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The Amateur's Book of

PLANNING YOUR GARDEN

The Amateur's Book of

the

Garden Series
of

Under the General Editorship

LEONARD BARRON

The Amateur's Book of

The Vegetable Garden
Planning Your Garden

Lawn-Making
House Plants

The Flower Garden The
Dahlla.

Gardening Lnder Glass

This suggestion for a small garden, looking east, embodies the author's ideas of having several points of interest. The placing of the walk to the north side and its change of direction at the dial takes full advantage of the conditions.

The Amateur's Book of the Garden Series .

GARDEN CITY. 1923. BY DOUBLEDAY. INCLUDING THAT OF TRANSLATION INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES. T First Edition THE COUNTRY . N. 1911. PAGE & COMPANY ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.COPYRIGHT. INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIAN PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES AT LIFE PRESS.

however. etc. designed for those use of the serviEither who are not inclined to make ces of a professional garden designer. cultivating. received One the meagre treatment the subject has hereas tofore compared with the more mechanical phases of garden making ing. methods. — plantvital.PUBLISHER'S PREFACE There are several is justifications for the ap- pearance of a book on Garden Planning. Another is the though often unappreciated. In either case he home grounds may who plans familiarize him- his self own garden will do well to with the principles. excessive cost or intense personal interest in the development of the effect this result. outdoorward tendencies. importance of the subject. especially in this day of countryward. and probable V results as set forth herein. the cash valuation of the The significance of work of the land- scape architect when contrasted with that of the gardener is not often grasped. . is This volume.

judgment. taste. .VI PUBLISHER S PREFACE The ultimate ideas of art. and harmony are not local but universal and this volume carries to the reader both the author's originality of treatment and the conventionality of theories well founded in long experience.

X. XII. Making Evolution of an Ideal Lot . XVI. XX.. XXI. VIII. IX.. 152 173 183 197 XV.. The Rock Garden The Rose Garden Water in the Garden The Vegetable Garden Glass Fences and Hedges Tile and Other Artificial Edgings Garden Plans Planting Further Considerations in Garden . Grass as a Foundation to Plan a Garden Sloping Gardens 70 87 108 127 141 How XIV. VII.. The Elements of the Garden Plan Making Beds and Borders . IV. XIII. III.. 207 212 229 236 263 XIX. Introductory 3 II. Construction of Walks and Drives ..CONTENTS I.. VI. XVIII.. V.. 279 291 . XVII. 9 28 45 51 . The Factors in Detail The Garden Picture The Rectilinear Principle . XI.

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17.. 13. 6.. 16. 83 The Carriage-turn Path Foundation Design for Brick Path Section of Brick Path Design for Composite Path Design FOR Stone Path Design for Stone Path Level and Straight-edge Tennis Court ix 89 90 95 18.ILLUSTRATIONS Perspective View of Garden FIGURE 1.. 4.. 11. 10. Trenching Drainage for Beds and Borders Shapes of Beds Shapes of Beds Relation Between Beds in a Group Entrance to Drive . 7. Frontispiece PAGE 2. 19.. 9. .. 3. 25. 23. 20. 21 25 48 54 59 60 61 62 65 68 73 . 14. 24.. 12.. 8. Diagrams Illustrating Aspect Houses on Plots of Irregular Shape Garden Styles Compared Expansion of Path Expansion of Path Expansion of Path Path Junction Curves in Paths The Grouping of Beds Correct Form for Group of Beds . 98 100 102 21. 106 106 116 117 . 5. 15. 22... . 76 80 81 .

. Dealing with a Transverse Slope Dealing with a Transverse Slope Steps Spreading Steps 145 .. . 45. 46. 42. 41. 47. 44. 54.. — — — 136 142 142 143 35. Croquet Court Acute Angles IN Grass Beds in Relation to Grass Shapes Typical Garden Plan OF Off-sets Arrangement OF Trees Terracing Sectional View Terracing Sectional View Terracing Sectional View Steps in Paths 118 121 .. 165 166 176 176 178 180 185 A Water Garden A Water Garden Soak-away Drain Ponds Tub for Water Plants Borders Through the Vegetable Plot Position for Vegetable Plots 187 189 53. 27. 37. Rocks in Relation to Soil Arrangement of Rock Masses Arrangements of Rock Masses Arrangements of Peat in the Rock Garden Rose Beds in Grass Rose Beds in Gravel A Long Rose Garden Planting Roses 162 163 . 52. 43. 49. 40. 146 149 150 160 161 38.. . 123 131 131 30. 34. . 144 . The Method 32... Earthwork in the Rock Garden RocKWORK Section . 29. 33. 31. 51. 36. . .. 28. 198 204 ... . 39. 50.X PICnXX ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE 26. 190 195 . 5556. 48.

Hedge Tops Planting Box Edging Edging Tile Brick Edgings The Plinth Brick as an Edging Stone Edgings Sections 226 227 230 232 233 — . Progressive Plans for a Typical Lot . Wooden Fencing Stretching Wire Fencing Open Wooden Fencing Larch Fencing Construction OF Trellis Screen Sections of 214 217 218 60. 62. 58. . 295-297 ) . 66..) 104.. 59.. 105.. 221 Hedge 225 63. 68. 65. 69 lOI 102. Garden Plans Arrangement of Herbaceous Border >• 270 103. d^. 234 239-262 ...ILLUSTRATIONS riGimE XI PAGE 57. 64. 220 . 61. .

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PLANNING YOUR GARDEN .

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and then in permitting them to guide him to a good result. as well as to those questions in which both horticulture and good taste play important parts. and envimeasure ronment. position.PLANNING YOUR GARDEN CHAPTER I Introductory to The planning of a garden involves many considerations connected attention with the its character and position of the site and sur- roundings. aspect. particular site presents a problem in and the art of the garden maker must be exercised first in studying the factors. Each when I come to details. Though garden making 3 in a large . What these factors are will appear itself. It is sufficient at the outset to state that they include such inherent conditions as soil.

as I shall show. as the in to grow one's flowers his it were better market gardener grows sion of cabbages will — rows. must always receive attention. so in garden making the conditions which make for the welfare of the flowers. abundant blossom.4 is GARDEN PLANNING controlled by principles based upon art. If that were so. and neatly kept grass and walks are the sole desiderata of gardening. This does not imply that successful flower culture is for that the be-all and end-all of gardening. would be to ignore the beauty of the It is garden picture. On the other hand. As in other first branches of applied art utility claims consideration. purely artistic considerations can only serve the designer when they are subordinated to the practical needs of horticulture. due weight to the picturesque. Mere is profu- bloom not condone any ill-planned enthusiast garden. without in the slightest measure discounting the value of the garden from a horticultural standpoint. The gardening too apt . to give possible. only is too frequently the mistake made of supposing that well-filled beds and borders. and the comfort and convenience of those who use the garden.

There must be no exaggeration of special no discordant note to worry the eye. no forcing of The size of the garden . If common-sense principles. be allowed to control the design. unity of effect. in the sense of successful flower culture. 5 him He sees the individual but not the crowd. be agreeable and plain features. the result will not only make for beauty. and the general picture must be distinguished by balance. in the than as elements way of a painter of pictures. is artistic principles. will sailing.INTRODUCTORY to permit his pride in the flowers to blind to the value of a garden picture. It were better he should adopt the standpoint of the landscape gardener. however treatment on truly first small. who thinks less of plants as plants in a composition. before it appeal to the eye as a whole claims attention in detail. The garden. thing in the garden must be interdependent. is amenable to and the thing to recognize It should that it must be homoEvery- geneous. effects. and a studied harmony of line and mass. but gardening. based upon full knowledge and recognition of the governing factors of the problem.

planning for symmetry. whose knowledge and skill can hardly be expected to rank high in this department outlines are the of his work. Possibly the commonest error is to ignore aspect. all planned to a common type. Gardens which are made haphazard are rarely successful. essentials. just as and just in as difficult. When the gardener himself has taken the pains to model his garden to suit his own more arise views of what it should be. garden after garden in monotonous succession. which is hardly ever consistent . others neglected. The same It is general principles largely a question apply both cases. yet the majority of small gardens have been so made.6 GARDEN PLANNING It is hardly enters into the question. or attention to. obvious. easy. probably conceived and made by the speculative builder's foreman. of scale. How often do The inference is we not see. but the same in all. to plan a large garden as a small one. from the vantage point of some suburban railroad journey. Some may be neat and well kept. the result is often than not marred by mistakes which from hastiness and an inadequate knowledge of.

do not intend to enumerate here all the shortcomings of the modern suburban garden. when applied to gardens of limited includes economy of space. making the most of the space available. or. and the very flower. Skilful planning.INTRODUCTORY 7 with the best arrangement for flower growing in is a plot of limited size. in other this is words. I hope to make them sufficiently apparent when I enter into a more detailed statement of the principles which I believe should govern the plicity I planning of such gardens. Grass and gravel are allowed to usurp positions best adapted to flower culture. whilst long stretches of bor- der in perpetual shade hold a few starved plants. necessity for the must have full access to our beds and . particularly size. in The craze for symmetry prevails too strongly modern garden planning. futility of expecting nature to heed our notions of Sunshine. thereby destroying sim- and breadth of effect. Another mistake to over-elaborate. And only possible by giving proper consideration to aspect. whose sorry condition proclaims the equal-sidedness. the life and soul of the vegetable first kingdom.

unless circumstances (as in the case of redundant trees) permit of our bodily removing their cause.8 GARDEN PLANNING and this is only them where the Therefore it is borders. receives no sunlight. a necessary preliminary to the planning of a small garden to observe which parts of it enjoy full sunshine and which parts lurk in perpetual shadow. shadows may be cast by trees and buildings on neighbouring These shadows are as rocks to the careful navigator. in northern latitudes. things to be given a wide berth. and permanent premises. . to be contrived bysunlight can placing reach them. The north side of the house or of a garden wall.

a highly important In acquirnot always pos- home for many considerations carry weight it is with the purchaser that sible him to be» over-fastidious if about the garden. after a if fashion. with the object of securing the best possible arrangement of the outlines before he commences to plant it. not. he will naturally decide upon that one which has the best garden site.CHAPTER The Factors The ing a II in is Detail question of site so one from the gardener's standpoint. If the house has been previously occupied he will find the garden already made.. Whatever may have been done before he takes possession should not deter him from starting de novo. though. 9 . On find a stretch of virgin it the other hand he soil may awaiting his good pleasure to give shape. equally desirable. he have the choice bein other respects tween two or more houses. the same may hold good.

winds from the north. A garden surrounded by a high wall also will have the disadvantage of the wall shadows on the southern boundaries. Most generally the country plot has no lack of sunshine. it not possible to avoid a considerable shadow itself. their low temperature and east do damage by . therefore. from the house will but intelligent planning meet this case. the cold On the other hand.lO GARDEN PLANNING In considering the desirability of a garden site is under these circumstances the main thing to see that the plot receives a fair measure of sunshine. But other disabilities may exist. amongst which the absence of shelter may be the most important one. The tenant. Naturally such questions arise most often town and suburban gardens where houses and gardens adjoin. should see how the site lies. In the open country different considerations may prein connection with sent themselves. both in relation to the prevailing winds and to the cold winds of winter and spring. is With a house facing south. Gales from the west and south-west are often very destructive to trees and plants by reason of their force alone. north-east.

partly by higher ground or trees to the west and south-west. one which sheltered is open to the south and preferably sloping slightly in that direction. compiled shows the relative heat-absorbing capacities of various soils. which intimately connected with temperature. and in most cases the tenant has to be content with something short of what he would wish.9 . ''cutting" and destroying growth. . The following table. as I shall show. . The is ideal site for a country plot. the country the its is the question of the dryness of is soil. assuming lOO as the standard: Sand with some lime Pure sand Light clay . The warmth is of a site. but. influenced by the nature by Schiibler.THE FACTORS IN DETAIL II and dryness. therefore. other things being equal. and retarding the life young progress of plant generally. Another point more likely to crop up in east. and thus affects the welfare of the flowers. of the soil. he may do much by artificial means to make good the shortcomings of the site. lOO 95-6 76. and wholly sheltered to the north and north- Such sites are not easy to find.

8 49-0 The coldness of a damp site is due to the is absorption of heat resulting from evaporation. may value the panoramic prospect to the be obtained from an eminence. or gas works should disqualify an otherwise desirable . finding pleasures of his garden enhanced by the landweight. When the prospective garden owner able to purchase rather than merely to rent the property the question of the garden site receive may well more earnest consideration. One person may account may another desire prefer his and on that small domain circumto scribed by natural limits the view. Individual tastes differ greatly on the ques- tion of what is or is not a valuable seclusion. but scape beyond.1 Brick-earth Humus 68. Other considerations in all cases the may have proximity of an eyesore in the immediate surroundings is to be avoided.12 GARDEN PLANNING Heavy Chalk clay 71. waste land scattered with rubbish. Ugly buildings. site. small property inhabited by undesirable people. factory.4 61. a cemetery.

THE FACTORS IN DETAIL site. or in the treeless field. 1 unless it were feasible to screen those means. other hand. The next is the land with a view to discovering sic fitness for its intrin- purpose as a garden. A house perched upon a hilltop. tion. A uniform slope. plot It is therefore a great gain the some well-grown trees. The presence of old hedgerows and bushes includes should also be welcomed. and which will at once confer a certain distinction on the site. is slight and in a southerly direcit preferable to a dead level. as ensures . thing to examine its objects by artificial Thus far I have dealt with questions exter- nal to the site. particularly of limited extent. and present difficulties to gardener which he had best avoid. which embrace considerable slopes are appointing. The contour point. which may take many years to if redeem. variety of contour is the the On a gain. which may be utilized for shelter. of the ground if is an important dis- Sites. as to utilize it is often possible them in the garden scheme. has a bleak. oflFer- ing suggestions for picturesque treatment and giving character to if the garden picture. forbidit centre of a ding aspect.

having done so. involve In a large plot the matter difficulty. which in most cases will be suggested by the lay of the ground and by its aspect. how likely to meet one's In a comparatively small plot the process will be a simple one. By far doing so it is it is possible to judge just ideal. which rarely harmonizes with the other elements of the garden plan. and more often than not usurps space that otherwise could be utilized with advantage to the garden picture. or have only a moderate slope. giving due weight to the natural features of the ground and its surroundings as factors in the arrangement. Happy the dener will gar- who is content to forego this feature. and the artificial contours thus created become unduly obtrusive. In further considering the desirability of a given site it is well to try to fix provisionally the position for the house. but sine when a tennis lawn is a qua non it is desirable that some portion of the ground should be level. to endeavour to form a mental picture of the main elements of the garden. and.14 GARDEN PLANNING natural drainage. otherwise much expense will be entailed in excavating and banking up. may more as alternative .

has already been made of to the heat-absorbing qualities various In forming a judgment on the suitability of a particular site for gardening purposes it is essential to ascertain the nature. The linked question of the house site is so closely up with the treatment of the garden that I strongly advise this preliminary survey before purchasing the plot. No decision should of made until the possibilities the site have been thoroughly tested from every standpoint. the may The vary even within comparatively restricted limits of a garden site. so that even those accus- tomed to forming may be misled by a judgment on the subject a superficial examination. the plot trenches is should be points.THE FACTORS IN DETAIL 1 positions for the house will suggest themselves and be call for consideration. say. or top soil. at least four feet deep. opened out at various and subsoils particularly. not only of the surface the subsoil. but of If This can only be done by having of considerable extent. Soil — Reference relative soils. surface soil is not always very closely related to the subsoil. a series of a trench dug. . because soils.

according to weather and rainfall. the surface soil will water-logged or baked to dryness. and light loams are preferable to clay but where clay and sand are found in admixture. Sand. The dryness of a site depends mainly upon the facility with which the rain-water can soil. indeed. available in winter when snow has That ground from which the snow is soonest disappears obviously the warmest. as in some of the clay loam types the condition would not preclude good gardening. Clay percolate through the is relatively impervious to water. is quainted with the A stiff clay subsoil to to be avoided. and the distance from the surface of the subsoil Water. effective drainage. soils. the rose grower would find a soil of this description one of the best for his particular purpose. as it is not amenable gravel. when a layer of this material is found near be either the surface. Information on this particular point generally may be obtained from local people well acsite.l6 GARDEN PLANNING good criterion of the relative warmth of is A soils fallen. A gravelly soil of considerable depth on a . consequently.

unless the purchaser were prepared money in importing material for his flower beds and borders. If drained naturally. gardener. to find has sufficient depth It Is to admit of proper tillage. great detriment. generally associated with a gravelly subsoil. The presence of stones in the surface soil. abilities as stiff clay land. it is an ideal one for the is A coarse gravel subsoil soil not objectionable. topped with good loam. Soils overlying rocky formations must be judged by their quality and depth. not unusual. as such a soil all Is IN DETAIL Is 1 things considered. they suffer from the same disshallow. On sloping ground the stones . but not uncommonly with stony clays.THE FACTORS gentle slope. the surface soil Is When and the rock impervious to water. gravel overlaid with the merest film of loam. in which case the land would be unsuitable to spend for general gardening purposes. the best. provided the surface however. with not too liberal an ad- mixture of stones. but if is no they are in sufficient quantity to hamper the gardener he would have to resort to picking or screening to reduce their number.

Much may be soils be done by the gardener to improve soil. with sand. Made ground which has long remained undisturbed — . but no meet the case if the subsoil is unsuitable. and might be perfectly hopeless for horticulture. to select one on which the soil is neither too heavy nor too light. and involve labour and expense in heavy manuring. and clay light. ashes.iS will GARDEN PLANNING be found In greater quantity at the lower if levels. It is therefore rendered more amenable to will advisable. when the purchaser has a choice of sites. Another point in the selection of a site is to made ground the composition of which may be anything from gas lime to meat tins. a naturally undesirable treated Light soils may with clay or muck. By these additions the of the surface layer may be modified and treatment of the surface tillage. which in a large garden may be a heavy one. These operations necessarily imply outlay. Light. particularly" the land has been in cultivation. and other porous nature materials. A site of this kind would afford many unavoid pleasant surprises to the gardener. sandy soils suffer from drought.

