTY USURY ColUnt C. StaU . cannot be questioned that flowers about the house front not only enhance the good appearance of the house. obliquely to the plots small rarely little look well.24 GARDEN PLANNING On for it the other hand. as upon that decidepend the subsequent success or before a decision sion will non-success of the garden. the ground falls toward the road- it may be desirable to place the house on the higher ground at the back of the plot. Houses garden set askew boundaries — — on i. but constitute a valuable charm in the outlook from the front porch and windows. thus bringing the principal garden space to the front. better to place it so that the widest space When way on the sunny side.. with a southern aspect the fore-court should not be stinted in space. e. because that would divide the garden space on either side into two equal not equally well conditioned It is is for flower culture. A detached house should not be set centrally in the width of the portions plot. All these points call for careful consideration is made.

most nearly makes a right angle with the road but in some cases it may be best to set the house front parallel with the roadway. IN DETAIL 25 I am strongly opposed any conditions which necessitate the use of triangular areas as elements in the garden to Fig. When its the plot and have other disadvantages. — Houses on plots of irregular shape design. because such shapes invariably suggest formality. is bounded by converging house with that boundary which lines it is usually best to set the sides parallel with line. .THE FACTORS has to be undertaken. 2. ignoring the side boundaries.

From the foregoing It is not unusual for house builders to defer their work. It will be seen how intimately the position of the house in relation to the shape and size of the plot is bound up with the garden plan.26 GARDEN PLANNING In plots of more Irregular shape the question must be settled according to circumstances. secures a consistent garden. A and precludes an Incongruous result. In. who thereby design for house and thorough understanding between the two craftsmen lightens the task of both. A further point Is the question of outlay to be made on the garden. and each work out his plan in accordance with such decisions as they upon. is The and has to make the best of those spaces which are left then called A wiser course is to bring architect in the first In- and garden designer together stance. consideration of the garden until the architect and builder have completed garden designer to him. so that they may exchange notes. This is usually as- sumed outlay to be so small an item in the total that it is left out of consideration . may mutually agree Such a course Is eminently to the advantage of the owner of the site.

The cost sum on the of a good design outlay." has mounted up to such a sum that he must perforce economize on the garden. fair Is a trifling total and is it invariably justifies itself. whereas.THE FACTORS IN DETAIL altogether. he calls Then help It Is that. with the inevitable "extras. ten per cent of . charges what he likes. at the same time securing an indifferent result. and make a contract for the work on the best available. If a properly prepared plan Is owner may obtain competitive prices from two or more nurserymen. bill run pays a larger incurred had local nurseryman and in the long than he would have a he secured the services of a competent designer. A allotment of money to the garden at the beginning the total. the house terms. The nurseryman who works out his own plan. In the of to "lay out" his garden. 27 the The result is that house builder discovers that the expense of building. with mistaken views as to the economy of the transaction.

be well The contours. always if mind. of in first it must be adapted to the special requirements of the If he is his own designer. have these requirements another makes the design. and these will offer the gestions for its first treatment. slope. in which the garden and house 28 . the gardener cannot be too clear in specifying his exact requirements. equally so the position and shape of the house. In the gardener. The natural conditions of the ground must studied. The shape and of boundaries will be important. The aim all of the designer should be to bring these factors into a consistent and pleasing combination. its general character from the local conditions and environment. course.CHAPTER III The Garden Picture The design of a garden should take instance. he will. and sugits aspect of the plot are the first factors to be considered.

and be devoted to borders. grass.THE GARDEN PICTURE are in entire it 29 harmony with each other. gravel. It is governed by principles identical with those understood by the painter as "composition. The designing of a garden is a process akin to the artist's conception and execution of a picture. Here will be well to warn the designer new to the work against planning for mere effect on paper. The plan a skeleton to affair. representing as they do the projection of the design on the horizontal plane only. therefore. It is only by studying the effect plane that a successful is in the vertical artistic and is result realizable. The lines of the plan." which may be defined as a general the principal balance of effect obtained without the use of a too marked symmetry in features of the design. its A garden at development should be a thing of height as well as of length and stages of breadth. To ensure practical realization of this effect. merely defining the spaces beds. have little meaning if they are not intimately correlated with some effect in the all third dimension. the designer must ever bear in mind .

against observing it these injunctions must not be understood that they apply with the same force to details. by summer minor houses. such as arches. in introducing a group of beds for effect on the lawn. and shrubs — with which It his his outlines will be filled in. but for the reason that rarely consistent with a design which gives due weight to the all-important factor. it may be noted also that he has within option to supplement these natural factors others of an artificial kind. aspect. pergolas. . I cannot too strongly urge the importance eliminating of symmetry from the general it garden picture. trees. symmetry On the treatment of certain be governed with parts of the garden may advantage of symmetry. and other structures which have a well-recognized place in the garden. not only because a precludes practical picturesque it is efi"ect.30 the plants GARDEN PLANNING — flowers. Many complaints of undue formality have In their basis in the existence of a meaningless symmetry. the contrary. For instance. a one-sided arrange- by considerations ment would be opposed to good practice.

31). cause may be injudicious planting.THE GARDEN PICTURE particularly if 3 associated with a grass plot of regular shape. an error not infrequently made in planting with conifers and other evergreens. Complexity in detail may suggest formality. by proclaiming too is insistently Still the artificial character of the garden. The repetition of some conspicuous feature at regular intervals also makes for formality. as usually understood. it may be well here to discuss. from a central They will produce a formal effect. would be better arranged so that no two subtend the same angle in the line of sight (see Fig. might be concluded that the use of straight lines and right angles would . Just what constitutes formality. Unquestionis the most common one symmetry Another the general lines of the design. particularly when the gardener has not adopted means of building vertical plane. It may ably in arise from several causes. up a well-considered picture in the Such mistakes only need to Trees planted be recognized to be corrected. another cause neglect to preserve a proper scale in the It various details. at equal distances feature. sentinel-wise.

On may the other hand. in dens the use of straight combination is with a studied simplicity of treatment. nor is it opposed to simplicity of treatment. Such variety must be carefully thought out. On the contrary.32 lead GARDEN PLANNING inevitably to a formal result. Such is not the case. because his enables the designer to har- monize plan with the shape of the garden boundaries. the use of curved lines only serve to render too conspicuous I shall the rigid outlines of these boundaries. Another factor in the attainment of the . about which I have already warned the reader. It is just the avoidance of undue repetition of lines and shapes. This does not imply over-elaboration. deal with this part of the subject in in the next chapter. and variety in planting so as to secure a good effect in the vertical plane. the most efficient means it of securing an informal result. and made to give character to the garden as a whole. more detail — variety opposed I must here emphasize the value of variety in outline and variety in shape as — to too frequent repetition of similar shapes. in small garlines.

This may be arranged by judicious screening. for which trees. their Nothing is more delightful than to pass along such a border. Again. thereby screening what lies beyond. trellises.THE GARDEN PICTURE picturesque It is is 33 what I may term "reticence. finding something new and unexpected every few yards. the ones all standing at the back and the short ones in front. A long herbaceous border. filled carefully graded in height. arches. Its is presents is a rather monotonous if vista. Much may and other objects be done in the with flowers tall planting to attain this very desirable quality. so that here and there a is bold clump of flower or foliage allowed to push forward. so contrived that the The planning should be as it is various garden features are seen one at a time traversed from end to end. and incidentally this arrangement has value in affording shelter to the smaller and more tender plants lying between robuster companions. the garden may be divided up into . may be employed. shrubs. charm greatly enhanced the process partly reversed." not well to aim at giving too comprehen- sive a view of the garden from any one point.

Each itself section of the garden its is complete yet wedded to neighbour. In other words. contrive a series of vistas. essential that the picture should not be merely a group of closed-in compartments. each a separate factor in the complete picture. between well-filled borders." may here state that . The It is task of the designer does not stop at this point. and in part by simplicity of character in the / principal details of the design." This is to be giving attained in part by the opening up of vistas. One frequently hears the term I "a natural a natural garden.34 GARDEN PLANNING come into full separate compartments. pleasant peeps from certain convey a sense of space. to reach an old-fashioned garden which. the treatment must include that artistic quality known as "breadth. He must whilst points. to the vegetable garden. down we may thread a Passing pergola clustered with flowering climbers. each to view only when It is entered. leads to a shady grass plot. and all united in a consistent and harmonious whole. by another in flower-flanked path. in turn. or. which. He has other factors to consider.

Yet Nature cannot be left out of the question. the hand of Nature to fill in the outlines. The gardener provides the home and the occupant and there his work ends. He must rely upon able.THE GARDEN PICTURE 35 garden within the limits of four square boundarywalls. which she can do far better than he can It should is ever be remembered that the highest art effects fore. unattain- Nor is it desirable that we should strive to make such a garden. but also involves a . By as the observance of this principle we get the nearest approach to a natural garden. tell her. inasmuch of the examples of nature's work as it then impress us more strikingly than the work the garden designer — and this is should be. that which conceals art. I it is must now repose. in the sense of a garden which shall spectator into believing that he is deceive the is looking at a piece of pure nature. viz.. refer to a further quality which important to introduce into the garden. Repose is closely correlated with it breadth of treatment. there- must be so contrived as not to reveal too patently the means by which they are produced. in The which we create our gardens.

and one may find perhaps a corner bathed in shadow. the borders. And so with the beds and borders. place. it it As far as possible should exist in a single stretch. or at least should not consist of a number of scattered pieces.36 GARDEN PLANNING proper proportioning of the main elements of the design. Grass. therefore. it is only necessary to see that they exist for a definite purpose (not merely because the designer thinks they help the outlines on his paper plan) and that they do not sprawl aimlessly about the plot. Let the grass. its proper and be duly proportioned to the rest. It is little short of vandalism to fret the lawn into a lace-work of fantastically fashioned beds. or to enjoy one's thoughts or thoughts of take another between the covers of a book. a place where the feet may escape the "crunch " of gravel. the Apart from questions of tennis and croquet. grass. in . more than any other feature. and walks. from which to look out upon one aspect of the garden picture. cutting it up into awkward shapes. grass is a valuable background to the flowers. As regards the walks. helps to secure a feeling of repose.

are plants. Beds in grass are sometimes admirable features in the general scheme. and the less enjoyment will be derived from the flowers. crescents. and the whole device becomes a mere formal patch of colour. moreover. if or and to be not too particular grass. The more elaborate the form of the bed the more time and labour will be expended in preserving its geometry. Better to adopt a simple rectangle square. and crosses. the flowers spread on to the as so long they grow under natural . and that to preserve the outlines of such beds is it necessary to fill them with puny pinching. The maker of stars and crescents. Nature does not grow her flower groups within the rigid limits of five-pointed stars.THE GARDEN PICTURE which geometry is 37 invoked to provide the gardener with inspiration. which. by constant prevented from developing their natural charm of form and character. exciting no more worthy emotion than an admiration for the gardener's patience and skill with the turf trimmer. The result is that the bed is exalted above the flower. circle. if modelled on simple shapes. should realize that an acute angle is an awkward one to which to adapt his flowers.

fore. or the presence of a natural pond or — Whatever it be. . as a basis garden. it have already made this is design must grow out of the garden and only another way of saying that its the garden must harmonize with surroundings. a drop in a theme for the designer level. The first care of the designer. or by placing borders against the house wall.38 GARDEN PLANNING conditions and yield their harvest of blossom. and then the garden must be designed to harmonize with its outlines and character. it may be utilized on which to build up the other details. A house permitted to stand up bleak and naked from an expanse of gravel or turf will always wear an aspect of aloofness from the stream. therefill should be to rises in the angles where the house above the ground. and are far more sightly than the hard edges fresh from the clear that the garden itself. The outlines they create under such treatment blend softly with the turf. site and There may be some conspicuous natural feature on the site which would furnish a knoll. trimming I tool. The house also may provide the theme. as circumstances may dictate. either by the use of shrubs.

utterly ruined by the introduction of garish and incongruous accessories. the use of inharmonious arches. The smaller the plot. and its colour should be chosen so as not to compete with the flowers. I have seen a wide expanse of trellis painted canary yellow. should not be allowed to influence the designer. if at all. copied on another may be a dismal failure. yet the perpetrator be designed details . the stronger apparently the temptation eyesores. and garden seats should to suit the garden. dials. The by picturesque character of a garden may in be marred as sins much by sins of commission as of omission. and their and mode of construction should be simple and unostentatious.THE GARDEN PICTURE Preconceived ideas. to import these too The garden maker cannot be against watchful features. slavishly site. pergolas. acquired before the has 39 site been thoroughly surveyed. Paint should be sparingly used. Your neighbour's taste garden may be a model of good and successful horticulture. but. Such accessories as summer houses. which for crudity and ill-taste would be hard to match. There are gardens which no expense has been spared to ensure a splendid succession of bloom.

They may be selected so as not to be in proper . of scale in a They are generally out small garden. softening .^ outline and loading it with bloom Terra-cotta. If "rustic" the work is rarely is in summer house to be decorated. or some place similar In most stout cases their could be taken by oaken tubs. mechanical If models.40 GARDEN PLANNING it. of having outraged the canons of The good so-called taste. was content to grow nasturtiums upon quite unconscious art. what better means can be found its than allowing some pretty creeper to scramble over it. china. there may be still room for mistakes in the use of garden accessories. Given discretion in excluding the inartistic and incongruous. with advantages on the score of appearance. and never quite a terrace satisfactory unless wall. The gardener must* be if hoplessly depraved he admit such objects as minerals. and sea-shells into his garden. possesses he any of these curiosities let in a special a place for them apart him find museum. associated with structure. and cast-iron vases should be used with caution.

in a focus. and to is therefore "led its up to^' in such a this way as enhance usefulness is for purpose. fitness though a sense of knowledge and good may come from Let the garden sense. are: Use before ornament. a point of interest to which itself the eye will naturally direct before it can I properly appreciate the general effect. attach much value to the summer house It as a suitable device for the purpose. Again. maker decide of both. or with that part of the garden in which they are to be installed. In these matters the designer's instincts must guide him to the attainment of what is correct. Good proportion is largely a matter of intuition. This particularly applies to . Scale. other words. Appropriateness. as far as possible rules by the help The golden Simplicity. . As every garden picture must have or. Sound construction.THE GARDEN PICTURE 4I scale with the garden. the pointed roof for constituting the admirably adapted apex or summit of the garden picture. makes a very natural terminal to the principal path.

A well-constructed summer house. to blend flower and kitchen garden into the garden vistas In this way may . before it Is new possible to utilize the trees as conspicuous elements in the picture. weather- proof. however small. and. shall describe in on. it On the left in full view. Of other garden accessories I shall have occasion to treat in their proper place. by detail later means which harmony. if is screened off. is the apparent size of the garden if the vegetable ground other hand. It is best to take both factors into considera- tion when making I the garden design. In small gardens. contrasts too conspicuously with the flower ground. and placed so that its open side is in shade.42 GARDEN PLANNING gardens. Though I am writing in the main in the in- terest of flower lovers. is a most desirable addition to anygarden. and here may it point to the out that flower it is often feasible to so it wed ground that materially helps the garden picture. both as a picturesque feature in the design and as a useful retreat in hot or rainy weather. where the reduced owner desires to reserve a plot for vegetables. I shall make I reference to the kitchen garden.

and has no respect for artificial boundaries. particularly fruit is grown. be made and even the tenants of the latter may in some measure to contribute to the if garden picture. is The It truly artistic garden full one in its which the plant has character. Yet it is worth noting. If fruit trees be planted in the kitchen plot.THE GARDEN PICTURE 43 be lengthened without curtailing the vegetable space. its the blossom in season is is valuable at a time when the flower garden its but little advanced toward summer display." The striving after a neat. It Is a sin to curb and mutilate the plant because. It is one of the things which can trim. forsooth. scope to de- velop wants elbow-room. it pushes out its foliage across the . There is only one other point to emphasize. and well-kept garden is apt to lead the gardener into a ruthless trimming and pinching of plants. and that has reference to garden management rather than to garden making. be too well done. There are certain practical considerations in town and suburban gardens which demand that the vegetables should be grown in that part of the plot most remote from the house. I refer to what some gardeners call "tidiness.

viduality is to destroy their indi- and charm. like the wooden models in a child's Noah's Ark. Let it sprawl in reason. To trim all trees to a uniform shape. beware of the too liberal pruning of trees and shrubs. She gives a character to each one of her creations. And.44 path. and to introduce the very essence of formality into the garden. GARDEN PLANNING Rather let it enjoy its liberty. lastly. I certain this plants so that they would even designedly place may behave in manner. which is its birthright. . The occasional plant which has more than repaid of your care by exceeding its neighbour in vigour growth deserves encouragement. It will soften the edge of your border and redeem the straightness of its line. Nature is always right.

squarely within garden boundaries. We cannot Ignore the fact that the skeleton on which we have to build our garden plan is a thing of straight lines and right angles. for the garden designer to evolve a style of planning that will best harmonize with these elements. Its four boundaries are straight so restricted and its area that these boundaries are only too obvious to the person standing within them. The house placed rightly so. of and Thus the problem Is designing the details of the garden conditions which encompassed by demand special consideration. is square at the its angles. which by no ingenuity of contrivance can be suppressed.CHAPTER IV The Rectilinear Principle I NOW the propose to enter more intimately practical details Into ing. is therefore. 45 . of garden design- The suburban garden is is usually a rectangle. The problem. lines.

but. emphasizing their squareness. the case is different.46 GARDEN PLANNING The treatment that it is I advocate is based upon the use of straight lines." have termed it the "rectilinear appear to imply the very essence of formality. plot. at first sight. this Let us consider the alternative: would involve the use of curves or irregular lines. to which type of garden alone I should apply the rectilinear treatment. this It might. principle. It should be understood that the problem under consideration is the planning of a garden of moderate size. Usually means may be adopted in such cases to sufficiently mask the fences or walls. which would at once establish a new factor in the problem. . but they would individually and collectively remain in perma- nent discord with the rectilinear boundaries. even if bounded by straight lines. owing to the larger area of the would never be obtrusive. which. under careful scrutiny. objection disappears. The curves might be laid down with the utmost skill with a view to obtaining a unity inter se. On garden plots of larger size. and experience has shown the only successful method of solving I the problem.

THE RECTILINEAR PRINCIPLE I claim 47 no novelty for the rectilinear system. These points will be better appreciated by reference to Fig. having acquired a horror of formal effect. It in has crystallized into a permanent feature many city lots. tion of winding paths their My it. The use of straight lines does not preclude variety and the other factors which make to for picturesque effect. 3. but not always applied in a to secure the best possible results. I may call it the rectangular symmetrical style. In some form or other it has been in use by garden planners since the days of the ancient Egyptians. have sought to avoid borders. At A is shown the type of garden only too common. but rather defeat The question must be tackled of formality in a small garden in another way. it by the introducand sinuous edges to object is to show that these devices do not achieve their purpose. Its faults . Therefore I exclude from the rectilinear system any arrangement which gives equal-sidedness to the garden. it But when allied an obvious symmetry does engender formality. way Modern gardeners.

and therefore does not make the most of the space. It is not correlated with aspect. too symmetry of pronounced to be capable in the planting. It has no distinction. — Garden it styles compared a waste of gravel and a waste of space. 3.48 are GARDEN PLANNING many and obvious. Its being is masked circuit path ABC Fig. and would elude the gardener . is Such a garden would Its handicap the flower grower.

and includes no shapes which would be difficult to attack with a mower. but mission in its because its lines are out of harmony with its is boundaries. In last example parallel it will full be the seen that the principal borders enjoy sun. The keynote is simplicity. in securing a really artistic general It may be remarked. to make it picturesque the B is the garden which hopes to avoid forfails mality by the use of curves. . to prevent misappreis hension. Such a garden could be planted with the best results effect. that the path has a definite purpose the traffic it — to take leads — where the attraction of the flowers and that it begins and ends somegrass is where. lines are with boundary natural and therefore appear as a suggestion from those boundaries. The confined to a single area. that this design siderable capable of con- modification to suit circumstances.THE RECTILINEAR PRINCIPLE 49 in who sought fullest sense. based upon the a careful consideration aspect. which implies dignity and harmony. that the main fences. a simple application of the rectilinear C of principle.

already Apart from the more important advantages mentioned it is clear that it has others of minor moment. yet view.50 It is GARDEN PLANNING adapted in this case to a north-east aspect. place. edges take truer in lines. and other details would need modification. is the shortest route between any two in In the next following chapters I shall show really more be detail how the rectilinear system may applied to the making of a picturesque garden. and are more easily kept The trimming of grass edges can a always be controlled by stretched cord. desirable from the gardener's point of straight borders is The edging of always more easily managed Stone or concrete than that of curved ones. A straight path points. . For other aspects the positions of the borders would be altered.

the walks. say four parity in width is wide. In the evolution of the garden design the beds which term first I include borders) should receive consideration.CHAPTER V The Elements There plan of the Garden Plan — the (in are three main factors In the garden beds. the wide one planted with shrubs and herbaceous plants. sun. and the grass. They may well occupy more space than is usually allowed them. full and should. This dis- designed to secure variety - and to eliminate one sidedness. If the main path defines its it near boundary. another border parallel to may be made on the other side of the path feet but narrower. The narrow strips of border so often seen skirting the fences of suburban gardens are practically useless for flower culture. Two such borders. possible. A the width of be in six feet is not too it much if for principal border. the narrow one with surface51 .

The narrow border would on one side abut on the grass and short transverse extensions of it might be carried into the grass area to break its inner line and to extend the flower space laterally. his which the gardener aims at securing I principal flower display. say boundary on the side of the garden opposite to the main walk. become partial screens. many charming effects. become complementary. and served by the principal path. I helping to secure that quality which to as "reticence. variety of effect is On the con- ducing a by introborder between the grass and the assisted fence. shall further elucidate These points I special examples. when I come to consider The main point I wish to stage is emphasize at in this that the borders. desire to also make it clear that these borders must be the dominating factor in the design.52 GARDEN PLANNING growing flowers. Such offshoots from a long border plot. for it is not too much to say that they constitute . should be in full sun." It is have already referred by no means necessary that every border should be served by a path. and ofl'er opportunity for and for the creation of a fine vista. trary.

The path is for utility. will appear hereafter. careful thought to the how is the further elaboration of the scheme contrived after the positions of the have been determined will depend upon circumstances and the fancy of principal borders the garden maker. siderable length it If the garden is of con- may this be advisable to divert full the path before of the plot. I mention for it here as one of the securing a desirable of legitimate devices the quality in plan. Is The introduction detached beds also a matter In which the taste of the designer must be his most trust- worthy guide. This is a very convenient device when it required to effect a slight . it has traversed the extent How may be done without sacrificing the welfare of the flowers. the grass for repose.ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN 53 the garden in the truest sense of the word. and to is install a square bed centre. and with best results to the garden picture. Just Hence we cannot give too latter. An expedient I have often employed is to allow the path to expand into a square at some point of in its its length. and both must ever be subordinate to the beds and borders.

where he plants thrive may grow is such well best under that condition. in no special way related to the leadthe principal borders should usurp is ing lines of the garden plan. The as foot of a southern boundary fence it is suited for a shady border. 4.) opposite corner. because well as warm shady. — not opposed is — Expansion to rectilinear system of of path treatment. there no a why as the gardener should not make border in the shade. to prevent in difficulties mowing. (Fig. grass. as the path may it enter the square at one corner. lily-of-the-valley. They become mere details.54 deviation in GARDEN PLANNING the path without altering its direction. Ferns. angle example the — the hexagon. Beds its when of set near boundary. as well as of figures in which the angles are equal and not less than a right for Fig. should a be allowed eighteen verge at least inches. . Though reason the best position in the garden. The use of circles and parts of circles. and leave in by the diagonally 4.

Paths which start nowhere and end at a blank . as well as a multitude of other plants. as in a plot which tapers in the direction of its length. A garden without a path would hardly satisfy the eye. That is so in a large measure. the problem requires eration. On the other hand. as a multitude of paths the garden into small compartments of the picture. When within the house does not stand squarely its boundaries. a path an objective invitation to walk through the garden and enjoy its beauties.ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN and Solomon's Seal would 55 thrive In such a border. nothing cutting up is so wasteful of space. beginning and the end. Moreover. and destroying the breadth There are two principal points or should be — the in every path. I have said that the paths exist for utility. but usually some special consid- bring the garden details into these disconcerting factors. means may be devised to harmony with as a perusal of some of the plans in Chapter XVIII will show. but they have a further value. or when the garden boundaries are straight but not rectangular. in linking together the other is elements of the garden. or so irritating to the eye.