THE FACTORS and it is IN DETAIL IQ made — not often offered for sale is when newly is generally so thickly covered with its surface growth that ficially character not supertrench apparent. pasture has certain ad- vantages. it may be effectual converting into a good garden. recently been in cultivation. because greater depth of surface soil. itself as Here again the trial suggests a wise precaution. in because the existence of peat implies waterDrainage. There may be some soil it additional labour needed to bring the condition. because . always pro- vided that the nature of the subsoil permits of draining it thoroughly. however. in it most has a cases preferable to pasture. and constant it working and manuring have brought to the best consistency for the gardener's purpose. site. but against that into working may be possible to preserve part of the pasture as grass. Aspect — In gardens of small is size the ques- tion of aspect perhaps the most important factor for the gardener to consider. On the other hand. Peat land does not constitute a good logging. and thus avoid the necessity for turfing or sowing. is Land which has either as arable or garden ground.

as show when I come to treat the garden design in detail.20 GARDEN PLANNING the size of his garden will be measured. In these three figures I have shown the shadow traces of the house and garden walls. employ the term to to is express that point directed. I can best illustrate the relative values of aspect by a series of diagrams. / shall have to refer repeatedly to the aspect of a site by the points of the compass^ and to prevent possible confusion I had better here state that I shall J in every case. . not so much by of space also is length and breadth as by the amount Aspect which receives full sunlight. whilst the east and west sides receive sun only in the morning and evening respectively. the study of which should serve to make the matter clear. Thus the north side of houses. and other fixed by a objects receive absolutely no sunshine. zvhich the ^^ house fronf^ The sun to west in our latitude passes from east sweep to the south. trees. the key to the successful planning of I shall the small garden. These are cardinal facts to be borne in mind by all who undertake to plan a garden of restricted size.

I. But if has good flower effects the fore-court. A southern aspect implies that flower culture Fig. — Diagrams illustrating aspect will be discounted a fancy for in the space immediately the gardener in to the rear of the house. he should select a southern aspect. An eastern or western aspect .THE FACTORS distinguishing full IN DETAIL partial 21 shadow from shadow by the depth of shading. or front lawn.

22 will give a GARDEN PLANNING shady strip on the north best that side of the house. At the same time. as The altitude of the sun varies according to season. where considerations of privacy do not carry so much weight. The House in Relation to the Site — When the purchaser of a building plot decides upon . as well time of day. would be practically negligible. in like house will vary The shadow of manner for the same reason. therefore. as trees and other fixed objects may exist on the site or in its immediate vicinity. walls and fences need not be so high. which may be good or bad according to is circumstances. and their shadows. thus admitting of flower growing at the side of the house upon which the living rooms look out. side should It the shady be that on which the kitchen and its offices are situated. and thus the shadow of a wall running east and west will be narrowest at noon in midsummer and widest in the morning and afternoon the in midwinter. These shadow diagrams represent a mean of what would actually be found. In open country sites. the shadow question must not be overlooked.

into It take both factors consideration when placing the house upon little its site. so that he may not be hampered when he comes to make his garden. . he rarely gives will thought to the question of how the garden be affected. and.THE FACTORS the position for his IN DETAIL 23 house. It is mobiles it is also useful for securing a measure of privacy. the purchaser must give careful thought to the placing of his house. With a north- ern aspect the house shadow will preclude any ambitious gardening display in the forecourt. In these days of narrow if frontages there is latitude in a direction transverse to the length of the plot. because they are closely correlated. and there is no need to allot more space to it than may be required to secure the two objects just mentioned. but to some extent by the always desirable. In a thoroughfare used by autoa necessity. if the gardener. A fore-court is only to ensure that the road dust does not find access to the house. This question will be governed largely tastes of by aspect. elled to fit He assumes in that it may is be modbetter to with the house. economy of garden space is to be considered.

but constitute a valuable charm in the outlook from the front porch and windows. as upon that decidepend the subsequent success or before a decision sion will non-success of the garden. obliquely to the plots small rarely little look well. cannot be questioned that flowers about the house front not only enhance the good appearance of the house. the ground falls toward the road- it may be desirable to place the house on the higher ground at the back of the plot. thus bringing the principal garden space to the front. because that would divide the garden space on either side into two equal not equally well conditioned It is is for flower culture. with a southern aspect the fore-court should not be stinted in space. A detached house should not be set centrally in the width of the portions plot. e. StaU . Houses garden set askew boundaries — — on i.. and the arrangement creates no difficulty when the task of designing the garden ERTY USURY ColUnt C. All these points call for careful consideration is made. better to place it so that the widest space When way on the sunny side.24 GARDEN PLANNING On for it the other hand.

THE FACTORS has to be undertaken. most nearly makes a right angle with the road but in some cases it may be best to set the house front parallel with the roadway. 2. is bounded by converging house with that boundary which lines it is usually best to set the sides parallel with line. IN DETAIL 25 I am strongly opposed any conditions which necessitate the use of triangular areas as elements in the garden to Fig. — Houses on plots of irregular shape design. because such shapes invariably suggest formality. . ignoring the side boundaries. When its the plot and have other disadvantages.

secures a consistent garden. In. This is usually as- sumed outlay to be so small an item in the total that it is left out of consideration . From the foregoing It is not unusual for house builders to defer their work. so that they may exchange notes. who thereby design for house and thorough understanding between the two craftsmen lightens the task of both.26 GARDEN PLANNING In plots of more Irregular shape the question must be settled according to circumstances. A and precludes an Incongruous result. is The and has to make the best of those spaces which are left then called A wiser course is to bring architect in the first In- and garden designer together stance. A further point Is the question of outlay to be made on the garden. It will be seen how intimately the position of the house in relation to the shape and size of the plot is bound up with the garden plan. and each work out his plan in accordance with such decisions as they upon. consideration of the garden until the architect and builder have completed garden designer to him. may mutually agree Such a course Is eminently to the advantage of the owner of the site.

he calls Then help It Is that. fair Is a trifling total and is it invariably justifies itself. whereas. bill run pays a larger incurred had local nurseryman and in the long than he would have a he secured the services of a competent designer. In the of to "lay out" his garden. 27 the The result is that house builder discovers that the expense of building. and make a contract for the work on the best available.THE FACTORS IN DETAIL altogether. with mistaken views as to the economy of the transaction. A allotment of money to the garden at the beginning the total. The cost sum on the of a good design outlay. If a properly prepared plan Is owner may obtain competitive prices from two or more nurserymen. with the inevitable "extras. at the same time securing an indifferent result. the house terms. charges what he likes. ten per cent of ." has mounted up to such a sum that he must perforce economize on the garden. The nurseryman who works out his own plan.

slope. in which the garden and house 28 . he will. course. In the gardener. and these will offer the gestions for its first treatment. be well The contours. The natural conditions of the ground must studied. The shape and of boundaries will be important. the gardener cannot be too clear in specifying his exact requirements. of in first it must be adapted to the special requirements of the If he is his own designer. The aim all of the designer should be to bring these factors into a consistent and pleasing combination. its general character from the local conditions and environment.CHAPTER III The Garden Picture The design of a garden should take instance. and sugits aspect of the plot are the first factors to be considered. have these requirements another makes the design. equally so the position and shape of the house. always if mind.

To ensure practical realization of this effect. have little meaning if they are not intimately correlated with some effect in the all third dimension. It is governed by principles identical with those understood by the painter as "composition. The lines of the plan. merely defining the spaces beds. grass. its A garden at development should be a thing of height as well as of length and stages of breadth. representing as they do the projection of the design on the horizontal plane only. The designing of a garden is a process akin to the artist's conception and execution of a picture. and be devoted to borders. Here will be well to warn the designer new to the work against planning for mere effect on paper. It is only by studying the effect plane that a successful is in the vertical artistic and is result realizable. gravel. The plan a skeleton to affair. therefore. the designer must ever bear in mind ." which may be defined as a general the principal balance of effect obtained without the use of a too marked symmetry in features of the design.THE GARDEN PICTURE are in entire it 29 harmony with each other.

symmetry On the treatment of certain be governed with parts of the garden may advantage of symmetry.30 the plants GARDEN PLANNING — flowers. . the contrary. aspect. by summer minor houses. and other structures which have a well-recognized place in the garden. pergolas. against observing it these injunctions must not be understood that they apply with the same force to details. Many complaints of undue formality have In their basis in the existence of a meaningless symmetry. such as arches. trees. but for the reason that rarely consistent with a design which gives due weight to the all-important factor. I cannot too strongly urge the importance eliminating of symmetry from the general it garden picture. not only because a precludes practical picturesque it is efi"ect. it may be noted also that he has within option to supplement these natural factors others of an artificial kind. For instance. a one-sided arrange- by considerations ment would be opposed to good practice. and shrubs — with which It his his outlines will be filled in. in introducing a group of beds for effect on the lawn.

THE GARDEN PICTURE particularly if 3 associated with a grass plot of regular shape. Just what constitutes formality. from a central They will produce a formal effect. an error not infrequently made in planting with conifers and other evergreens. particularly when the gardener has not adopted means of building vertical plane. Complexity in detail may suggest formality. The repetition of some conspicuous feature at regular intervals also makes for formality. 31). it may be well here to discuss. It may ably in arise from several causes. at equal distances feature. another cause neglect to preserve a proper scale in the It various details. cause may be injudicious planting. might be concluded that the use of straight lines and right angles would . sentinel-wise. as usually understood. Unquestionis the most common one symmetry Another the general lines of the design. by proclaiming too is insistently Still the artificial character of the garden. up a well-considered picture in the Such mistakes only need to Trees planted be recognized to be corrected. would be better arranged so that no two subtend the same angle in the line of sight (see Fig.

and made to give character to the garden as a whole. deal with this part of the subject in in the next chapter. the most efficient means it of securing an informal result. in dens the use of straight combination is with a studied simplicity of treatment. and variety in planting so as to secure a good effect in the vertical plane. Another factor in the attainment of the . because his enables the designer to har- monize plan with the shape of the garden boundaries. about which I have already warned the reader. in small garlines. nor is it opposed to simplicity of treatment. more detail — variety opposed I must here emphasize the value of variety in outline and variety in shape as — to too frequent repetition of similar shapes.32 lead GARDEN PLANNING inevitably to a formal result. Such is not the case. Such variety must be carefully thought out. It is just the avoidance of undue repetition of lines and shapes. This does not imply over-elaboration. On the contrary. the use of curved lines only serve to render too conspicuous I shall the rigid outlines of these boundaries. On may the other hand.

This may be arranged by judicious screening. so contrived that the The planning should be as it is various garden features are seen one at a time traversed from end to end. their Nothing is more delightful than to pass along such a border." not well to aim at giving too comprehen- sive a view of the garden from any one point. and incidentally this arrangement has value in affording shelter to the smaller and more tender plants lying between robuster companions. Its is presents is a rather monotonous if vista. charm greatly enhanced the process partly reversed. Again. Much may and other objects be done in the with flowers tall planting to attain this very desirable quality. filled carefully graded in height. so that here and there a is bold clump of flower or foliage allowed to push forward.THE GARDEN PICTURE picturesque It is is 33 what I may term "reticence. the garden may be divided up into . finding something new and unexpected every few yards. A long herbaceous border. for which trees. shrubs. trellises. the ones all standing at the back and the short ones in front. arches. may be employed. thereby screening what lies beyond.

and in part by simplicity of character in the / principal details of the design. Each itself section of the garden its is complete yet wedded to neighbour. which. each a separate factor in the complete picture. In other words. the treatment must include that artistic quality known as "breadth. to reach an old-fashioned garden which. between well-filled borders. leads to a shady grass plot." may here state that ." This is to be giving attained in part by the opening up of vistas. He must whilst points. One frequently hears the term I "a natural a natural garden. pleasant peeps from certain convey a sense of space. down we may thread a Passing pergola clustered with flowering climbers.34 GARDEN PLANNING come into full separate compartments. in turn. He has other factors to consider. contrive a series of vistas. to the vegetable garden. by another in flower-flanked path. or. each to view only when It is entered. and all united in a consistent and harmonious whole. The It is task of the designer does not stop at this point. essential that the picture should not be merely a group of closed-in compartments.

viz.. there- must be so contrived as not to reveal too patently the means by which they are produced. which she can do far better than he can It should is ever be remembered that the highest art effects fore. in The which we create our gardens. in the sense of a garden which shall spectator into believing that he is deceive the is looking at a piece of pure nature. that which conceals art. I it is must now repose. but also involves a . By as the observance of this principle we get the nearest approach to a natural garden. inasmuch of the examples of nature's work as it then impress us more strikingly than the work the garden designer — and this is should be. Repose is closely correlated with it breadth of treatment. the hand of Nature to fill in the outlines. He must rely upon able. tell her.THE GARDEN PICTURE 35 garden within the limits of four square boundarywalls. The gardener provides the home and the occupant and there his work ends. refer to a further quality which important to introduce into the garden. unattain- Nor is it desirable that we should strive to make such a garden. Yet Nature cannot be left out of the question.

place. it is only necessary to see that they exist for a definite purpose (not merely because the designer thinks they help the outlines on his paper plan) and that they do not sprawl aimlessly about the plot. or at least should not consist of a number of scattered pieces. Let the grass. it it As far as possible should exist in a single stretch. the Apart from questions of tennis and croquet. And so with the beds and borders. cutting it up into awkward shapes. or to enjoy one's thoughts or thoughts of take another between the covers of a book. the borders.36 GARDEN PLANNING proper proportioning of the main elements of the design. a place where the feet may escape the "crunch " of gravel. grass is a valuable background to the flowers. Grass. in . As regards the walks. therefore. its proper and be duly proportioned to the rest. more than any other feature. grass. It is little short of vandalism to fret the lawn into a lace-work of fantastically fashioned beds. and one may find perhaps a corner bathed in shadow. from which to look out upon one aspect of the garden picture. and walks. helps to secure a feeling of repose.

and that to preserve the outlines of such beds is it necessary to fill them with puny pinching. are plants. circle. The more elaborate the form of the bed the more time and labour will be expended in preserving its geometry. Better to adopt a simple rectangle square. moreover. The result is that the bed is exalted above the flower. and the less enjoyment will be derived from the flowers. which. and crosses. by constant prevented from developing their natural charm of form and character. should realize that an acute angle is an awkward one to which to adapt his flowers. Beds in grass are sometimes admirable features in the general scheme. crescents. The maker of stars and crescents. if modelled on simple shapes. the flowers spread on to the as so long they grow under natural . Nature does not grow her flower groups within the rigid limits of five-pointed stars. if or and to be not too particular grass. exciting no more worthy emotion than an admiration for the gardener's patience and skill with the turf trimmer.THE GARDEN PICTURE which geometry is 37 invoked to provide the gardener with inspiration. and the whole device becomes a mere formal patch of colour.

The house also may provide the theme. either by the use of shrubs. it have already made this is design must grow out of the garden and only another way of saying that its the garden must harmonize with surroundings. The first care of the designer.38 GARDEN PLANNING conditions and yield their harvest of blossom. and then the garden must be designed to harmonize with its outlines and character. or the presence of a natural pond or — Whatever it be. therefill should be to rises in the angles where the house above the ground. A house permitted to stand up bleak and naked from an expanse of gravel or turf will always wear an aspect of aloofness from the stream. site and There may be some conspicuous natural feature on the site which would furnish a knoll. as circumstances may dictate. a drop in a theme for the designer level. it may be utilized on which to build up the other details. as a basis garden. or by placing borders against the house wall. . trimming I tool. fore. The outlines they create under such treatment blend softly with the turf. and are far more sightly than the hard edges fresh from the clear that the garden itself.

Paint should be sparingly used. utterly ruined by the introduction of garish and incongruous accessories. slavishly site. to import these too The garden maker cannot be against watchful features. the use of inharmonious arches. the stronger apparently the temptation eyesores. should not be allowed to influence the designer. yet the perpetrator be designed details . and its colour should be chosen so as not to compete with the flowers. dials.THE GARDEN PICTURE Preconceived ideas. and their and mode of construction should be simple and unostentatious. copied on another may be a dismal failure. but. which for crudity and ill-taste would be hard to match. acquired before the has 39 site been thoroughly surveyed. The smaller the plot. pergolas. The by picturesque character of a garden may in be marred as sins much by sins of commission as of omission. and garden seats should to suit the garden. Your neighbour's taste garden may be a model of good and successful horticulture. I have seen a wide expanse of trellis painted canary yellow. if at all. There are gardens which no expense has been spared to ensure a splendid succession of bloom. Such accessories as summer houses.

there may be still room for mistakes in the use of garden accessories. of scale in a They are generally out small garden. was content to grow nasturtiums upon quite unconscious art.40 GARDEN PLANNING it. mechanical If models. with advantages on the score of appearance. and cast-iron vases should be used with caution. possesses he any of these curiosities let in a special a place for them apart him find museum. and sea-shells into his garden. associated with structure. Given discretion in excluding the inartistic and incongruous. what better means can be found its than allowing some pretty creeper to scramble over it. The gardener must* be if hoplessly depraved he admit such objects as minerals. china. and never quite a terrace satisfactory unless wall. If "rustic" the work is rarely is in summer house to be decorated. of having outraged the canons of The good so-called taste.^ outline and loading it with bloom Terra-cotta. softening . or some place similar In most stout cases their could be taken by oaken tubs. They may be selected so as not to be in proper .

or with that part of the garden in which they are to be installed. Again. as far as possible rules by the help The golden Simplicity. maker decide of both. fitness though a sense of knowledge and good may come from Let the garden sense. the pointed roof for constituting the admirably adapted apex or summit of the garden picture. attach much value to the summer house It as a suitable device for the purpose. other words. In these matters the designer's instincts must guide him to the attainment of what is correct. are: Use before ornament. a point of interest to which itself the eye will naturally direct before it can I properly appreciate the general effect.THE GARDEN PICTURE 4I scale with the garden. in a focus. Scale. and to is therefore "led its up to^' in such a this way as enhance usefulness is for purpose. Good proportion is largely a matter of intuition. As every garden picture must have or. makes a very natural terminal to the principal path. This particularly applies to . . Appropriateness. Sound construction.

by detail later means which harmony. is a most desirable addition to anygarden. weather- proof. and. I shall make I reference to the kitchen garden. both as a picturesque feature in the design and as a useful retreat in hot or rainy weather. contrasts too conspicuously with the flower ground. it On the left in full view. where the reduced owner desires to reserve a plot for vegetables. It is best to take both factors into considera- tion when making I the garden design. and placed so that its open side is in shade. if is screened off. Though I am writing in the main in the in- terest of flower lovers. In small gardens. A well-constructed summer house. is the apparent size of the garden if the vegetable ground other hand. before it Is new possible to utilize the trees as conspicuous elements in the picture. Of other garden accessories I shall have occasion to treat in their proper place. to blend flower and kitchen garden into the garden vistas In this way may . however small. and here may it point to the out that flower it is often feasible to so it wed ground that materially helps the garden picture.42 GARDEN PLANNING gardens. shall describe in on.

is The It truly artistic garden full one in its which the plant has character. If fruit trees be planted in the kitchen plot. and well-kept garden is apt to lead the gardener into a ruthless trimming and pinching of plants." The striving after a neat. Yet it is worth noting. It is one of the things which can trim. There is only one other point to emphasize.THE GARDEN PICTURE 43 be lengthened without curtailing the vegetable space. particularly fruit is grown. and that has reference to garden management rather than to garden making. and has no respect for artificial boundaries. be made and even the tenants of the latter may in some measure to contribute to the if garden picture. scope to de- velop wants elbow-room. be too well done. There are certain practical considerations in town and suburban gardens which demand that the vegetables should be grown in that part of the plot most remote from the house. its the blossom in season is is valuable at a time when the flower garden its but little advanced toward summer display. it pushes out its foliage across the . It Is a sin to curb and mutilate the plant because. I refer to what some gardeners call "tidiness. forsooth.

Let it sprawl in reason. GARDEN PLANNING Rather let it enjoy its liberty. The occasional plant which has more than repaid of your care by exceeding its neighbour in vigour growth deserves encouragement. . And. I certain this plants so that they would even designedly place may behave in manner.44 path. She gives a character to each one of her creations. lastly. It will soften the edge of your border and redeem the straightness of its line. like the wooden models in a child's Noah's Ark. and to introduce the very essence of formality into the garden. To trim all trees to a uniform shape. Nature is always right. viduality is to destroy their indi- and charm. which is its birthright. beware of the too liberal pruning of trees and shrubs.

CHAPTER IV The Rectilinear Principle I NOW the propose to enter more intimately practical details Into ing. Its four boundaries are straight so restricted and its area that these boundaries are only too obvious to the person standing within them. of garden design- The suburban garden is is usually a rectangle. The problem. squarely within garden boundaries. is square at the its angles. which by no ingenuity of contrivance can be suppressed. 45 . We cannot Ignore the fact that the skeleton on which we have to build our garden plan is a thing of straight lines and right angles. is therefore. The house placed rightly so. for the garden designer to evolve a style of planning that will best harmonize with these elements. of and Thus the problem Is designing the details of the garden conditions which encompassed by demand special consideration. lines.

but. at first sight. the case is different. . but they would individually and collectively remain in perma- nent discord with the rectilinear boundaries. this Let us consider the alternative: would involve the use of curves or irregular lines. principle. this It might. plot. On garden plots of larger size. which. even if bounded by straight lines. and experience has shown the only successful method of solving I the problem. Usually means may be adopted in such cases to sufficiently mask the fences or walls. objection disappears. owing to the larger area of the would never be obtrusive. It should be understood that the problem under consideration is the planning of a garden of moderate size. which would at once establish a new factor in the problem. The curves might be laid down with the utmost skill with a view to obtaining a unity inter se. emphasizing their squareness." have termed it the "rectilinear appear to imply the very essence of formality. to which type of garden alone I should apply the rectilinear treatment. under careful scrutiny.46 GARDEN PLANNING The treatment that it is I advocate is based upon the use of straight lines.

In some form or other it has been in use by garden planners since the days of the ancient Egyptians. it by the introducand sinuous edges to object is to show that these devices do not achieve their purpose. 3.THE RECTILINEAR PRINCIPLE I claim 47 no novelty for the rectilinear system. I may call it the rectangular symmetrical style. tion of winding paths their My it. but not always applied in a to secure the best possible results. Its faults . The use of straight lines does not preclude variety and the other factors which make to for picturesque effect. It in has crystallized into a permanent feature many city lots. Therefore I exclude from the rectilinear system any arrangement which gives equal-sidedness to the garden. way Modern gardeners. having acquired a horror of formal effect. but rather defeat The question must be tackled of formality in a small garden in another way. it But when allied an obvious symmetry does engender formality. These points will be better appreciated by reference to Fig. have sought to avoid borders. At A is shown the type of garden only too common.

too symmetry of pronounced to be capable in the planting. is Such a garden would Its handicap the flower grower. and would elude the gardener .48 are GARDEN PLANNING many and obvious. It is not correlated with aspect. 3. and therefore does not make the most of the space. It has no distinction. Its being is masked circuit path ABC Fig. — Garden it styles compared a waste of gravel and a waste of space.

. and includes no shapes which would be difficult to attack with a mower. which implies dignity and harmony. that the main fences. Such a garden could be planted with the best results effect. to prevent misappreis hension. The keynote is simplicity. lines are with boundary natural and therefore appear as a suggestion from those boundaries. The confined to a single area. but mission in its because its lines are out of harmony with its is boundaries. in securing a really artistic general It may be remarked. In last example parallel it will full be the seen that the principal borders enjoy sun.THE RECTILINEAR PRINCIPLE 49 in who sought fullest sense. that the path has a definite purpose the traffic it — to take leads — where the attraction of the flowers and that it begins and ends somegrass is where. a simple application of the rectilinear C of principle. to make it picturesque the B is the garden which hopes to avoid forfails mality by the use of curves. that this design siderable capable of con- modification to suit circumstances. based upon the a careful consideration aspect.

edges take truer in lines. desirable from the gardener's point of straight borders is The edging of always more easily managed Stone or concrete than that of curved ones. A straight path points. . yet view.50 It is GARDEN PLANNING adapted in this case to a north-east aspect. place. already Apart from the more important advantages mentioned it is clear that it has others of minor moment. For other aspects the positions of the borders would be altered. is the shortest route between any two in In the next following chapters I shall show really more be detail how the rectilinear system may applied to the making of a picturesque garden. and other details would need modification. and are more easily kept The trimming of grass edges can a always be controlled by stretched cord.

possible.CHAPTER V The Elements There plan of the Garden Plan — the (in are three main factors In the garden beds. The narrow strips of border so often seen skirting the fences of suburban gardens are practically useless for flower culture. the narrow one with surface51 . In the evolution of the garden design the beds which term first I include borders) should receive consideration. and the grass. If the main path defines its it near boundary. A the width of be in six feet is not too it much if for principal border. This dis- designed to secure variety - and to eliminate one sidedness. the walks. another border parallel to may be made on the other side of the path feet but narrower. They may well occupy more space than is usually allowed them. sun. say four parity in width is wide. full and should. Two such borders. the wide one planted with shrubs and herbaceous plants.

should be in full sun. say boundary on the side of the garden opposite to the main walk.52 GARDEN PLANNING growing flowers. and ofl'er opportunity for and for the creation of a fine vista." It is have already referred by no means necessary that every border should be served by a path. and served by the principal path. variety of effect is On the con- ducing a by introborder between the grass and the assisted fence. when I come to consider The main point I wish to stage is emphasize at in this that the borders. for it is not too much to say that they constitute . The narrow border would on one side abut on the grass and short transverse extensions of it might be carried into the grass area to break its inner line and to extend the flower space laterally. become partial screens. I helping to secure that quality which to as "reticence. desire to also make it clear that these borders must be the dominating factor in the design. become complementary. shall further elucidate These points I special examples. Such offshoots from a long border plot. his which the gardener aims at securing I principal flower display. trary. many charming effects.

the grass for repose.ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN 53 the garden in the truest sense of the word. The path is for utility. siderable length it If the garden is of con- may this be advisable to divert full the path before of the plot. An expedient I have often employed is to allow the path to expand into a square at some point of in its its length. it has traversed the extent How may be done without sacrificing the welfare of the flowers. Just Hence we cannot give too latter. will appear hereafter. This is a very convenient device when it required to effect a slight . Is The introduction detached beds also a matter In which the taste of the designer must be his most trust- worthy guide. careful thought to the how is the further elaboration of the scheme contrived after the positions of the have been determined will depend upon circumstances and the fancy of principal borders the garden maker. and with best results to the garden picture. and to is install a square bed centre. and both must ever be subordinate to the beds and borders. I mention for it here as one of the securing a desirable of legitimate devices the quality in plan.

Beds its when of set near boundary. The as foot of a southern boundary fence it is suited for a shady border.54 deviation in GARDEN PLANNING the path without altering its direction. in no special way related to the leadthe principal borders should usurp is ing lines of the garden plan. lily-of-the-valley. The use of circles and parts of circles. there no a why as the gardener should not make border in the shade. because well as warm shady. . and leave in by the diagonally 4. Though reason the best position in the garden. as well as of figures in which the angles are equal and not less than a right for Fig. 4.) opposite corner. as the path may it enter the square at one corner. should a be allowed eighteen verge at least inches. grass. They become mere details. Ferns. to prevent in difficulties mowing. (Fig. where he plants thrive may grow is such well best under that condition. — not opposed is — Expansion to rectilinear system of of path treatment. angle example the — the hexagon.

Paths which start nowhere and end at a blank . the problem requires eration. or when the garden boundaries are straight but not rectangular. When within the house does not stand squarely its boundaries. a path an objective invitation to walk through the garden and enjoy its beauties. as a multitude of paths the garden into small compartments of the picture. A garden without a path would hardly satisfy the eye. as in a plot which tapers in the direction of its length. On the other hand. nothing cutting up is so wasteful of space. in linking together the other is elements of the garden. I have said that the paths exist for utility. That is so in a large measure. and destroying the breadth There are two principal points or should be — the in every path. means may be devised to harmony with as a perusal of some of the plans in Chapter XVIII will show. beginning and the end. but usually some special consid- bring the garden details into these disconcerting factors. Moreover. or so irritating to the eye. as well as a multitude of other plants.ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN and Solomon's Seal would 55 thrive In such a border. but they have a further value.

All deviations in the direction of the path should be made at right angles. would soon wear it to bareness. or when that some other Failing erection. would it be better to end it at a tool house or garage. the path expansion. and non-existent. or even at a potting-shed. should be through the flowers. This sums . should serve the purpose. than to allow to stop suddenly nowhere. as may be taken an axiom that the principal path should at commence and preferably some point conveniently near. or final destination. facing. in might terminate in a square which a seat. sundial. Diagonal look paths are not permissible. The best terminal to a garden path in my opinion feature is is the summer house. of a path They never in well in a small garden. and should have a natural termination. It also preserves the turf from traffic. The value to its is mainly proportion utility. the door by which the Its direction it house inmates enter their garden. After rain or heavy dew the which garden would be uninviting without a path. or other It appropriate object might be placed.56 GARDEN PLANNING It wall suggest purposelessness. an arbour. that.

ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN Up the path's usefulness. gests that it should be the I minimum compatible less with its purpose. do not favour a than three feet for a principal path width under be any circumstances." which. the in a small plot serves only to cut ularly shaped will up the space into irreg- treatment of which tax the skill of the planner to deal with successfully. in I have seen it laid down handbooks on gardening that the smaller it is ihe garden the more the need for the "winding path. In larger gardens is greater width all may else is permitted. 57 That it has also a certain value in the general picture I have already conceded. The width of the path lation to the scale of the garden. as there a certain distinction and in dignity in a broad walk when . The winding path areas." cannot conceive that any such result could follow in a garden the boundaries of which are visible on every side. paratively small plots. whilst the additional gravel surface is so amount of much deducted from what must bear some reIn comeconomy of space sug- might be made productive flower ground. claimed. adds to the I "apparent length of the garden.

it is sometimes . or pebbles. will with the surface. contrasting well with the grass their and harmonizing with the flowers and blue stone. Red gravel (of the right kind. a loose and therefore make underfoot. feet GARDEN PLANNING In a half-acre plot a width of five might be desirable. with disastrous results to the knives of the mower. and tiles warm foliage. The practical details of path making will be treated in a separate chapter. tiles. cinders. make paths with never bind paths a close. and cement viting. tarred gravel. and cement Sand and blue stone which. hard surface. apart thoroughly. bricks. in tone. which binds well). Granite chips. feeling from plies unpleasant Imthe that much loose material carried adhere to to the boots and be on grass. Red are gravel. are cold and uninand should only be used when other materials are unobtainable.58 proportion. should be made of width throughout. cinders. as a rule. tarred gravel. more particularly as regards its colour and texture. Though equal paths. bricks. but I may here refer to the path material. coarse sand. stone chips.

— Expansion of path .ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN advisable 59 when they if are of any great length. to introduce at and particularly straight. s. ^ Fig.

vases or tubs. 5). trees Fig. Expansions of the kind indicated are well placed at points where a secondary path breaks . so as not to appear quite purposeless. garden seats. 6. some break the dicated This should be done in one of the ways in in- the illustration expansions may be utilized These to accommodate (Fig.6o GARDEN PLANNING suitable point an expansion in width to line. sundials. — Expansion of path or beds.

as already mentioned. be taken as an axiom. in which all by-paths must leave the main path at a more or less acute angle. as if each led to points far apart. but rather by Mawson.— Path junction ton. rectilinear system.EtEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN off 6l from the principal one. adapted offshoots to small gardens. 7. as quoted says: "When two walks diverge from each other they should not appear as if they were intended to join again. though inadmissible The . as Although the should be angles. 6 show. In winding paths they would take a form more as the in harmony with the lines of the path. also at the terminal of a path. thus: Thedictumof a distinguished landscape gar- dener on question this may RepFig. demands that path to made leave the path at right the same does not apply to curved paths. the curves of both being laid down to form a pleasing combination of lines." use of curved paths. examples illustrated in Fig.

Grace of is line is only to be obtained by a prac- tised eye guided by an intuitive sense of what pleasing. 8) Mr.." says of garden in walks: "They should be arranged such a way that the beauties of the place may be exhibited. i. so that the best achievements in this direction are usually the result of skill. — Curves and Craft of Garden Makin paths ing. A hint may is- be given as to what should be avoided. Is quite legitimate and even desirable in plots of larger size. one in which parts It is of circles do duty as their components. and for I may therefore offer some set guidance out in good. Curves should be bold sweeps. but in a simple straightforward manner. knowledge. 8. Thus the curve A in the better than B. laying them out. these curves are best not modelled on a geometrical basis. and artistic instinct." As a rule. not by a series of wriggles. "The Art Fig. — . e.62 in GARDEN PLANNING small plots. Mawson inhisadmirable book. illustration (Fig.

He should ever bear in mind that his walks subdivide the garden space. it would be bad practice to leave a strip too wide for a border but too narrow to carry a border with grass in front of I it. and on the course they take will depend the shape of the areas they bound or enclose. make it desirable to depart from In such event the second grass . From the foreit be seen how it is closely correlated with the other factors.ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN better 63 that they should have that flowing character of which in we find the counterpart nature in the graceful lines of a bending sedge or the curved stem of a flower spike. For instance. now it pass on to the third element in the garden going is plan will — the grass. In laying is rely on freehand rather down such a curved path the novice too apt to overlook the spaces to right and left. Thus the planner should than the compasses. Thus in the case of a path skirting the garden boundary the amount and shape of the space between it and the boundary fence must be considered. though circumstances may this arise to rule. In small gardens best to confine the grass to a single area.

and if possible reserved for a separate bisect the garden into is purpose. without fear that their shadows and hungry roots will work havoc with the flowers. related Its functions are to the flowers the type of garden illustrated in Fig. and the grass plot. and welcome tread. therefore. The two cases are parallel. In gardens of the size I am now considering the idea of a " lawn " for games is rarely realizable for want of space. It is that part of the garden in which we may plant a few trees for shade. should be treated with other pur- more closely and general picture. The grass plot should never be isolated by surrounding it on all sides with gravel. 3A. and a place to "laze" upon and enjoy the garden vistas.64 GARDEN PLANNING space should be subordinate to the principal one. The artist well knows how fatal it is pictorial effect to allot equal spaces to sky and landscape. its surface presents a cool. Moreover. To two equal to a good areas of grass at once to introduce symmetry. as too often is done in poses in view. soft. and by contrast enhances the value of the colour effect obtainable with the flowers. the . It affords welcome relief to the eye.

— The grouping of beds part of this chapter. where grass and flowers juxtaposition. . the less difficulty you it will mowing it and keeping trim and neat. not pierce with a multitude of little Remember in also that the simpler in shape your experience grass plot. 9.ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN 65 garden with a circuit path so beloved by suburban dwellers. and do beds. But beware of fretting your principal grass plot into a thing of ragged outline by overdoing it this procedure. Let one or more of the sides join a border. would come into Even let the border thrust out an extension into the grass in the manner suggested in the early 0^0 (^ B (? Fig.

An important point to give proper access . that the principal shadows in his garden should fall upon the grass. as far as possible. B incorrectly grouped). Small detached grass spaces. if unavoid- able. thereby securing a charming feature in spring and early summer. and yet tral another is to make in group of beds upon a it. GARDEN PLANNING in grass are best grouped at one or two and the components of the group should effect. as this ensures a more harmonious effect. is clear that the gardener should contrive. which an the case attractive of square space becomes is secondary focus. It is generally better that the outlines of the group should preserve a parallelism with those of the grass plot. be shaped so as to produce unity of Com- pare the two examples illustrated on page 65 (A correctly grouped. where they will be welcome as shade. to utilize the space for a sunken rock garden. and will not preclude the growth of good turf.66 Beds points. I From what in have written about the imit portance of making aspect the guiding factor garden design. may be made interesting by planting Another a cen- them with plan is bulbs.

ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN
to
all

d']

grass

spaces.

This implies that the

borders should not bar the
to be the
grass.

way which appears
of reaching the

most natural one

Neglect of this consideration

may tempt

those

who

use the garden to skip over the

borders, with consequences to the plants which
I

need not particularize.
likely to

It

is

well to provide
all

means
which
it

of access to the grass at
it is

points from

be approached, by bringing

up to the path at those points. This is done by curtailing the border some three or four feet at its end, or by breaking through it at some point in its length. Many examples illustrating this suggestion will be found in
the plans.

^When
ground
be
left

a grass plot

is

used solely as a back-

group of beds, ample verge should at the edges, and, whatever the shape
for a

of the beds, the spaces

between bed and bed

should be of sufficient width to ensure no
difficulty in

mowing.
spaces of irregular

In dealing with grass
outline, such as

would occur where the paths

are winding, the placing of the beds should take

into account the outline of the grass space.