All deviations in the direction of the path should be made at right angles. facing. The value to its is mainly proportion utility. of a path They never in well in a small garden. This sums . It also preserves the turf from traffic. than to allow to stop suddenly nowhere. should serve the purpose. an arbour. in might terminate in a square which a seat. or even at a potting-shed. sundial. the door by which the Its direction it house inmates enter their garden. would soon wear it to bareness. or other It appropriate object might be placed. The best terminal to a garden path in my opinion feature is is the summer house.56 GARDEN PLANNING It wall suggest purposelessness. After rain or heavy dew the which garden would be uninviting without a path. or final destination. would it be better to end it at a tool house or garage. should be through the flowers. and non-existent. Diagonal look paths are not permissible. and should have a natural termination. that. the path expansion. as may be taken an axiom that the principal path should at commence and preferably some point conveniently near. or when that some other Failing erection.

do not favour a than three feet for a principal path width under be any circumstances.ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN Up the path's usefulness. The width of the path lation to the scale of the garden. adds to the I "apparent length of the garden. as there a certain distinction and in dignity in a broad walk when . in I have seen it laid down handbooks on gardening that the smaller it is ihe garden the more the need for the "winding path. whilst the additional gravel surface is so amount of much deducted from what must bear some reIn comeconomy of space sug- might be made productive flower ground." cannot conceive that any such result could follow in a garden the boundaries of which are visible on every side. gests that it should be the I minimum compatible less with its purpose. 57 That it has also a certain value in the general picture I have already conceded. paratively small plots." which. claimed. the in a small plot serves only to cut ularly shaped will up the space into irreg- treatment of which tax the skill of the planner to deal with successfully. The winding path areas. In larger gardens is greater width all may else is permitted.

hard surface. bricks. and tiles warm foliage. bricks. stone chips. will with the surface. but I may here refer to the path material. Red gravel (of the right kind. Though equal paths. are cold and uninand should only be used when other materials are unobtainable. more particularly as regards its colour and texture. cinders. Red are gravel. contrasting well with the grass their and harmonizing with the flowers and blue stone. tarred gravel. with disastrous results to the knives of the mower. as a rule. cinders. in tone. Granite chips. make paths with never bind paths a close.58 proportion. and cement Sand and blue stone which. or pebbles. feeling from plies unpleasant Imthe that much loose material carried adhere to to the boots and be on grass. should be made of width throughout. a loose and therefore make underfoot. it is sometimes . coarse sand. The practical details of path making will be treated in a separate chapter. which binds well). tiles. apart thoroughly. and cement viting. tarred gravel. feet GARDEN PLANNING In a half-acre plot a width of five might be desirable.

s.ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN advisable 59 when they if are of any great length. ^ Fig. to introduce at and particularly straight. — Expansion of path .

5). trees Fig. some break the dicated This should be done in one of the ways in in- the illustration expansions may be utilized These to accommodate (Fig. 6. Expansions of the kind indicated are well placed at points where a secondary path breaks .6o GARDEN PLANNING suitable point an expansion in width to line. sundials. so as not to appear quite purposeless. garden seats. — Expansion of path or beds. vases or tubs.

the curves of both being laid down to form a pleasing combination of lines. as Although the should be angles.EtEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN off 6l from the principal one. rectilinear system.— Path junction ton. demands that path to made leave the path at right the same does not apply to curved paths. as already mentioned. as quoted says: "When two walks diverge from each other they should not appear as if they were intended to join again." use of curved paths. 7. also at the terminal of a path. be taken as an axiom. though inadmissible The . In winding paths they would take a form more as the in harmony with the lines of the path. as if each led to points far apart. adapted offshoots to small gardens. in which all by-paths must leave the main path at a more or less acute angle. thus: Thedictumof a distinguished landscape gar- dener on question this may RepFig. but rather by Mawson. examples illustrated in Fig. 6 show.

8." says of garden in walks: "They should be arranged such a way that the beauties of the place may be exhibited. 8) Mr. so that the best achievements in this direction are usually the result of skill.. illustration (Fig. Mawson inhisadmirable book. and artistic instinct. not by a series of wriggles. Thus the curve A in the better than B." As a rule. but in a simple straightforward manner. — Curves and Craft of Garden Makin paths ing. knowledge. — .62 in GARDEN PLANNING small plots. one in which parts It is of circles do duty as their components. and for I may therefore offer some set guidance out in good. i. A hint may is- be given as to what should be avoided. e. "The Art Fig. Grace of is line is only to be obtained by a prac- tised eye guided by an intuitive sense of what pleasing. Curves should be bold sweeps. these curves are best not modelled on a geometrical basis. Is quite legitimate and even desirable in plots of larger size. laying them out.

Thus in the case of a path skirting the garden boundary the amount and shape of the space between it and the boundary fence must be considered. For instance.ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN better 63 that they should have that flowing character of which in we find the counterpart nature in the graceful lines of a bending sedge or the curved stem of a flower spike. it would be bad practice to leave a strip too wide for a border but too narrow to carry a border with grass in front of I it. make it desirable to depart from In such event the second grass . From the foreit be seen how it is closely correlated with the other factors. In small gardens best to confine the grass to a single area. Thus the planner should than the compasses. In laying is rely on freehand rather down such a curved path the novice too apt to overlook the spaces to right and left. He should ever bear in mind that his walks subdivide the garden space. though circumstances may this arise to rule. and on the course they take will depend the shape of the areas they bound or enclose. now it pass on to the third element in the garden going is plan will — the grass.

the . The artist well knows how fatal it is pictorial effect to allot equal spaces to sky and landscape. should be treated with other pur- more closely and general picture. In gardens of the size I am now considering the idea of a " lawn " for games is rarely realizable for want of space. Moreover. It affords welcome relief to the eye. as too often is done in poses in view. The grass plot should never be isolated by surrounding it on all sides with gravel. and a place to "laze" upon and enjoy the garden vistas. and if possible reserved for a separate bisect the garden into is purpose.64 GARDEN PLANNING space should be subordinate to the principal one. soft. 3A. and the grass plot. It is that part of the garden in which we may plant a few trees for shade. without fear that their shadows and hungry roots will work havoc with the flowers. its surface presents a cool. related Its functions are to the flowers the type of garden illustrated in Fig. and welcome tread. The two cases are parallel. To two equal to a good areas of grass at once to introduce symmetry. therefore. and by contrast enhances the value of the colour effect obtainable with the flowers.

and do beds. the less difficulty you it will mowing it and keeping trim and neat. Let one or more of the sides join a border. 9. . — The grouping of beds part of this chapter.ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN 65 garden with a circuit path so beloved by suburban dwellers. where grass and flowers juxtaposition. But beware of fretting your principal grass plot into a thing of ragged outline by overdoing it this procedure. would come into Even let the border thrust out an extension into the grass in the manner suggested in the early 0^0 (^ B (? Fig. not pierce with a multitude of little Remember in also that the simpler in shape your experience grass plot.

which an the case attractive of square space becomes is secondary focus. An important point to give proper access . be shaped so as to produce unity of Com- pare the two examples illustrated on page 65 (A correctly grouped. I From what in have written about the imit portance of making aspect the guiding factor garden design. thereby securing a charming feature in spring and early summer. may be made interesting by planting Another a cen- them with plan is bulbs. where they will be welcome as shade. GARDEN PLANNING in grass are best grouped at one or two and the components of the group should effect. as this ensures a more harmonious effect. Small detached grass spaces. to utilize the space for a sunken rock garden. and will not preclude the growth of good turf.66 Beds points. is clear that the gardener should contrive. that the principal shadows in his garden should fall upon the grass. as far as possible. and yet tral another is to make in group of beds upon a it. if unavoid- able. It is generally better that the outlines of the group should preserve a parallelism with those of the grass plot. B incorrectly grouped).

ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN
to
all

d']

grass

spaces.

This implies that the

borders should not bar the
to be the
grass.

way which appears
of reaching the

most natural one

Neglect of this consideration

may tempt

those

who

use the garden to skip over the

borders, with consequences to the plants which
I

need not particularize.
likely to

It

is

well to provide
all

means
which
it

of access to the grass at
it is

points from

be approached, by bringing

up to the path at those points. This is done by curtailing the border some three or four feet at its end, or by breaking through it at some point in its length. Many examples illustrating this suggestion will be found in
the plans.

^When
ground
be
left

a grass plot

is

used solely as a back-

group of beds, ample verge should at the edges, and, whatever the shape
for a

of the beds, the spaces

between bed and bed

should be of sufficient width to ensure no
difficulty in

mowing.
spaces of irregular

In dealing with grass
outline, such as

would occur where the paths

are winding, the placing of the beds should take

into account the outline of the grass space.

For instance, a square group of beds

set in a

68

GARDEN PLANNING

curved promontory would produce a discordant
note.

Better to adapt the shape of the group
it is set.

to the space in which

The two methods

are here illustrated for the

sake of comparison, and a glance at the figures

[Z7/-n\Z]

«oB<'
Fig. lo.

— Girrect

form for groups of beds

will sufficiently

convince the reader as to which

method is most likely to please the eye. There is no need to make the grass
the ground has a
natural slope,

level if

provided,

ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN
of course,

69

"King Tennis" does not

rule.

On

the contrary, sloping ground greatly assists
drainage, and ensures that puddles shall not

lodge on the surface, which, on heavy ground,

would Inevitably occur on a dead-level

plot.

CHAPTER

VI

Making Beds and Borders
Being Intended solely for the purpose of accommodating living plants, beds and borders
should be

made

so that they will furnish every-

thing that a plant

demands

of the

soil.

This

implies not only that the soil shall be of such

a nature as to supply abundant food for the

but that it shall be of sufficient depth and of proper consistency, and that it shall contain no undesirable constituents. Soils are as we find them, and not always as we would have them, so that the gardener who, by force of circumstances, has to till an intractable soil, must adopt artificial means
roots,

to bring

it

into a better condition.

Reference
subject
in

has

already

been

made

to

the

Chapter II. Let us assume that the gardener

is

breaking

virgin ground, say a piece of old pasture.

He

has staked out the main lines of his garden plan,
70

MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS
and
Is

Jl

about to make

his

beds and borders.

The
stiff
it,

soil consists of

a top-spit of
If

brown loam
is

overlying a clayey subsoil.
clay,

the latter

a

and

insufficient surface soil overlies

the gardener

may have
additional

to face the necessity

of

importing

material.

But

let

us assume that the consistency of the subsoil
is

not so hopeless as the above assumption
imply.
soil

would
is

Then

the

proper

procedure

and subsoil into intimate admixture, so that one may temper the other, and to do so to such a depth as the ordinary requirements of horticulture demand. In most
to bring

circumstances this
or

may
is

be taken as two feet
best

thereabout.

This

done

operation
explained.
It
is

known

as "trenching,"

by the now to be

may
its

be well here to state that trenching

a term applied strictly to spade

work which

has for

object deep tillage, as distinguished

from "digging," by which the surface layer
of the soil only
is

turned over.
fall

Trenching

is

best done in the late
It
is

months

when the weather is yet open. in various ways according to

conducted

the results re-

quired and to the previous condition of the

72
ground.

GARDEN PLANNING
In "full-trenching" the process has

the effect of reversing the relative positions
of the upper

and lower layers of

soil,

so that

that which was situated, say, two feet below
the surface comes to the top, and the top layer

goes to the lower level.

So complete a reversal may be admirable treatment for ground which has long been in

and therefore already broken up to it would be inadvisable in the case of new ground such as we are considering, the subsoil of which had
tillage,

the trenching depth, but

not seen the light perhaps for centuries.

On

such ground the subsoil would be compacted

and wanting entirely in the which furnish food for plants.
therefore, that
if

constituents
It
is

clear,

full-trenching were adopted

the gardener would have a very poor surface
layer in which to grow his flowers.

A

better plan would
in

be to " half-trench,"
soil

which consists

removing the surface

in sections, then breaking

up the

subsoil with

a fork, and subsequently replacing the surface
soil.

But

there

is

still

a better

method

for

the garden maker, designed to effect the more
or less complete mixing of the
soil

and subsoil

care should be taken to bury the turfs. — Trenching the illustration. The gardener then proceeds to fill up the trench at A with soil taken alternately from B and C. by the soil full line in which represents the trench in cross-section. and so on till he reaches the end of the border. when the space left must be filled in with the soil that has been taken there for the purpose. this last is is method the one for him is to adopt. so they may in due time rot . The removed may at once be carried to a position near the far end of the border. as shown Fig.MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS to the desired depth. If the land is old pasture. D and E. II. 73 As that is the principal object he should have in view. The operation conducted as follows: The ground by opened up to the full depth a trench cut across the border.

in efficient condition for a period The nual digging and manuring will serve to keep it dependent upon the demands made upon it.74 GARDEN PLANNING their quota to enriching and thereby contribute the soil. This must be done in a manner which ensures that the manure be well distributed in depth. until the whole contents of the border has been treated. aifords a drainage and good opportunity for enriching the soil a proportion of manure. should not be Therefore the gardener should have at hand a heap of good manure. assisting effecting aeration. and as the work proceeds he should add it to the soil at a regular rate. It should be remembered that when we have . so that when the plants send their roots they will find a down reserve of food awaiting them. not merely added to the surface layer. is Although the primary object of trenching to produce a workable soil of sufficient incidentally it depth. beds and borders in tunity by incorporating with it In the making of a new garden this opporneglected. Once made in this way. the border will not an- need trenching again for some years.

trenching practicable. hence the necessity for doing the work thoroughly in the first instance. to make the lowest layer of brick rubbish. after which the bottom should be forked over and the soil thrown back. of beds of compact is as just described hardly first The better method is to remove the top-spit over the whole surface it close at hand. then to do the same with the lower layer. . fine gravel. with cinders overlying. With beds and groups shape. making a separate heap of it. 75 and the plants have become estabit is lished in the borders. and this is best done when the beds and borders are being formed. ashes. heaping be added. too light or too heavy soils With some tempering material must be added. an excellent plan. not often adopted. mixing well together that from the two separate heaps. not possible to resort all to trenching again without removing the plants. On heavy clay soils we may use sand. A due proportion of manure should of the bed. Thus far these directions apply to soils which are naturally well fitted for the gardener. as in ordinary trenching. It I is fear.MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS planted. and vegetable matter.

At least two put above the drainage The cost and trouble may be more^ repay the gardener. reducing them to a consistency more nearly approaching loam. but the results will Fig. — Drainage for beds and borders Borders prepared in this way do not suffer from water-logging even during wet winters. the winter frosts will help to break up the clay lumps. The important point in the treatment of clay land is to secure a sufficient admixture of loose porous material to destroy the tenacity of the clay and to permit of moisture freely finding its way down through the mass of soil.76 GARDEN PLANNING This ensures good drainage. In hot summer weather they neither bake nor become dry for any great distance down. 12. A certain proportion of vegetable matter is a gain. If the trenching is done in the autumn. Hence the gardener may cast into his . feet of soil should be layer. as it has manurial value.

77 weeds. Such a soil will admit air air as easily as it admits moisture. to a depth of at least two feet. vegetable matter also may be added with advantage. which usually owe their lightundue amount of sand. turfs. drainage by means of agricultural or rubble drains . the aim of the garden maker should be to secure a well-drained bed or border. In soils of the heaviest kind it may be necessary to introduce subsoil tile. and ing the performs a very improcesses of portant function In "sweetening" and purifysoil. On ness to an tremes of weather. As such soils are usually deficient in humus. Is of a workable consistency and not likely to suffer from exlight soils. or may consist almost entirely of sand. either in the direction of drought or continued wet. we may add stiff loam and clay to give it greater body and a more retentive character. Whether the treatment is designed to render a heavy soil lighter or a light one heavier. and In garden and will rot house which due time and supply humus. by hastening those decomposition which are always taking place. the soil of which.MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS trench refuse.

It is therefore generally ad- visable to throw out the larger stones only. Drainage in that case would have to be carried out over the whole of the ground and not merely beneath the borders. and it only needs to be tried and the results noted to impress the most sceptical gardener of its value. be- wisdom cause their position generally determines their form. because a certain proportion of stones is an advantage to the soil. On stony land the operation of trenching affords a good opportunity I excess of stones. but the gardener would be wise to avoid land which could be rendered workable only by such means. ing. I now pass on to a consideration of the form and disposition of beds as picturesque elements in the garden.78 laid GARDEN PLANNING at regular intervals. There cannot be two opinions about the of deep working. unless a for removing an do not recommend screen- very coarse screen is employed. I need add nothing to what I have already said about borders. and aspect decides their position. I used the term "bed" for to distinguish a detached compartment flower growing. helping to keep it loose and workable. Beds are .

the form as is of bed. particularly when a formal effect is Whatever the background. it regards its outline. Sometimes. stars. Another objection to these is bi- zarre shapes the great aggregate length of their boundaries in comparison with the space they enclose. howthey are given a background of ever. The outlines by which we bound our flower beds should not be of a character to fix the eye and divert our attention from the flowers. This disproportion means that the actual length of edging to be kept trimmed and cared for is much greater than is necessary. is important. and other Did not these should still practical count. I decry these shapes because of their obvious artificiality. To take a concrete case. and where beds of this kind exist in numbers the extra labour is not negligible. and essential that we should not outrage good taste by indulging I character. figures having acute objections angles. the boundary length . desired. gravel. in anything of eccentric have already pointed out the disadvantages from a practical standpoint of such shapes as crescents.MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS 79 most often formed in turf.

and pentagon come next in economy of boundary. It is well. I We must have variety form and scope for fancy. hexagon. compares with that of a as five to three. therefore of the which has the boundary. If the gardener goes beyond these simple lavish he is necessarily become do not mean to say that on that account to confine himself to shapes he will of edging. to have our eyes open to the consequences those shapes alone. The octagon.8o GARDEN PLANNING shown in the illuscircle of the of a five-pointed star. it is same diameter A circle. in of indulging in sprawling and attenuated . encloses the figure largest amount of space smallest length in relation to its circumference. — Shapes of beds follow. and the square and rectangle Fig. and is well known. 13. however. as tration.

and admissible on practical and artistic grounds. 8l which are prodigal little of margin but enclose comparatively flower space.MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS forms. give some examples. and rectangle as sufficiently indicated by their names. Of the forms I of bed in general use. square. OC3 . omitting the circle.

best secured of by giving attention is to the strips sward or gravel which separate them. This is made it clear in the next illustration. and good rule a to make these strips of equal width throughout their length. as I have already pointed out in connection with groups of beds. than In groups of beds in gravel. the separating strips become possible paths. . A square bed set in an oval grass plot would not harmonize so well with its outline as a circular or oval bed. On the contrary. So in a square or rectangular plot of limited dimensions a square or rectangular bed would best it is please the eye. in Practical considerations connection with mowing make desirable that this strip of sward less should not be too narrow. if it comes suf- ficiently near those outlines for it to matter. so that the sides of adjacent beds are parallel with each other. say not eighteen inches.82 GARDEN PLANNING it is the grass on which placed. there should be a rigid harmony This is in shape between the components. In designing a group of beds to not sufficient throw together several components bearing no relation to each other in shape.

15. On the other hand. — Relation between beds in a group ponents of a group. Examples of groups of flower beds will be found in plenty in the garden plans in a later chapter. if intended to accommodate a pillar rose. no precise limits can be laid down. As regards the size of a bed.MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS and their 83 minimum width may therefore be fixed at two feet. A bed may consist of a square measuring two feet each way. when they are in scale with their surroundings and . very large beds are sometimes introduced. or of the corn- Fig.

84
a bold effect

GARDEN PLANNING
is

aimed
is
is

at.

In most cases, how-

ever, nothing

gained by making a bed of
represented

greater area than

by a

circle

of twelve feet diameter.

In groups of beds it is well to have a central component which dominates the group. But too great disparity in size between it and those

about

it is

not desirable.
is

When
the

a series of groups

to be made, as,

for instance, along the grass bordering a drive,

same design should not be repeated
It
is

in-

definitely.

better to repeat

it, if

at

all,

at

considerable intervals, employing other designs
in

between.

single beds,

able

in

The same applies to a series of though monotony is not so noticethat case, particularly if the form
is

employed
series

a simple one.

of equal

For instance, a and similar rectangular beds

bordering a long straight stretch of grass

may

be quite inoffensive, but even in that case it would be better to break the line at equal distances by making a wider interval between
adjacent

beds at every third or fourth bed,
a simple kind of grouping,
series

thus introducing

which always looks better than a regular
like the cars of a freight train.

MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS

85

The gardener
trouble
of his beds,

has always to consider the

Involved in maintaining the shapes

and this should make him cautious about indulging in figures the geometry of
is

which

not very obvious.
is

With rectangular
circular beds,

beds the stretched cord
for the turf trimmer,

always a sure guide

and with

or those

bounded by

straight lines

and parts

of a circle, the radius cord attached to a stake at the centre of curvature
for
is

a simple expedient
It
is

controlling

the

shape.

otherwise

with "fancy" shapes, when the eye alone can

be called upon to keep things
Opinions
differ

right.

on the question
if

of

camber

in the surface of the soil,

we may judge by

examples, some preferring to keep the surface

and others to heap it up until the bed takes on the semblance of a gigantic pincushion. Safety lies in the happy medium. Some camber is desirable as a means for throwing off the water during heavy showers, and it
flat,

improves
in

the

appearance
are

of
all

the

flowers,

particularly

when they

of a height, as

bedding practice.
drain off the

Excessive camber tends

to

moisture from the crown

of the bed.

86

GARDEN PLANNING
Beds
In gravel,
flat
if edged with box, should be on the surface, otherwise the

kept nearly

moisture which gravitates to their margins would tend to carry soil out upon the gravel
surface.

CHAPTER VII
Construction of Walks and Drives

The
it

first essential in

a garden path

is

that

should present a firm surface, durable under
it

the ordinary conditions of the traffic
bear, which,

has to

be

it

remembered, includes not
roller,

only foot

traffic,

but the passage of

mower, and garden barrow. It must also be well drained, so that after
showers
its

surface does not hold puddles or

long remain wet.

no detail in the garden which conmore materially to its general good appearance and to the comfort of its users than a well-made and well-kept path.
is

There

tributes

Drives designed for carriage

traffic

may

also

be referred to

in this

chapter, as practically

the same principles of construction apply to
if much used by wheeled vehicles and not merely for show, the surface material must be such as will not cut up in daily use;

them, though

87

««
in fact, their

GARDEN PLANNING
making should involve the
ordi-

nary principles of road construction.

down the line of a drive, if any made from the straight, the curves should make wide sweeps. Abrupt turns in
In laying
is

departure

carriage drives are apt to lead to unlooked-for
surprises

on dark nights.
for a carriage drive

The minimum width
be taken as ten
feet.

may

There are two points in a drive which call on the part of the designer, If the viz., the entrance and the terminal.
for special attention

drive enters the plot at right angles,
to set the gates

it is

well
as to
is

back from the road, so

make space

for vehicles to turn,

and

this

especially necessary

when
It

the drive leaves a

narrow thoroughfare.

is usually done by boundary hedge curve inward toward the gates, or curved wing walls

making the

railings or

may be

erected enclosing a space approximating

a semicircle.

When
it

the drive enters the plot at an angle

should break

away from the thoroughfare

by
or

a curve which meets the latter at a tangent,
if

from a curved thoroughfare, the two curves

should flow gracefully into each other; in other

CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES
words, they should have a
line.

89

common

tangent

It

is

not unusual to find the course of a drive

so laid

down
is

that

its

length
it

is

unnecessarily

great, the idea being that
tor.

impresses the visi-

This

a waste of material

and of space.

Fig. 16.

— Entrance

to drive

On

level

ground a straight drive leading to

the house the best.

by the Curved

shortest route
drives,

is

generally

however, are not

objectionable provided their lines run in bold

sweeps, and they
for

may

afford

an opportunity
privacy
is

screening the

house

when

desirable.