For instance, a square group of beds

set in a

68

GARDEN PLANNING

curved promontory would produce a discordant
note.

Better to adapt the shape of the group
it is set.

to the space in which

The two methods

are here illustrated for the

sake of comparison, and a glance at the figures

[Z7/-n\Z]

«oB<'
Fig. lo.

— Girrect

form for groups of beds

will sufficiently

convince the reader as to which

method is most likely to please the eye. There is no need to make the grass
the ground has a
natural slope,

level if

provided,

ELEMENTS OF THE GARDEN PLAN
of course,

69

"King Tennis" does not

rule.

On

the contrary, sloping ground greatly assists
drainage, and ensures that puddles shall not

lodge on the surface, which, on heavy ground,

would Inevitably occur on a dead-level

plot.

CHAPTER

VI

Making Beds and Borders
Being Intended solely for the purpose of accommodating living plants, beds and borders
should be

made

so that they will furnish every-

thing that a plant

demands

of the

soil.

This

implies not only that the soil shall be of such

a nature as to supply abundant food for the

but that it shall be of sufficient depth and of proper consistency, and that it shall contain no undesirable constituents. Soils are as we find them, and not always as we would have them, so that the gardener who, by force of circumstances, has to till an intractable soil, must adopt artificial means
roots,

to bring

it

into a better condition.

Reference
subject
in

has

already

been

made

to

the

Chapter II. Let us assume that the gardener

is

breaking

virgin ground, say a piece of old pasture.

He

has staked out the main lines of his garden plan,
70

MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS
and
Is

Jl

about to make

his

beds and borders.

The
stiff
it,

soil consists of

a top-spit of
If

brown loam
is

overlying a clayey subsoil.
clay,

the latter

a

and

insufficient surface soil overlies

the gardener

may have
additional

to face the necessity

of

importing

material.

But

let

us assume that the consistency of the subsoil
is

not so hopeless as the above assumption
imply.
soil

would
is

Then

the

proper

procedure

and subsoil into intimate admixture, so that one may temper the other, and to do so to such a depth as the ordinary requirements of horticulture demand. In most
to bring

circumstances this
or

may
is

be taken as two feet
best

thereabout.

This

done

operation
explained.
It
is

known

as "trenching,"

by the now to be

may
its

be well here to state that trenching

a term applied strictly to spade

work which

has for

object deep tillage, as distinguished

from "digging," by which the surface layer
of the soil only
is

turned over.
fall

Trenching

is

best done in the late
It
is

months

when the weather is yet open. in various ways according to

conducted

the results re-

quired and to the previous condition of the

72
ground.

GARDEN PLANNING
In "full-trenching" the process has

the effect of reversing the relative positions
of the upper

and lower layers of

soil,

so that

that which was situated, say, two feet below
the surface comes to the top, and the top layer

goes to the lower level.

So complete a reversal may be admirable treatment for ground which has long been in

and therefore already broken up to it would be inadvisable in the case of new ground such as we are considering, the subsoil of which had
tillage,

the trenching depth, but

not seen the light perhaps for centuries.

On

such ground the subsoil would be compacted

and wanting entirely in the which furnish food for plants.
therefore, that
if

constituents
It
is

clear,

full-trenching were adopted

the gardener would have a very poor surface
layer in which to grow his flowers.

A

better plan would
in

be to " half-trench,"
soil

which consists

removing the surface

in sections, then breaking

up the

subsoil with

a fork, and subsequently replacing the surface
soil.

But

there

is

still

a better

method

for

the garden maker, designed to effect the more
or less complete mixing of the
soil

and subsoil

— Trenching the illustration. as shown Fig. when the space left must be filled in with the soil that has been taken there for the purpose.MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS to the desired depth. II. The gardener then proceeds to fill up the trench at A with soil taken alternately from B and C. If the land is old pasture. The operation conducted as follows: The ground by opened up to the full depth a trench cut across the border. The removed may at once be carried to a position near the far end of the border. by the soil full line in which represents the trench in cross-section. D and E. and so on till he reaches the end of the border. so they may in due time rot . 73 As that is the principal object he should have in view. care should be taken to bury the turfs. this last is is method the one for him is to adopt.

until the whole contents of the border has been treated. is Although the primary object of trenching to produce a workable soil of sufficient incidentally it depth. aifords a drainage and good opportunity for enriching the soil a proportion of manure. Once made in this way. beds and borders in tunity by incorporating with it In the making of a new garden this opporneglected. assisting effecting aeration. This must be done in a manner which ensures that the manure be well distributed in depth. not merely added to the surface layer. and as the work proceeds he should add it to the soil at a regular rate. so that when the plants send their roots they will find a down reserve of food awaiting them. It should be remembered that when we have . the border will not an- need trenching again for some years.74 GARDEN PLANNING their quota to enriching and thereby contribute the soil. in efficient condition for a period The nual digging and manuring will serve to keep it dependent upon the demands made upon it. should not be Therefore the gardener should have at hand a heap of good manure.

hence the necessity for doing the work thoroughly in the first instance. ashes. to make the lowest layer of brick rubbish. not possible to resort all to trenching again without removing the plants. On heavy clay soils we may use sand. and vegetable matter. It I is fear. an excellent plan. Thus far these directions apply to soils which are naturally well fitted for the gardener. 75 and the plants have become estabit is lished in the borders. With beds and groups shape. heaping be added. not often adopted. A due proportion of manure should of the bed. then to do the same with the lower layer. of beds of compact is as just described hardly first The better method is to remove the top-spit over the whole surface it close at hand. after which the bottom should be forked over and the soil thrown back. fine gravel. too light or too heavy soils With some tempering material must be added. as in ordinary trenching. and this is best done when the beds and borders are being formed. . mixing well together that from the two separate heaps. with cinders overlying.MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS planted. trenching practicable. making a separate heap of it.

At least two put above the drainage The cost and trouble may be more^ repay the gardener. reducing them to a consistency more nearly approaching loam. — Drainage for beds and borders Borders prepared in this way do not suffer from water-logging even during wet winters. as it has manurial value. A certain proportion of vegetable matter is a gain. The important point in the treatment of clay land is to secure a sufficient admixture of loose porous material to destroy the tenacity of the clay and to permit of moisture freely finding its way down through the mass of soil. the winter frosts will help to break up the clay lumps. but the results will Fig. Hence the gardener may cast into his . 12. In hot summer weather they neither bake nor become dry for any great distance down. feet of soil should be layer.76 GARDEN PLANNING This ensures good drainage. If the trenching is done in the autumn.

or may consist almost entirely of sand. vegetable matter also may be added with advantage. drainage by means of agricultural or rubble drains . Is of a workable consistency and not likely to suffer from exlight soils. to a depth of at least two feet. the soil of which. and ing the performs a very improcesses of portant function In "sweetening" and purifysoil. which usually owe their lightundue amount of sand. As such soils are usually deficient in humus. In soils of the heaviest kind it may be necessary to introduce subsoil tile. Such a soil will admit air air as easily as it admits moisture. turfs. by hastening those decomposition which are always taking place. we may add stiff loam and clay to give it greater body and a more retentive character.MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS trench refuse. either in the direction of drought or continued wet. 77 weeds. and In garden and will rot house which due time and supply humus. On ness to an tremes of weather. the aim of the garden maker should be to secure a well-drained bed or border. Whether the treatment is designed to render a heavy soil lighter or a light one heavier.

unless a for removing an do not recommend screen- very coarse screen is employed. and aspect decides their position. There cannot be two opinions about the of deep working. I now pass on to a consideration of the form and disposition of beds as picturesque elements in the garden. but the gardener would be wise to avoid land which could be rendered workable only by such means. ing. helping to keep it loose and workable. because a certain proportion of stones is an advantage to the soil. It is therefore generally ad- visable to throw out the larger stones only. Beds are . I need add nothing to what I have already said about borders.78 laid GARDEN PLANNING at regular intervals. Drainage in that case would have to be carried out over the whole of the ground and not merely beneath the borders. I used the term "bed" for to distinguish a detached compartment flower growing. and it only needs to be tried and the results noted to impress the most sceptical gardener of its value. On stony land the operation of trenching affords a good opportunity I excess of stones. be- wisdom cause their position generally determines their form.

I decry these shapes because of their obvious artificiality. Another objection to these is bi- zarre shapes the great aggregate length of their boundaries in comparison with the space they enclose. This disproportion means that the actual length of edging to be kept trimmed and cared for is much greater than is necessary. and where beds of this kind exist in numbers the extra labour is not negligible. stars. it regards its outline. figures having acute objections angles. the boundary length . desired. particularly when a formal effect is Whatever the background. To take a concrete case. in anything of eccentric have already pointed out the disadvantages from a practical standpoint of such shapes as crescents. is important. and essential that we should not outrage good taste by indulging I character. the form as is of bed. and other Did not these should still practical count. howthey are given a background of ever.MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS 79 most often formed in turf. gravel. Sometimes. The outlines by which we bound our flower beds should not be of a character to fix the eye and divert our attention from the flowers.

I We must have variety form and scope for fancy. compares with that of a as five to three. The octagon. and pentagon come next in economy of boundary. it is same diameter A circle. — Shapes of beds follow. in of indulging in sprawling and attenuated . If the gardener goes beyond these simple lavish he is necessarily become do not mean to say that on that account to confine himself to shapes he will of edging. as tration. however. 13. encloses the figure largest amount of space smallest length in relation to its circumference. It is well. hexagon.8o GARDEN PLANNING shown in the illuscircle of the of a five-pointed star. to have our eyes open to the consequences those shapes alone. and the square and rectangle Fig. therefore of the which has the boundary. and is well known.

8l which are prodigal little of margin but enclose comparatively flower space.MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS forms. and admissible on practical and artistic grounds. OC3 . square. Of the forms I of bed in general use. and rectangle as sufficiently indicated by their names. omitting the circle. give some examples.

there should be a rigid harmony This is in shape between the components. and good rule a to make these strips of equal width throughout their length. as I have already pointed out in connection with groups of beds. This is made it clear in the next illustration. A square bed set in an oval grass plot would not harmonize so well with its outline as a circular or oval bed. than In groups of beds in gravel. the separating strips become possible paths. if it comes suf- ficiently near those outlines for it to matter. In designing a group of beds to not sufficient throw together several components bearing no relation to each other in shape. in Practical considerations connection with mowing make desirable that this strip of sward less should not be too narrow. so that the sides of adjacent beds are parallel with each other. . say not eighteen inches.82 GARDEN PLANNING it is the grass on which placed. best secured of by giving attention is to the strips sward or gravel which separate them. So in a square or rectangular plot of limited dimensions a square or rectangular bed would best it is please the eye. On the contrary.

As regards the size of a bed. On the other hand. when they are in scale with their surroundings and . 15. no precise limits can be laid down. very large beds are sometimes introduced. A bed may consist of a square measuring two feet each way. — Relation between beds in a group ponents of a group. if intended to accommodate a pillar rose. or of the corn- Fig. Examples of groups of flower beds will be found in plenty in the garden plans in a later chapter.MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS and their 83 minimum width may therefore be fixed at two feet.

84
a bold effect

GARDEN PLANNING
is

aimed
is
is

at.

In most cases, how-

ever, nothing

gained by making a bed of
represented

greater area than

by a

circle

of twelve feet diameter.

In groups of beds it is well to have a central component which dominates the group. But too great disparity in size between it and those

about

it is

not desirable.
is

When
the

a series of groups

to be made, as,

for instance, along the grass bordering a drive,

same design should not be repeated
It
is

in-

definitely.

better to repeat

it, if

at

all,

at

considerable intervals, employing other designs
in

between.

single beds,

able

in

The same applies to a series of though monotony is not so noticethat case, particularly if the form
is

employed
series

a simple one.

of equal

For instance, a and similar rectangular beds

bordering a long straight stretch of grass

may

be quite inoffensive, but even in that case it would be better to break the line at equal distances by making a wider interval between
adjacent

beds at every third or fourth bed,
a simple kind of grouping,
series

thus introducing

which always looks better than a regular
like the cars of a freight train.

MAKING BEDS AND BORDERS

85

The gardener
trouble
of his beds,

has always to consider the

Involved in maintaining the shapes

and this should make him cautious about indulging in figures the geometry of
is

which

not very obvious.
is

With rectangular
circular beds,

beds the stretched cord
for the turf trimmer,

always a sure guide

and with

or those

bounded by

straight lines

and parts

of a circle, the radius cord attached to a stake at the centre of curvature
for
is

a simple expedient
It
is

controlling

the

shape.

otherwise

with "fancy" shapes, when the eye alone can

be called upon to keep things
Opinions
differ

right.

on the question
if

of

camber

in the surface of the soil,

we may judge by

examples, some preferring to keep the surface

and others to heap it up until the bed takes on the semblance of a gigantic pincushion. Safety lies in the happy medium. Some camber is desirable as a means for throwing off the water during heavy showers, and it
flat,

improves
in

the

appearance
are

of
all

the

flowers,

particularly

when they

of a height, as

bedding practice.
drain off the

Excessive camber tends

to

moisture from the crown

of the bed.

86

GARDEN PLANNING
Beds
In gravel,
flat
if edged with box, should be on the surface, otherwise the

kept nearly

moisture which gravitates to their margins would tend to carry soil out upon the gravel
surface.

CHAPTER VII
Construction of Walks and Drives

The
it

first essential in

a garden path

is

that

should present a firm surface, durable under
it

the ordinary conditions of the traffic
bear, which,

has to

be

it

remembered, includes not
roller,

only foot

traffic,

but the passage of

mower, and garden barrow. It must also be well drained, so that after
showers
its

surface does not hold puddles or

long remain wet.

no detail in the garden which conmore materially to its general good appearance and to the comfort of its users than a well-made and well-kept path.
is

There

tributes

Drives designed for carriage

traffic

may

also

be referred to

in this

chapter, as practically

the same principles of construction apply to
if much used by wheeled vehicles and not merely for show, the surface material must be such as will not cut up in daily use;

them, though

87

««
in fact, their

GARDEN PLANNING
making should involve the
ordi-

nary principles of road construction.

down the line of a drive, if any made from the straight, the curves should make wide sweeps. Abrupt turns in
In laying
is

departure

carriage drives are apt to lead to unlooked-for
surprises

on dark nights.
for a carriage drive

The minimum width
be taken as ten
feet.

may

There are two points in a drive which call on the part of the designer, If the viz., the entrance and the terminal.
for special attention

drive enters the plot at right angles,
to set the gates

it is

well
as to
is

back from the road, so

make space

for vehicles to turn,

and

this

especially necessary

when
It

the drive leaves a

narrow thoroughfare.

is usually done by boundary hedge curve inward toward the gates, or curved wing walls

making the

railings or

may be

erected enclosing a space approximating

a semicircle.

When
it

the drive enters the plot at an angle

should break

away from the thoroughfare

by
or

a curve which meets the latter at a tangent,
if

from a curved thoroughfare, the two curves

should flow gracefully into each other; in other

CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES
words, they should have a
line.

89

common

tangent

It

is

not unusual to find the course of a drive

so laid

down
is

that

its

length
it

is

unnecessarily

great, the idea being that
tor.

impresses the visi-

This

a waste of material

and of space.

Fig. 16.

— Entrance

to drive

On

level

ground a straight drive leading to

the house the best.

by the Curved

shortest route
drives,

is

generally

however, are not

objectionable provided their lines run in bold

sweeps, and they
for

may

afford

an opportunity
privacy
is

screening the

house

when

desirable.

On

sloping ground the course of the drive

17.90 GARDEN PLANNING must be determined with a view to ensuring an easy gradient. — The carriage-turn Where the drive reaches the house entrance an expansion should be made to permit of vehicles turning. and it should be wide enough . and in such case it maybe necessary to use curves freely. Fig.

runway takes relative to lines of direcstreet curb. some approximating In the case of a semicircular drive having separate entrance and exit gates.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES to allow 9I them to turn on a sufficiently large radius to prevent damage to the road surface. width of parking space between sidewalk tive slopes in and curb. is The form if it is of the "carriage-turn" if immaterial is large enough. the carriage- turn is unnecessary. elevation of sidewalk above curb. gentler curves. thus: tion the Width between automobile tires. The factors to be considered in the smaller place have been well presented in Country Life^ October 1922. relative slopes in walk and curb. a as a concession to the eye. or it. which naturally looks for a free space opposite the The coming of the motor car has introduced new and insistent problem in driveway en- trances to suburban plots — in the open country lie estate the only extra modifications in the necessity of greater. relawalk and curb. but space restricted figure it is better to adopt the circle. general character of ground as respects lines and . elevation of sidewalk above curb. but may be retained in some form house door.

eighteen assumed that each runway inches wide with a grass plot between. will when the is overall be increased by about eight inches. Six feet six inches is quite commonly used and all is a good width under nearly width It is circumstances. unless curbs be built on the outside. The ramp should better. the former being too narrow and the latter unnecessarily wide. in no case have a width less that the overall width of the runway. It is when ramp and runways do not by a sidewalk. is a serviceable width for the automobile runway. The width will of the opening along the street curb local conditions. They are sometimes built twelve inches and twenty- four inches. Add to this one foot six tire. inches to allow nine inches outside of each and the result. vary according to a driver will do From observations and measurements to determine what when turning off the street . six feet three inches. This will give the effect of continuity of the side lines. and textural finish suited to conditions. to are separated join but have the narrow part or throat of the ly ramp equal to or bur slight- wider than the width of the runways.92 GARDEN PLANNING grades. The average is distance between centres of tires four feet nine inches.

made equal to the overall width of the runway. is essential in For the most pleasing results this normal cases. and curbs are not needed as a guide. The ramp curbs articulate should be made to the street curb. runways are eighteen inches wide. and it is only rational to curve the side lines of the If the ramp. demand For ordinary cases and pleasing to the eye. A on easy curves with bad joint or a sharp angle where the two come together is certain to spoil the appearance of the work. any driver can keep on them while backing out.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES on to the ramp it is 93 figured that eight feet six inches should be the minimum it is clearance allowis able and that ten to twelve feet preferable. and the throat opening. In laying out a far as service ramp well to be liberal so is concerned at the same time heeding the dictates of esthetics which the least possible display of cement. the opening width of twelve feet is sufficient for an approach from either direction. The side Hnes of the ramp come into the Hne of the walk at a right angle. . The track of the car as it approaches and enters the grounds is on a curve. gives the correct appearance when viewed from the front.

which should be formed with the rake to a curved surface or camber gravel in cross-section. The free use of water at . and taken bodily away. of this kind will never make is a firm path. to provide drainage and to en- sure a firm foundation. are little depends upon the There are gravels which Gravels better than shingle. say three inches thick. care being taken to keep the line of its crown straight beneath. After staking out the course of the path. Over this may be put a layer of shingle or coarse gravel screenings. or until a firm filled in with rubble. the soil must be excavated to a depth of twelve bottom is reached. The trench must then be inches. being almost or entirely devoid of binding material. and a path of loose pebbles objectionable on account of the liability of the smaller stones to be carried on to the grass. The may then be evenly distributed over the surface to a depth of from two to three inches.94 Gravel GARDEN PLANNING Paths — Much quality of the gravel. or other light material. in the direction of the path's length. brick rubbish. but preserving the camber of the layer the roller After liberal watering should be put to work.

— Path foundation ture of water with the binding constituent of the gravel. the same apphes to asphalt. soft and in hot weather they are apt to become seen tar on the surface. are dismal things in the flower garden. colour is against them. which should carry before it a wave of creamy liquid. though they have a sphere of usefulness in the vegetable plot. at least After the path has been brought it to a fair surface should be left if twenty-four hours. paths the stony .CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES this Stage is 95 important to success. however. They also may be made but Tar Paths durable. — When well made these are very their as directed for gravel paths. The roller should be a moderately heavy one. i8. I have. as consolidation it ensures gravel the subsequent its of the roller. and prevents adhering to the The correct amount of water may be determined by noting the action of the roller. a mix- Fig. and unused for no rain falls during that interval so Cinder Paths — These much the better.

Cement may be it coloured with iron oxide (red ochre) to give a warmer and more genial hue. preferable to a gravel path in most circumstances. off"ers good colour. Cement in colour Paths — These are unsympathetic and Hable to crack under the influence of frost. the old order of things dies hard. . and the opportunity artistic eff"ect. To guard against cracking a good proportion of sand should be used in mixture. Tar and other paths made of impervious material should not be flanked by impervious tiles. and the path should be at least six laid on a concrete basis inches thick. its only drawback being its want of flexibility.96 constituent GARDEN PLANNING of which was a gray material. not altogether unsightly after the surface layer of tar had disappeared. and gardeners are shy of adopt- ing anything savouring of novelty. for In gardening. durability. in my opinion. or water will collect at their sides. brick path is Yet the not altogether a thing of to-day. Brick Paths Next to gravel the — brick path it is holds first place: indeed. probably limestone. fines. it which unfits it for use in curved Its advantages are the ease with which its it may be kept free from weeds.

The good appear- if any camber were given to the surface. They may by plunging one pears after it into a pail of water and noting In the speed with which the surface water disap- has been lifted out again. ma- over which is put a layer of finely screened gravel or builder's sand. point of cost. and kept in true line . a hint. but much depends upon prepared as for a the price of each material ruling in the district. brick paths do not compare un- favourably with gravel.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES It 97 its may be met with in many old gardens. be careful to obtain bricks of a kind which are not imperreadily be tested vious to water. which must be raked to a level surface. The bricks should be laid flat upon the sand ance of brick paths would be marred perceptible without mortar or cement. From and. pressed down firmly and into close contact. if this observation we may take we decide upon a brick path. and dressed over with finer terial. but on dead-level ground there may be half an inch difference of level between the sides and centre of a three-foot path. but ever dry owing to the porous nature of its material. A rubble foundation is gravel path. cheery red surface worn into hollows.

— Design lor brick path the bricks are to be disposed. and to select the side which comes against turf. may be built up to it. and made sure thatitis straight and true from end to end. Having laid the path margin on one side. which the simplest plan. and should be laid downward. All bricks are less more or is curved in the burning. and produces a neat not . otherwise the bricks will acquire a tendency to rock and be- come loose. They may be is if breaking joints. as that helps to keep the bricks in place. but before proceeding with this some idea must be formed of how the centre =1—L-L-LTi-i:: Fig. 19. It is by the use of commence by best to laying the marginal bricks on one side from end to end.98 GARDEN PLANNING a stretched cord. laid in parallel lines. side The concave easily detected by glancing along the edge.

If cutting the difficulty of making neat is joints with the cut the centre part well laid the other its marginal free side line of bricks will lie neatly along and complete the path. to bring the upper surface of the bricks to the general level. inches about centre. to stand. If preferred. above practice the is level the that not conducive to efficient drainage. I have pointed out that the brick path can tiles. as occasion requires.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES ambitious effect. as indicated the In this it will be seen that whole It is bricks are used throughout. of bricks may two but be laid on edge. not desirinvolves of able to adopt a of pattern bricks. so that no subsequent subsidence of individual bricks can occur. the marginal say. In bedding the bricks upon their seating the sand may be added to or removed. which because much ends. dispense with edging but to make edging it it serve the purpose of the tile must be . 99 or a pattern lines may be worked in out on some such illustration. The principal precaution needed is to bed each brick firmly.

to ensure that the bricks on that side do not get out of place.100 GARDEN PLANNING brought into proper relation with the ground on either side. but ^^ is well to Comof brick path pact the soil of the border where comes against the path by ramming. may continue and it the natural should be made . and at a joint. but I have not found it necessary. 20. On sloping ground. as that of the turf plot). In the case of very it light soils I have found it desirable to push a few slates down into the soil at the outer mar- gin of the path. Grouting with cement would perhaps be a safer expedient. Fig. where the slope crosses the path. the whole is made fairly secure. burying level.- Section The weight of ^^^^HP^** the bricks keeps them in place. That is best done by adopting the rule of making the level of the path at its edges the same (when it skirts a grass and an inch and a half higher than the edge of the border when it comes against the soil. the latter slope of the ground. them as far as the soil If this is done at every fourth brick. This is shown in the sectional illustration.

though undue repetition is Bearing in mind the fact that bricks measure four inches in width. . A level path is flat of necessity. I stones. An inclined path may be flat but is not level. so that water lOI may drain off at the lower margin. When the bricks have been laid the joints may be filled up with loose sand. watered to carry it down. stone mosaics.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES quite flat* on the surface. The simpler the design the better. this category I Include tiles paths In which bricks or are used in combination cobble with concrete. Over-elaboration of pattern in so utilitarian a feature as a garden path would be too assertive. Whatever to run ideas the gardener may have about pattern-making. shall first refer to those In which bricks are *To avoid misapprehension I may say that I use the words "flat" and "level" in their strictly separate senses. it is evident that the path width dimension. and other like materials. a must be a multiple of that fact to be remembered when the is width of the path Composite Paths all — In being settled. and again filled up to a level with the surface. he should not allow his fancy away with him. not desirable.

half Fig. Portland cement. and the path level with mortar- . except that sand will only be needed where the bricks come. The ter general idea of a path of this charac- may be gathered illustration. members matefound ex- another I have road macadam an and I use it as follows: having made a mortar of and sand builder's cellent one. half. which filling is completed by the spaces beits tween with rial. Design for a composite path — and half. is The preparation all- of the foundation the same as for an brick path.I02 GARDEN PLANNING for used the framework.of fine first with an inch and a then to gravel. I fill in the spaces one at a time. from the It will be seen that forms the brickwork the basis of a pattern. 21.

They should be by the use on end in dry sand. and one similarly treated until the whole is path finished. fitting pressing sides is IO3 soft I insert the macadam and them closely into contact them down. beating down the cubes until they are all level is with the bricks. After allowing set. and then grouted with liquid cement poured amongst laid of the board . an hour for the mortar to partly the path surface stiff may be washed over with a brush and clean water. finishing with a rendering of cement. Cobble stones make an excellent and give quite an old-world appearance to a path. In twelve hours firm as the path will be set and the as a rock. but leaving is filled I their upper slightly higher than the bricks.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES Whilst the latter cubes. concrete. to remove the mortar which clings to the top of the stone cubes. mortar used for the mosaic work taking hold of the bricks and tying the whole together. it When the space go over with a board and a mallet. levelled and mallet. The exuding mortar that transferred to the next space. A plan less is satisfactory fill appearance to in the spaces on the score of with cement filling.

They are also more liable to be dislodged and broken. One is that one cannot help associating them with the flagged . setting them in mortar with the aid of a builder's trowel. which must be done on a bed of mortar. and frequently offended by reason of the violent contrasts in in the colour of the tiles. that the edging Stone Another disadvantage of the tile path tile cannot be dispensed with. is squares. and therefore do not dry so quickly. Paths is — Flagstones are occasionally met with in old gardens. tiles in large A path of hard red tiles. or of oven is not displeasing. be made by The expense is substituting greater and more skill is required in the setting. Similar paths tiles may for bricks. but not economical where paths are long. Another mode of filling is use coarse rubble blocks.I04 GARDEN PLANNING a pail until it rises them from above the middle to of the pebbles. Tile Paths — All-tile paths used to be in favour some suburban fore-courts. I do not favour them for many reasons. They are less porous. I do not think that anything tiles is to be said in favour of instead of bricks.

the separate stones are well bedded. of the right kind will — and it is i. . and the gardener has the opportunity of obtaining this material cheaply. angles I should be removed from the waste path based If give an illustra- tion that will carry a suggestion for a stone- upon Japanese practice. e." for which purpose all sharp pieces. yet another that they wear unequally and soon become "dished. A good plan is to use it in a patchwork pattern of the kind our lady friends call "crazy. another that their colour is too cold to the critical eye. with precautions to prevent rocking. and tones down under the influence of weather and vegetable growth. no cementing medium is needed. In fact. not too friable — it make an interesting path. and white stone is admissible. Red sandstone is an excellent material. the joints may be designedly allowed to gape to permit the grass to spring out of them. have seen some good paths made of stone if waste.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES IO5 pavements of town. which will give an uncon- ventional but not unpleasing effect to a path crossing a lawn. as it soon loses its glare.." giving I rise to the inevitable puddle.

23.I06 GARDEN PLANNING FiK. — Design for stone path . — Design for stone path Fig. 22.

. in the Note like fine — In the use of a non-binding material it is well to screen out all which otherwise would adhere to the boots in wet weather and be carried into the house. Its legitimate place is on the grass. Their innate friability precludes the separation of large from small. as the Japanese do.CONSTRUCTION OF WALKS AND DRIVES IO7 The gardener with command of material might use it of this class form of steppingstones. Shells form an almost hopeless blue stone stuff material for the garden. and renders them the most persistent material I know of for finding Its way Indoors. but the effect so obtained must not be overdone.

Just which we decide upon will be governed by circumstances. in a well-kept stretch of It is embodiment of the sense of repose. the criterion gardener. sow seed. We may obtain our grass in any of three ways: we may import turfs. in most cases. let us have it green and fresh and innocent of spot or blemish. Secondary as picture loses it is to the flowers. particularly 108 . or be content with the old pasture grass as we find it. the mantle with which she covers the crudities of man's handiwork. by which we may judge the capabilities of the If turf we must have. Old pasture is not always a success.CHAPTER VIII Grass as a Foundation There nature's is something delightfully soothing verdant turf. yet it must receive the best attention The is much of its we can give it. and. charm if the frame unworthy of it. the best background for our flowers.

and where thistles and other noxious weeds are conspicuous by their absence. About thirty-six hundred and thirty turfs would . We may be able to get it. it for the labour cost of cutting and. we may be lucky in lighting upon some rich meadowland in which the conditions are favourable to the growth of good turf. Which the more economical in cost. But we may have which will to pay for our turfs at current rates^ vary according to the locality and the proximity to an available source of supply. the total cost may be small. and infested with insects ready to migrate to our beds and borders. In such case "leave well alone." and rejoice that we may we are tions. we must make our to choice according is the local conditions. saved the trouble and expense of further operaShould we be driven back upon one of the other two expedients. On the other hand.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION IO9 Upon heavy too thin a land. Moreover. it may undesirable weeds. turf or seed? ourselves This problem we may work out for when we know the cost of turf In our district. It may be growing upon find in it soil. if It Is near at hand. and we should be full of water- logged in winter and scorched summer.

The same piece of ground could be sown with one to one and one half bushels of grass seed costing about $5 per bushel. matured grass surface more quickly than we can do by sowing. This consideration may carry weight with gardeners who are anxious to secure an early appearance of completeness in a new garden. which is very slight Then the labour of turf outlay for material. that The principal advantage of using turfs is we obtain a close. and we are faced with a large outlay for material alone. though on this head a careful examinait in bulk should enable us to form an considered the best if opinion. Though sufficient the spring it is time for turfing. laying would greatly exceed the labour of sowing. there is always the risk that our turf tion of may contain an undue proportion of weeds. it is equally necessary to prepare properly the . may be done at any time and proper precautions are taken. Sowing can only be done with the certainty of a good result in the spring and autumn.no here GARDEN PLANNING be required to cover a quarter of an acre. Whether turfing or sowing be practised. On the other hand.

it now the time to supplement by an from outside. In the levelling process the top-spit contain- most valuable part of the soil must be first laid aside. essential when sowing . to be subsequently distrib- uted over the levelled surface. If levelling III has to be undertaken in is the interests of tennis and croquet. and with if it should be com- bined draining. the undisturbed subsoil at that part of the ground which has been lowered must be forked over to a depth The whole surface may then of eight inches. that first the operation. or obtained as a by-product from some other Planks should be used part of the garden. the nature of the ground demands ing the it. additional supply imported where the barrow ruts will is in operation. This done. otherwise to be caused that are not easy obliterate.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION ground. Screening layer is may be practised It is if the surface stony. be treated with well forked in. decayed farmyard manure and the top-spit redistributed soil upon If it to form a layer eight inches thick. and the levelling completed. is the original layer of is Insufficient.

as it will hasten the subsidence. be made good come under the workman's observation. the turfs may be submitted to a good watering. After all is laid. after which the beater should be used again. If rain super- venes so der the much soil in the better. Inequalities in the ground as they may and all upstanding places treated with It until they accord with the general level. the surface must be gone over with the beater. and rena better condition to weld with the new turf. The face.112 grass seed. Time should be allowed for subsidence. disclose inequalities. GARDEN PLANNING but of less moment where is turfs are used. The turfs should be up with laid in close contact over the whole surface. and any hollows and gaping joints should be filled up with soil. If no rain immediately follows. . with the same material. gaps at the joints being filled fine soil as the work proceeds. operation of laying the turfs is a simple one once the ground brought to a good sur- but it should not be done immediately after the preparation of the ground. particularly if any part of the ground has been banked up above the natural surface.

and to promptly eradicate Before sowing is that appear. rolling surface and reduce Inequalities.«ion is for them.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION After a day or two's rest. II3 the roller should be brought Into operation to further compact the that. After the usual operations of mowing and calls may It be performed as occa. should not be later from the middle of Autumn sowing than the middle of SeptemIs Some authorities are in favour of soil is autumn sowing. The operation of sowing is best conducted on a calm day. and the best time of year for the purpose March ber. Obtain the . warm and The quantity square too feet. well to look for early indications of weeds on newly all turfed ground. attempted the ground must It should be well compacted by treading or rolling until it will no longer take footprints. be then lightly raked over to provide lodgment for the seed. till the end of April. of seed should not be less than one quart of recleaned seed to three hundred It Is better to err on the side of much than weighs of too little. for the reason that the the dews heavy. A bushel of lawn grass seed as usually understood trade in the twenty pounds.

taking the precaution does not cut close to in the best condition to set the knife so that It it It must be will for cutting. or by covering similar it well with pea brush or other bushy material which may be at hand. may be contain disappointing. their appearIf within twenty-one it rain has followed the sowing may be earlier. and bring the seeds stretching black Birds must be kept away by cotton or garden netting over the ground. roller. grass plants should The ance make days. even bearing a well- known name. cover at once with a sprinkling of fine soil and roll. If the surface soil is damp it will pick UD on the it. or drag up the young grass . Old seed purchased if from local sources. should be passed over the ground. When may they have obtained a height of from three to three and one half inches the ground be rolled. and grass seed sold in bulk at small country stores may an undesirable percentage of other seeds or chaff. and the next day the mower it. Sow dry with broadcast.114 GARDEN PLANNING closely seed from a reliable firm and follow their printed instructions. taking care to leave no bare places.

they may be effectually dealt with by placing a pinch of dry table salt on the crown of each This kills them in a day or two. of which the seedsman suitable. plant. Moss is in itself is in no sense harmful. or to the absence of food for the grass plants. II5 After the usual routine of roiling and mowing may be followed. but should have faultlessly flat surfaces. Should plantains — — Sown grass is materially assisted if treated early with an approved fertilizer. and I should not only be dead level. but soil. vigour of the grass plants. . always an indication of a poor Tennis and Croquet Lawns — These. the weeds which come most often to mock the lawn maker appear. may here give a few directions for levelling. will cause the moss to disappear. application of a fertilizer.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION plants instead of taking off their tops. of course. this. not omitting watering if the weather proves dry. implies moss makes soil is its it that the out of condition. at intervals. either owing In most cases the by stimulating the to the need for drainage. If may be trusted to recommend one appearance.