On

sloping ground the course of the drive

— The carriage-turn Where the drive reaches the house entrance an expansion should be made to permit of vehicles turning. Fig. and in such case it maybe necessary to use curves freely.90 GARDEN PLANNING must be determined with a view to ensuring an easy gradient. and it should be wide enough . 17.

or it. thus: tion the Width between automobile tires. the carriage- turn is unnecessary. relawalk and curb. runway takes relative to lines of direcstreet curb. is The form if it is of the "carriage-turn" if immaterial is large enough. but space restricted figure it is better to adopt the circle.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES to allow 9I them to turn on a sufficiently large radius to prevent damage to the road surface. general character of ground as respects lines and . gentler curves. elevation of sidewalk above curb. but may be retained in some form house door. which naturally looks for a free space opposite the The coming of the motor car has introduced new and insistent problem in driveway en- trances to suburban plots — in the open country lie estate the only extra modifications in the necessity of greater. some approximating In the case of a semicircular drive having separate entrance and exit gates. The factors to be considered in the smaller place have been well presented in Country Life^ October 1922. elevation of sidewalk above curb. width of parking space between sidewalk tive slopes in and curb. relative slopes in walk and curb. a as a concession to the eye.

six feet three inches. It is when ramp and runways do not by a sidewalk. eighteen assumed that each runway inches wide with a grass plot between. The width will of the opening along the street curb local conditions. They are sometimes built twelve inches and twenty- four inches. and textural finish suited to conditions. is a serviceable width for the automobile runway. inches to allow nine inches outside of each and the result. The ramp should better. to are separated join but have the narrow part or throat of the ly ramp equal to or bur slight- wider than the width of the runways. unless curbs be built on the outside. in no case have a width less that the overall width of the runway. The average is distance between centres of tires four feet nine inches. This will give the effect of continuity of the side lines.92 GARDEN PLANNING grades. vary according to a driver will do From observations and measurements to determine what when turning off the street . will when the is overall be increased by about eight inches. the former being too narrow and the latter unnecessarily wide. Six feet six inches is quite commonly used and all is a good width under nearly width It is circumstances. Add to this one foot six tire.

and curbs are not needed as a guide.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES on to the ramp it is 93 figured that eight feet six inches should be the minimum it is clearance allowis able and that ten to twelve feet preferable. and it is only rational to curve the side lines of the If the ramp. The ramp curbs articulate should be made to the street curb. is essential in For the most pleasing results this normal cases. In laying out a far as service ramp well to be liberal so is concerned at the same time heeding the dictates of esthetics which the least possible display of cement. made equal to the overall width of the runway. The track of the car as it approaches and enters the grounds is on a curve. the opening width of twelve feet is sufficient for an approach from either direction. The side Hnes of the ramp come into the Hne of the walk at a right angle. demand For ordinary cases and pleasing to the eye. any driver can keep on them while backing out. and the throat opening. A on easy curves with bad joint or a sharp angle where the two come together is certain to spoil the appearance of the work. runways are eighteen inches wide. gives the correct appearance when viewed from the front. .

or until a firm filled in with rubble. The free use of water at . or other light material. to provide drainage and to en- sure a firm foundation. the soil must be excavated to a depth of twelve bottom is reached. and a path of loose pebbles objectionable on account of the liability of the smaller stones to be carried on to the grass. and taken bodily away.94 Gravel GARDEN PLANNING Paths — Much quality of the gravel. but preserving the camber of the layer the roller After liberal watering should be put to work. brick rubbish. of this kind will never make is a firm path. Over this may be put a layer of shingle or coarse gravel screenings. which should be formed with the rake to a curved surface or camber gravel in cross-section. being almost or entirely devoid of binding material. The may then be evenly distributed over the surface to a depth of from two to three inches. After staking out the course of the path. care being taken to keep the line of its crown straight beneath. The trench must then be inches. are little depends upon the There are gravels which Gravels better than shingle. in the direction of the path's length. say three inches thick.

CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES this Stage is 95 important to success. are dismal things in the flower garden. paths the stony . which should carry before it a wave of creamy liquid. They also may be made but Tar Paths durable. a mix- Fig. however. the same apphes to asphalt. and unused for no rain falls during that interval so Cinder Paths — These much the better. i8. — When well made these are very their as directed for gravel paths. as consolidation it ensures gravel the subsequent its of the roller. and prevents adhering to the The correct amount of water may be determined by noting the action of the roller.— Path foundation ture of water with the binding constituent of the gravel. though they have a sphere of usefulness in the vegetable plot. The roller should be a moderately heavy one. colour is against them. soft and in hot weather they are apt to become seen tar on the surface. at least After the path has been brought it to a fair surface should be left if twenty-four hours. I have.

it which unfits it for use in curved Its advantages are the ease with which its it may be kept free from weeds.96 constituent GARDEN PLANNING of which was a gray material. Brick Paths Next to gravel the — brick path it is holds first place: indeed. durability. Tar and other paths made of impervious material should not be flanked by impervious tiles. its only drawback being its want of flexibility. preferable to a gravel path in most circumstances. and the path should be at least six laid on a concrete basis inches thick. not altogether unsightly after the surface layer of tar had disappeared. the old order of things dies hard. and the opportunity artistic eff"ect. in my opinion. brick path is Yet the not altogether a thing of to-day. or water will collect at their sides. . To guard against cracking a good proportion of sand should be used in mixture. fines. off"ers good colour. and gardeners are shy of adopt- ing anything savouring of novelty. for In gardening. probably limestone. Cement in colour Paths — These are unsympathetic and Hable to crack under the influence of frost. Cement may be it coloured with iron oxide (red ochre) to give a warmer and more genial hue.

The bricks should be laid flat upon the sand ance of brick paths would be marred perceptible without mortar or cement. which must be raked to a level surface. They may by plunging one pears after it into a pail of water and noting In the speed with which the surface water disap- has been lifted out again. if this observation we may take we decide upon a brick path. but much depends upon prepared as for a the price of each material ruling in the district. brick paths do not compare un- favourably with gravel. From and. cheery red surface worn into hollows. be careful to obtain bricks of a kind which are not imperreadily be tested vious to water. a hint. pressed down firmly and into close contact. A rubble foundation is gravel path. but on dead-level ground there may be half an inch difference of level between the sides and centre of a three-foot path. and dressed over with finer terial.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES It 97 its may be met with in many old gardens. and kept in true line . but ever dry owing to the porous nature of its material. The good appear- if any camber were given to the surface. ma- over which is put a layer of finely screened gravel or builder's sand. point of cost.

which the simplest plan. and made sure thatitis straight and true from end to end. as that helps to keep the bricks in place. Having laid the path margin on one side. It is by the use of commence by best to laying the marginal bricks on one side from end to end. and to select the side which comes against turf. — Design lor brick path the bricks are to be disposed. and produces a neat not . but before proceeding with this some idea must be formed of how the centre =1—L-L-LTi-i:: Fig. They may be is if breaking joints. 19. otherwise the bricks will acquire a tendency to rock and be- come loose. may be built up to it. and should be laid downward. All bricks are less more or is curved in the burning. side The concave easily detected by glancing along the edge.98 GARDEN PLANNING a stretched cord. laid in parallel lines.

of bricks may two but be laid on edge. In bedding the bricks upon their seating the sand may be added to or removed. above practice the is level the that not conducive to efficient drainage. to bring the upper surface of the bricks to the general level. If cutting the difficulty of making neat is joints with the cut the centre part well laid the other its marginal free side line of bricks will lie neatly along and complete the path. The principal precaution needed is to bed each brick firmly. so that no subsequent subsidence of individual bricks can occur. If preferred. the marginal say. as occasion requires. dispense with edging but to make edging it it serve the purpose of the tile must be .CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES ambitious effect. 99 or a pattern lines may be worked in out on some such illustration. inches about centre. to stand. not desirinvolves of able to adopt a of pattern bricks. I have pointed out that the brick path can tiles. which because much ends. as indicated the In this it will be seen that whole It is bricks are used throughout.

20. In the case of very it light soils I have found it desirable to push a few slates down into the soil at the outer mar- gin of the path. as that of the turf plot). burying level. them as far as the soil If this is done at every fourth brick. Grouting with cement would perhaps be a safer expedient.- Section The weight of ^^^^HP^** the bricks keeps them in place.100 GARDEN PLANNING brought into proper relation with the ground on either side. This is shown in the sectional illustration. but ^^ is well to Comof brick path pact the soil of the border where comes against the path by ramming. On sloping ground. but I have not found it necessary. the whole is made fairly secure. where the slope crosses the path. may continue and it the natural should be made . Fig. That is best done by adopting the rule of making the level of the path at its edges the same (when it skirts a grass and an inch and a half higher than the edge of the border when it comes against the soil. to ensure that the bricks on that side do not get out of place. the latter slope of the ground. and at a joint.

not desirable. A level path is flat of necessity. and again filled up to a level with the surface. and other like materials.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES quite flat* on the surface. so that water lOI may drain off at the lower margin. though undue repetition is Bearing in mind the fact that bricks measure four inches in width. a must be a multiple of that fact to be remembered when the is width of the path Composite Paths all — In being settled. stone mosaics. Over-elaboration of pattern in so utilitarian a feature as a garden path would be too assertive. it is evident that the path width dimension. he should not allow his fancy away with him. An inclined path may be flat but is not level. . When the bricks have been laid the joints may be filled up with loose sand. I stones. Whatever to run ideas the gardener may have about pattern-making. watered to carry it down. The simpler the design the better. this category I Include tiles paths In which bricks or are used in combination cobble with concrete. shall first refer to those In which bricks are *To avoid misapprehension I may say that I use the words "flat" and "level" in their strictly separate senses.

except that sand will only be needed where the bricks come. half.of fine first with an inch and a then to gravel. Design for a composite path — and half.I02 GARDEN PLANNING for used the framework. which filling is completed by the spaces beits tween with rial. half Fig. The ter general idea of a path of this charac- may be gathered illustration. I fill in the spaces one at a time. is The preparation all- of the foundation the same as for an brick path. and the path level with mortar- . 21. Portland cement. from the It will be seen that forms the brickwork the basis of a pattern. members matefound ex- another I have road macadam an and I use it as follows: having made a mortar of and sand builder's cellent one.

levelled and mallet. After allowing set. an hour for the mortar to partly the path surface stiff may be washed over with a brush and clean water. fitting pressing sides is IO3 soft I insert the macadam and them closely into contact them down. but leaving is filled I their upper slightly higher than the bricks. A plan less is satisfactory fill appearance to in the spaces on the score of with cement filling. concrete. They should be by the use on end in dry sand. and then grouted with liquid cement poured amongst laid of the board . The exuding mortar that transferred to the next space. and one similarly treated until the whole is path finished. In twelve hours firm as the path will be set and the as a rock. mortar used for the mosaic work taking hold of the bricks and tying the whole together. to remove the mortar which clings to the top of the stone cubes.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES Whilst the latter cubes. finishing with a rendering of cement. Cobble stones make an excellent and give quite an old-world appearance to a path. it When the space go over with a board and a mallet. beating down the cubes until they are all level is with the bricks.

which must be done on a bed of mortar. but not economical where paths are long. or of oven is not displeasing. be made by The expense is substituting greater and more skill is required in the setting. I do not favour them for many reasons. and therefore do not dry so quickly. Similar paths tiles may for bricks. Another mode of filling is use coarse rubble blocks. that the edging Stone Another disadvantage of the tile path tile cannot be dispensed with. setting them in mortar with the aid of a builder's trowel. One is that one cannot help associating them with the flagged .I04 GARDEN PLANNING a pail until it rises them from above the middle to of the pebbles. They are also more liable to be dislodged and broken. and frequently offended by reason of the violent contrasts in in the colour of the tiles. Paths is — Flagstones are occasionally met with in old gardens. is squares. I do not think that anything tiles is to be said in favour of instead of bricks. tiles in large A path of hard red tiles. They are less porous. Tile Paths — All-tile paths used to be in favour some suburban fore-courts.

as it soon loses its glare. have seen some good paths made of stone if waste. yet another that they wear unequally and soon become "dished. A good plan is to use it in a patchwork pattern of the kind our lady friends call "crazy. and tones down under the influence of weather and vegetable growth. of the right kind will — and it is i. not too friable — it make an interesting path. and the gardener has the opportunity of obtaining this material cheaply. In fact. and white stone is admissible. . the separate stones are well bedded. the joints may be designedly allowed to gape to permit the grass to spring out of them. another that their colour is too cold to the critical eye. Red sandstone is an excellent material.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES IO5 pavements of town. e. angles I should be removed from the waste path based If give an illustra- tion that will carry a suggestion for a stone- upon Japanese practice. no cementing medium is needed." for which purpose all sharp pieces.. which will give an uncon- ventional but not unpleasing effect to a path crossing a lawn." giving I rise to the inevitable puddle. with precautions to prevent rocking.

22. 23. — Design for stone path Fig.I06 GARDEN PLANNING FiK. — Design for stone path .

in the Note like fine — In the use of a non-binding material it is well to screen out all which otherwise would adhere to the boots in wet weather and be carried into the house. and renders them the most persistent material I know of for finding Its way Indoors. Its legitimate place is on the grass. Shells form an almost hopeless blue stone stuff material for the garden. as the Japanese do. but the effect so obtained must not be overdone. Their innate friability precludes the separation of large from small. .CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES IO7 The gardener with command of material might use it of this class form of steppingstones.

or be content with the old pasture grass as we find it. by which we may judge the capabilities of the If turf we must have. and. We may obtain our grass in any of three ways: we may import turfs. yet it must receive the best attention The is much of its we can give it. the mantle with which she covers the crudities of man's handiwork. charm if the frame unworthy of it. Just which we decide upon will be governed by circumstances. the best background for our flowers. Old pasture is not always a success. in a well-kept stretch of It is embodiment of the sense of repose.CHAPTER VIII Grass as a Foundation There nature's is something delightfully soothing verdant turf. in most cases. let us have it green and fresh and innocent of spot or blemish. the criterion gardener. Secondary as picture loses it is to the flowers. particularly 108 . sow seed.

Which the more economical in cost. the total cost may be small. and we should be full of water- logged in winter and scorched summer. But we may have which will to pay for our turfs at current rates^ vary according to the locality and the proximity to an available source of supply. On the other hand." and rejoice that we may we are tions. About thirty-six hundred and thirty turfs would . It may be growing upon find in it soil. turf or seed? ourselves This problem we may work out for when we know the cost of turf In our district. We may be able to get it. In such case "leave well alone. it for the labour cost of cutting and. if It Is near at hand. Moreover. we may be lucky in lighting upon some rich meadowland in which the conditions are favourable to the growth of good turf. and infested with insects ready to migrate to our beds and borders. saved the trouble and expense of further operaShould we be driven back upon one of the other two expedients.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION IO9 Upon heavy too thin a land. it may undesirable weeds. and where thistles and other noxious weeds are conspicuous by their absence. we must make our to choice according is the local conditions.

The same piece of ground could be sown with one to one and one half bushels of grass seed costing about $5 per bushel. This consideration may carry weight with gardeners who are anxious to secure an early appearance of completeness in a new garden. that The principal advantage of using turfs is we obtain a close. Sowing can only be done with the certainty of a good result in the spring and autumn. matured grass surface more quickly than we can do by sowing. Whether turfing or sowing be practised. and we are faced with a large outlay for material alone. there is always the risk that our turf tion of may contain an undue proportion of weeds. which is very slight Then the labour of turf outlay for material. though on this head a careful examinait in bulk should enable us to form an considered the best if opinion. Though sufficient the spring it is time for turfing. may be done at any time and proper precautions are taken. it is equally necessary to prepare properly the . laying would greatly exceed the labour of sowing.no here GARDEN PLANNING be required to cover a quarter of an acre. On the other hand.

the nature of the ground demands ing the it. it now the time to supplement by an from outside. and with if it should be com- bined draining. additional supply imported where the barrow ruts will is in operation. is the original layer of is Insufficient. Screening layer is may be practised It is if the surface stony. decayed farmyard manure and the top-spit redistributed soil upon If it to form a layer eight inches thick. or obtained as a by-product from some other Planks should be used part of the garden. essential when sowing . In the levelling process the top-spit contain- most valuable part of the soil must be first laid aside. to be subsequently distrib- uted over the levelled surface. otherwise to be caused that are not easy obliterate. that first the operation. and the levelling completed.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION ground. be treated with well forked in. If levelling III has to be undertaken in is the interests of tennis and croquet. This done. the undisturbed subsoil at that part of the ground which has been lowered must be forked over to a depth The whole surface may then of eight inches.

and any hollows and gaping joints should be filled up with soil. and rena better condition to weld with the new turf. . be made good come under the workman's observation. Time should be allowed for subsidence. disclose inequalities. gaps at the joints being filled fine soil as the work proceeds. GARDEN PLANNING but of less moment where is turfs are used. with the same material. as it will hasten the subsidence. If rain super- venes so der the much soil in the better. particularly if any part of the ground has been banked up above the natural surface. after which the beater should be used again. Inequalities in the ground as they may and all upstanding places treated with It until they accord with the general level. the surface must be gone over with the beater. The turfs should be up with laid in close contact over the whole surface.112 grass seed. If no rain immediately follows. operation of laying the turfs is a simple one once the ground brought to a good sur- but it should not be done immediately after the preparation of the ground. The face. After all is laid. the turfs may be submitted to a good watering.

warm and The quantity square too feet. well to look for early indications of weeds on newly all turfed ground. should not be later from the middle of Autumn sowing than the middle of SeptemIs Some authorities are in favour of soil is autumn sowing. and the best time of year for the purpose March ber.«ion is for them. for the reason that the the dews heavy. The operation of sowing is best conducted on a calm day. A bushel of lawn grass seed as usually understood trade in the twenty pounds. rolling surface and reduce Inequalities. of seed should not be less than one quart of recleaned seed to three hundred It Is better to err on the side of much than weighs of too little. and to promptly eradicate Before sowing is that appear. II3 the roller should be brought Into operation to further compact the that. be then lightly raked over to provide lodgment for the seed. Obtain the .GRASS AS A FOUNDATION After a day or two's rest. After the usual operations of mowing and calls may It be performed as occa. till the end of April. attempted the ground must It should be well compacted by treading or rolling until it will no longer take footprints.

roller. taking care to leave no bare places. If the surface soil is damp it will pick UD on the it. When may they have obtained a height of from three to three and one half inches the ground be rolled. taking the precaution does not cut close to in the best condition to set the knife so that It it It must be will for cutting. cover at once with a sprinkling of fine soil and roll. and the next day the mower it. or by covering similar it well with pea brush or other bushy material which may be at hand. Old seed purchased if from local sources. their appearIf within twenty-one it rain has followed the sowing may be earlier. should be passed over the ground. even bearing a well- known name. and bring the seeds stretching black Birds must be kept away by cotton or garden netting over the ground.114 GARDEN PLANNING closely seed from a reliable firm and follow their printed instructions. grass plants should The ance make days. or drag up the young grass . Sow dry with broadcast. may be contain disappointing. and grass seed sold in bulk at small country stores may an undesirable percentage of other seeds or chaff.

the weeds which come most often to mock the lawn maker appear. but should have faultlessly flat surfaces. will cause the moss to disappear. at intervals. plant. not omitting watering if the weather proves dry. either owing In most cases the by stimulating the to the need for drainage. Moss is in itself is in no sense harmful. always an indication of a poor Tennis and Croquet Lawns — These. and I should not only be dead level. or to the absence of food for the grass plants. may here give a few directions for levelling. If may be trusted to recommend one appearance. Should plantains — — Sown grass is materially assisted if treated early with an approved fertilizer.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION plants instead of taking off their tops. but soil. II5 After the usual routine of roiling and mowing may be followed. implies moss makes soil is its it that the out of condition. vigour of the grass plants. of course. . this. of which the seedsman suitable. they may be effectually dealt with by placing a pinch of dry table salt on the crown of each This kills them in a day or two. application of a fertilizer.

Il6 If GARDEN PLANNING possible. naturally approximately- When this not feasible. He should then drive in pegs over the whole surface six feet apart. adjusting each peg in turn by means . "^^ I it becomes . a position is is should be selected where the ground level. he should work out- ward. He must first get the level.1 »iw»nini-^*»w& Fig. and standing so much above amount the foundation as will allow for the of surface soil to it. seven feet long) and a as well as spirit-level. tall or sighting from pegs driven into the ground fixed carrying cross-pieces horizontally by means of the level. a supply of stout wooden pegs. The operator should provide himself with a long straight- edge (say. — Level and straight-edge necessary to transfer soil from the higher to the lower parts of the ground. be subsequently distributed over Taking a central peg as a datum. foundation approximately using the straight-edge on the surface. 24.

_L_ Tennis court space hundred feet by fifty feet is not too great an allowance. full-sized the comfort and convenience The croquet ground. according . The pegs may The has be removed at tennis any time afterward. Additional width must be allowed the poles and fore a total for for 36ft. court of feet feet. a net size seventy . and may be taken as the of one minimum compatible with of the players. 4^ or slightly over. thereclear Fig. to allow for subsidence and compacting by rolling.eight by thirty-six or nine feet less in width for the single game.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION II7 of the straight-edge and level until the tops of all are at the fill same level. It only then re- mains to in the soil to the tops of the pegs. 25. the players.

should measure thirty-five yards by twentyeight yards. or in feet one hundred and five 13- .Ii8 GARDEN PLANNING to the revised rules of the Croquet Association.

Such lawns may be considered indispensable. reminding one of the idea one forms of the "hanging gardens" of Babylon. He may it it allot it a space to enclosing by a hedge in or screen of trees or shrubs.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION II9 croquet lawn the designer has the choice of two itself. and . and thus put out of sight as some- thing not altogether harmony with the decorative scheme of the garden. and winding walks were elements in the design. courses. may the be constituted upon any convenient and roomy stretch of level turf where game and horticulture are not likely to come into conflict. or he let it may frankly proclaim itself as an obvious feature design. and component part of the garden There is something to be said for In a garden of straight lines the both plans. rectangle of turf set aside for tennis or croquet would not be so conspicuous a feature as in a type of garden In which a naturalesque effect was aimed at. is There no need to make hard and fast It boundaries to the tennis or croquet lawn. Tennis lawns made upon ground which carries a marked slope are not always sightly sufficiently features.

sloping banks and the space adjacent to The them should be turfed.I20 if GARDEN PLANNING they have to be made at the expense of excavating and banking up. . and it must be truly level. The shape in a large of the grass plot is determined measure by the other elements of the plan. of shrubs. or other suitable The Bozvling Green — Revived interest in bowls has induced some owners to regulation size install a private bowling green on their ground. and the latter to provide a vantage ground for spectators. is The It forty yards square. Nothing tends so destroy character much as the injudicious chopping up of the grass space. means should artificial much be found to conceal their outlines by means screening. am Take. the former as a check to the bowls. The Grass Plot in this — I have already intimated to the importance of studying breadth of effect the garden. Yet there are opportunities for the if gardener to go astray principle for which I he does not realize the contending. trees. but less if width is is admissible space is restricted. usual to sink the green below the general surface.

in the making of it is borders and beds surprisingly easy to 'details.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION for instance.— Acute angles in grass of sufficient size to call for treatment in curves. or crescent grass. demands the main object grass . produce awkward shapes in the grass particularly when working with curved isth- A good rule. converge.) In the rectilinear treatment of small difficul- gardens these ties will hardly arise. is to permit no acute angles. narrow muses. by adding the space either to Again. of the more careful consideration. is may do a so in cases where the garden is converging F»g- When the garden the shaping 27. 27. horns in (See Fig. tapering verges. lines. The planner may when he has taken sufficient space for his borders and paths. but they plot one. In such event he would do well to take off the acute angle border or path. that his grass runs out to a mere wedge. a 121 garden the boundaries of which find. therefore.

and then discretion artist "feels" seek for guidance by studying elementary principles. The placing of beds on grass calls for restraint The on the part of the gardener. is to be s^me and reason. accompanying illustration (Fig. Those who lack such training must first realize their deficiency. 28) shows the correct way to correlate the bed with the grass when the former projecting space. It is has to fill a certainly better to err on the side of having too few than too It will many detached beds. cutting fretwork design. of which the items just enumerated are those most likely to beset the inexperienced designer. because he has an eye trained to proportion. The practice of loading the grass with an it up into a condemned for the archipelago of small beds. is The one of the most important. of which that applying to breadth of effect. where a bed or group of beds could be placed with advantage to the garden picture. be useful here to accept my injunction . already sufficiently explained in these pages.122 GARDEN PLANNING to being avoid anything that will detract from the breadth of effect.

according to the particular views of the garden owner. under which term may be included the strips which separate bed from bed a in a group. if the slope it is is slight only. is provided that no considerable space to be reserved for tennis or croquet. better to let the garden follow it Fig. These should always have parallel sides and minimum width better of eighteen inches.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION 123 about the grass verge. or they be entirely desirable as affording oppor- tunity for variety in the general treatment of the garden. Whenever the character of the ground in the is such as to leave certain spaces form of hollows. Two feet is if space permits. 28. — Beds in relation to grass than to attempt levelling. On may larities ground of irregular contours the irregumay call for modification. When plot is a garden situated onslopingground. these hollows should .

or be washed out by the rain. so that we cannot detect where one runs into the other. There no need to allow more is elevation to the turf than sufficient to ensure the mower is clearing the gravel if when used on is the edge of the grass. so with surfaces the curves should flow without break. this rule followed no danger of gravel straying on to the From two to three inches is quite .124 GARDEN PLANNING filled be in or drained. Grass slopes should be used sparingly. and there grass. As with lines. in the Another point to be considered of a grass plot is its is making level relative to the adja- cent paths. It not unusual to find paths sunk so much below the grass level that the soil is exposed beneath the turf. It also involves additional labour in trimming the is grass edges. as in a hillside garden. to the detriment of the path. because they involve extra labour in the mowing and are apt to suffer in time of drought. otherwise they will in : become pools wet weather. or both these disadvantages will be intensified. This allows soil to break away. they should not be steeper than one in two. When necessitated by the nature of the ground.

the rule does not call for such stringent observation. when an I alternative path of gravel have seen the grass path installed with excellent effect where it gives quite a and finished appearance to that department. unsuited for paths. and the vegetable beds had just been cut in the turf. but to satisfy the eye the grass edge should not stand higher than three inches above the soil. In the case to which I allude the ground had quite recently been meadowland. allowing main paths five feet in the kitchen garden. 1 25 the question is most likely to present itself in connection with path making. when the gravel surface would have to be regulated to ensure the above result. as. If much less there is the danger of grass. When to soil. with narrower connecting paths of half that width. ical I cannot commend where of space. it is a case of grass in juxtaposition as in the making of beds. soil and stones grass working on to the Grass Paths and Edgings is — Though exists. but there room this use of grass has its economample advantages on it as is .GRASS AS A FOUNDATION enough. there are cases in which it may be used. In practice. distinctive wide. for instance.