The operator should provide himself with a long straight- edge (say. He must first get the level. He should then drive in pegs over the whole surface six feet apart.1 »iw»nini-^*»w& Fig. "^^ I it becomes .Il6 If GARDEN PLANNING possible. tall or sighting from pegs driven into the ground fixed carrying cross-pieces horizontally by means of the level. a position is is should be selected where the ground level. adjusting each peg in turn by means . he should work out- ward. and standing so much above amount the foundation as will allow for the of surface soil to it. a supply of stout wooden pegs. — Level and straight-edge necessary to transfer soil from the higher to the lower parts of the ground. 24. seven feet long) and a as well as spirit-level. foundation approximately using the straight-edge on the surface. naturally approximately- When this not feasible. be subsequently distributed over Taking a central peg as a datum.

and may be taken as the of one minimum compatible with of the players.eight by thirty-six or nine feet less in width for the single game.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION II7 of the straight-edge and level until the tops of all are at the fill same level. thereclear Fig. The pegs may The has be removed at tennis any time afterward. Additional width must be allowed the poles and fore a total for for 36ft. It only then re- mains to in the soil to the tops of the pegs. court of feet feet. the players. 25. to allow for subsidence and compacting by rolling. 4^ or slightly over. full-sized the comfort and convenience The croquet ground. _L_ Tennis court space hundred feet by fifty feet is not too great an allowance. a net size seventy . according .

should measure thirty-five yards by twentyeight yards. or in feet one hundred and five 13- .Ii8 GARDEN PLANNING to the revised rules of the Croquet Association.

and component part of the garden There is something to be said for In a garden of straight lines the both plans. reminding one of the idea one forms of the "hanging gardens" of Babylon. and . Tennis lawns made upon ground which carries a marked slope are not always sightly sufficiently features. is There no need to make hard and fast It boundaries to the tennis or croquet lawn. or he let it may frankly proclaim itself as an obvious feature design. rectangle of turf set aside for tennis or croquet would not be so conspicuous a feature as in a type of garden In which a naturalesque effect was aimed at. He may it it allot it a space to enclosing by a hedge in or screen of trees or shrubs. courses. and thus put out of sight as some- thing not altogether harmony with the decorative scheme of the garden. may the be constituted upon any convenient and roomy stretch of level turf where game and horticulture are not likely to come into conflict.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION II9 croquet lawn the designer has the choice of two itself. and winding walks were elements in the design. Such lawns may be considered indispensable.

am Take. means should artificial much be found to conceal their outlines by means screening. and the latter to provide a vantage ground for spectators. sloping banks and the space adjacent to The them should be turfed. is The It forty yards square. The shape in a large of the grass plot is determined measure by the other elements of the plan. and it must be truly level. or other suitable The Bozvling Green — Revived interest in bowls has induced some owners to regulation size install a private bowling green on their ground. Nothing tends so destroy character much as the injudicious chopping up of the grass space. The Grass Plot in this — I have already intimated to the importance of studying breadth of effect the garden. Yet there are opportunities for the if gardener to go astray principle for which I he does not realize the contending. the former as a check to the bowls. usual to sink the green below the general surface. trees.I20 if GARDEN PLANNING they have to be made at the expense of excavating and banking up. but less if width is is admissible space is restricted. of shrubs. .

lines. The planner may when he has taken sufficient space for his borders and paths.— Acute angles in grass of sufficient size to call for treatment in curves. narrow muses. converge. In such event he would do well to take off the acute angle border or path. but they plot one. demands the main object grass . by adding the space either to Again. of the more careful consideration. tapering verges. that his grass runs out to a mere wedge. horns in (See Fig. or crescent grass. therefore. in the making of it is borders and beds surprisingly easy to 'details. a 121 garden the boundaries of which find. is may do a so in cases where the garden is converging F»g- When the garden the shaping 27. 27.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION for instance.) In the rectilinear treatment of small difficul- gardens these ties will hardly arise. produce awkward shapes in the grass particularly when working with curved isth- A good rule. is to permit no acute angles.

accompanying illustration (Fig. of which the items just enumerated are those most likely to beset the inexperienced designer. of which that applying to breadth of effect.122 GARDEN PLANNING to being avoid anything that will detract from the breadth of effect. be useful here to accept my injunction . and then discretion artist "feels" seek for guidance by studying elementary principles. is The one of the most important. where a bed or group of beds could be placed with advantage to the garden picture. already sufficiently explained in these pages. Those who lack such training must first realize their deficiency. The placing of beds on grass calls for restraint The on the part of the gardener. because he has an eye trained to proportion. cutting fretwork design. The practice of loading the grass with an it up into a condemned for the archipelago of small beds. 28) shows the correct way to correlate the bed with the grass when the former projecting space. is to be s^me and reason. It is has to fill a certainly better to err on the side of having too few than too It will many detached beds.

On may larities ground of irregular contours the irregumay call for modification. 28. under which term may be included the strips which separate bed from bed a in a group.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION 123 about the grass verge. better to let the garden follow it Fig. or they be entirely desirable as affording oppor- tunity for variety in the general treatment of the garden. These should always have parallel sides and minimum width better of eighteen inches. is provided that no considerable space to be reserved for tennis or croquet. When plot is a garden situated onslopingground. these hollows should . Whenever the character of the ground in the is such as to leave certain spaces form of hollows. Two feet is if space permits. if the slope it is is slight only. according to the particular views of the garden owner. — Beds in relation to grass than to attempt levelling.

because they involve extra labour in the mowing and are apt to suffer in time of drought. There no need to allow more is elevation to the turf than sufficient to ensure the mower is clearing the gravel if when used on is the edge of the grass.124 GARDEN PLANNING filled be in or drained. so with surfaces the curves should flow without break. It not unusual to find paths sunk so much below the grass level that the soil is exposed beneath the turf. so that we cannot detect where one runs into the other. this rule followed no danger of gravel straying on to the From two to three inches is quite . Grass slopes should be used sparingly. This allows soil to break away. or both these disadvantages will be intensified. as in a hillside garden. It also involves additional labour in trimming the is grass edges. otherwise they will in : become pools wet weather. When necessitated by the nature of the ground. As with lines. to the detriment of the path. or be washed out by the rain. they should not be steeper than one in two. and there grass. in the Another point to be considered of a grass plot is its is making level relative to the adja- cent paths.

allowing main paths five feet in the kitchen garden. In the case to which I allude the ground had quite recently been meadowland. the rule does not call for such stringent observation. 1 25 the question is most likely to present itself in connection with path making. for instance. as. ical I cannot commend where of space. but to satisfy the eye the grass edge should not stand higher than three inches above the soil. distinctive wide. In practice. it is a case of grass in juxtaposition as in the making of beds. and the vegetable beds had just been cut in the turf. If much less there is the danger of grass. when the gravel surface would have to be regulated to ensure the above result.GRASS AS A FOUNDATION enough. there are cases in which it may be used. soil and stones grass working on to the Grass Paths and Edgings is — Though exists. When to soil. when an I alternative path of gravel have seen the grass path installed with excellent effect where it gives quite a and finished appearance to that department. unsuited for paths. with narrower connecting paths of half that width. but there room this use of grass has its economample advantages on it as is .

it is an unsightly and wasteful feature. . though existence usually comes into by some adventitious circumstance by design. uncared for. a canopy of blossom overhead. A border skirting grass may have opposed to it a long bed. and a very charming of one. in Grass edgings are used I both flower and kitchen gardens. labour Involved in keeping it trimmed.126 GARDEN PLANNING is the score of appearance. and highly preferable to the usual cinder path." Each gardener will decide for himwhether the space at his disposal admits and whether the eff^ect to be obtained from it is commensurate with the self of such a feature. This at once turns the intervening grass strip into a path. his feet on verdant turf. The grass path also may have it its utility in the flower garden. where the walker may find a tunnel greenery. because. and have already referred to them by the term "verge. which requires that an edging be provided. and the gardener may decide to connect the two by a rather than pergola. If he has any doubts in the matter he should forego the verge.

but he will when he has carefully studied it. "The commonstyle. not omitting to take into account environment. The best garits immediate dens are personal: they take their character from their makers. do not wish and I may say at the outset that the more knotty problems arise most often in connection with an oblong plot of limited size. He should look for suggestions from the site. for a given plot not to be laid down by The do so gardener may not recognize the possibilities of the site at first glance." is sense The exact treatment rule. am sometimes I garden asked "What style of and I would you suggest for my plot?" am tempted to reply.CHAPTER IX How It is TO Plan a Garden well for the gardener to start with an open mind. I 127 . In Chapter IV I showed the utility of straight lines in to magnify the difficulties of planning.

given Yet even the smallest plot involves alternative modes of planning.128 plots of GARDEN PLANNING irregular shapes or contours. and then the gardener must give his casting vote for that one which. provided due weight to aspect. as or plots unfavourably conditioned regards of aspect and surroundings.f* I require for vege- table ground want I a tennis or croquet lawn. best accords with his personal views. The treatment a small rectangular garden plot may be a very is simple matter. and he should answer definitely before he starts to plan. after satisfying the requirements of horticulture and the conditions which make for artistic quality.? Have to provide a playground for children? Must I limit my flower space to in what I can properly manage my spare time? These will — and possibly other — questions In occur to the planner. The first point to consider is the appor- tionment of the various sections of the garden: How much Do I space do . them doing so he will naturally commence to evolve .

in the course of his work. and there are excellent practical reasons for it occupying be at that position. as the case and front.HOW TO PLAN A GARDEN some kind like his 1 29 of skeleton idea of what he would garden to be. indicating foot. Usually this will be situated at that part of the garden remote from the house. of the direction in which the fall. to remind him. the gardener will have before him If in bird's-eye view the main factors that should control his planning. Irregularity in the shape . This much accomplished. even though the end fence or wall is oblique. He should then add an arrow to show the north point. or may be. His next step should a plan of his garden be to lay down on paper it site to scale. and mark on the position of the doors back at the sides. he has decided to grow vegetables. say one eighth of an inch to a the house. he at once rule off on the paper as may much space as he wishes to devote to that purpose. maximum amount gate of sunlight will premises are by which the entered from the roadway must its The be marked in proper position. The division should right angles to the garden's length in a garden with parallel sides.

a third line may be added. 29) will will be Reference to the Illustration (Fig. and If the aspect is east or west.130 GARDEN PLANNING Is of the vegetable plot immaterial. Leaving the vegetable ground the next thing is for the present. at four feet beyond the second. from which the path is may journey. The near end must be coordinated In with the house door. where it will receive full sun. and the things for right-angled division squares the flower garden. and this could be done oif a stretch of gravel an earlier by marking start its immediately behind the house. to locate the principal border. as explained chapter. it. the near side of which the grass. to mark off a second border. make these operations clear. there should be no hesitation in giving it a place against the north fence. adding a second parallel feet three If beyond to define the principal path. space permits. Such a device convenient when the . The path is now represented by a narrow ribbon with no terminal at either end. We may now consider the approach to and destination of the path. The planner may with this therefore rule a line parallel six fence feet distant line at. from say.

29. 30. — Typical garden plan Fig.HOW TO PLAN A GARDEN I3I Fig. — The method of offsets .

where a single straight path would prove monotonous feature.132 aspect is GARDEN PLANNING that assumed in the example. I therefore favour some device which breaks the line. need not describe every possible mode of doing this. of the space to the south of The treatment it may now be . is by which the sets improved. as many examples will be illustrated in the plans which follow. for the path's objective. We will assume that our path out from the gravel space immediately behind the house. Though direct it is a good rule to destinations. I As have already offered suggestions in an earlier chapter. and a screening effect obtained. such as may be contrived by cranking the path or by introducing an expansion into its length. a The cranked path allowing the principal gives opportunity to for border terminate vista in a transverse extension. but with a north aspect the space about the rear of the house would be too valuable to waste as gravel. make paths go an exception is to their permissible and even desirable in a long gar- den. and another device would have to be I employed. a summer house. threads through our borders. and terminates in. say.

and much variety as may be obtained within par- so limited a space without over-elaboration. and In deciding how much allot to the border we must be guided by our sense of proportion and by the value we set If space permits we upon our grass plot. up use his picture This Involves the of such natural objects as trees. I have now traced what may call the evolution of a small rectangular garden. and the Before he decides upon the placing of these things he should sally forth to the site. perlike. It need hardly be mentioned that this would not hold good for a plot with a different aspect. and of such golas. The gardener has now skyward. plan . as the case de- manded. summer houses. The treatment has been simple. so As a plan.HOW TO PLAN A GARDEN taken in I33 to hand. the design ensures a proper coordination of the garden with aspect. arbours. may add a narrow border along the southern fence I line. shrubs. and for that ticular treatment reason aspect in this It Is should not be copied unless the approximately the same as indicated to build example. artificial adjuncts as arches. and flowers.

enabling him to dispense with the planting of trees on his own. and take his stand. his mind by building There he may exercise upon his ground plan. If he has decided upon a garden-house. the other hand. let him have it built with a simple. Bearing in mind what I have already written about "composition" the term. by other means. near the house door. the presence of a well-grown tree on neighbouring premises may ing objects. He will obtain suggestions from already exist- For instance. help the picture. He may even decorate with a weather-cock. and restrain his impulses in the direction of destroying its outlines with a maze of rustic work. . seeking to place such features as he may decide to introduce into the garden. pointed roof.134 in GARDEN PLANNING hand. On he may observe some un- sightly object which it will be necessary to endeavour to screen from view. he in the artist's sense of must avoid symmetry in masses. or in some in central position from which he may hope time to obtain a general view in imagination of his garden picture. say. Its pyramid form is useful in giving and seek for balance of effect a certain punctuation it to the skyline.

" By carefully weighing these various points. it will be better associated It is with trees and shrubs. If in height in these artificial arches or a pergola are introlet duced into the scheme.HOW in TO PLAN A GARDEN 1 35 which would be quite appropriate and useful the picture. Trees are always useful in attaining that the garden picture for which the designer must work. will not be difficult to arrive at a provisional arrangement of the accessories we have been discussing. Let no two be at the same distance from your standpoint. their arrangement must be innocent of symmetry. Grouping is preferable to scattering. not desirable to have a uniformity structures. and select them of different kinds and sizes. I do not demand that the out garden-house shall stand its naked amidst surroundings. You . as I have already necessary height in stated. it with the plan before you. or placing the trees in "serried rows. do not them soar up to the level of the weather-cock on your garden-house. and. They must be placed so that their shadows do not intrude upon the flower borders.

and we must now revert to Some gardeners may prefer to treat it as a thing . and in- dicated to scale on the drawing. after cutting territory. it off from the flower it. or pergola will be of value. 31. and you labour — on paper. tree. and rockwork can be time we have located. All this left the vegetable plot alone. — Arrangement of trees vases. will then have all but completed your Lastly.136 GARDEN PLANNING next jot may down on the plan where you think an arch. such smaller accessories as sundials^ y Fig.

Much depends upon the disposition of the other factors and the gardener's views as to the desirability or not of allowing his vegetable productions to claim attention. to adopt a division between the kitchen and line. In certain circumstances it may be advisable. or less conspicuously indicated by an informal line of shrubs. or continue from the flower garden and through the vegetable plot. flower garden which It is not a straight line. may The be a bold curve or a cranked division may be definitely marked by a fence or hedge. 1 37 Gardens. its bold masses of green may . are so small in these days of dear land that we cannot afford to neglect the possibilities of the vegetable plot in the general garden effect. thereby extending the garden vista to the extreme limit borders. for the sake of obtaining a particular effect. into of the ground. A good way of effecting this to contrive that a flower border. I would not for a is moment contend that the kitchen garden unsightly. it Therefore we should see how far we can use result is to increase the apparent space at our disposal. however.HOW TO PLAN A GARDEN apart. On the contrary. to be concealed at all costs.

Examples of such gardens described. It mainly a question of though the inclusion of additional features facilitated by the of larger area of ground available may tend to complicate mode procedure the problem. reference to . when sprouts tower lankily skyward. be different. but they are generally amenable to treatment on common-sense principles. and by no means unbeautiful in themselves. Still the should be along lines similar to those already to the importance of studying aspect and the planner must ever be alive and of building up a picture in three dimensions. and not infrequently such gardens are. Gardens of irregular outline may involve some early difficulties in planning. for instance. though the details and is of treatment may scale. and peas are yellowing and sinking into disorder. will be found in a later chapter. Still there are times when the tenants of the vegetable plot Brussels do not look their best as. by their unusual shape. — The planning same general style of gardens of larger size than the typical example just treated involves the principles. eminently adapted for obtaining picturesque effects.138 GARDEN PLANNING be valuable as background.

to associate curves with straight lines. In the laying down of curves geometry helps . I am not sure that the practice of line is running a border. may be taken as bad practice. extent. main lines of the plan in straight lines. I may suggest that they first lay down the not always so easy to find. and it is not easy to give rules to cover the It whole ground. that the shrubs and taller plants in part conceal the foot of the fence its and render straightness less conspicuous. or the special predilections of the gardener. but it will not remove all the difficulties. leaving a path of varying width between. though excuse is it is often done. the key to the best result To those who may have difficulty in thinking in curves. to oppose a straight grass edge to a curved border. This may be of some help. afterward translating them into sinuous ones. the main lines of the garden are to be treated is in curves. for example.HOW TO PLAN A GARDEN which will 1 39 afford the reader more guidance than further written description. along a straight fence to be Its combest mended. whose near is a series of curves. as. by reason its of the nature of the ground. When. however.

) in is This tration. laid along the excellent help when The rope may be If proposed route of a curved path. When has first setting out curves the course of which been is laid down on the plan the method illus- of offsets the easiest. (See Fig. the and its perspective appearance noted. line. row When the curve passes over an open space a special either datum by the use of a must be laid stretched cord or a of pegs sighted into line. 30. . curve fails to satisfy the eye the rope can be moved and rearranged until a good result is obtained. All curves which are parts of circles are easily described with the help of a cord and centre peg. is sufficiently explained the the where a boundary fence line datum down.140 US but little. and a length of rope an marking out the ground. GARDEN PLANNING The eye is the better guide.

In a steeply sloping garden the aim should be a quite informal or naturalesque treatment. turning upon themselves in an Irregular zigzag. particularly the case if the aspect other than southern. but are hardly desirable acquisiThis is is tions to the horticultural enthusiast. Here and there pockets may be carved out of the hillside to make level space for flower growing. demand special treatment. is is way of securing always a costly matter. Terracing. if the slope considerable. considerable it and when the slope result in a heavy.CHAPTER X Sloping Gardens Gardens upon is sloping ground. the only effective sufficient level space. which will vary according to circumstances. Winding walks may be carried across the slope. Such gardens may be made picturesque and interesting. artificial effect as seen would from .

some simple system of terracing like that indicated . Fig. 33. Trees and shrubs may be used with effect good the to mask slopes and outlines of the artificial work.142 GARDEN PLANNING the lower levels. The first illustration indicates in sectional view I the treatment should adopt. On the whole it is better not to attempt too much on a steep hillside. and if excavation and banking have to be done. it may run sufficiently far back on either side to provide space for flower ground. —Terracing —sectional view entrance drive or walk should be carried in a direction across the slope as far as possible. The Fig. 32. — Terracing — sectional of view In the case small gardens.

SLOPING GARDENS in I43 is the second sectional view the best treatment. The natural slope is shown by a dotted line and it is evident just how much excavation and banking is necessary. When the garden slopes toward the house a different method should be This followed. Gardens falling away from the house are liable to be very dry at the highest point. soil for making an example of a slope away from the house. better. Fig. . that the terraced part should be given a slight slope toward the house. — Terracing — sectional view Thus. the beds and borders be hidden from sight until the observer It is ascends to their level. By a little care in fixing the levels it is may just is be contrived that the sufficient excavated the banks. as Fig. because the effect of looking from a low level up a slope is that little or nothing on the level Is seen. will If terracing is done with a view to obtaining level stretches. 34 shows. 34. therefore.

144

GARDEN PLANNING
the other hand, gardens which slope to.

On

ward the house throw the rain-water to the lower level, necessitating some system of
drainage for carrying
it

away.
I

In treating of terracing in small gardens

do not use the term
terraces.

in the

sense of walled

Walls

are

costly

and not always

sightly adjuncts, especially in a small garden.

The drop from one level to the next may be made by means of a grassed bank, a retaining
board,
or
a

rock-faced

slope,

according
is

to

circumstances.

When

the

slope
Is

to

the

south, the face of the

bank

well placed for
I

treatment as an alpine garden, and
of no better

know

way

of dealing with

it.

^On grassed

Fig.

3S.—

Steps in path

slopes

shrubs

may

be used to conceal the

horizontal margin of the slope.

Paths which pass from one level to another

SLOPING GARDENS
require to be stepped, and this

I45

many ways.
method
is

Possibly
fix

to

may be done in most economical wooden risers by nailing them
the

to stout pegs well driven into the soil at each

end, and to

fill

in the treads

with gravel beaten
fair

down and brought
as

to

a

surface.

Re-

taining boards should be fixed at the sides,

shown in the illustration. Gardens in which the natural slope is transverse to their length do not involve the same difficulties, and they are not usually found of such steep gradients,- or, if they are, their small width, compared with their length, makes the
problem of planning a simpler one. It often becomes feasible to effect a change of levels at the path line in some such way as appears
in this

sectional view.

Fig. 36.

— Dealing

with a transverse slope

In this illustration
raised

it

will

be seen that a

border

is

made on

the higher side of

146
the
path,

GARDEN PLANNING
supported_ hy
a

retaining
If

board,

rubble wall, or by rockwork.

the lower

boundary
practice,
for

is

a fence, the water which drains
it.

to that level will tend to rot
therefore,

It

is

good

to

make

the fence open

face.

two or three inches above the ground surIf the boundary is a wall it may be
In neither case, however, would such
soil

necessary to introduce a rubble drain along
its

foot.

an expedient be necessary unless the

was

a

heavy and impervious one. A narrow border along the lower boundary will usually serve as sufficient drainage.
^5

Dealing with a transverse slope

transverse direction

When the slope is steep in a it may be necessary to reby
raising the lower side with
if

make
soil

the ground

taken from the higher, and
is

the lower

boundary
bank, as

it

would necessitate a would not be feasible to allow any
a fence this

depth of

soil

to

lie

in contact

with the fence.

SLOPING GARDENS

I47

The existence of such
tration (Fig. 37)
in
is

a

bank

as seen in the illus-

not a very sightly feature

any garden, and should only be adopted
in

when the circumstances preclude any other
arrangement, and
is

that event the best plan

to plant the head of the

bank with shrubs
is

or with a hedge.

The only other
in

case to be mentioned
is

that

which the slope

diagonal, and for that

no special guidance can be offered, because
so

much
its

will

depend upon the amount of slope

and

direction considered with reference to

aspect.

surface in such a

The aim should be to model the way as to secure the proper

conditions for horticulture and the convenience
of the

garden user, without attempting too
of

much work
plateaus

an

artificial

character.

It

should always be remembered that dead-level

on

a
as

considerable

slope

proclaim

themselves
it is

man's

handiwork,

wherefore

well to conceal as

much

of this

work

as

possible.

In some cases
a compromise

it

may

be desirable to effect

by not
series

setting out to bring the

ground to a

of levels,

but by merely
series of slopes

modifying the original slope to a

148

GARDEN PLANNING
In
all

of less gradient.

such problems the main

point

is

not to outrage Nature, but rather to

coax her in the direction in which we wish
her to go, covering up our footsteps as

we

proceed in the work, so that the
shall not disclose too obviously

final result
it

what

owes

to spade work.

As
for

steps are necessary adjuncts in sloping
I

gardens,

may

give

some further suggestions

making them.
alternative plan to the one already deis

An

scribed

that shown in the third figure in the

illustration (Fig. 38), in

made

of stout boards supported

which the treads are on pegs driven
is

Into the ground.

Yet another plan

to attach

the treads to cheeks of wood, making a single

complete structure, as

in the fourth figure.

When
I

the path passes

through

rockwork

always build the steps of rock pieces.
Bricks

may

be employed for steps, either
laid loose, as in the first figure.

set in

mortar or

They

are better laid

on edge, and

it

is

well

to chip off the angle where the tread and riser

meet, or to use bull-nosed bricks.
Slabs of stone

make good
if

steps,

and by

their

weight keep

in place

well bedded, without

SLOPING GARDENS

149

Fig.

38.— Steps

as a two or more good steps concession to appearances. There something quite un- •tJ^ 3 Fig.39- — Spreading steps conventional in such steps as illustrated in the second figure. side and wing walls. it is well to break the line of steps into flights. When the slope is moderate. have avoided reference to architectural features associated with steps. though the risers of brick to prevent best to make soil from working out from beneath the tread. a will from spreading the one of the ways shown I in Fig. is When effect in the difference of level result small. but long. . and caps. These. 39. for instance. pillars. slopes the riser On moderate at an angle ma^ be of is soil left and turfed. as.ISO GARDEN PLANNING it is the need for cheeks.

always provided the latter are chosen with taste and a sense of proportion and fitness for their surroundings. should be unpretentious. If capped with flat stones the pillars may carry vases with good effect.SLOPING GARDENS if I5I introduced into a small garden. . and as far as possible designed to accord with the architecture of the house.

well to under- stand the scope and purpose of the rock garden. a thing all too often overlooked." as it has come to be called. The common stone plan of heaping together a mass of curiosities IS2 and mineral into a grotto- .CHAPTER XI The Rock Garden There is no feature in the modern small garden so badly contrived as the rock garden. It is a garden withis a delight. but must be properly con- structed and placed where the sun can reach it. A rock garden need not be large it to be interesting. To the real flower-lover the rock garden There is no corner of his domain which yields more interest. It is too often but a formless heap of stone rubbish or clinkers in which a few sickly ferns struggle for existence. or "rockery. a place own way. in a garden. rewarding him with tiful where nature has all her quaint and beauflowers and varied foliage from early It is spring to winter frosts.

if as stone The answer is we inquire as to the character of their native habitat. holding a reserve of moisture gathered from the sky. is Here. The rock garden is man's attempt to imitate . jewelled with gorgeous blossom. But it serves a very important purpose as such. and therefore it flourishes. is I 53 and sprinkling the whole with the outcome of a misunderstanding of Let us look into the matter just first principles. and see why our alpine plants masses. The casual observer who will has wandered through the Swiss uplands have seen a wealth of plant life. in is some crevice filled with soil. The rock but the flower pot. soil. and he will have won- dered how the solid stone could furnish food for Yet if he had pushed his investigation carefully on the spot he would have found that every plant was rooted deeply so luxuriant a display. clinging apparently to the bare surface of a rock. ad- mounits Thus the plant has availed itself of natural conditions eminently adapted for welfare. then. the explanation. and yearly collecting an ditional store of soil. the fine debris of the tain-side. should be associated with such apparently uncongenial material clear.THE ROCK GARDEN like structure. closely.

.154 GARDEN PLANNING if it fails these natural conditions. and therefore its substance a certain Yet an impervious stone it better than none. its principal function. The in next point to understand is that the soil our rock garden must be well drained. which is good. This is may age be attained by ensuring that assisted it of a porous character and of sufficient depth. and its in this. the soil. our alpine garden of the plants but. is porous. still. they conserve the moisture in in all weathers. and thus ensure that the plants have it a constant supply of This being so. that there some magic virtue the rock food suitable by which these plants obtain for their needs. Drainis by elevating the rock garden. how can it serve pur- pose as a home for the plant? The those idea. it is well to select is our rocks from material which capable of holding in reserve of moisture. must be abanis doned. as reduces the area of soil subject to evaporation. better They serve to give us a suggestion of the natural environment we wish to grow. The function of the rock pieces in twofold. not by any means uncommon with closely into the in is who have not looked itself question.

nor would that be desirable. greenhouses. by sinking In Its floor below the general level. and whose leaves In autumn would sadly litter its surface. Moreover. Position far — The It is. our best attempt associated artificial to imitate a piece of nature. . 1 55 what comes is to the same thing. though this does not imply that every part must enjoy full sun.THE ROCK GARDEN or. rock garden should be as as removed from a formal environment If it is possible. or other surroundings the illusion better also to keep it falls to pieces. or should be. It not necessary to be lavish of rocks. and to remember that the landscape Is Innoct^nt of trees at the altitude where alpine bourhood of trees. since there are plants which will thrive all the better in shade or partial shade. soil a well-designed rock garden the should bulk at least as largely as the rocks. It Is away from the neigh- whose roots would find their and exhaust it. — The above conditions being is satis- the only other one of importance that the alpine garden should have a sunny aspect. it is well to be consistent in our mimicry. with walls. Aspect fied. way into the soil flowers thrive best.

vitrified brick fragments. too uniform in Good bold pieces up to the largest size the gardener can conveniently . portions of decayed statuary. and conglomerate will Soft stones which crumble away under weather its influence are obviously unsuitable. A do. minerals. shift then the gardener must make with brickyard waste. hard. easily obtainable in his district.156 GARDEN PLANNING great charm of the rock garden is One its variety. as they harbour fungi to the detriment of the plants. or limestone. If natural stone is unprocurable. and that can best be maintained byproviding all the conditions of aspect and exposure demanded by the various plants availMaterials able for our purpose. The stone pieces should not be too small nor size. but he should select is that which Clinkers. porous. or cost prohibitive. and Tree stumps should never be seen in the alpine garden. — Perhaps is the best material for the purpose sandstone. granitic rock. also should be avoided. but in most cases is the gardener has to be content with what most tuffa. close-grained sandstone. sea-shells lumps of alabaster. dressed stone blocks.

though only very roughly so. Professional constructors sometimes use an artificial stone made on the spot. thereby exposing the fraud. know to the conBut unless done by hands accustomed to imitating I the form and stratification of the natural rock. it would be a failure. have seen it suggested that good imitation rocks may be made by the liability coating brickyard waste with Portland cement. suggests . is associated life. by plastering a coloured cement over a basis of rough brick- work. Soil — In this particular we cannot do better than follow nature. have seen some very clever work of indistinguishable from a natural all I out-crop of rock. of course. ticles of and therefore contain- ing small stones and sand. this I kind. with which. We have seen that in alpine regions the crevices in the rocks filled become with fine debris. The objection to these processes is of the artificial surface to be flaked off by frost or rough usage. for trary. it may skilled serve excellently. humus derived from decaying an artificial plant This. and.THE ROCK GARDEN 1 57 handle should be procured. the disintegrated parthe rock itself. then. and by preference they should be quadrangular.

. Beyond that soil hardly feasible or worth while to go in specializing the soil.158 GARDEN PLANNING mixture for our rock garden In which similar ingredients find place. The prepared clay. . unsuitable for grown in a bog plants and a calcareous which thrive best the needs of these in To meet it is desirable to some peat may be introduced for the benefit of the bog plants. . .. is The whole will should be well mixed and then ready for use. .. for those soil. 6 parts I part 2 parts i part To of this may be added stable a moderate proportion well-decayed manure. Such a mixture may- be made as follows: Good friable loam Chips of sandstone Sand or road scrapings Leaf mould .. must be entirely free from and to ensure this care should be taken to obtain the proper kind of loam. and to add a limy constituent to the compost (lime reserve a place where or broken limestone) for those parts of the gar- den in which it is intended to grow lime-loving it is plants. suit the Although the above compost greater number it is of plants usually rock garden.

that suitable as an ingredient in the compost just to The gardener may next proceed barrow the effect is mark out the plan. gravel. Having obtained the rocks and the and having selected a suitable site for the its — rock garden. it. which ing is never seen in nature. by throwtheir shape them up as if and height were a matter of chance. or other porous the A sunk garden has the advantage soil is that the excavated useful for building it is up the banks. He should endeavour to avoid a formal or symmetrical distribution of masses. for the final controlled by the way which he arranges his heaps. latter. and then soil into place. In most cases a path will but this will have to be made age. pass through last. of course. Now comes an imin portant part of the operation. clay the former kind plan of is best. .THE ROCK GARDEN I 59 Making soil. described. provided. the forming of contours may be undertaken. his mind the importance of drainthe gardener must first decide whether Bearing in rockwork soil shall stand above the general it. surface or be partly sunk below On heavy on a soil. by pegging or otherwise.

because as the work proceeds he may- Fig. This edging must be well done.i6o GARDEN PLANNING illustration The below gives a suggestion of at. which he should view from various standpoints to make sure that he has obtained a good general effect. thereby avoiding the effect of an artificial edging. That much accomplished. . with the rocks in close contact. 40. For this part of the work he should select rocks of various sizes. what should be aimed Not until he has com- pleted the whole of the base-work should he add the rocks. here and there introducing a bold mass to accentuate some angle. the gardener may commence to place his rocks by outlining with them the foot of each slopCjthereby at the same time defining his path. — Earthwork in the rock garden find it it advisable to raise the ground here or there to improve its lower contours.

by which the soil will be sufficiently held in place. with those above as it. but no cementing should be employed. must be contrived a number of irregular pockets . (See Figs. medium Such crevices as remain may be well rammed with compost. which. and will then offer temptation to the plants to thread them with rootlets. I would even advocate the placing. — Rockwork section The soil may next be brought forward to all stand level with the rocks at next points.) Fig. 105. 129. thus affording a basis on which to proceed with the tier. of an island of rockwork in or near the centre of a specially contrived expansion of the path.THE ROCK GARDEN Otherwise l6l much soil will be subsequently washed out on to the gravel. In laying down the line of the path no attempt should be made to maintain equality of width throughout. at one or more spots. 116. 41. better effect is On the contrary. a if much secured the path varies in width.

— Rocks in relation to soil The rock masses should not be deeply buried. constituting miniature ramparts. or sufficient to effectively anchor in place. The rock masses should not piggledy. which best secured by giving all the flattened masses a slight tilt in some particular direction.l62 GARDEN PLANNING levels. 42. is A its good rule that on the exposed side no rock soil should be deeper in the than one fourth of it height. . to convey the idea of a naturally inclined stratification. or which a delicate arenaria clothe may with its velvet greenery and tiny white stars. but there should be relation lie higgledyof some kind is amongst them. artificial of rock must be used at irregular intervals. and not as a series which would be an obviously arrangement. over which some pretty trailing plant will later on make a gay show. Here again bold pieces Standing at different of parallel terraces. Fig.

a couple of bold masses may be superimposed. — Arrangement of rock masses The pockets vary lops. They should never take the form of a series of scalin size. rock pieces. say to give access to the rock These steps may be built of filled flat soil. led up to by other pieces. but they should be omitted by those at the best effect. are not infrequently seen in the gardens of amateurs. 43. their crevices being in with which rock-foils and stone- . or will certainly travel downward with each shower of rain. Some inclination may it be allowed to the but not much. sugarloaf fashion. as would occur in nature. If who aim some height is desired at given point.THE ROCK GARDEN Rocks set 163 on end. Fig. a suitable point or points. soil. Rough steps may be introduced at garden from the grass plot. or spaces of bare soil should and be irregular in shape.

better to carry to them between two adjacent mounds than make them ascend a conspicuous elevation. it is If these steps be introduced. but they are no betthan the more simple I ter for their purpose am describing. The fact that the rock garden offers the gardener the chance of growing a large collection of plants of small size and low stature that would get lost in the open border. He see how far it is possible to reahze a natural- istic effect. The gardener . will A visit to a well-made rock garden in the wintertime just afford the gardener much practical will guidance in this kind of work. is to many people a sufficient justi- fication for the introduction of this feature. greatly have seen a interest in their building.164 crops GARDEN PLANNING may afterward be encouraged to grow. and may gain some wrinkles in rehis rocks. gard to the disposition of Although recent in the past the real rock in garden has increased been a negligible quantity years American gardens. There charm is out-crop. placed together so skil- fully that they might be mistaken for a natural many hundreds type of garden Such gardens have cost their owners of dollars. are rock gardens in which the chief their rocks.

I an inducement to that Nature is ever kind to her votaries. Fig. 165 to avoid appearances which indicate artificial too obviously the character of the For instance. the favoured individual must be guided by these precepts. — Arrangements of rock masses An artist would less instinctively produce good contours. I may remark shortcomings. in which the peat may lie in a level surface. a promontory formed at a bend in the path should have a line more nearly approaching the first than the second figure in the accompanying illustration. 44. as peat is unstable on a slope.THE ROCK GARDEN must try work. and by such examples as he may find to imitate. An . and when the garden has been planted she will do her best to conceal offer it as Though do not indifferent work. For bog plants it is well to arrange one or more bays.