126 GARDEN PLANNING is the score of appearance. it is an unsightly and wasteful feature. uncared for. his feet on verdant turf. where the walker may find a tunnel greenery. If he has any doubts in the matter he should forego the verge. and a very charming of one. . and the gardener may decide to connect the two by a rather than pergola. The grass path also may have it its utility in the flower garden. This at once turns the intervening grass strip into a path. which requires that an edging be provided. because. though existence usually comes into by some adventitious circumstance by design. a canopy of blossom overhead. and highly preferable to the usual cinder path. and have already referred to them by the term "verge." Each gardener will decide for himwhether the space at his disposal admits and whether the eff^ect to be obtained from it is commensurate with the self of such a feature. labour Involved in keeping it trimmed. in Grass edgings are used I both flower and kitchen gardens. A border skirting grass may have opposed to it a long bed.

"The commonstyle. but he will when he has carefully studied it. I 127 . do not wish and I may say at the outset that the more knotty problems arise most often in connection with an oblong plot of limited size. for a given plot not to be laid down by The do so gardener may not recognize the possibilities of the site at first glance." is sense The exact treatment rule. He should look for suggestions from the site. The best garits immediate dens are personal: they take their character from their makers.CHAPTER IX How It is TO Plan a Garden well for the gardener to start with an open mind. In Chapter IV I showed the utility of straight lines in to magnify the difficulties of planning. not omitting to take into account environment. am sometimes I garden asked "What style of and I would you suggest for my plot?" am tempted to reply.

given Yet even the smallest plot involves alternative modes of planning. as or plots unfavourably conditioned regards of aspect and surroundings. and he should answer definitely before he starts to plan. and then the gardener must give his casting vote for that one which. them doing so he will naturally commence to evolve .f* I require for vege- table ground want I a tennis or croquet lawn. provided due weight to aspect. The first point to consider is the appor- tionment of the various sections of the garden: How much Do I space do .? Have to provide a playground for children? Must I limit my flower space to in what I can properly manage my spare time? These will — and possibly other — questions In occur to the planner. The treatment a small rectangular garden plot may be a very is simple matter. best accords with his personal views. after satisfying the requirements of horticulture and the conditions which make for artistic quality.128 plots of GARDEN PLANNING irregular shapes or contours.

he has decided to grow vegetables. Irregularity in the shape .HOW TO PLAN A GARDEN some kind like his 1 29 of skeleton idea of what he would garden to be. as the case and front. he at once rule off on the paper as may much space as he wishes to devote to that purpose. say one eighth of an inch to a the house. of the direction in which the fall. and mark on the position of the doors back at the sides. The division should right angles to the garden's length in a garden with parallel sides. to remind him. His next step should a plan of his garden be to lay down on paper it site to scale. He should then add an arrow to show the north point. This much accomplished. or may be. indicating foot. the gardener will have before him If in bird's-eye view the main factors that should control his planning. maximum amount gate of sunlight will premises are by which the entered from the roadway must its The be marked in proper position. even though the end fence or wall is oblique. and there are excellent practical reasons for it occupying be at that position. Usually this will be situated at that part of the garden remote from the house. in the course of his work.

a third line may be added. to mark off a second border. at four feet beyond the second. and If the aspect is east or west. to locate the principal border.130 GARDEN PLANNING Is of the vegetable plot immaterial. it. from say. 29) will will be Reference to the Illustration (Fig. The near end must be coordinated In with the house door. The path is now represented by a narrow ribbon with no terminal at either end. make these operations clear. Such a device convenient when the . The planner may with this therefore rule a line parallel six fence feet distant line at. and the things for right-angled division squares the flower garden. adding a second parallel feet three If beyond to define the principal path. space permits. and this could be done oif a stretch of gravel an earlier by marking start its immediately behind the house. from which the path is may journey. Leaving the vegetable ground the next thing is for the present. where it will receive full sun. We may now consider the approach to and destination of the path. there should be no hesitation in giving it a place against the north fence. as explained chapter. the near side of which the grass.

— Typical garden plan Fig. 30.HOW TO PLAN A GARDEN I3I Fig. 29. — The method of offsets .

I therefore favour some device which breaks the line. but with a north aspect the space about the rear of the house would be too valuable to waste as gravel. make paths go an exception is to their permissible and even desirable in a long gar- den.132 aspect is GARDEN PLANNING that assumed in the example. for the path's objective. of the space to the south of The treatment it may now be . need not describe every possible mode of doing this. such as may be contrived by cranking the path or by introducing an expansion into its length. and another device would have to be I employed. a The cranked path allowing the principal gives opportunity to for border terminate vista in a transverse extension. We will assume that our path out from the gravel space immediately behind the house. as many examples will be illustrated in the plans which follow. and a screening effect obtained. a summer house. threads through our borders. is by which the sets improved. Though direct it is a good rule to destinations. where a single straight path would prove monotonous feature. say. and terminates in. I As have already offered suggestions in an earlier chapter.

summer houses. and the Before he decides upon the placing of these things he should sally forth to the site. It need hardly be mentioned that this would not hold good for a plot with a different aspect. and In deciding how much allot to the border we must be guided by our sense of proportion and by the value we set If space permits we upon our grass plot. plan . I have now traced what may call the evolution of a small rectangular garden. as the case de- manded. artificial adjuncts as arches. and much variety as may be obtained within par- so limited a space without over-elaboration. and for that ticular treatment reason aspect in this It Is should not be copied unless the approximately the same as indicated to build example. may add a narrow border along the southern fence I line. arbours. The gardener has now skyward. the design ensures a proper coordination of the garden with aspect. so As a plan. and flowers. up use his picture This Involves the of such natural objects as trees. The treatment has been simple.HOW TO PLAN A GARDEN taken in I33 to hand. perlike. and of such golas. shrubs.

the presence of a well-grown tree on neighbouring premises may ing objects. He may even decorate with a weather-cock. and take his stand. . On he may observe some un- sightly object which it will be necessary to endeavour to screen from view. help the picture. pointed roof. If he has decided upon a garden-house. enabling him to dispense with the planting of trees on his own. his mind by building There he may exercise upon his ground plan. Its pyramid form is useful in giving and seek for balance of effect a certain punctuation it to the skyline. or in some in central position from which he may hope time to obtain a general view in imagination of his garden picture. seeking to place such features as he may decide to introduce into the garden. He will obtain suggestions from already exist- For instance. near the house door. and restrain his impulses in the direction of destroying its outlines with a maze of rustic work. by other means. let him have it built with a simple. Bearing in mind what I have already written about "composition" the term.134 in GARDEN PLANNING hand. the other hand. say. he in the artist's sense of must avoid symmetry in masses.

it with the plan before you. and select them of different kinds and sizes. Let no two be at the same distance from your standpoint. They must be placed so that their shadows do not intrude upon the flower borders. will not be difficult to arrive at a provisional arrangement of the accessories we have been discussing. it will be better associated It is with trees and shrubs. do not them soar up to the level of the weather-cock on your garden-house. or placing the trees in "serried rows. their arrangement must be innocent of symmetry. If in height in these artificial arches or a pergola are introlet duced into the scheme.HOW in TO PLAN A GARDEN 1 35 which would be quite appropriate and useful the picture. I do not demand that the out garden-house shall stand its naked amidst surroundings. as I have already necessary height in stated." By carefully weighing these various points. and. You . Grouping is preferable to scattering. Trees are always useful in attaining that the garden picture for which the designer must work. not desirable to have a uniformity structures.

and rockwork can be time we have located.136 GARDEN PLANNING next jot may down on the plan where you think an arch. and we must now revert to Some gardeners may prefer to treat it as a thing . 31. tree. it off from the flower it. All this left the vegetable plot alone. and you labour — on paper. — Arrangement of trees vases. will then have all but completed your Lastly. or pergola will be of value. after cutting territory. such smaller accessories as sundials^ y Fig. and in- dicated to scale on the drawing.

for the sake of obtaining a particular effect. On the contrary. into of the ground. flower garden which It is not a straight line. to be concealed at all costs. 1 37 Gardens. or continue from the flower garden and through the vegetable plot. In certain circumstances it may be advisable. may The be a bold curve or a cranked division may be definitely marked by a fence or hedge. it Therefore we should see how far we can use result is to increase the apparent space at our disposal. to adopt a division between the kitchen and line. thereby extending the garden vista to the extreme limit borders. however. A good way of effecting this to contrive that a flower border.HOW TO PLAN A GARDEN apart. or less conspicuously indicated by an informal line of shrubs. I would not for a is moment contend that the kitchen garden unsightly. are so small in these days of dear land that we cannot afford to neglect the possibilities of the vegetable plot in the general garden effect. its bold masses of green may . Much depends upon the disposition of the other factors and the gardener's views as to the desirability or not of allowing his vegetable productions to claim attention.

reference to . and by no means unbeautiful in themselves.138 GARDEN PLANNING be valuable as background. will be found in a later chapter. when sprouts tower lankily skyward. but they are generally amenable to treatment on common-sense principles. and not infrequently such gardens are. by their unusual shape. for instance. and peas are yellowing and sinking into disorder. eminently adapted for obtaining picturesque effects. — The planning same general style of gardens of larger size than the typical example just treated involves the principles. Still there are times when the tenants of the vegetable plot Brussels do not look their best as. It mainly a question of though the inclusion of additional features facilitated by the of larger area of ground available may tend to complicate mode procedure the problem. though the details and is of treatment may scale. Still the should be along lines similar to those already to the importance of studying aspect and the planner must ever be alive and of building up a picture in three dimensions. be different. Gardens of irregular outline may involve some early difficulties in planning. Examples of such gardens described.

that the shrubs and taller plants in part conceal the foot of the fence its and render straightness less conspicuous. along a straight fence to be Its combest mended. I am not sure that the practice of line is running a border. by reason its of the nature of the ground. for example. to oppose a straight grass edge to a curved border. however. afterward translating them into sinuous ones. whose near is a series of curves. but it will not remove all the difficulties. I may suggest that they first lay down the not always so easy to find. to associate curves with straight lines. may be taken as bad practice. extent. leaving a path of varying width between.HOW TO PLAN A GARDEN which will 1 39 afford the reader more guidance than further written description. or the special predilections of the gardener. This may be of some help. the main lines of the garden are to be treated is in curves. main lines of the plan in straight lines. the key to the best result To those who may have difficulty in thinking in curves. and it is not easy to give rules to cover the It whole ground. In the laying down of curves geometry helps . though excuse is it is often done. as. When.

line. and a length of rope an marking out the ground.) in is This tration. (See Fig.140 US but little. the and its perspective appearance noted. . GARDEN PLANNING The eye is the better guide. 30. curve fails to satisfy the eye the rope can be moved and rearranged until a good result is obtained. row When the curve passes over an open space a special either datum by the use of a must be laid stretched cord or a of pegs sighted into line. When has first setting out curves the course of which been is laid down on the plan the method illus- of offsets the easiest. is sufficiently explained the the where a boundary fence line datum down. All curves which are parts of circles are easily described with the help of a cord and centre peg. laid along the excellent help when The rope may be If proposed route of a curved path.

which will vary according to circumstances. if the slope considerable. In a steeply sloping garden the aim should be a quite informal or naturalesque treatment. demand special treatment. particularly the case if the aspect other than southern. the only effective sufficient level space. Terracing. Winding walks may be carried across the slope. turning upon themselves in an Irregular zigzag. considerable it and when the slope result in a heavy. Here and there pockets may be carved out of the hillside to make level space for flower growing.CHAPTER X Sloping Gardens Gardens upon is sloping ground. but are hardly desirable acquisiThis is is tions to the horticultural enthusiast. Such gardens may be made picturesque and interesting. is is way of securing always a costly matter. artificial effect as seen would from .

and if excavation and banking have to be done. On the whole it is better not to attempt too much on a steep hillside. some simple system of terracing like that indicated . —Terracing —sectional view entrance drive or walk should be carried in a direction across the slope as far as possible. Fig. The Fig.142 GARDEN PLANNING the lower levels. it may run sufficiently far back on either side to provide space for flower ground. The first illustration indicates in sectional view I the treatment should adopt. Trees and shrubs may be used with effect good the to mask slopes and outlines of the artificial work. — Terracing — sectional of view In the case small gardens. 33. 32.

better. When the garden slopes toward the house a different method should be This followed. that the terraced part should be given a slight slope toward the house. — Terracing — sectional view Thus. 34.SLOPING GARDENS in I43 is the second sectional view the best treatment. as Fig. 34 shows. . therefore. Gardens falling away from the house are liable to be very dry at the highest point. soil for making an example of a slope away from the house. Fig. By a little care in fixing the levels it is may just is be contrived that the sufficient excavated the banks. will If terracing is done with a view to obtaining level stretches. because the effect of looking from a low level up a slope is that little or nothing on the level Is seen. The natural slope is shown by a dotted line and it is evident just how much excavation and banking is necessary. the beds and borders be hidden from sight until the observer It is ascends to their level.

144

GARDEN PLANNING
the other hand, gardens which slope to.

On

ward the house throw the rain-water to the lower level, necessitating some system of
drainage for carrying
it

away.
I

In treating of terracing in small gardens

do not use the term
terraces.

in the

sense of walled

Walls

are

costly

and not always

sightly adjuncts, especially in a small garden.

The drop from one level to the next may be made by means of a grassed bank, a retaining
board,
or
a

rock-faced

slope,

according
is

to

circumstances.

When

the

slope
Is

to

the

south, the face of the

bank

well placed for
I

treatment as an alpine garden, and
of no better

know

way

of dealing with

it.

^On grassed

Fig.

3S.—

Steps in path

slopes

shrubs

may

be used to conceal the

horizontal margin of the slope.

Paths which pass from one level to another

SLOPING GARDENS
require to be stepped, and this

I45

many ways.
method
is

Possibly
fix

to

may be done in most economical wooden risers by nailing them
the

to stout pegs well driven into the soil at each

end, and to

fill

in the treads

with gravel beaten
fair

down and brought
as

to

a

surface.

Re-

taining boards should be fixed at the sides,

shown in the illustration. Gardens in which the natural slope is transverse to their length do not involve the same difficulties, and they are not usually found of such steep gradients,- or, if they are, their small width, compared with their length, makes the
problem of planning a simpler one. It often becomes feasible to effect a change of levels at the path line in some such way as appears
in this

sectional view.

Fig. 36.

— Dealing

with a transverse slope

In this illustration
raised

it

will

be seen that a

border

is

made on

the higher side of

146
the
path,

GARDEN PLANNING
supported_ hy
a

retaining
If

board,

rubble wall, or by rockwork.

the lower

boundary
practice,
for

is

a fence, the water which drains
it.

to that level will tend to rot
therefore,

It

is

good

to

make

the fence open

face.

two or three inches above the ground surIf the boundary is a wall it may be
In neither case, however, would such
soil

necessary to introduce a rubble drain along
its

foot.

an expedient be necessary unless the

was

a

heavy and impervious one. A narrow border along the lower boundary will usually serve as sufficient drainage.
^5

Dealing with a transverse slope

transverse direction

When the slope is steep in a it may be necessary to reby
raising the lower side with
if

make
soil

the ground

taken from the higher, and
is

the lower

boundary
bank, as

it

would necessitate a would not be feasible to allow any
a fence this

depth of

soil

to

lie

in contact

with the fence.

SLOPING GARDENS

I47

The existence of such
tration (Fig. 37)
in
is

a

bank

as seen in the illus-

not a very sightly feature

any garden, and should only be adopted
in

when the circumstances preclude any other
arrangement, and
is

that event the best plan

to plant the head of the

bank with shrubs
is

or with a hedge.

The only other
in

case to be mentioned
is

that

which the slope

diagonal, and for that

no special guidance can be offered, because
so

much
its

will

depend upon the amount of slope

and

direction considered with reference to

aspect.

surface in such a

The aim should be to model the way as to secure the proper

conditions for horticulture and the convenience
of the

garden user, without attempting too
of

much work
plateaus

an

artificial

character.

It

should always be remembered that dead-level

on

a
as

considerable

slope

proclaim

themselves
it is

man's

handiwork,

wherefore

well to conceal as

much

of this

work

as

possible.

In some cases
a compromise

it

may

be desirable to effect

by not
series

setting out to bring the

ground to a

of levels,

but by merely
series of slopes

modifying the original slope to a

148

GARDEN PLANNING
In
all

of less gradient.

such problems the main

point

is

not to outrage Nature, but rather to

coax her in the direction in which we wish
her to go, covering up our footsteps as

we

proceed in the work, so that the
shall not disclose too obviously

final result
it

what

owes

to spade work.

As
for

steps are necessary adjuncts in sloping
I

gardens,

may

give

some further suggestions

making them.
alternative plan to the one already deis

An

scribed

that shown in the third figure in the

illustration (Fig. 38), in

made

of stout boards supported

which the treads are on pegs driven
is

Into the ground.

Yet another plan

to attach

the treads to cheeks of wood, making a single

complete structure, as

in the fourth figure.

When
I

the path passes

through

rockwork

always build the steps of rock pieces.
Bricks

may

be employed for steps, either
laid loose, as in the first figure.

set in

mortar or

They

are better laid

on edge, and

it

is

well

to chip off the angle where the tread and riser

meet, or to use bull-nosed bricks.
Slabs of stone

make good
if

steps,

and by

their

weight keep

in place

well bedded, without

SLOPING GARDENS

149

Fig.

38.— Steps

is When effect in the difference of level result small. and caps. 39. . for instance. There something quite un- •tJ^ 3 Fig. slopes the riser On moderate at an angle ma^ be of is soil left and turfed. as. pillars. side and wing walls. These. have avoided reference to architectural features associated with steps. but long.ISO GARDEN PLANNING it is the need for cheeks.39- — Spreading steps conventional in such steps as illustrated in the second figure. a will from spreading the one of the ways shown I in Fig. as a two or more good steps concession to appearances. it is well to break the line of steps into flights. When the slope is moderate. though the risers of brick to prevent best to make soil from working out from beneath the tread.

and as far as possible designed to accord with the architecture of the house. If capped with flat stones the pillars may carry vases with good effect. should be unpretentious.SLOPING GARDENS if I5I introduced into a small garden. . always provided the latter are chosen with taste and a sense of proportion and fitness for their surroundings.

CHAPTER XI The Rock Garden There is no feature in the modern small garden so badly contrived as the rock garden." as it has come to be called. It is a garden withis a delight. a place own way. a thing all too often overlooked. The common stone plan of heaping together a mass of curiosities IS2 and mineral into a grotto- . rewarding him with tiful where nature has all her quaint and beauflowers and varied foliage from early It is spring to winter frosts. but must be properly con- structed and placed where the sun can reach it. or "rockery. It is too often but a formless heap of stone rubbish or clinkers in which a few sickly ferns struggle for existence. A rock garden need not be large it to be interesting. in a garden. well to under- stand the scope and purpose of the rock garden. To the real flower-lover the rock garden There is no corner of his domain which yields more interest.

and see why our alpine plants masses. the fine debris of the tain-side. soil. then. holding a reserve of moisture gathered from the sky. The rock but the flower pot. The rock garden is man's attempt to imitate . the explanation. and therefore it flourishes. jewelled with gorgeous blossom. and yearly collecting an ditional store of soil. if as stone The answer is we inquire as to the character of their native habitat. in is some crevice filled with soil. The casual observer who will has wandered through the Swiss uplands have seen a wealth of plant life. is I 53 and sprinkling the whole with the outcome of a misunderstanding of Let us look into the matter just first principles. closely. and he will have won- dered how the solid stone could furnish food for Yet if he had pushed his investigation carefully on the spot he would have found that every plant was rooted deeply so luxuriant a display. should be associated with such apparently uncongenial material clear. clinging apparently to the bare surface of a rock. ad- mounits Thus the plant has availed itself of natural conditions eminently adapted for welfare. But it serves a very important purpose as such.THE ROCK GARDEN like structure. is Here.

Drainis by elevating the rock garden. which is good. as reduces the area of soil subject to evaporation. still. not by any means uncommon with closely into the in is who have not looked itself question.154 GARDEN PLANNING if it fails these natural conditions. it is well to select is our rocks from material which capable of holding in reserve of moisture. . they conserve the moisture in in all weathers. and thus ensure that the plants have it a constant supply of This being so. better They serve to give us a suggestion of the natural environment we wish to grow. is porous. The function of the rock pieces in twofold. and its in this. the soil. This is may age be attained by ensuring that assisted it of a porous character and of sufficient depth. our alpine garden of the plants but. how can it serve pur- pose as a home for the plant? The those idea. The in next point to understand is that the soil our rock garden must be well drained. and therefore its substance a certain Yet an impervious stone it better than none. must be abanis doned. its principal function. that there some magic virtue the rock food suitable by which these plants obtain for their needs.

greenhouses. and whose leaves In autumn would sadly litter its surface. and to remember that the landscape Is Innoct^nt of trees at the altitude where alpine bourhood of trees.THE ROCK GARDEN or. Aspect fied. Moreover. It not necessary to be lavish of rocks. 1 55 what comes is to the same thing. our best attempt associated artificial to imitate a piece of nature. — The above conditions being is satis- the only other one of importance that the alpine garden should have a sunny aspect. since there are plants which will thrive all the better in shade or partial shade. or should be. rock garden should be as as removed from a formal environment If it is possible. way into the soil flowers thrive best. soil a well-designed rock garden the should bulk at least as largely as the rocks. though this does not imply that every part must enjoy full sun. . with walls. It Is away from the neigh- whose roots would find their and exhaust it. or other surroundings the illusion better also to keep it falls to pieces. Position far — The It is. it is well to be consistent in our mimicry. by sinking In Its floor below the general level. nor would that be desirable.

also should be avoided. sea-shells lumps of alabaster. or limestone. close-grained sandstone. — Perhaps is the best material for the purpose sandstone. and that can best be maintained byproviding all the conditions of aspect and exposure demanded by the various plants availMaterials able for our purpose. porous. portions of decayed statuary. minerals. granitic rock. and conglomerate will Soft stones which crumble away under weather its influence are obviously unsuitable. easily obtainable in his district. shift then the gardener must make with brickyard waste. The stone pieces should not be too small nor size. as they harbour fungi to the detriment of the plants.156 GARDEN PLANNING great charm of the rock garden is One its variety. too uniform in Good bold pieces up to the largest size the gardener can conveniently . A do. dressed stone blocks. vitrified brick fragments. or cost prohibitive. hard. If natural stone is unprocurable. but he should select is that which Clinkers. but in most cases is the gardener has to be content with what most tuffa. and Tree stumps should never be seen in the alpine garden.

though only very roughly so. know to the conBut unless done by hands accustomed to imitating I the form and stratification of the natural rock. the disintegrated parthe rock itself. then. Soil — In this particular we cannot do better than follow nature. it may skilled serve excellently. is associated life. have seen it suggested that good imitation rocks may be made by the liability coating brickyard waste with Portland cement. have seen some very clever work of indistinguishable from a natural all I out-crop of rock. suggests . this I kind. and by preference they should be quadrangular. The objection to these processes is of the artificial surface to be flaked off by frost or rough usage. and. of course. Professional constructors sometimes use an artificial stone made on the spot. by plastering a coloured cement over a basis of rough brick- work. humus derived from decaying an artificial plant This. it would be a failure. ticles of and therefore contain- ing small stones and sand. thereby exposing the fraud. with which. We have seen that in alpine regions the crevices in the rocks filled become with fine debris. for trary.THE ROCK GARDEN 1 57 handle should be procured.

158 GARDEN PLANNING mixture for our rock garden In which similar ingredients find place. for those soil.. and to add a limy constituent to the compost (lime reserve a place where or broken limestone) for those parts of the gar- den in which it is intended to grow lime-loving it is plants. . . is The whole will should be well mixed and then ready for use. Beyond that soil hardly feasible or worth while to go in specializing the soil. Such a mixture may- be made as follows: Good friable loam Chips of sandstone Sand or road scrapings Leaf mould . 6 parts I part 2 parts i part To of this may be added stable a moderate proportion well-decayed manure.. The prepared clay. unsuitable for grown in a bog plants and a calcareous which thrive best the needs of these in To meet it is desirable to some peat may be introduced for the benefit of the bog plants. suit the Although the above compost greater number it is of plants usually rock garden.. must be entirely free from and to ensure this care should be taken to obtain the proper kind of loam. . ..

that suitable as an ingredient in the compost just to The gardener may next proceed barrow the effect is mark out the plan. Having obtained the rocks and the and having selected a suitable site for the its — rock garden. surface or be partly sunk below On heavy on a soil. provided. described. or other porous the A sunk garden has the advantage soil is that the excavated useful for building it is up the banks. his mind the importance of drainthe gardener must first decide whether Bearing in rockwork soil shall stand above the general it. the forming of contours may be undertaken. for the final controlled by the way which he arranges his heaps. Now comes an imin portant part of the operation. it. gravel. In most cases a path will but this will have to be made age. by pegging or otherwise.THE ROCK GARDEN I 59 Making soil. by throwtheir shape them up as if and height were a matter of chance. He should endeavour to avoid a formal or symmetrical distribution of masses. and then soil into place. which ing is never seen in nature. latter. of course. clay the former kind plan of is best. . pass through last.

For this part of the work he should select rocks of various sizes. which he should view from various standpoints to make sure that he has obtained a good general effect. 40. . the gardener may commence to place his rocks by outlining with them the foot of each slopCjthereby at the same time defining his path. This edging must be well done. here and there introducing a bold mass to accentuate some angle. with the rocks in close contact.i6o GARDEN PLANNING illustration The below gives a suggestion of at. what should be aimed Not until he has com- pleted the whole of the base-work should he add the rocks. because as the work proceeds he may- Fig. That much accomplished. — Earthwork in the rock garden find it it advisable to raise the ground here or there to improve its lower contours. thereby avoiding the effect of an artificial edging.

— Rockwork section The soil may next be brought forward to all stand level with the rocks at next points. and will then offer temptation to the plants to thread them with rootlets. In laying down the line of the path no attempt should be made to maintain equality of width throughout. 105.) Fig. I would even advocate the placing. which. must be contrived a number of irregular pockets . with those above as it. (See Figs. by which the soil will be sufficiently held in place. medium Such crevices as remain may be well rammed with compost. at one or more spots. 116. thus affording a basis on which to proceed with the tier. of an island of rockwork in or near the centre of a specially contrived expansion of the path. better effect is On the contrary. 129. a if much secured the path varies in width. 41.THE ROCK GARDEN Otherwise l6l much soil will be subsequently washed out on to the gravel. but no cementing should be employed.

Here again bold pieces Standing at different of parallel terraces.l62 GARDEN PLANNING levels. 42. — Rocks in relation to soil The rock masses should not be deeply buried. which best secured by giving all the flattened masses a slight tilt in some particular direction. Fig. but there should be relation lie higgledyof some kind is amongst them. and not as a series which would be an obviously arrangement. is A its good rule that on the exposed side no rock soil should be deeper in the than one fourth of it height. or which a delicate arenaria clothe may with its velvet greenery and tiny white stars. . artificial of rock must be used at irregular intervals. over which some pretty trailing plant will later on make a gay show. or sufficient to effectively anchor in place. to convey the idea of a naturally inclined stratification. The rock masses should not piggledy. constituting miniature ramparts.

say to give access to the rock These steps may be built of filled flat soil. led up to by other pieces. soil. — Arrangement of rock masses The pockets vary lops. sugarloaf fashion. a couple of bold masses may be superimposed. Fig. Some inclination may it be allowed to the but not much. Rough steps may be introduced at garden from the grass plot. 43. as would occur in nature. They should never take the form of a series of scalin size. their crevices being in with which rock-foils and stone- . If who aim some height is desired at given point. or will certainly travel downward with each shower of rain. are not infrequently seen in the gardens of amateurs. a suitable point or points. or spaces of bare soil should and be irregular in shape.THE ROCK GARDEN Rocks set 163 on end. rock pieces. but they should be omitted by those at the best effect.

There charm is out-crop. gard to the disposition of Although recent in the past the real rock in garden has increased been a negligible quantity years American gardens. placed together so skil- fully that they might be mistaken for a natural many hundreds type of garden Such gardens have cost their owners of dollars. greatly have seen a interest in their building. are rock gardens in which the chief their rocks. He see how far it is possible to reahze a natural- istic effect. better to carry to them between two adjacent mounds than make them ascend a conspicuous elevation. will A visit to a well-made rock garden in the wintertime just afford the gardener much practical will guidance in this kind of work. The gardener . it is If these steps be introduced. and may gain some wrinkles in rehis rocks.164 crops GARDEN PLANNING may afterward be encouraged to grow. The fact that the rock garden offers the gardener the chance of growing a large collection of plants of small size and low stature that would get lost in the open border. is to many people a sufficient justi- fication for the introduction of this feature. but they are no betthan the more simple I ter for their purpose am describing.

a promontory formed at a bend in the path should have a line more nearly approaching the first than the second figure in the accompanying illustration.THE ROCK GARDEN must try work. in which the peat may lie in a level surface. and when the garden has been planted she will do her best to conceal offer it as Though do not indifferent work. Fig. as peat is unstable on a slope. the favoured individual must be guided by these precepts. For bog plants it is well to arrange one or more bays. I may remark shortcomings. — Arrangements of rock masses An artist would less instinctively produce good contours. I an inducement to that Nature is ever kind to her votaries. and by such examples as he may find to imitate. 165 to avoid appearances which indicate artificial too obviously the character of the For instance. 44. An .

the place for bog plants at its edge.i66 GARDEN PLANNING angle in the general structure may be cut off by a line). •-'•M. If water is level can be made. 45. line of small rock pieces (not a straight and in that way a large pocket at the base- laid in which the peat may be on a not too porous subsoil.-. the garfill dener should proceed to in all holes and . Bog plants demand a water-logged home. be allowed in actual contact with the are in place.:^ Fig. is When all the rocks when critically and the result viewed satisfactory. — Arrangements of is peat in the rock garden associated with the rock garden. where the peat may water.

THE ROCK GARDEN crevices with his compost. thus showtheir longer rather artificial. as will be understood from the foregoing considerations. These pieces he should place with he joints horizontal. replenishing the soil where it If of necessity he has had to use brick waste as a substitute for rocks. to probe them. He may their place them that be tempted to so component bricks stand on end. to ensure that the soil gets levels. down to the lowest After the first heavy shower of rain has sunk in. Yet with a ingenuity he may secure a very passable result. or at such a slight tilt as may decide. but that would be a bad arrangement. his task will not have little been so easy. The soil there may just run off into the level of the ground. he should go over the structure again. for disguise their it is not possible to entirely character. with a view to availing himself of the crannies between them. or bricklayer's trowel. stratification. if in the burning. When the structure of soil and rock is finished . The large masses will consist of many bricks cemented together ing a decided. using a thin 167 wooden blade. of the There is no need to outline the back margin bank with rocks.

an old water-course. suggesting.l68 GARDEN PLANNING the gravel floor of the rock garden in the I may be laid way directed for path making. a few rounded pebbles introduced along the margin of the rock structure are not out of place. need hardly warn the reader against the I use of water-worn rock pieces which have a uniform pebble-like shape. of the rock vivum will thrive when rooted and some on the porous surface itself. and serving to retain soil washed for down from Planting —No special directions are needed way as the higher levels. but only with grotesque effect. subjects like The in smaller sedum. and sempercrannies. as witness the few of these plants margin of common house-leek. the practical work of putting the plants into the soil. as they do. and at the same seasons according to locality. struction I The mode of conis have described ensures that there soil. It should be done in the same when planting a bed or border. On the other hand. have seen them used. may be established at allowed A the to the rockwork and . saxifrage. ample depth of Discrimination should be used in selecting the plants for special positions.

and. than which he beautiful. but it it is well for the novice to limit at first to the will find hardy kinds. At the back of all. Ferns will thrive in similar places. will soften 169 They the hard line where rock and gravel meet. preferably. over which they will hang their flexible shoots and in due course paint its surface with brilliant colour. more none more level. but plant fully.THE ROCK GARDEN intrude upon the gravel within limits. choice of plants is The a vast one. be little bare Chinks in the vertical surfaces should not be neglected — they soil will carry their share of plant to insert the roots and life. Plants of trailing habit should be put near the top of a miniature precipice. for Give each plant elbow-room to allow growth and expansion. if care be taken well in ram the contact with them. . they should be located in the shady corners. so that when the plants are established there shall soil visible. Tall plants should go mostly to the higher levels. on the topmost tall small flowering deciduous and evergreen shrubs may be associated with perennials like starwort and snapdragon.

Wall Gardens — Nature has shown us how she can clothe an old wall mth her treasures. The rock garden should not end It is abruptly. . In that event it is well to clothe the artificial background with ivy or other creepers. Many on the alpine level. or limits. just as we should find in nature. aubridianthus. will spread into wide cushions of colour. plants if will thrive perfectly well they are protected from the encroachment of coarser Thus these outlying rock pieces plants. may forbid a very ambitious and it may thus be necessary to confine the rockwork to a single bank against the boundary wall or fence. and reminiscent of the auction room. before the plants have put forward their depressing. unconstrained by any etia. is of a labelled rock garden in the spring. The appearance foliage. which. may rocky be enshrined in masses of phlox. better to let it gradually merge into the general surface of the ground. some detached pieces of rock being placed on the level beyond the raised part of the rock garden. Learn to know your plants by sight and don't label them.lyO GARDEN PLANNING Space and means effort.

neatly pointed red brick affair. such as we find enclosing some old country garden. though with bricks. the rest is easy. . we may make provision for The wall life as we please. and in due course we shall have our colony of alpines. ruined wall topped with pinks. We have only to rub some fine soil into the chinks and to sow the seed of such plants as we desire. If no wall in exists.THE ROCK GARDEN I7I and the plants thus naturally established often display a charming habit in adapting themselves Who has not seen a to their artificial home. and as doing so much plant may be of concrete. rough stone. there would be difficulty in finding sufficient lodgment for Stone and rubble. then we must build one. old bricks. not the new. toadflax. rubble. and crannies. perhaps the best are the last three. but we require the right kind of wall. or with snap- dragon. and sedum. unless ample spaces are left between them. using irregular the plants. covering them up with soil to prevent the birds abstracting them. crevices. Given this. but a thing of cracks. or Of these. or hung with the charming grey foHage and glistening white flowers of cerastium? To imitate this is not difficult.

spaces may be filled with the compost recom- mended for The smaller the rock garden and then sown. be done in the autumn. and only so much mortar used Large as is necessary to secure stability. crevices may be filled with soil mixed with the seeds.172 GARDEN PLANNING blocks. be no pointing. would give opportunity for earth pockets There should and crevices of various sizes. The sowing should .

and gardeners do not hesitate to admit themselves is to have been the rose into every part of the garden. is nothing to be freely gained by providing a separate place for the on the contrary. and there no position where they are out of place. though there seems some Idea that the rose standard did not harmonize with plants of bushy habit. associated with the other flowers In bed and border with the best Just why it became the practice In days gone by to give the roses a department to not clear. We is cannot have too many roses.CHAPTER XII The Rose Garden In a small garden there roses. walls and fences deserve their share. they may be effect. In the present day no such consideration prevails. In the shrubbery they help to redeem the 173 . with healthy house walls are never so beautiful as clothed The The when and prolific climbers.

have written enough to show that the rose has no claim to be kept in a place by itself. yet this does not imply that the rose garden is necessarily a superfluity where ample space exists. as standards or pillars. On the they add a welbeds and borders come note effect. of flowers. but formality is not the product of . and in they contribute their quota to the general Even as hedges. and. site variety in form. masses of monotonous green lawn. there is something extremely It attractive in a well-planned rose garden. can be grown in a by itself without producing a monotonous its effect. Indeed. roses and for arches. and festoons no more Pegged down. This follows from foliage. they charming climbers are available. A and sunny should be selected for the rose garden.174 GARDEN PLANNING foliage. we cannot I do better than lay it out formally. of colour. or trained over the beams of make I glorious masses of flower and foliage. is a practical token of homage to the queen rose. following ancient usage. pergolas. colour. have their use. its am no advocate of a formal garden in severest mood. and it demonstrates that the before place all other flowers. a pergola.

We not therefore be In danger of outif raging good taste on formal lines. Illustration (Fig. The beds should The groups should show a geometrical relation be- tween their component beds In the way I have advised for groups of flower beds generally. I can- not imagine any benefit to the roses from planting them anyhow.THE ROSE GARDEN shape alone in the garden elsewhere shown. The space. not be elaborate in outline nor too small. We know little of the rose in a state of nature. as I have can conceive of beds and borders of informal outline treated quite for- mally in the planting and accessories. it Is In evolving a design points well to observe certain now to be mentioned. for our garden roses are mostly a product of the nurseryman's art. by which It on a symmetrical basis. They shall are perhaps the most artificial of all flowers. I I75 details. 46) shows typical rose gardens as I might plan them on a grass and It should be noted that the outlying . and there in we make our rose garden I mean if we plan Is The most common method Is to cut the rose much to be said favour of grass as a setting for our roses. beds in grass.

176 GARDEN PLANNING 'Ml ^ .

47). the beds may be separated by gravel. Such gardens are shown ing illustration (Fig. or to set intersect at right angles. which pillars. however. may be enhanced by planting their outer standards or lines with The is introduction of arches at suitable points an excellent device for obtaining height. and may dainty and trim by the use of neatly clipped box edgings. the delightsupplies. is The point of intersometimes marked by a sundial or a path or paths lead into the rose When garden. In the I thereby excluding grass altogether. and I am not There .THE ROSE GARDEN 1 77 borders give a sense of enclosure and sanctity to the whole arrangement. ful One loses. It may be long and narrow. accompanybe made have no quarrel it with that arrangement. background an emerald turf is no reason why the rose garden should take a shape having equal dimensions both ways. The necessary shelter in exposed situations may be contrived by the use of rose or sweet- brier hedges. It is not unusual to carry a path through it the rose garden. or of roses trained upon a skele- ton fence. where two paths section vase.

They thrive in almost any soiL provided they are well supplied with fertilizing matter. As a walk. The will common for roses impression that clay soil is essential not altogether correct. soils In light the manure we give soil. 1 1 i n hh . deeply trenched in the liberally in- and treated is with manure.. them is not retained so long as in less culture. too. it is well to add a proportion of heavier material . and be therefore rose beds and borders first should stance. i ii j m i iii ^UI I Fig. if soil is and thus.iiiii i i in 111 1. this reason. —A long rose garden | soil. heavy they the may suffer starvation. Roses make considerable demands upon the | ^ • n^ uM . especially It when space is restricted. it is less to traverse. under careFor sandy and light. 48. can be better tedious brought into harmony with the adjacent parts of the garden.178 GARDEN PLANNING is sure that that not the best form.

Holes ^should be dug ample size. soil should then be placed over the rootlets. preferably between mid-October and the end of if November. then dig in the sods. above that of the Thorough preparation rose bed is the surest guarantee of future success. This may be done by throwing retentive quality. it may be done later The of operation of plantmg cannot be too carefully conducted. of the plant moving the stem up and down . In such ease it is well to bring the level of the beds well of the ground. shaped to facilitate These should be separated and distributed Fine radially over the bottom of the hole. If the garden is made upon turf.THE ROSE GARDEN to give in 1 79 it tenacity and manuring to use cow manure. with the bottom formed domearranging the roots. and out the filling soil to a depth of three feet. adding nine inches of rubble or brick rubbish. Planting should be done in the autumn. though the winter be open. On heavy land it may be necessary to drain the rose bed. and add any other decaying vegetable matter you may have available. and then up with soil.

it is no advisable to give ing of some water about a week after. Roses must not be crowded together too closely. experiments showing that careless planting is equally favourable to the plant. enabling it the better If to withstand the buffeting of the wind. and a mulchmanure may then be put around each plant to afford protection from frost. Be that is as it no doubt that the care devoted to arranging the roots as may.-Pianti„g a rose Tcuders exccllcnt servicc in bebw"fhrg'"un^^Lr7rci"(B" Then prune at c. there widely spread as possible at Fig. Standards should not be less than . The remainder of the firmly may left then be added and rammed down. anchoriug the plant to the soil.i8o to allow it GARDEN PLANNING to penetrate soil among them. It should not slightly It be heaped depressed round the stem. the foot of the hole 49. rain follows planting. would appear little that there is to be gained by care in spreading the roots. but so as to facilitate watering.

It is question whether ever desirable to use feet. to With many beds we may devote each bed to several same colour or kind. Standards look better in groups than in file. and have no raison single d'etre. of The former. The presence of too large a . go better side by with whites and yellows. though the latter arrangement it is may sometimes The is be desirable when intended to introduce a well-marked line. and bushes not less than one and a I half to two feet. contrasting colours harmonizing may associated together in the same bed or is border. bent specimens one sees occasion- ally pointing skyward are truly ugly. On be the other hand. disposition of the plants in a rose garden largely a matter of taste. The range of colour in roses except perhaps so great and so har- monious that one can hardly make a mistake. and thus get roses of the our colour effect in masses.THE ROSE GARDEN l8l' three feet apart. with a or less elaborate garden. in associating the magenta- tinted varieties with reds and pinks of purer side hue. fill. carrying as they do a note blue. standards of greater height than three The lanky.

and brilliant should not be in overlooked. beautiful colours. and the reader specially interested had better turn to "The Amateur's Book of Roses and How to Grow Them. They may be used beds by themselves. the picture than coloured varieties. or between standards where the climate allows. in the front part of the borders.l82 GARDEN PLANNING is proportion of whites to be in condemned. China foliage. Much more is to be said about roses. . as they tell more strongly roses. for which there is not room here. with their dwarf habit.

moving presence that gardeners to introduce in a it of water in the landscape may be excused their desire into their flower ground. bounded by a natural stream or through which such a stream passes. When the water has to be derived from the domestic supply and contained in artificial ponds it is a different matter. But even then particularly to gardens it may be possible to avoid offence provided contents himself the gardener with simple arrangements. At the same time the conditions may be such This applies that water can be introduced without appearing to be too artificial a feature.CHAPTER Water in XIII the Garden There is something so delightful in the living. size it Yet garden of limited should be recog- nized that the effect which appeals to us amidst natural surroundings is practically unrealizable. Any sense of artificiality that may arise can be counteracted by the inherent 183 .

these drawbacks operate I prejudicially. shall first consider the case of a bounded by a stream at its far end. is When a running stream less available. It may. however. dead leaves. though garden they are not altogether absent. No gardener should lightly embark upon the task unless he is prepared to give unremitting attention to artificial his water plants and to their This implies frequent chang- homes. and other undesirable things are wafted by the wind or fall upon the water surface. ing of water and cleansing of ponds. In such an . The probability is that the gardener would have no rights over the water. where they remain to decay In and defile the water. be stated at the outset that the making of a water garden is a simple delightful matter compared with its efficient maintenance.184 interest in GARDEN PLANNING luxuriant water growth and the blooms we get from such purely aquatic plants as water-lilies and lotus. We may assume that the water is pure enough for our purpose. town and suburban gardens organic matter. but also that no objection would exist to his diverting some of it through his garden.

water and pond could accommodate others of less —A water garden sturdy growth. as shown in the illustration (Fig. The depth need not exceed eighteen inches. and a piece (B) more or this less By stagnant. 50. Clear spaces should be left for access to the water's edge and to permit of the plants being seen. collection of A small dwarf hybrid nympheas may be pond B and in the backwater. The island C for would be useful treatment with bold plants. means he would obtain a piece of running water (A).WATER IN THE GARDEN 1 85 event he might excavate a backwater. say with an extension in the form of a bay. Other plants may be added If established In the . waterside and the marthe of gins backFig. with which might be associated our common native pond lily. 50). but not so stagnant as to require any special device for changing it.

Irises will thrive at the margin of the water. and water buttercup. spirea. including such interesting subjects as the pickerel weed. for reasons already explained. a piece of water of be made a source of perennial is kind could interest. little trouble in the and a host of others. or trouble will ensue by the banks breaking away and water. . as well as such favourite flowers as phlox. With very making and common-sense this management. fouling the This also ensures that the for is soil is water- logged some distance from the water's therefore in a condition for sup- edge. A water system of this kind might be wedded to a rock garden with a good effect. Typha and swamp mallow might be planted along the fence line at B. In excavating the water bed the sides should slope gently to the edge. When all it complete and the plants are established would only remain to keep the entrances clear and to remove all rubbish which might find access to the water. No deciduous trees or shrubs should be placed near the water. the flowering rush.1 86 GARDEN PLANNING space permits. trollius. and porting a colony of semi-aquatic plants.

WATER IN THE GARDEN the 1 87 a When rather a stream intersects effort is garden. more ambitious possible. Bays Combe a or if F»g- should be formed on munication across the stream may of by means simple bridge. is which a made of in that part the garden beyond the brook. in regard to What has been written making and plant- . and firmly and provided with a hand-rail on either side. 51. The gardener should to give a It should built. well as purpose. thus secir- curing a water culation. the near side. having inlet and outlet. resist temptation "rustic" character to his bridge. and in may pond be done by adopting an arrangement that illustrated in Fig. The this like lily general treatment should be such as to considerably expand the water area. be a plain befits its affair. si-— A water garden is stepping-stones the water the shallow.

This last condition demands that we should study economy of water. to engage the attention of As water gardening is never likely more than a minority of gardeners I need not multiply examples. so much the better. a distinct slope in the garden surface. The waste or overflow from the pond or . now refer to a type of water garden which is frankly artificial and depends for its water supply on the kitchen tap or the pump. and that can best be done by devising what culating system.1 88 GARDEN PLANNING ing in the previous case applies to this one also. The hints I have already given will prove suffi- ciently instructive to those who may wish to avail themselves of the possibilities of a stream accessible I shall from the garden. as must to be done from time to time keep our ponds clean and their tenants in healthy condition. it will help us to a simple arrangement for running off the water. I may call a cir- The first consideration will be the planning of the ponds (for such they are) and in that we must be guided by the If there is levels in our garden and our desires in the matter of water area.

52). say by the use of cement or concrete. . 52. into which the overflow pipe conducted. — Soak-away drain connection with the house drainage system. The ponds must be constructed with an impervious bottom. 1 89 ponds must be provided and when the garden slopes toward the house the most convenient way is to carry •' it into a gully in '^.WATER series of IN THE GARDEN for. filled is drain.'^H ^: '^^i'-^ ^i''^' Fig. as shown in the illustration in the soil This is merely a pit sunk and with rubble. When best the slope is is in a contrary direction the expedient to make a "soak-away" (Fig.

and calls for little by way are of description. faced six or eight inches of with cement. as in D. to facilitate running off the water. GARDEN PLANNING 53 shows both the mode of forming the bottom and of building up the sides. The may con- then be made with crete. If the pond sides are built of cement.S3- — Ponds a slight fall toward the outlet.190 Fig. care being taken to make the joints watertight. If rock or rubble sides used. but should h ave Fig. which can be done with a former of . they floor must be built in cement. C must be followed. and finishing them neatly at top with a rounded nosing. The surface should not be finished to a dead level. making the edges battered.

The not most less piping iron gas pipe of internal diameter than one and a half inches. the overflow from each pond to the next lower one of the series must be placed at the water-line. A and plug must be this may be bore of a simple cone of wood fitted to the When two system. they connecting the should be connected by piping into a single waste-pipe it. as would be the case on sloping ground. tempered with a third part of sharp sand. to facilitate unstopping in case suitable of Is obstruction. Pipes for inlets and outlets should be inserted when the sides of the pond are being made. the or more ponds are made. if possible. connecting pipes may enter and leave at the bottom. is If a single pond the drain. but if the levels are stepped. installed it will only be necesits sary to carry a waste-pipe from bottom to This should be done in a straight line. inlet.WATER wood like IN THE GARDEN Fresh I9I that illustrated. otherall wise the water would flow to the lowest . one the nearest the drain to If all ponds stand at the same level. cement of good quality should be used. provided to close the the pipe.

fill mark the water-level. the water be may ready be for run off and the ponds of will planting. The end May is the best time for planting . he the ponds. satisfactory. made filling clear in the dia- grams A and B. and allow them to stand for a week. usefulness the foul some means for water and refilling with When should the gardener has done his work. which would show If all itself is by a drop in the surface level. which will is unnecesly perfectly Water-lilies thrive stagnant water which has not been changed for months. noting whether there is any leakage.192 GARDEN PLANNING This point is pond. remain off the ponds of Hence the running fresh. Although culating described. of water. pleasant but to in it is neither nor to allow the wholesome same water indefinitely. I have applied the term "cirsystem" to the arrangements just it should be understood that they are not adapted to ensure a constant movequite in ment sary. The up and renewal of the water may be done conveniently with the garden hose.

The water may then be admitted and allowed to to upon the on which the compost should stand for a couple of of days in assume the temperature the atmosinserted phere. . . considerably below The water may be run off and renewed at if fortnightly intervals. Loam Leaf-mould Road If the it scrapings i part part part first ingredient cannot be obtained may be omitted and double the quantities of (broken loam and leaf-mould substituted. be heaped to the water-level height at the points where the plants are to be placed. their The down plants may then be this mounds.WATER the IN THE GARDEN I93 hardy nympheas. . Twice a year the ponds must be thoroughly cleansed to remove decayed vegetable matter. or even less often it shows no tendency to become fouled. A layer of drainage material tile or brick rubbish) should be spread pond floor. compost consisting of: Pond mud The soil may be a 2 parts I i . which by time will have the water- settled level. leaves .

fill the bottom with rubble. The and to may be best plan is to excavate a deep hole. say twice the depth of the tub. and are equally useful for the water-snails particularly. Where space is followed. Indeed. I trouble is it is. and the enthusiastic flower-lover will not grudge the subsequent labour of tending them.that when is the tub bedded upon it the rim will stand . The in introduction of animal life is useful restraining undesirable vegetable growth.194 GARDEN PLANNING and rubbish which are certain to accumulate at the bottom. I lection of miniature in know one such person who grows a colnympheas in tubs sunk limited his example the ground with most gratifying success. The matter-of-fact gardener all this may question whether think worth while for the purpose of growing a few water plants. so. the sight of only three or water-lilies is four good. healthy one's in flower in own garden sufficiently interesting to constitute ample recompense for initial some small trouble and outlay. Goldfish will do well even under somewhat unfavourable conditions of stagnation. purpose.

A piece of perforated its zinc should be nailed over the hole at side. Fig. which. simple enough to put into practice. 54. and to grow in it small water-side plants. best way to mask it is to pack some boggy around and between the tubs.WATER IN THE GARDEN I95 just above the level of the ground. These expedients. are all that for is necessary to provide an occasional change of water. to under prevent coarse debris running through and choking the drainage material below. if suitably . —Tub for water plants' The hard The soil circular outline of the tub is the only objection on the score of appearance. bit hole A centre- must be made fitted tub and a bottom of the with a plug long enough to give in the good hand-hold.

handsome. the waste plug being loosened water to escape slowly at the same time. and is perhaps best kept the water garden. and is easily the native will thrive flag. Besides the nympheas there to permit the foul are many other interesting plants if not as conspicu- ously beautiful in that may be grown already the water garden. otherwise the plants may be chilled and checked It in is in their growth. Typha yellow —the reed-mace (commonly rush") — estabhshed. though only semiaquatic. particularly are intolerant of hard When introducing fresh water it should be run in slowly if it is sensibly colder than the atmosphere. in shallow water on a deep bed of soil. and desirable plant. will spread over the rims and their outline. If possible rain-water The nympheas water. The calla has in been mentioned. without unduly excluding should be used. The English arrowcalled "bull- head is a bold.196 GARDEN PLANNING hide light chosen. and air from the water plants. The lotus has a rich tropical effect. quite easy for the supply to dribble from a hose. . and is best planted in a tile consoil. tainer as its roots spread through the into the surrounding ground.

But.CHAPTER XIV The Vegetable Garden The owner of a small plot. who loves his flowers and values a completely artistic general effect in his garden. and. as a chrysan- There are gardens and gardens. It is as interesting to some people to grow a cabbage themum. because the atmospheric conditions of cleanliness may them not be favourable to the growth of culinary plants in that state which fits for food. is usually content to leave vegetables alone. given a pure atmosphere and sufficient space. the 197 . it is doubtful whether the results commensurate with the trouble involved. I would say nothing to deter the enthusiast from taking up vegetable culture if his tastes are lie in that direction. when you can buy good vegetables cheaply. leaving this consideration out of the question. In is town and suburban gardens I think he well advised.

198

GARDEN PLANNING

vegetable garden

may
The

find its legitimate place

and usefulness.
the
general

reader

who

has studied

have applied to the designing of a flower garden will have noted
principles I

that

I

advocate placing the principal flower

borders near the north boundary, wherever

that

may

come, and that

I

gave good reasons

for running the

principal path alongside or

between them. Generally this path starts from the house and terminates somewhere at the remote end of the garden. If the vegetable ground Is to occupy its usual place at
the end of the plot, the main path
tinue
into

may
the

con-

and through

it.

On

other

Fig. 55.

— Borders

through a vegetable garden

hand.

It

may be more

convenient to approach

the vegetable plot by an offshoot from the

THE VEGETABLE GARDEN
main path.
In either case
I

I99

advocate the use
referred.

of a device to

which

I

have already

This consists in continuing the flower borders

on both

sides of the

path through the vegein

table plot, in the

way shown

the illustration.

The

result

is

to extend the principal garden

vista In length, thus

increasing the sense of
screen,

space, and, at the

same time, to

more

or

less,

the part devoted to vegetables.
true that these borders absorb a certain
of space, but that

It

is

amount

must be allowed

for

in fixing the

dimensions of the vegetable plot.

To complete the scheme it only remains to add a transverse hedge or other barrier at the near end of the vegetable plot and the thing is done. These supplementary borders, if
preferred,

may

be reserved for flowers intended

and some part for raising seedlings, striking cuttings, and other utilitarian purposes. I have in mind a charming suburban garden
for cutting,

arranged in this way, in which the kitchen
plot with
its

borders of bold perennials, backed

by

espaliers,

and edged with herbs,
are

is

not the

least interesting part of the garden.

But there
dener

many

other touches the gar-

may

give to his vegetable ground to

200
bring
it

GARDEN PLANNING
into

harmony with the garden

as a

whole.

A

bower-like structure can be

made

to support a colony of scarlet runners, whose
coral flowers will give a piquant note of colour

to an uninteresting corner, the while

it

provides
bold,

the gardener with succulent food.

The

handsome

foliage

of

the

rhubarb,

and the

rambling growth of the vegetable marrow are

good to look upon, and did they not contribute to our table they would assuredly be grown
for

their

beauty alone.
in

And what

is

more
?

graceful than the fairy foliage of the asparagus

Bearing these points
gardener
to dispose
it

mind, therefore, the
he
I

may make
them

picturesque capital out
if is

of his kitchen garden tenants
to advantage.

careful

do not wish to be understood, however, that any steps
in that direction are to

taken
to the

be in opposition

common-sense

principles of vegetable

culture.

The gardener with

a heart attuned to vege-

tables will find places for a few fruit trees,

which are always useful in the garden picture. The abundant blossom of his cherry, apple,

and plum
year

trees

is

a valuable asset at a time of

when

flowers are scarce,

when

the borders

THE VEGETABLE GARDEN

20I

have scarcely awakened from their winter What is more beautiful than a spray sleep.
of
rose-flecked

apple

blossom

arching

the

path, or, later, the sun-kissed fruit showing
its

And
trees

ruddy spheres amidst the darkening foliage? if the flower garden is to invade the

vegetable plot,

why

not the converse?

Fruit

upon the

grass plot

have just

as

much

value as the che tnut or laburnum, both for
flower and shade, and against a north wall

they will cover

much

uninteresting brick and

mortar, and yield their crop without detracting

from the usefulness of the border
growing.

for flower-

Even the boundary hedge between flower and vegetable plot may be made of espaliers,
or such easily trained fruit bushes as loganberry, wine-berry,

and blackberry.
no
diffi-

The gardener
culty
in
is

of resource will find

putting

these

hints

into

practice.

There

nothing new in them.

The

associa-

tion of flowers

and vegetables

in the kitchen

garden was

common

in the walled-in gardens

of a century ago;

but the practice was not

introduced with quite the same objects as
those here detailed, because in those days the

202

GARDEN PLANNING
itself,

vegetable ground was a thing by

and

no one thought of blending
ground.

it

with the flower

Apart, however, from this question of har-

monizing the two main departments of the garden, I would advance the plea for neatness,
order,

and picturesque

effect in the

kitchen
by-

garden.

The

soil

should be constrained

edgings to keep

it off

the paths, and for this

purpose there

is

possibly no better material
laid

than ordinary builder's bricks
plants will

on edge.

Just inside the brick line a row of parsley

make

a fresh, massy, green band,

and elsewhere the other herbs may help to outline the garden divisions and give finish to the beds; at the same time all will be conveniently accessible.

Let us now look into the more practical
details

of the

kitchen garden design.
to

It

is

good
as

practice

subdivide

the

plots

into

narrow paths between, Such beds may have dimensions determined by the space available
separate

beds
in

with

shown

Fig.

55.

and by the owner's intentions
crops to be grown.

as regards the

In a small vegetable ground annexed to a

THE VEGETABLE GARDEN
garden of the
size

2O3

under consideration, a width most cases would be a good dimension to adopt, the length of the bed running transversely and being determined by the width of the ground from path to
of twelve feet in

boundary fence. The transverse paths need not be more than eighteen inches wide, and may be of cinder, if no better material is available. The object is to give easy access to the bed and to permit the use of the barrow without having to run it over loose soil, and thus to lighten
labour.

At the same

time, this orderly subdivision
its

of the ground improves

appearance, giving

a business-like aspect to the garden tating systematic cropping.

and

facili-

A
and

space
off,

should
for

be

reserved,

preferably

screened
for

the deposition of rubbish,

the storage of manure, flower-pots, and other accessories which careless gardeners are too prone to leave about in odd
stakes,
places.

The box edgings one finds in old gardens "as prim and square-cut as a Puritan pastor" are charming to look at, but they are

charged, and probably rightly so, with harbour-

204 GARDEN PLANNING .

because in the case under consideration there would be little two. When its the whole plot it wide in relation to length. is hedge. am not sure that I would not put up with the havoc of these marauders to enjoy the solid green outlines and the air of old-world methods these edgings suggest. there off no objection to cutting the flower the kitchen from garden entirely by a separating gained by blending the vista so obtained. tively short. There are other modes of associating the vegetable garden with is the flower ground. is space and other conditions suit.THE VEGETABLE GARDEN ing snails 205 and other animals which prey upon Still I our culinary plants. as before. compara- In selecting the site for the kitchen garden the question of aspect must not be overlooked. may be convenient to reserve a strip of ground along one or both sides for kitchen garden purposes. this If is made sufficiently clear The method of doing by the diagram. and in that event the treatment may be based upon the design here being to retain illustrated. particularly as it affects . the object. a certain decorative quality without detriment to practical requirements. since the additional being in a transverse direction.

wardly shaped piece for the vegetable form to the thereby giving better Examples of this mode of treatment will be found in the plans which follow. In gardens of irregular shape it is some- times possible to cut off a triangular or awkplot.206 GARDEN PLANNING In that part of the flower garden adjacent. may be a very simple structure. and there no reason why it should not support a graceful flowering climber. would not arise. is a great convenience. but it is well not to disfigure it with corrugated iron or other unsightly material. rest. In the actual making of the ground the gardener must follow the directions already given for trenching and manuring. A thatched roof of straw or reeds would convert it into an almost picis turesque feature. . If the garden is of any considerable It size a tool shed. which might be used also as a potting-shed. the case just considered the hedge shadow must be reckoned with. other things being favour- With a north or south aspect the point able. and for that reason the north side of a garden having an east or west aspect would be the best position for the kitchen garden.

spidery lines and glinting glass panes. should say "Don't." because I know that it is possible to have a garden gay with interesting flowers from ber without glass. My quarrel is with the thing If I were advising the owner of a small I garden plot on the question of installing a greenhouse. applies only to the small garden. itself. 207 March to Novem- . I must say that I cannot reconcile beautiful. alone condemns so its but that we can Not rigid.CHAPTER XV Glass At the risk of creating consternation in the minds of those enthusiasts who adore their little glass houses. white paint alter. such a structure that was not an eyesore. and I can realize the pleasures that come to the man who carefully tends its crowd of occupants. the greenhouse with the garden My remark. Yet I admit its utility. of course. in which I have never seen Its it.

. preferably a "lean-to" or "three-quarter-span" pattern. it struc- If unrealizable. but I should not expect him to achieve a very notable result in the I garden picture. If possible — i. 2. would therefore ask the would-be gardener to consider whether he really wants a greenhouse. and if he decides in the affirmative. doU's- house pavilions designed to evoke the admiration of the uninitiated. I would tender him such advice as the following: 1.208 GARDEN PLANNING the other hand. so that does not become a conspicuous object in the vista as seen from the house. if the aspect is suitable put the greenhouse against one of the house walls. ture. in if On to the gardener desired chrysanthemums. 3.. respecialize garding it as a compromise. and put it against a boundary fence These patterns are infinitely pref- erable to the high-pitched. place will it be possible to screen it where it from view.e. where it and thus that is will lose merge into the main some of its identity. ridge-roofed. Select a simple and unpretentious design. or wall. I would concede the point. or some other flower or flowers for which a greenhouse is a necessity.

no one can deny. but something in between. not grass colour nor eau-de-nil. and place If. all. invest "glass. They bad. by the glpry of the structure and think not of it as For the same reason they give it a place of honour in the centre of the garden's width.GLASS 209 4." jerry-built. and contrive that all roads an element in the picture. hardly realize the to crime the they commit. snugly on the ground. stock houses which are occasionally are not offered all to a confiding public. in spite of the gardener decides to in some part of his capital then let him beware of the cheap. By observing these hints he may succeed in taking the sting out of his glass box. The humble garden frame It sits is another matter. Paint the outside woodwork a pleasant shade of green. but they all have the same family likeness on paper. and does not take Its usefulness is on its airs. and the inexperienced buyer is tempted to buy the largest he can get for the . The gardeners who paint their greenhouses white. picked out with lines of peacock blue. They are blinded inconsistencies itself. in the vegetable plot. shall lead to it.

Better. to do without than to install a cheap affair that will do duty only is for a few seasons. and is an framed of wood of small scantling. it forms an exOne not cellent approach to the garden. best guarantee of quality the reputation of the firm from price and which you The term "conservatory" to the house. shape. The greenhouse at its best if we neglect the is but a skeleton If easy prey to weather influence. infrequently finds one on the north side of for protecting pot plants . glass. or of unsound quality. It has the is generally applied to a glass house forming a permanent annex advantage over an unwarmed detached greenhouse of borrowing warmth from the house in winter. "and then the deluge" in a literal Once a house becomes leaky it is almost hopeless to attempt to make it sound again. sense. and is useful fully kept from frost. Joints give and parts warp out of structure. therefore. If tasteand of sufficient size. the decay comes sooner and proceeds more rapidly.2IO GARDEN PLANNING is sum he prepared to spend. or the cheapest for a given size. The buy.

therefore. ornamental finlals. I know of woodwork glazed nothing more disbeams it It than to enter a conservatory into Is which the sun casting contrasting of blue and yellow light indifferently upon flowers and foliage. and in this con- nection well to take and abide by the expert advice of the established greenhouse builders. where it 211 gets no sun. In the form of chevaux-de-frise. Leaded glass Is In which the prevailing tint Is a pale green not objectionable. Builders Indulge In flights of fancy In connection with the conservatory. the The conwater servatory floor should be tiled and sloped to a gutter to carry to outside the spilled in spraying the plants.GLASS the house. will these at- The man structure however. Much benefit will be had from a perusal of the book "Gardening Under Glass. tractions (?) to of taste. prefer the to be a piece of good plain with clear tracting glass. and col- oured glass panes." . only fitted for sheltering a few ferns. A heating system it is is essential. and Is. sell They hope by or let the house. If for purposes of privacy Is desirable that the glass be translucent Is better to use white prismatic or ground glass.

that by adopting a rectilinear treatment they can be made to harmonize with the garden lines. All walls are much alike. and whatever expedients weadoptto render these artificialfrontiers whether by growing greenery inconspicuous over them or trees and shrubs against them we cannot entirely keep them out of sight. however. closed — — much if the fence itself is an eyesore.CHAPTER XVI Fences and Hedges I have already pointed out how insistently the boundaries of a small garden declare them- Whichever way we turn the vista is by a wall or fence. but it is worth while to . But that will not selves. I must make a passing reference to walls. therefore. I may offer some suggestions on the subject of fencing. help us and for his guidance. The suburban gardener very often has to take things as he finds them. I have shown. but he who builds his house has the matter in his own hands.

suflfi- As regards the fence there ations — appearance are two consider- and durability.FENCES AND HEDGES 213 make the wall high enough to permit of grow- ing vines upon it when it receives full sun. The former implies both design and surface. but with open country around and no likelihood of intruders less height may be desirable. Of the woods of its long life available. the efi"ect will be better and the life Under ordinary circumof the fence longer. It but on the score of appearance. should charm of colour will be Who has not seen and admired the pearly grays and opalescent tints of an ancient park fence. A height of six feet in most cases would be cient for the purpose. not be painted or destroyed. so as to If the pales show the natural figure of the wood. . not only on account under its all conditions of weather. are cleft. the latter. material. oak is unquestion- ably the best for a fence. stances a height of five feet is suflicient. and noted it how admirably harmonized with the natural growth at its foot? I know of nothing which better accords with flower and foliage than the weathered surface of an old oak fence.

214 GARDEN PLANNING .

The half-open fence with lattice top just the thing on which to train creepers. pattern is an adaptation heads to top rail. above the top skyline. The closed pattern has sawn oak posts and arris rails and cleft pales. If shaped at the top between the posts. by the addition of raised the posts and a more substantial The latter should be "weathered" is to throw off the rain. as shown. The practice of allowing the posts to stand line of the fence. which may be open or closed. or a combination of both. Paled fences should always have a pHnth . its appearance is improved. The character the immediate environment should determine both the height of the fence and its design.FENCES AND HEDGES particularly if 215 there is an attractive landscape of beyond. The construction should be simple. is breaking the a good one. The "windowed" of the park fence. The designs illustrated should be sufficient guide as to the type of fence best suited to a small garden. because is elaborate fencework likely to usurp attention and to detract from the glory of the flower ground.

his he must use pine or other boarding for pales.2l6 GARDEN PLANNING board to protect the lower end of the pales from moisture. and that Involves the temporary removal of creepers and other plants which may have been trained over them. preparation of Stockholm oil not coal tar) or with good is paint. Wire fences are not desirable purpose. but certainly he should have oak posts he stops the pales just clear of the and pUnth boards. The pales will need painting either (a with a tar solution tar. One is disadvantage of painted fences that the paint has to be renewed from time to time. though he may omit the latter if ground. It is difficult to select a tint which harmonizes well with flowers and is best a foliage. ordinary iron nails cause unsightly inky stains. is If oil paint used. and to act as a barrier against burrowing animals. but are permissible to for a permanent wished when It is mark the garden boundaries whilst a hedge . If the gardener cannot afford the cost of oak. Perhaps the subdued green of a sagey tint. the colour important. Oak fences should be put together with cop- per or galvanized nails.

but re- should be firmly planted to ensure their Barbed wire is an invention of the enemy and should never be admitted into the garden. The intermediate maining upright. Fig." which should be galvanized. It may be attached to the stretching post by "screweyes. or by the . 58. — Stretching wire fencing The ordinary (No. posts may be lighter. 8 gauge) galvanized iron telegraph wire is the most suitable. to enable sufficient tension to be put on the wire to make it taut. At the points where the wires start and end the posts should be stout and well strutted.FENCES AND HEDGES is 217 coming to maturity.

When the wire is taut. he command may make shift with an extemporized lever in the manner shown. The best managed with a block and the Fig. but if the gardener cannot the use of this appliance. 59- — Open wooden fencing tackle. in is This should be done stretching manner illustrated.2l8 GARDEN PLANNING it simple expedient of passing through holes made with a knot in a carpenter's gimlet and twisting the protruding end. the end should be .

appearance much improved by adding down. their purpose made separately and nailed being to protect the end grain of the post from the weather. Ordinary the iron cut nails may be used with advantage.FENCES AND HEDGES 219 knocked up with a hammer close to the hole and turned two or three times round a stout nail. and they call for no special Two description. out of is Kinks and bends in the wire may be rubbed it with the hammer handle whilst it under tension. and in long lengths Its its diagonal is pattern is monotonous. Temporary fences may be made of rough unbarked cedar or other timber that may be readily and cheaply procurable. makes them hold all In setting out a fence care should be taken . and the side and top rails of the same halved. The lattice or "rustic" fence is short-lived. In the all-rail pattern the post heads are on. as their "rusting-in" better. is a top rail of halved timber flat side A better type that next illustrated. the posts being of unbarked cedar. before the final tightening. good types of open fence are shown in the next illustration.

one of the stretch. The tops of the posts should be Fig. — Larch fencing adjusted in line by sighting.220 GARDEN PLANNING to keep a straight line from point to point. by using a stretched cord as a guide for fixing the posts. The spacing of the posts will depend upon the design and character of the fence and the length of timber purchased for the rails. Trellis all — Trellis naturally falls into this sec- tion. and I need not speak of them. Of iron fencing there are patterns for purposes. it cheap that does not pay to . but ten feet is the maximum advisable. two fixed as levels to T pieces being at each end work from. and less is better. use may be useful. and some words of guidance in its proper Ready-made trellis is so make it at home when the ordinary diamond pattern is wanted. 60.

6r. should be oil painted with two or three coats of good well worked into the angles at the Fig. — Construction is of trellis screen crossings. for its it there that the rain finds way in and starts the process of decay. The rule should be to support all the edges by allowing them to butt against the centre of the frame. raw edge at the and leads to the premature All trellises decay of the colour.FENCES AND HEDGES In erecting a screen of trellis 221 a well-framed is support should be provided. . trellis. securing them by fillets nailed thereto. as there little very strength or stiffness in the trellis itself. The top is practice of leaving a slovenly.

and he should pin them at their crossings with oak pegs. and blessed with sufficient leisure.222 GARDEN PLANNING to be so it is The diagonal pattern has come comit mon that most gardeners accept without used question. need hardly add that the interlacing may the be omitted and the laths joined up in ordinary way. but where much treUis looks better arranged with the laths vertical and horizontal." using cleft oak laths and working on the plan illustrated in Fig. Hedges — We may consider hedges as serve to liv- ing fences. using either oak pegs or galvanized nails. but they materially assist us in the garden picture. I know of no better back- ground for a wide herbaceous border than a . 57. and it has a character of its own which raises it far above the machine- made I article. If the gardener is handy with his tools. he may try his hand on "woven trellis. He must design his squares of sufficient size to admit of bending the laths without difficulty. They not only mark the garden boundary and the subdivisions of the garden. A trellis of this kind will not require to be painted.

in use nothing it is When properly cared for it very effective as a screen. As wind-screens hedges are superior to fences filter because they allow air to over them. . Hedges. owrarely break through first If well trained full attempt to from the so as to make the bottom and close. and.FENCES AND HEDGES well-grown hedge. and grows rapidly. and we must allow for this in our plan- ning. Moreover. and thus reduce the velocity of that which passes Of hedge plants commonly beats privet. provided no wall is 223 available. growth but makes hedge. it thrives in almost every kind of alike in shade or sunshine. occupy more width than fences. however. from cold or rough Thorn ing to is of less rapid a thoroughly its business-like spines. Also there must be allowance for lateral growth beyond the width to which we intend to train the hedge. Also something additional should be allowed to keep the flowers outside the radius of the roots of the hedge plants. because we cannot trim at frequent intervals. soil. suffer and is happy and does not ordinarily winds. through. cattle it.

and spirea are all suitable and attracsoils in tive subjects.224 it will GARDEN PLANNING exclude even the "harmless (?). but gardens. hedges of many of beautiful flowering shrubs. viburnum. ribes. save only the question of cost. There are pictur- esque possibilities in such a hedge that are worth exploiting. but slow in growth. lar. box and are all arbor-vitse admirable. snowberry. diervilla. althea. and in the light. In planting a hedge the ground should . deutzia. I see no objection to a mixed hedge. where unsuited to town viscous foliage would collect and retain the sooty constituents of the atmos- phere. in which several of the above subjects the South are associated together. elder. berberis. hemlock. impenetrable hedge and is evergreen in the South but sheds its leaves in the North. sweet- brier. There is no reason why we the should not make Lilac. medflowering quince." Of evergreens. warm fuchsia and hydrangea may be added to the list. rose. neces- sary cat. The hardy orange {Citrus trifoliata) makes a dense. philadelphus. blackthorn. Sweetbrier makes its a charming hedge and it is stands exposure well.

The width at bottom.— Sections of hedge The best method is to trim to a wedge shape. filled When the bottom is well in with growth. without which the be an and might develop into an eyesore. Fig. In the instance this should be directed to encouraging the lower never growth. or rounded . The training of a hedge carefully lined up. The tops of the plants should not be touched until they reach A shows the section to be worked to in the first instance. for a hedge which is efficient barrier. hedge can eventually to be restricted to five feet in height. or have sprung above it. 62 B. and dressed flat as in Fig. and to leave the top quite sharp.62. and the nurseryman will always advise on this point. 62 feet. the top may be cut to a uniform height. need not exceed two the prescribed height. ^'s. involves periodical first trim- ming.FENCES AND HEDGES be trenched 225 and manured and the plants The spacing will vary with the subject. tapering from bottom to top on both sides equally. and the plants have obtained the maximum height.

63. it is In long lines of hedging the desirable to top line plants at intervals by allowing the hedge to grow above the general Fig. shown in the illustration below. as trimming them into some definite form. may be bridged over by training the adjacent plants into an arch. and he must therefore not expect that flowers will thrive in close proximity to it. wherefore he should allow sufficient width in all borders which Box Edgings — These skirt a line of hedging. to accommodate throughpaths. may be trimmed break vertically. Gaps in the hedge. The gardener should never forget that his hedge makes considerable demands on the soil. for which a tem- porary support would be required. The objection that they encourage and harbour .226 if GARDEN PLANNING Subsequently the sides preferred. are miniature hedges. — Hedge tops level.

in left forearm holds to Box edging should not be allowed to a greater height than six Inches. A narrow.FENCES AND HEDGES insect pests 227 may will be dismissed by the practical avail man. Ivy Edgings — These have a bold. handsome appearance. the soil being drawn up against them with a board held the right hand. The or best dwarf form is Buxus sempervirens be planted in April tri- var. The is best time cHppIng first at the end of May or during the week in June. and the box plants inserted in a close line. suffruticosa. The best shape in cross-section is squaretopped with battered or vertical sides. whether is it Y\g. and to maintain a clean line. 64. grow and the clipping should be done with care so as to preserve the height uniform. — Planting edging box straight or for curved. whilst the the plants in line. It should May. though If it pleases the eye of the gardener the top angles may be rounded. clean-cut trench of angular section should be got out. who himself of the fact to search out the intruders and destroy them. but are not suitable for gardens .

The Verge — This To makes an admirable edgit is ing where space permits. however. etc. Where space admits. effect. — Many other plants are in use such as the ground myrtle. As the mowing and trimming involve considerable labour it will not commend itself to the gardener of limited leisure. town gardens they are apt to become coated with soot. and to peg them down to the which in time they will cover with abundant growth. and have no special features to commend them. An annual clipping in April or May will soon produce a neat Other Edgings for edgings. and where not subject to unfavourable conditions. but as they present. I need only refer to them by name. and the temperature is safe. euonymus.228 GARDEN PLANNING and in of restricted size. ensure the best effect it should be trimmed with mathematical accuracy. such as the drip of trees. nor are they reliable in the North as they winter-kill. and pachysandra.. . excellent effects is may be obtained with ivy. as a reminder to the gardener who is casting about for some- thing different. no special difficulty in management. It only necessary to insert the plants soil.

lastly. The case is different qualities where which soil and gravel meet. Tile — These special may be just plain tiles roofing tiles. distinguish The good resis- should a edging are durability (both as regards tance to weather influence and it accidental to be laid fracture). bad. good. Of the former I have little to say beyond pointing out that they are usually too thin to resist 229 . and they are When turf and tutes soil or turf and gravel come into juxta- position the clean-cut edge of the turf consti- a good enough edging. moderate cost. of which many patterns. to enable to keep in place. flexibility. to permit in a it good curve Edgings if necessary. and. a necessity in a well-kept garden. stability. or edging with a "fancy" margin. and indifi'erent.CHAPTER XVII Tile and Other Artificial Edgings a wider application than the These nave living plant edgings just noticed. are offered for sale.

and the gardener The first brittleness may decide as he thinks best. If price is a consideration. a ing tile district. In is my opinion the it is edging not a feature desirable to emphasize with . made of the following materials: Porous brickware (red). it When spect. Stoneware (brown). he would find the hard brick- ware the least expensive.— Edg- himself to simple designs. though prices may vary according to Fig. is undesirable on account of its and liability to fracture by frost. there is little to choose. Blue brickware (slaty blue).230 GARDEN PLANNING the wear and tear of every-day usage. comes to selecting the best confine pattern he cannot be too circum- and he had tile 65. Both are durable and unobjectionable in colour. and the porous kinds are subject to fracture by Special edging tiles are frost. and the last on account of its unpleasant colour. though it has the advantage of toughness and Between the other two materials strength. Hard brickware (red).

off by a chance blow of the Perhaps the strongest pattern jection is the so-called is "cable" design. Generally speaking.) Even that apt to suffer in use. makes capable of being flat. and as a substitute for it greater substance. I combined with lower Brick Edgings brick. but to that there that it is the obof a it barefaced imitation something which never quite succeeds in simulating. 65. and used in various ways. face level with the gravel. offensive. the edging some- thing one had better do without. and which in the reality would be a most inappropriate thing as a permanent feature in the garden. which has the advantage of durability. its an excellent edging. Used in this . it Laid top sur- becomes the margin of the path and at the same time an efficient barrier to the soil of the border. cost. 23 is The plain is scallop edge the least (See Fig. and stability. and will show unpleasant gaps where some of the projections have been broken spade. these tile is tiles when laid in curves. are unsightly Moreover.ARTIFICIAL EDGINGS decoration. as I — The commend: builder's red common is have already mentioned.

— Brick edgings When and unobtrusive edging. and at the serves the original line. not easily damaged. in precludes the trimming the turf same time absolutely pre- In purchasing bricks for edgings the gardener should see that he gets hard. be laid endwise to the This form of edging is using half-bricks. either wire-cut or pressed. B. This makes a very neat it. as indicated in the illustration (A). Moulded bricks . well-burnt ones. There two modes of familiar method is employ Fig. carried round curves it should it is line. also useful as a division as it between turf and gravel. 66. Otherwise it may be set on edge to stand about half soil as in its width above the gravel and is little to choose between these using to in Another and less it in the form of a concealed edging the way shown at C. need for much labour edge.232 GARDEN PLANNING it way may be associated with a box edging.

which brings materially higher in cost than the common tile. brick. Slate has been suggested for edgings. Sometimes the gardener is in a position to buy cheaply old stone paving. but still cheaper than the edging Stone Edgings plentiful — In districts where stone is and cheap. it edging. side. may also be worked it in any section desired. and it has the may be used as an It advantage of being obtainable in long lengths. Its price plinth brkk fifteen dollars a thouit ^'^^'"^ sand. The illustration on page 234 indicates some simple and suitable sections. brick. cost is not an important consideration. or we may use roughly dressed. a kind of brick which preferable to the ordinary rectangular brick.-The quite an ideal edging.ARTIFICIAL EDGINGS 233 have a hollow on one unsuitable. which may be adapted as an edging with good effect. as illustration. It is the "plinth" It has one of its edges bevelled. however. which makes them is There if is. averages about Fig. shown in the and makes 67. and in .

colour is durable and but its unpleasing. When a bed or border of flints or brickbats. — Stone edgings (sections) The least expensive kind of common flint. 68. and on is that account I do not favour it. districts of The practice flint common in some whitening edgings gives them too much prominence. and on the score and stability it edging is the of appearance It leaves little to be desired. and I cannot com- mend it for the flower garden on that account. apart from its abundance and ubiquity. to be raised above the general level the edging may be built up There is no special virtue in the flint. it is if used in pieces at efficient. Fig. . In districts where other natural stone is common it may be used in rough pieces in the same way as flints. least one inch thick.234 districts GARDEN PLANNING where it is cheap. flints should be bedded deeply. it is For the vegetable ground quite admirable. with equally good effect. and the should be large ones.

because life. is Its appearance never good. and it is sometimes used in kitchen gardens.ARTIFICIAL EDGINGS 235 artificial Wood Edgings edging that — The last is form of I shall notice the board edging. into the In putting down edgings of every kind they should never be allowed to stand to a greater height out of ground than is necessary to form a barrier against rolling earth clods. it is hardly good for more required to last longer tar solution or creo- If must be dressed with a soted. and the presence of wood in the at all soil is it times to be condemned. . nail The best way to secure wood edgings is to them to stout square pegs driven firmly soil. It has its usefulness as a temporary expedient when we wish to make our gravel paths before we lay the permanent edging. encourages the growth of fungous Unprepared wood than two seasons.

is Each plan drawn to such general scale. tions of economy may dictate the omission or modification of certain details. and for clearness have included only -the details as are needed to indicate scheme of the garden. sonal taste all equally good. and accompanied by a I scale of feet. I have applied the principles set forth in the foregoing pages. mostly consisting of plans actually executed. so that perinclination and may be allowed Considera- considerable scope. My primary 236 .CHAPTER XVIII Garden Plans In the following examples of small suburban plot gardens. so long as the main principles of planning are observed. These be closely followed whenever the conditions are the same as shown in the examples plans. may It should be understood that for a given set of factors there are many possible arrangements. which the gardener will decide for himself.

Thus the plan (Fig. In all these examples the following points have been observed: 1. and its and leaving the features at such end the same as shown on the plan. with means of access to them at more than one point. But. 4. Grass is confined to compact areas. Principal borders are in full sun. 2. the plan tails.GARDEN PLANS object in presenting these plans is 237 to elucidate the subject of garden design in a concrete form. If so they should prove of use in individual cases. It should be noted that is each plan that it will made for a special aspect. for plots of larger or smaller size. and only hold good for an aspect not greatly differing from that shown by the arrow is with which the plan the marked. Trees are placed so as not to cast shadows on the borders. The summer house entrance is in shade or partial shade. and with care to preserve due scale between de- same aspect. . 3. given would serve for plots of similar proportions and dimensions. central grass space by lengthening the associated borders. 78) might be appHed to a plot of twice the length shown. much the better.

is Path space is reduced to a minimum. I have adopted the following conventional all indications in the plans: Full black Beds and borders Grass House Paths. as in Figs. When grass space is divided. effect. ignored. drives.238 5. No curves or angles other than right angles are introduced into the garden lines. is 9. 84 and loi. thus Pergolas. so far as consistent with achieving a pictur- esque 7. Shaded Hatched and vegetable spaces Unshaded Arches. the two areas are not of equal size. The vista from the summer house made as interesting as possible. except only where they may serve some useful purpose. GARDEN PLANNING Symmetry is in the main features of the plan 6. thus Glass. thus . 8.

nearly due E. The space at the angle ot the path might carry a tub or sundial. . Aspect. The path at its near end Aspect. —Size. the upper caption pertains to the leftthe lower caption to the right-hand diagram. in which a toolshed is shown. — Note: In this hand diagram. 70. 42 feet by 20 feet. 26 feet by 20 feet.GARDEN PLANS 239 Fig. Size. and succeeding plans. The path terminates at a summer house and gives access to a small yard. communicates with the kitchen yard. and at its far end terminates at an arbour. SE. 69. The north-west boundary fence might be raised with trellis to give increased surface for growing climbing plants. Fig.

and the yard offers accommodation for garden requisites. gate Fig. Size. devoted to vegetables and screened ofi by a . The e. 72.- g2 feet. approximately NE. carry a vase or tub. is — About one third of the plot hedge and a summer house.xpansion in the path might. and contains a small tool-shed.240 GARDEN PLANNING Size. Fie. 6s feet 6 inches by Aspect.?!• is . 45 feet 6 inches by 20 Aspect. — feet. N. The back entrance screened by the summer house.

s8 feet by 20 feet. against the fence is shady. Thewhole of this plot is laid Fig. 74. 73.—Size. . Aspect. and out ts flower ground.GARDEN PLANS 241 spaM is given to vegetable ground. The southern border should be planted with shade-loving subjects. Fig. 69 feet by 15 feet Half the Aspect. a glass house being placed The eastern border continues through the kitchen plot. E. —Size. approximately S at the division.

About one third of the and borders are carried through it. 64 feet by 22 feet. . A sundial is shown in the gravel space facing the back entrance. . and bulbs might be planted in the grass. NW. plot Is screened off for use as vegetable ground.. 76.242 GARDEN PLANNING Fig. Fig. N. Aspect. Aspect. 75. The small detached grass area might be planted with trees to make a shady corner. and a flower vase in the square expansion of the path. This aspect admits of flower display close to the house-back. —Size. 67 feet by 25 feet.— Size.

planted for shade. The dividing hedge gives a sense of enclosure to the formal garden. Fig. and privacy to th» space beyond. Size. and shrubs screen the diagonal piece of fence. The summer house. Aspect. 87 feet by 30 feet. SW. trees.GARDEN PLANS 243 e o Fig. from which a pleasant vista down the plot if — obtained. The roofed space at the house-back is a veranda.-— Size. 78. A feature is made of a formal group of beds facing the summer house. a sundial occupying the centre of the group. A low rubble wall retains the borders to north and south-west. The path terminates in an alpine garden. NNE. 116 feet by 40 feet. 77. Aspect. A raised circular bed occupies the centre. . The end space is devoted to a sunken alpine garden. which communicates by steps with a detached grass space.

is not an uncommon shape for suburban plots. Aspect. 79- NE. the pocket at the —Size. 60 feet by 26 feet. THis to a pleasing arrangement.244^ GARDEN PLANNING Fig. expanding at end to 44 feet. and it lends itself end coming as a surprise. .

.

details are sufficiently indicated in the plan. 81. — Aspect. 68 feet 6 inches by 29 feet.246 GARDEN PLANNING Size. Fig. The . average. SW.

" A yard witli outbuildings separates the flower garden into two almost equal spaces. A small vegetable ground occupies the extreme end of the plot. Aspect. The front grass area might be reserved for croquet. —Size. . average. 146 feet by 49 feet. 82. SE.GARDEN PLANS 247 Fig.

average. NW. Aspect. A curved The details of the plan will sufficiently explain themselves. 83. 148 feet by 54 roadway. feet. causes a diverging shape. .248 GARDEN PLANNING Fig. —Size.

—Size. SW. 113 feet by 36 feet. the garden boundaries are of unusual shape. this may be made a picturesque and interesting garden <f the suggestion contained in the plan be carried out.GARDEN PLANS 249 Fig.| 84. . but they do not preclude a good arrangement— in fact. . In this case Aspect. average.

A simple rectangular pl<» Size. with detached house.250 Fig. Fruit trees were retained in the positions shown. 85. built on orchard ground. Aspect. In this and other examples it should be noted that a trellis screen is introduced to give privacy t0 — the kitchen quarters .. 156 feet by 60 feet. E. and made an interesting feature.

Size.GARDEN PLANS 251 Fig. E. 95 feet byyo feet. A slightly diverging . average. — Aspect. plot devcfted entirely to flower garden. 86.

Aspect.252 GARDEN PLANNING Fig. E. and group of rose beds. a sundial. rock garden. 87.—Size. A comer plot with separate entrance to the kitchen quarters. The features include a summer house. . pergola. . In this case the house is placed as far as possible from both thoroughfares. 129 feet by O4 feet.

— the south-east comer. 88. The house is set parallel with north and west fence lines. Size. averiige. 94. . Fruit trees are planted in is concealed by the rockwork of the alpine garden. The slope to the north-east necesThe terrace wall at its highest part sitates terracing on two sides of the house. W.feet by 78 feet. Aspect.GARDEN PLANS 253 Fig. The whole makes a compact and interesting garden.

116 feet by 87 feet. A kitchen garden is included. Fig.254 GARDEN PLANNING Size. — . nearly W. Aspect. 89. The enclosed formal garden south of the house is an interesting feature as seen from the drawing room window. The circular bed and borders on the principal grass space are intended for roses. A dial is placed in the expansion of the path to the east.

With plots of larger size the grass space might be utilized for tennis by keeping it free of trees. slightly converging plot. — A Note In none of the foregoing plans has any provision been made for a tennis tawn. Size. 91 to 97 inclusive show examples of the in fore-courts or gardens situated between house and the thoroughfare. E. some cases being . 1 24 feet by 92 feet. without destroying the value of the garden as a picturesque flower ground. : Figs. one half laid out as flower ground. the remainder as fruit and vegetable garden. In most cases the space is insufficient. 90. Aspect.GARDEN PLANS Fig. average.

It provides ample flower space and is more effective when well planted than if the design were more complex. a pleasing and distinctive feature. This plan shows the simple treatment I advocate for a small fore-court. An arts . and admits of a group of small beds on t the trass. Aspect. a:. — — A Fig. — — Size. Fig. Size. Size. Fig. 19 feet by 30 feet. W. Aspect. 93- gravel Fig. 91.256 GARDEN PLANNING In supplementary to the principal garden. 40 feet by 40 feet. 92. W. Aspect. iia^jci-L.. S. and others constituting the principal garden space. makes 94. 20 feet by 18 feet 6 inches. 20 feet by 19 feet. Size. groui) of flowering shrubs occupies a'central position on the grass. E. The position of the entrance gate permits of borders on either side of the path. The group of beds on the . Aspect.Till arrangement which gives ample border space.

— . arranged so as to obtain variety in detail. S. Aspect. A not uncommon type of front garden. Size. Aspect. A fore-court larger than the average. 96. 73 feet by 15 feet. 9550 feet. SI feet by Fig. nearly W. Fig.GARDEN PLANS Size. and a screening effect for the sake of privacy. treated with no regard — to symmetry.

Aspect. It should be noted that the side yard is masked by trees and the summer house by transverse borders. admitting of treatment for picturesque effect. A front garden of ample width. 59 feet by 32 feet. 97. With a good screen of trees or shrubs along the front boundary this garden would not be unduly overlooked. Size. S.258 GARDEN PLANNING Fig. A sundial might be placed in thi central expansion of the path. — .

GARDEN PLANS 259 The following four examples of existing gar- dens. the circumstances permitted of obtaining a good result. and made to face due south. Thus it was necessary to work in contradiction to one of the rules laid do\TO in this book Fortunately. The formal group of beds in tne south-west comer is a rose garden. — . . will give the reader some idea of how to treat spaces of larger area than those already illustrated. Fig. and for the purpose of making the lawn on the north side. The diagonally running broad walk constitutes quite a valuable feature. A plot of about one acre. planned by the author. 98. whence a pleasant oudooK over an adjoining golf course was too-valudble to be sacriaceci or marred by a foreground of vegetables. The house had been built before the garden was designed. The separation of the kitchen garden into three separate plots was by the owner's wish.

though with a by the circumstances. through which ran an old hedgerow with several standing elm trees. Note the vista through the kitchen garden. certain latitude permitted Fig. and with concessions to the expressed wishes of the owners. with its background of fruit trees. three or four of which were preserved. The line of this hedgerow followed the sloping path between the steps to the east of it. — . This was a plot of irregular shape. 99. in some of the details.26o GARDEN PLANNING planning has followed the general The principles already expounded.

. 100. notably the enclosed space south of the house. —In this example certain details of the garden were determined before tEe design was made. which is cut off from the fore-court by the tradesmen's passage.GARDEN PLANS 261 Fi«.

On the other hand. The basement areas precluded borders along the house walls. to which considerable space has been given. It being a comer site.262 GARDEN PLANNING Fig. This was done by a substantial trellis in the position indicated on the plan. loi. A town site. . the space devoted to vegetables was to be small and out of sight. it was necessary to screen the garden from passers-by along the east boundary. in which the owner wished to make a feature of the alpine garden.

both as regards nourishment and external environre- ment. This implies a knowledge of the It is quirements of each kind of plant. roots by pressure. do not enter into the question of garden design. and the soil thrown in should be carefully compacted around the These details. it is because in the placing of the plants that his garden picture may achieve its highest development.CHAPTER XIX Planting The practical aspect of planting It consists is for the working gardener. or be utterly marred. sufficient to dig a hole not and thrust in the roots. however. Nevertheless the garden maker has a very ample to spread out over real concern in the planting operations. 263 . plants in the soil in of placing the such a way that they at once find conditions suitable for growth. The hole should be of the right depth and of size accommodate the roots when its bottom.

4. and coleus. 3. and gardeners continue to plant as if the acme of good effect depended upon the accom- flower undoubtedly of plishment of a series of garish contrasts in the most mand. scarlet sage. the canons of good taste were lost sight of in the new-born enthusiasm for vivid contrast in primary colours. In the days when the old-fashioned flowers were deposed to make room for that unfortunate quartet. The vogue for these flowers has now somewhat declined. scarlet geranium. brilliant It is gamut a question of colour at com- whether we should not ever attempt to associate vividly contrasting colours. and the success any piece of planting will depend to a large extent upon the skill and good taste with which the colours are managed. for if the mass of each colour is . I. The most striking characteristic of the is colour. but the trail of it still lingers in many gardens. canna.264 Flowers GARDEN PLANNING — In planting a 1. Period of bloom. bed or border it necessary to consider the flowers in respect to Colour. Succession. Habit. — is 2.

both for of and conspicuously close inspection and harmonious colour for distant effect. though they may be powerless to originate one. rich. On and the contrary. the beauty of which will appeal only to the near spectator: there we of may strive for a more insistent note . however. make Fortunately. It is not desirable that every square its foot of soil should cry aloud at the top of voice. The schemes feeling.PLANTING large. most people who are not colour blind can recognize a good colour effect when they see it. which offer a much wider opportunity for broad. it is it is by no means a somewhat rare gift. Here we may make a subtle harmony of subdued tints. construction is not so much a matter of rule as of is and a sense for colour universal. not surprising. The are to be sought rather in harmonies. and by the number of different colours available. The treatment of a bed or border must to some extent be governed by circumstances. that a goodly proportion of gardeners mistakes. therefore. 265 they will cancel each other at anything finest colour effects but short range. telling display.

A rum. purple. and perhaps had best be reserved with which we for the few vivid contrasts may punctuate here and there our colour picture. . for a rich concordance. The rich scarlet which we will have in the lychnis and Oriental poppy furnish the other element of such a contrast. trive the greatest wealth of Rose. They are always difficult to deal with in a harmonized scheme. The pure blues which we get In the gentian and delphinium are best kept away from the mauve and purple blooms. like the is common pyreth- somewhat daring but generally pleasing contrast. mauve. warm tints that one can concolour effect. or primrose yellow. The reddish mauves also coma bine well with this coloured foliage. It is with the crimson. and form another group equally suitable Whites are generally best paler colours. or to contrast in the mass with yellow. scarlet. and reinforce Lilac. orange.266 GARDEN PLANNING colour. violet harmoniously lavender. with the such as mauve. combination of gentian blue with a pale green foliage plant. and yellow each associate other. associated pinks. with a view to producing a vivid note in the general picture.

^_^ Coloi White and Mauve White herbaceous phlox Mauve White and Yellow White and Pink White and Pale Blue Scarlet violas Iceland poppies of both colours White violas Herbaceous phlox Iberis sempervirens and Blue Campanula Carpatica Lychnis Chalcedonica Delphinium Scarlet and Crimson Geum Pyre thrum Delphiniums of both shades Sweet-william Deep Blue and Pale Blue Crimson and Rose Herbaceous phlox Mauve and Yellow Galega officinalis Anthemis Aster Solidago tinctoria Crimson and Yellow Purple and Yellow---. Hardy Flower Examples . Snapdragons of both colours Crocus Daffodil . and continually charming harmonies and contrasts. even when only two all hardly possible to enumerate elements are used. for a Those who have an eye effect will good colour experiment for find themselves. new and For those I who cannot trust their colour sense list have compiled a short in a suitable of examples which if may used be relied upon to yield good results environment.PLANTING It is r 267 the combinations of colour.

and pure blue." puzzled to determine what tint predominates This surely is most precise advice on how not to achieve a good . says. is shown by the wide differences of view that writers have adopted. whose opinions one would imagine were the outcome of some defect of vision. How the subject of colour is under- by those who ofi"er guidance in the matter. nature rarely makes mistake. "Nor have I any preference for one stood. so that a plant's ally in own foliage is gener- harmony with little its flowers. As a might be expected. One authority. or furnishes a good background contrast for them. brown or purple foliage with yellow and orange. but I have very decided notions that the various colours should be so completely in the entire commingled that one would be arrangement. Rose-pink and rosy mauve harmonize with silvery gray.268 GARDEN PLANNING associated with vivid Gray foliage should be colours such as crimson. and we may have this combina- tion in one plant as in Stachys lanata. even colour over another. Magenta crimsons and bluish pinks should not be placed in juxtaposition to pure crimsons or scarlets. scarlet.

and because is mention I here It demonstrates how entirely mistaken the writer whose dictum have just quoted. The coloured and is spots were mutually destructive.PLANTING colour scheme. edged with mauve violas. and well describes the 269 common every- but Ineffective method of arranging a mixed bed or border. blue. . thing It else. and yellow paint In spots. the quite It resultant tint a neutral gray. a kind of stippling of the surface with the primary colours In equal proportions. An some years of since. in which everything kills should be an axiom in garden practice instructive experiment tried for to contrast or harmonize colour In masses. A bed of white violas. The result entirely real- ized its originator's Intentions. In This I accordance with theory. consisted in using red. determining the best method painting gun-carriages so as to render them inconspicuous at a distance. or of purple blue edged with yellow Cantefbufy bells. Were I planting a bed with flowers of two I contrasting colours should adopt the simple plan of using a broad edging of one colour with a central mass of the other. or /^ pinks.

illustration. ture of colours. always pro- — AT' her- '. 102. comes to planting a long Indiscriminate mixis herbaceous border. which we floral may spectrum which colour succeeds colour. but of irregular shape.would entirely satisfy my sense of a When it good colour effect. as shown in the related to side. the same principles apply. and with them to regard as a kind of in construct a consecutive harmony. rangemeht of baceous border Here are two typical series: . vided the rules of harmony be observed. The sequence Fig. of colours may be varied within limits. best The way is to use large masses of each colour. mode of plant- and formal parallel rows are / \ almost equally ineffective. each harmoniously its neighbour on either These colour masses should not be in simple compartments divided by transverse lines.GARDEN PLANNING with the yellowish-green foliage of the pyrethrum. the least effective ing. as already seen.

white. bright scarlet. The these affect foliage of the plants colour arrangements may or may not the results. Geneither it speaking. 271 mauve. deep blue. Chev- the famous Director of the Gobelins Dye Works. The same different order may be repeated. and reuil. takes a subordi- nate place. who wrote "The Laws of Contrast of Colour.PLANTING (i) Purple. pale yellow. full blue. adopting the proportions for masses if the border is a long one. white. or the scheme may be may be varied by changing the sequence of colours. In some cases a more limited scheme advisable. rose. colour values. (2) Deep red. pale blue. pale yellow. scarlet. in which one or more colours are suppressed. pink. White is is so telling at always be used with restraint." says: "An objection might be addressed to me that the green of the leaves . erally by reinforcing the or by toning them down. pale blue. yellow. crimson. yellow. white. however. orange. may well be neglected. orange. a colour that any time that it should Yellow also which we use in may be overdone. white being an element which may be omitted without detriment to a good result.

surrounding objects produce but feeble impressions. the gray and yellow — greens which. by reason of their contrast with the others. however. sensation in He alyzed colour a masterly way. and though his conclusions were . not only because of the retiring character of most greens. but because they — the merge into the other larger masses of green grass. for when the eye is fixed upon two well-defined objects simultaneously.272 GARDEN PLANNING as a which serves the efl"ect ground to the flowers destroys it is of their contrast." I believe that in the garden picture we hardly appreciate the colour effect of the foliage of our plants. The student sult Chevreuil of colour in the garden may conhas an- with advantage. it is sufficient to fix upon a screen of green silk two kinds of flowers (of contrasting colour) and to look at them from a distance of about ten paces. but not so. There are. and to be convinced of it. and on that account they may become useful as colour factors in certain schemes. trees. and shrubs and thus become part of the general background. devoting a special section of his book to horticulture. are not negligible.

etc. size. put forth their flowers before their leaves. forsythia. have that already pointed out how important our garden plants should be allowed freedom of growth to develop their individual characters.). colour of foliage. form of flower head. and by no means an unim- portant one. It is only when we know these details that we are in a position I it is to use the plant to best advantage.PLANTING formulated half a century ago. In referring to "freedom of growth" I I do not wish it to be understood that of the plant. it is well known. is Character in the plant one of its greatest charms to those who regard it not merely as a means for producing blossom. or time of flowering in relation to leaf production (some plants. but also those special characters which distinguish one plant from another. denseness or sparseness of blossom. they still 273 hold good 2. By habit I mean not only shape. and general appearance. is The habit of the plant it is the next point to be considered. texture of foliage. condemn those necessary pruning operations which make for the welfare I refer solely to the growing of . It may consist in mode of branching. in their scientific and artistic applications. as the daphne.

One or more bold clumps of flower brought to the front at intervals gives a character to the border that would be unobtainable in other way. and will within bounds by Ill-judged mutilathe poor intruder becomes a It Is maimed and the wreck. some conventional form To make effect is the point clear I may is instance a herbaceous border in which the best general produced when there no rigid sys- tem of grading the plants in height. plants by this kind of gardening that are Is shorn of their beauty. by here and there reversing irregular it. prides himself on a tidy may resent the intrusion of a massy his clump upon It till path or grass edge. The next point to see that each plant has sufficient elbow-room develop without .274 plants in a GARDEN PLANNING way to develop their special habit. it is essential to the best results from a picturesque point of view that this rule should be broken occasionally. any The gardener who garden keep tion. instead of pinching and cutting them into foreign to their nature. a stiff Is border made and formal to detail. Though the rule should be to put the taller and more robust plants to the back.

to their mutual advantage in the general effect. by evergreen or earlywe may use the boldwith those foliaged association . or bronze foliage be placed may where they kinds of will reinforce others whose flowers are best these special set off by contrast with Shrubs and foliage. plants which flower in advance of their leaves may be supported plant for leafing plants. Plants which throw up long narrow spikes of flower may keep company room — — with others having a tufted habit.PLANTING hindrance from its 275 neighbours. Again. This does not imply a starved bed or border. Those with silvery. armed with the knowledge plant. of the habit of each it the to gardener allots just sufficient grow centrifugally without check from Thus the taller plants may its companions. glaucous. with a knowledge of plant habit we may associate bushy plants with those which tend to legginess to use a term well known to the gardening fraternity and thereby conceal the uninteresting view of a sheaf of bare stalks. only that. be separated by others of more moderate growth. Again. and the former will have space above to expand their foliage unhindered.

to bring of He should suffer He may even confor them about. variety of height is desirable. the special purpose garden. importing informality into the In the back row. informal effect. as I have some vigorous plant pushes forward beyond the boundary. for the plants will sil- houette against the background. like the painter. and an even row. like soldiers on parade. but not quite tall in the same degree. . we should. it is a gain to the gardener and no spire fault of the planting. We may group the plants in the centre and reserve the margin for others of smaller and more uniform size. Though we may plan on geometrical lines. and in consequence its bfest conditioned for producing maximum If. and its at home is in surroundings. even when all are tall. in which every individis. in reason. The final result of care in these particulars will be a natural. or some pretty trailer ignores the edging. ual plant appears to be.276 of Sparse GARDEN PLANNING and inconspicuous habit. instanced. would be monot- onous. In beds and groups of beds the same principles apply. such accidents. contri- bution to the aggregate picture.

others will succeed for the summer months to be followed in their turn by the autumnblooming kinds. It only by making ourselves acquainted sure that those with the flowering period of our plants that we can be for the we bring together purpose of constructing a contrast or colour time. from this source. it is By judicious selection possible to contrive that there shall be few failures 4. the garden By consulting a list maker may select his plants and so dispose them that.277 Our plants will do that 3.PLANTING endeavour to soften them. as the spring-blooming kinds fail. because the effect will be measured in duration by the period of the flower which lasts the shortest time. but their periods of bloom should. for we cannot to shorten the period during which flowers are possible. length. well arranged. for us is if only we allow them. . This system of succession. nor can we tolerate empty spaces seedsman's in our borders. is Succession the very keynote of good afford gardening. harmony will be in bloom at the same Not only should they start approxias far as possible. will give us flowers from Febru- . coincide in mately simultaneously.

but the same principles apply as regards colour. In other words. The effects to be obtained from annuals and bedding-out plants belong to the routine of garden management. im- plying that each separate colour group must contain plants of which some will always be in flower. because they alone come within the purview of the garden designer. middle. My references have been confined to hardy plants. particularly demands some when the bor- ders are laid out for a broad colour effect.278 GARDEN PLANNING ary to mid-November. the distribution of early. and late-flowering plants must in intimate asso- be over the whole space and ciation. thus covering the maxi- mum period during which we It are likely to be able to enjoy our gardens. period. . habit. nicety of method. and succession.

the I have endeavoured to formulate simple rules for the guidance of I have not only stated the "how" but also "why. Carelessness in small matters may go a long skill way to undo the results of thought and devoted to the main features. Much -79 of the detail will It is have to be filled in on the ground.CHAPTER XX Further Considerations Garden Making in The in the impress of art should be as much in evidence in the minor details of the garden as more important and more obvious ones. In the foregoing pages the garden designer. in the ." believing that thereby my' advice will carry more weight and be the better understood and remembered. Although the construction of a garden plan on paper is a necessary preliminary to the practical operations on the site. it will only carry the garden maker a certain way toward the desired result.

therefore. when every leaf was vivid carmine. geous pieces of colour One work maker may introof the most gorI have ever seen firs was the result of planting Virginia creeper at in the fore- the foot of a clump of small court of a country residence. but he should be alive to possibilities. and should neglect none of the various openings which for artistic I may present themselves work in a small way. study his work as it proceeds. and he should. but the effect in autumn. for I minor embellishments and do not mean that he should seek for an overelaborated result. in the plant- have already dealt with colour ing of beds and borders. In summer the foliage told as light green against dark. I remember also a similar effect in a Scottish garden. looking for opportunities effects in detail. in which a flame nasturtium {Tropcsolum speciosum) had taken possession of a large straggling elder tree. it In a short time had clambered up amongst the dark foliage. but there are other places in which the garden duce charming effects. and wreathed it about . and had festooned it with graceful sprays. was indescribably beautiful.286 GARDEN PLANNING finishing touches that he may add distinction to the picture.

strikes a charming A like effect Is obtainable with common habit. favourite box elder {Acer negundo). An irregular belt of the beautiful palmate- leaved Japanese maples on the near side of a mass of shrubs makes a glorious expanse of quiet but sufficiently conspicuous colour. proeffect. often repeated. if the component plants be selected for variety of tint and texture.GARDEN MAKING with masses of case was a scarlet. the but a single specimen. 281 result in The that happy accident. which should be its cut to the ground every year to preserve bushy . and we may employ either or both according to circumstances. effects of There are colour effects of contrast and colour harmony. duce a cheap and commonplace note of colour. This nasturtium cannot be found in America. and if The its gold-leaved variety. well placed. Reds always come so well against a mass of dark foliage that we can never make a mistake in contriving effects like those just described. but the trumpet vine offers a near substitute. but none the less worthy of being noted and subsequently repeated with deliberate intent. golden elder.

a semi-tropical effect may be secured on a small scale by selecting Given a position not too suitable plants. may be naturalized. Subjects like the horse chestnut are sufficiently dense in foliage to constitute their I own background. almond. crocus. This applies particu- larly to trees with loose. Though subtropical is and troublesome hobby. the polyanthus or lily-of-thevalley. and gardening will prove a a costly delightful feature in spring. open foliage like the thorn.282 GARDEN PLANNING flowering trees afford us abundant opin The portunity for constructing colour masses the vertical plane. The daffodil. scllla. In a half-shady corner. but their colour must be seen against a solid background of green foliage to yield its best effects. It . not commingled as so often done. and snowflake are suitable for in the purpose. have already referred to the planting of Some surpassingly beautiful less bulbs in grass. particularly where there are banks. effects may be contrived in the formal parts of the garden by the judicious use of bulbs in this way. closely related with formal surroundings. They should be arranged large groups of is one colour. and laburnum.

I ferns. The beauty of a pseudo-tropical garden made on these lines would consist in the variety and special character of it everything being hardy. Aralia There buria adiantifolia. the foliage. and bold-foliaged plants like acanthus. the skill worth while to attempt such an effect. as and I should plant such trees sumach. and would not involve a tithe of the trouble and expense of a subtropical garden. and rodgersia. Solomon's seal. donax). I would introduce kniphofia for its colour value. polygonum. and many others which need not enumerate. should prefer a sheltered position. yuccas. using Success will depend upon with which the materials I are em- ployed. Arundo conspicua and A. rhubarb. crown im(particularly — perial.GARDEN MAKING is 283 only hardy plants. lection spiiiosa. coltsfoot. verbascum. Of smaller plants I should select those which afford a suggestion of exotic form funkia. The graceful habit and beauty of flower of our hardy climbers make them valuable material . Ailanthus. should staghorn and Saltsbe a colreeds of hardy bamboos. pampas grass. Bocconia cordata.

all There should be creepers to flower at aspect. The oft-repeated fallacy that growth of this kind causes damp walls has already been refuted. fences. In my opinion nothing helps to bring its the house into harmony with garden sur- roundings so effectually as the treatment of its walls with creepers. walls and for special effects amongst for the gardener. seasons and for every Of purely foliage ones I should not be lavish.284 GARDEN PLANNING For the pergola. trees and subjects for the house and shrubs. With so many charming examples houses of climber- covered remarkable that the gardener so often overlooks the possibilities of creating a beautiful picture on the house walls. because of the height surfaces. clus- tering in rounded masses as they ascend and benignly concealing the angles and straight lines of the brickwork. As walls they have their and extent of the wall around us it is best opportunity for full development. particularly of such subjects as Boston ivy {Ampelopsis tricuspidata) ^ which hugs the . they are indispensable. It doubtless accounts for the studied neglect of this part of the garden picture. particularly those which full tend toward a and informal habit. arches.

tells more strongly than any colour. for have already referred to the necessity not overdoing the whites in the garden. It should be placed where it will be sheltered from cold winds. bold spike of creamy flowers. I and wistaria we cannot be too prodigal. of know There are certain plants and shrubs which have a special claim to be treated as "specimens. too familiar to need description. The pampas grass is another equally valuable It is plant. be used in the mass. honeysuckle. . and preferably in association is with other shrubs. which hardy and evergreen. White and scat- tered whites have a tendency to degrade the colours with which they are associated. and throws up a fine." affording us a means of adding interest to a lawn. its pure white petals softened and modified by the yellow anthers and their reflections.GARDEN MAKING walls in a thin sheet of uniform surface. and I essential that it no more beautiful feature for a garden than a dense group of Lilium candidum. jasmines. clematis. But white may be used in a if it way to produce an admirable effect It is be the right kind of white. 285 But of the climbing roses. One of the best of these is the yucca.

and the con- . before taken in hand. threading its way through the thicket. It was a hollow on a chalky hillside. arching and if possible background so freely. grass. its graceful. and spaces be planted if unsuitable for flower-growing. A rough spiral path was In the carried from the floor to the brink of the dell. the Shady corners. The former may be latter with alpines. whether the brick or masonry kinds so dear to the architect. had supported a straggling growth of hazel.286 GARDEN PLANNING it best placed in an isolated position where will have space to throw out foliage. should never be allowed to be bare. grass. which thrive best shade they have protection from cold winds. earlier which had been excavated at some period. or the rough rubble walls which with advantage may take their place. Soil had gravitated to the fine bottom. may in with ferns. native orchids were planted. An interesting feature in an English garden was called an "Orchid Dell" by the owner. and had become overgrown with the hazel Native ferns were planted freely about stems. and. for the it should have a foliage creamy plumes it produces Terrace walls. clothed with creepers.

In spite of our best efforts to beautiful at every point. mention as an instance of what may be done to beautify what by many would be regarded as a piece of waste ground suitable only as a dumping place exact the garden for garden is rubbish. but they take time to grow to sufficient the natural screen It Is size. A stable building. is In progress of well to erect a training temporary one of trellis.GARDEN MAKING ditions 287 common of the proved favourable to their welfare. by being wild The was entered through joy a natural arch I of traveller's this —the clematis. or other structure. garage. The bluebell. some quick-growing climbers upon it. necessary but unbeautiful. and primrose woods were added. possible An on almost counterpart spots most of of America. that ugly objects intrude into the picture. the flowers losing nothing in partial shade. being confined mainly to the steep banks. wild anemone. It will make the garden happen at times. offends the eye. The dell effect in spring was beautiful. it should be the gardener's care to conceal Much may and whilst development be done by planting trees and shrubs. and it. pottlng-shed. . unfortunately.

borders. and as something to examine and plant. Though I have emphasized the importance of studying the general effect. built substantially of stout materials. and then the should be a permanent structure. seen in two ways — as a pleasant place afford- A garden is ing a sense of space. and variety of form and colour. and of treatment adapted for securing a broad. In time the outlines of the garden become so familiar to the owner that they only feebly imin detail for its interest of flower press him.288 GARDEN PLANNING In certain cases there for the may be insufficient room trellis natural screen. and interesting picture. I regard it as equally important that the details should be as carefully studied. but I could not hope to exhaust I the subject within the limits of this chapter. Each garden provides its own particular set of problems. tions might enumerate a vast number of suggesand expedients for creating beauty in the garden details. and the main point for the garden maker is to be alive to opportunities for interesting work and to avail himself of them to the utmost. well-composed. repose. and other parts of the garden devoted to flower . but not so the beds.

289 The latter are ever changing with the seasons and growth of the plants. Is This. the result will be of value to the will garden as "finish. Whether his efforts are directed to the removal or concealment of some eyesore. and thus are places of perennial interest. or to providing a means of growing some specially interestwhich I Include planting — as work — in ing kind of plant. but if space permits may be made to serve the further purpose of growing flowers for cutting. Most garden owners are only too delighted to offer plants to their friends. which is perhaps the best practice. so far as they Involve constructive coming within the province of the garden designer. may is be placed wherever a con^ venlent spot associated available. I think. and the reserve . and regard such problems. A reserve plot It a useful adjunct to any it is is garden. sufficient reason for attention to the smaller I garden problems. or to the creation of some pleasing effect in colour. but most often It with a kitchen garden." that quality which of stamp his work with the character Is thoroughness. for raising just a place and pricking out It seedlings.GARDEN MAKING display.

It from which they may making gaps also conduces to economy.290 garden the is GARDEN PLANNING the place distribute surplus stuff without in beds. hardy perennials for nearly all the may so be to easily raised from seed in the reserve garden. and raise it is a source of much interest them. .

291 . always adding. Given a proper general plan to start with the details may elaborated step by step. walks." and the living area. Stanton. by Mr. C. it is pointed out that the land is surrounding the dwelHng divided into three parts —the service portion. all of which are here reproduced. the "front lawn. in for several years This has been splendidly illustrated an article in the Garden Magazine with the accompanying progressive plans. and so giving progressive octhe gardener for cupation ahead. The service portion including the drives. never tearing down.CHAPTER XXI The Evolution While equally it of an Ideal Lot is may be quite true that there it but also one ideal plan for any given place true is that the development of that particular plan fact that is may be by gradual growth — be often overlooked. Taking the typical suburban division.

and by delivery wagons coming to the house. should be determined first as these things are fundamental to the comfort of the occupants and affect the every-day activities. the accompanying plan. to its beauty). those parts which are necessary to the proper functioning of the estate. This area is to be kept as compact it as possible to save space. and so that it may be In readily shut from view of the living area. etc. has been placed on it the shady side of the house. there .. This has been enough to provide a setting for the house.292 GARDEN PLANNING (all the garage. While this large made only part is comparatively simple to develop. The front lawn area is that portion of the property that your fellow townspeople see as they walk by on the street. in order that may be hidden from the rest of the estate. but which we do not expect will add much of all. etc. the "sunny" we wish to develop. the clothes-yard. and so that people in the garden and on the piazza will not be bothered by the noises of the kitchen. as it is possible to have. This arrangement allows about as much land on the southern side that side of the house. and to bring it far enough away from the street with its dust and noise.

. used must be kept in Whatever harmony with the house. impossible to shut an objectionable piece of landscape from sight of all it points of the property. etc. private living area. shrubs. On the specimen plan (page 295) the spots that command block the fine views in the distance have been marked so that them out. so we strive to hide from the points that will be the most used. the places where we intend to put seats. It hide most of the undesirable of course. we will not by any chance The privacy can be secured trees.THE EVOLUTION OF AN IDEAL LOT are enough 293 ways of doing it to allow for plenty of originality in the design. that there are unlimited opportunities to show individual First we must that try to secure a certain amount of privacy. fences. etc. without shutting out any fine views we may be will is. The plan shows the places where the screens are to come that views. The great trouble with walls and hedges is that when they are tall enough to hide the inside from prying eyes. fortunate enough to have. It is in the planning of our own skill. however. is and we can take our choice. they are liable to be so tall . any terraces. These would be the piazzas. by the use of hedges. walls.

all " framed. as it allows such a great latitude in the choice of material. In (Fig. trees supply the shade and a shrub border is for privacy. and depend on the variety of material used to give the best The house is made to harmonize with its sur- . have been saved. which allow it to be wider in some places than in others. and perennials as a screen. 104) tall and act as screens. 103 to 105). sweeping curves. and three (preferably elms) the front lawn and the side- The good views and several of them walk. when it is properly designed. " Two trees shade the house. the average place nothing can equal "mixed border" of trees. in and give a chance to frame "surprises" into some of the bays which one cannot see until directly opposite them. are Methods of carrying out the rough outline shown (Figs.294 GARDEN PLANNING For the that they will obstruct our good views. On small lots better to have the outhne of the bed effects. shrubs. One should be rest careful in planning a border of this sort not to make it so large that it cramps the it is of the garden. a straight line. its The shrub border used in this plan has outhne composed of long.

103 Stage I ^The General Beginning shown on the following pages 295 Two progressive elaborations are .Fig.

104 garden features. (The view beginning of kept open) 296 .Stage II —Simple massing of screen planting and lines are Fig.

Stag£ III.Fig. —A garden of features developed upon the the plan 105 lines of shown on page 299 297 .

berry hedge is A Japan bar- used to keep animals and people from walking on the front lawn. the way. enclosed on three so that it sides by shrubs. base. or for the air to circulate. In this plan the flower garden consists of a small informal border of perennials. would be a good place to make a "surprise" of a bed of hardy ferns. but rather . note this point: it should not be placed where its bright colors will distract the eye from any bit charming of scenery beyond. but rather let one or two larger ones do the work. In locating the garden. it is It has been placed will get the sunshine during the greater part of the day. as they could be banked in around the seat there. where it is one of the many cases better to err on the side of underThis is doing rather than overdoing. These are at the corners for the best and may be placed so that they directly touch the house or there may be room left be- tween for a path. Do not plan too many small beds for the foundation planting. one can enjoy its beauty from there or from the This terrace. and should grow well in the shade. by small raised terrace opposite.298 GARDEN PLANNING its roundings by plantings near usually grouped effects. and as fairly near the house.

the shade trees are arranged a little differently. except that a low wall replaces the barberry hedge along the street front. possibly a seat. and to bring it far as a screen for the enough out into the lawn to make it serve Hving area. wild flowers. and leads one out to the terrace in the rear where there is a good seat. One would not grocer's want the using the turnstile in the corner. A feature is made same of the hemlock hedge. A stepping-stone walk between the hedge and a bed of flowering shrubs gives a chance for various surprises (fancy ferns. tion planting has been placed and the large corner bed of the foundaaway from the house to allow for a walk between. or . Here one the may either admire the view in the rear. but boy to get into the habit of it would be very handy to anybody hurrying out in that direction. and a grove of the material. 105) of carrying out the general idea has the service portion and the front much the same. or a bird-bath).THE EVOLUTION OF AN IDEAL LOT placed where it 299 will attract the it eye to itself in- wander to some unsightly object beyond the boundary and which you are stead of letting powerless to hide. Another method wall lawn area (Fig.

or a "half-barrel" in the centre of the lawn. is The garden enclosed on two sides by a wall. Some 1. on the third a hedge. such knoll.300 GARDEN PLANNING sunken garden straight ahead. but where the length is more than one hundred feet it is usually better to make it curved. a hedge. When making curves. cardinal principles involved are thus itemized: Keep the drive as short as possible. Looking is from the house. and by the two deciduous trees on the terrace. or making a flower bed. shrubs. 4. Any flower bed is better if it is enclosed. but very gradual and easy. the group of trees or shrubs. it is the rule some apparent reason for them. For the small place plan a straight drive. by and on the fourth by the retaining wall of the terrace. the good view in the rear en- hanced by the groups of cedars. By such means is variety obtained in our garden enclosures. to have as a 3. or com- . a well-designed fence. These curves should not be abrupt. For this purpose we may choose either a wall. except where doing so will bring it too much into prominence in the scenery. or a Keep lawns open! Especially avoid planting one shrub. 2.

Usually the vegetable garden would be il placed in the service portion of the place. and do not rely on young forest trees that grow big.THE EVOLUTION OF AN IDEAL LOT binations of these. there no reason It is why it cannot open off the living area. 3OI The small informal border if it is of flowers set into 5. do not plan to hide the entire base of the house. In designing the foundation planting. take care that the en- kept picked up fpom the lawn. fruit 6. and will appear 7. but. is if they be so used. much need. a real delight to many gardeners to have a chance to look over a well- kept vegetable garden. as gUmpses of the stone work are necessary to give the impression of strength and stability that are not attainable to sit when the house seems upon a mass of waving greenery. Remember that the more "surprises" one it can develop on an estate the larger 8. serving the dual purpose of supplying fruit and shade. may be enclosed on three sides one of the bays of the shrub border. especially may be used in the living area. Fruit trees. nOfERTY LIBRABT N. will seem. Do not so plant that a small place is tirely surrounded or it will be hot and stuffy in sumsmaller than it mer. C State Colkm . apple and pear. but it is well kept and can be subdued to is its propel relation.

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