45. be allowed in actual contact with the are in place. is When all the rocks when critically and the result viewed satisfactory.-. If water is level can be made. line of small rock pieces (not a straight and in that way a large pocket at the base- laid in which the peat may be on a not too porous subsoil. — Arrangements of is peat in the rock garden associated with the rock garden. the garfill dener should proceed to in all holes and . where the peat may water. •-'•M.i66 GARDEN PLANNING angle in the general structure may be cut off by a line). Bog plants demand a water-logged home. the place for bog plants at its edge.:^ Fig.

stratification. if in the burning. The large masses will consist of many bricks cemented together ing a decided. thus showtheir longer rather artificial. with a view to availing himself of the crannies between them. as will be understood from the foregoing considerations. to ensure that the soil gets levels. he should go over the structure again. but that would be a bad arrangement. to probe them. or bricklayer's trowel. or at such a slight tilt as may decide. using a thin 167 wooden blade. He may their place them that be tempted to so component bricks stand on end.THE ROCK GARDEN crevices with his compost. down to the lowest After the first heavy shower of rain has sunk in. replenishing the soil where it If of necessity he has had to use brick waste as a substitute for rocks. The soil there may just run off into the level of the ground. These pieces he should place with he joints horizontal. his task will not have little been so easy. of the There is no need to outline the back margin bank with rocks. Yet with a ingenuity he may secure a very passable result. When the structure of soil and rock is finished . for disguise their it is not possible to entirely character.

the practical work of putting the plants into the soil. and sempercrannies. It should be done in the same when planting a bed or border. as witness the few of these plants margin of common house-leek. have seen them used. and at the same seasons according to locality. but only with grotesque effect. a few rounded pebbles introduced along the margin of the rock structure are not out of place. On the other hand. an old water-course. as they do. ample depth of Discrimination should be used in selecting the plants for special positions.l68 GARDEN PLANNING the gravel floor of the rock garden in the I may be laid way directed for path making. saxifrage. of the rock vivum will thrive when rooted and some on the porous surface itself. suggesting. need hardly warn the reader against the I use of water-worn rock pieces which have a uniform pebble-like shape. subjects like The in smaller sedum. and serving to retain soil washed for down from Planting —No special directions are needed way as the higher levels. may be established at allowed A the to the rockwork and . struction I The mode of conis have described ensures that there soil.

more none more level. but plant fully. for Give each plant elbow-room to allow growth and expansion. Ferns will thrive in similar places. be little bare Chinks in the vertical surfaces should not be neglected — they soil will carry their share of plant to insert the roots and life. and. . Plants of trailing habit should be put near the top of a miniature precipice. they should be located in the shady corners. on the topmost tall small flowering deciduous and evergreen shrubs may be associated with perennials like starwort and snapdragon. Tall plants should go mostly to the higher levels. but it it is well for the novice to limit at first to the will find hardy kinds.THE ROCK GARDEN intrude upon the gravel within limits. if care be taken well in ram the contact with them. At the back of all. will soften 169 They the hard line where rock and gravel meet. so that when the plants are established there shall soil visible. than which he beautiful. over which they will hang their flexible shoots and in due course paint its surface with brilliant colour. choice of plants is The a vast one. preferably.

Learn to know your plants by sight and don't label them. The appearance foliage. Many on the alpine level. just as we should find in nature. and reminiscent of the auction room. which. Wall Gardens — Nature has shown us how she can clothe an old wall mth her treasures. plants if will thrive perfectly well they are protected from the encroachment of coarser Thus these outlying rock pieces plants. before the plants have put forward their depressing. some detached pieces of rock being placed on the level beyond the raised part of the rock garden. unconstrained by any etia. aubridianthus. may forbid a very ambitious and it may thus be necessary to confine the rockwork to a single bank against the boundary wall or fence. The rock garden should not end It is abruptly. In that event it is well to clothe the artificial background with ivy or other creepers. better to let it gradually merge into the general surface of the ground. will spread into wide cushions of colour. . or limits.lyO GARDEN PLANNING Space and means effort. is of a labelled rock garden in the spring. may rocky be enshrined in masses of phlox.

but we require the right kind of wall. or with snap- dragon. using irregular the plants. crevices. We have only to rub some fine soil into the chinks and to sow the seed of such plants as we desire. and as doing so much plant may be of concrete. neatly pointed red brick affair. . If no wall in exists. toadflax. but a thing of cracks. old bricks. rough stone. not the new. rubble. the rest is easy. though with bricks. unless ample spaces are left between them. and sedum. ruined wall topped with pinks. covering them up with soil to prevent the birds abstracting them. Given this. or hung with the charming grey foHage and glistening white flowers of cerastium? To imitate this is not difficult. perhaps the best are the last three. and crannies. we may make provision for The wall life as we please. or Of these. and in due course we shall have our colony of alpines. such as we find enclosing some old country garden. then we must build one.THE ROCK GARDEN I7I and the plants thus naturally established often display a charming habit in adapting themselves Who has not seen a to their artificial home. there would be difficulty in finding sufficient lodgment for Stone and rubble.

spaces may be filled with the compost recom- mended for The smaller the rock garden and then sown. be done in the autumn. The sowing should . be no pointing. would give opportunity for earth pockets There should and crevices of various sizes. and only so much mortar used Large as is necessary to secure stability. crevices may be filled with soil mixed with the seeds.172 GARDEN PLANNING blocks.

walls and fences deserve their share. In the present day no such consideration prevails. We is cannot have too many roses. they may be effect. is nothing to be freely gained by providing a separate place for the on the contrary. In the shrubbery they help to redeem the 173 . and there no position where they are out of place. and gardeners do not hesitate to admit themselves is to have been the rose into every part of the garden. with healthy house walls are never so beautiful as clothed The The when and prolific climbers. associated with the other flowers In bed and border with the best Just why it became the practice In days gone by to give the roses a department to not clear.CHAPTER XII The Rose Garden In a small garden there roses. though there seems some Idea that the rose standard did not harmonize with plants of bushy habit.

masses of monotonous green lawn. colour. can be grown in a by itself without producing a monotonous its effect. site variety in form. or trained over the beams of make I glorious masses of flower and foliage. and. have written enough to show that the rose has no claim to be kept in a place by itself. a pergola. of flowers.174 GARDEN PLANNING foliage. but formality is not the product of . as standards or pillars. of colour. is a practical token of homage to the queen rose. following ancient usage. they charming climbers are available. This follows from foliage. its am no advocate of a formal garden in severest mood. Indeed. we cannot I do better than lay it out formally. there is something extremely It attractive in a well-planned rose garden. pergolas. yet this does not imply that the rose garden is necessarily a superfluity where ample space exists. A and sunny should be selected for the rose garden. roses and for arches. On the they add a welbeds and borders come note effect. and festoons no more Pegged down. and in they contribute their quota to the general Even as hedges. have their use. and it demonstrates that the before place all other flowers.

I can- not imagine any benefit to the roses from planting them anyhow. The beds should The groups should show a geometrical relation be- tween their component beds In the way I have advised for groups of flower beds generally. I I75 details. for our garden roses are mostly a product of the nurseryman's art. They shall are perhaps the most artificial of all flowers. We know little of the rose in a state of nature. Illustration (Fig. by which It on a symmetrical basis. beds in grass. We not therefore be In danger of outif raging good taste on formal lines. 46) shows typical rose gardens as I might plan them on a grass and It should be noted that the outlying . and there in we make our rose garden I mean if we plan Is The most common method Is to cut the rose much to be said favour of grass as a setting for our roses. The space. not be elaborate in outline nor too small. it Is In evolving a design points well to observe certain now to be mentioned. as I have can conceive of beds and borders of informal outline treated quite for- mally in the planting and accessories.THE ROSE GARDEN shape alone in the garden elsewhere shown.

176 GARDEN PLANNING 'Ml ^ .

It may be long and narrow. which pillars. It is not unusual to carry a path through it the rose garden.THE ROSE GARDEN 1 77 borders give a sense of enclosure and sanctity to the whole arrangement. and may dainty and trim by the use of neatly clipped box edgings. however. Such gardens are shown ing illustration (Fig. where two paths section vase. the delightsupplies. is The point of intersometimes marked by a sundial or a path or paths lead into the rose When garden. 47). The necessary shelter in exposed situations may be contrived by the use of rose or sweet- brier hedges. ful One loses. and I am not There . or of roses trained upon a skele- ton fence. In the I thereby excluding grass altogether. background an emerald turf is no reason why the rose garden should take a shape having equal dimensions both ways. may be enhanced by planting their outer standards or lines with The is introduction of arches at suitable points an excellent device for obtaining height. the beds may be separated by gravel. or to set intersect at right angles. accompanybe made have no quarrel it with that arrangement.

it is well to add a proportion of heavier material . deeply trenched in the liberally in- and treated is with manure. can be better tedious brought into harmony with the adjacent parts of the garden. 1 1 i n hh . They thrive in almost any soiL provided they are well supplied with fertilizing matter. As a walk.178 GARDEN PLANNING is sure that that not the best form. too. The will common for roses impression that clay soil is essential not altogether correct. especially It when space is restricted. 48. and be therefore rose beds and borders first should stance.iiiii i i in 111 1. it is less to traverse. under careFor sandy and light. soils In light the manure we give soil. if soil is and thus. —A long rose garden | soil. them is not retained so long as in less culture. this reason.. i ii j m i iii ^UI I Fig. Roses make considerable demands upon the | ^ • n^ uM . heavy they the may suffer starvation.

and then up with soil. preferably between mid-October and the end of if November.THE ROSE GARDEN to give in 1 79 it tenacity and manuring to use cow manure. On heavy land it may be necessary to drain the rose bed. and out the filling soil to a depth of three feet. soil should then be placed over the rootlets. though the winter be open. Holes ^should be dug ample size. it may be done later The of operation of plantmg cannot be too carefully conducted. with the bottom formed domearranging the roots. This may be done by throwing retentive quality. of the plant moving the stem up and down . If the garden is made upon turf. and add any other decaying vegetable matter you may have available. adding nine inches of rubble or brick rubbish. above that of the Thorough preparation rose bed is the surest guarantee of future success. shaped to facilitate These should be separated and distributed Fine radially over the bottom of the hole. In such ease it is well to bring the level of the beds well of the ground. Planting should be done in the autumn. then dig in the sods.

-Pianti„g a rose Tcuders exccllcnt servicc in bebw"fhrg'"un^^Lr7rci"(B" Then prune at c. experiments showing that careless planting is equally favourable to the plant. rain follows planting. anchoriug the plant to the soil. and a mulchmanure may then be put around each plant to afford protection from frost. it is no advisable to give ing of some water about a week after. It should not slightly It be heaped depressed round the stem. Standards should not be less than . there widely spread as possible at Fig. would appear little that there is to be gained by care in spreading the roots. Roses must not be crowded together too closely. Be that is as it no doubt that the care devoted to arranging the roots as may.i8o to allow it GARDEN PLANNING to penetrate soil among them. the foot of the hole 49. but so as to facilitate watering. The remainder of the firmly may left then be added and rammed down. enabling it the better If to withstand the buffeting of the wind.

bent specimens one sees occasion- ally pointing skyward are truly ugly.THE ROSE GARDEN l8l' three feet apart. standards of greater height than three The lanky. and thus get roses of the our colour effect in masses. On be the other hand. and bushes not less than one and a I half to two feet. The presence of too large a . The range of colour in roses except perhaps so great and so har- monious that one can hardly make a mistake. of The former. contrasting colours harmonizing may associated together in the same bed or is border. fill. though the latter arrangement it is may sometimes The is be desirable when intended to introduce a well-marked line. with a or less elaborate garden. and have no raison single d'etre. disposition of the plants in a rose garden largely a matter of taste. It is question whether ever desirable to use feet. to With many beds we may devote each bed to several same colour or kind. in associating the magenta- tinted varieties with reds and pinks of purer side hue. carrying as they do a note blue. go better side by with whites and yellows. Standards look better in groups than in file.

for which there is not room here. They may be used beds by themselves. beautiful colours. the picture than coloured varieties. China foliage. Much more is to be said about roses. and the reader specially interested had better turn to "The Amateur's Book of Roses and How to Grow Them. as they tell more strongly roses. and brilliant should not be in overlooked. . in the front part of the borders. with their dwarf habit.l82 GARDEN PLANNING is proportion of whites to be in condemned. or between standards where the climate allows.

CHAPTER Water in XIII the Garden There is something so delightful in the living. But even then particularly to gardens it may be possible to avoid offence provided contents himself the gardener with simple arrangements. bounded by a natural stream or through which such a stream passes. Any sense of artificiality that may arise can be counteracted by the inherent 183 . At the same time the conditions may be such This applies that water can be introduced without appearing to be too artificial a feature. When the water has to be derived from the domestic supply and contained in artificial ponds it is a different matter. moving presence that gardeners to introduce in a it of water in the landscape may be excused their desire into their flower ground. size it Yet garden of limited should be recog- nized that the effect which appeals to us amidst natural surroundings is practically unrealizable.

ing of water and cleansing of ponds. be stated at the outset that the making of a water garden is a simple delightful matter compared with its efficient maintenance. these drawbacks operate I prejudicially. is When a running stream less available. however. but also that no objection would exist to his diverting some of it through his garden. No gardener should lightly embark upon the task unless he is prepared to give unremitting attention to artificial his water plants and to their This implies frequent chang- homes. town and suburban gardens organic matter. It may. In such an .184 interest in GARDEN PLANNING luxuriant water growth and the blooms we get from such purely aquatic plants as water-lilies and lotus. We may assume that the water is pure enough for our purpose. and other undesirable things are wafted by the wind or fall upon the water surface. shall first consider the case of a bounded by a stream at its far end. though garden they are not altogether absent. dead leaves. The probability is that the gardener would have no rights over the water. where they remain to decay In and defile the water.

but not so stagnant as to require any special device for changing it. The depth need not exceed eighteen inches. waterside and the marthe of gins backFig. 50. say with an extension in the form of a bay. Clear spaces should be left for access to the water's edge and to permit of the plants being seen. 50). water and pond could accommodate others of less —A water garden sturdy growth.WATER IN THE GARDEN 1 85 event he might excavate a backwater. Other plants may be added If established In the . with which might be associated our common native pond lily. collection of A small dwarf hybrid nympheas may be pond B and in the backwater. and a piece (B) more or this less By stagnant. means he would obtain a piece of running water (A). The island C for would be useful treatment with bold plants. as shown in the illustration (Fig.

and porting a colony of semi-aquatic plants. spirea. Typha and swamp mallow might be planted along the fence line at B. or trouble will ensue by the banks breaking away and water. as well as such favourite flowers as phlox. including such interesting subjects as the pickerel weed. No deciduous trees or shrubs should be placed near the water. a piece of water of be made a source of perennial is kind could interest. and water buttercup. A water system of this kind might be wedded to a rock garden with a good effect. little trouble in the and a host of others. for reasons already explained. With very making and common-sense this management.1 86 GARDEN PLANNING space permits. trollius. the flowering rush. When all it complete and the plants are established would only remain to keep the entrances clear and to remove all rubbish which might find access to the water. In excavating the water bed the sides should slope gently to the edge. fouling the This also ensures that the for is soil is water- logged some distance from the water's therefore in a condition for sup- edge. . Irises will thrive at the margin of the water.

be a plain befits its affair. si-— A water garden is stepping-stones the water the shallow. having inlet and outlet. is which a made of in that part the garden beyond the brook. resist temptation "rustic" character to his bridge. 51.WATER IN THE GARDEN the 1 87 a When rather a stream intersects effort is garden. well as purpose. The gardener should to give a It should built. and in may pond be done by adopting an arrangement that illustrated in Fig. thus secir- curing a water culation. Bays Combe a or if F»g- should be formed on munication across the stream may of by means simple bridge. and firmly and provided with a hand-rail on either side. the near side. more ambitious possible. in regard to What has been written making and plant- . The this like lily general treatment should be such as to considerably expand the water area.

it will help us to a simple arrangement for running off the water. so much the better. now refer to a type of water garden which is frankly artificial and depends for its water supply on the kitchen tap or the pump. and that can best be done by devising what culating system.1 88 GARDEN PLANNING ing in the previous case applies to this one also. This last condition demands that we should study economy of water. to engage the attention of As water gardening is never likely more than a minority of gardeners I need not multiply examples. as must to be done from time to time keep our ponds clean and their tenants in healthy condition. I may call a cir- The first consideration will be the planning of the ponds (for such they are) and in that we must be guided by the If there is levels in our garden and our desires in the matter of water area. a distinct slope in the garden surface. The hints I have already given will prove suffi- ciently instructive to those who may wish to avail themselves of the possibilities of a stream accessible I shall from the garden. The waste or overflow from the pond or .

52). 1 89 ponds must be provided and when the garden slopes toward the house the most convenient way is to carry •' it into a gully in '^. say by the use of cement or concrete. into which the overflow pipe conducted. — Soak-away drain connection with the house drainage system. 52.'^H ^: '^^i'-^ ^i''^' Fig. When best the slope is is in a contrary direction the expedient to make a "soak-away" (Fig.WATER series of IN THE GARDEN for. The ponds must be constructed with an impervious bottom. as shown in the illustration in the soil This is merely a pit sunk and with rubble. . filled is drain.

190 Fig. they floor must be built in cement. and calls for little by way are of description. as in D. If the pond sides are built of cement. C must be followed. The may con- then be made with crete.S3- — Ponds a slight fall toward the outlet. faced six or eight inches of with cement. and finishing them neatly at top with a rounded nosing. The surface should not be finished to a dead level. but should h ave Fig. to facilitate running off the water. If rock or rubble sides used. which can be done with a former of . GARDEN PLANNING 53 shows both the mode of forming the bottom and of building up the sides. making the edges battered. care being taken to make the joints watertight.

inlet. installed it will only be necesits sary to carry a waste-pipe from bottom to This should be done in a straight line. connecting pipes may enter and leave at the bottom. as would be the case on sloping ground. but if the levels are stepped. tempered with a third part of sharp sand. is If a single pond the drain. Pipes for inlets and outlets should be inserted when the sides of the pond are being made. to facilitate unstopping in case suitable of Is obstruction. the overflow from each pond to the next lower one of the series must be placed at the water-line. provided to close the the pipe.WATER wood like IN THE GARDEN Fresh I9I that illustrated. they connecting the should be connected by piping into a single waste-pipe it. the or more ponds are made. The not most less piping iron gas pipe of internal diameter than one and a half inches. otherall wise the water would flow to the lowest . A and plug must be this may be bore of a simple cone of wood fitted to the When two system. one the nearest the drain to If all ponds stand at the same level. cement of good quality should be used. if possible.

he the ponds. remain off the ponds of Hence the running fresh. usefulness the foul some means for water and refilling with When should the gardener has done his work. made filling clear in the dia- grams A and B. satisfactory. which would show If all itself is by a drop in the surface level. Although culating described. the water be may ready be for run off and the ponds of will planting. The end May is the best time for planting . which will is unnecesly perfectly Water-lilies thrive stagnant water which has not been changed for months. fill mark the water-level.192 GARDEN PLANNING This point is pond. of water. I have applied the term "cirsystem" to the arrangements just it should be understood that they are not adapted to ensure a constant movequite in ment sary. pleasant but to in it is neither nor to allow the wholesome same water indefinitely. noting whether there is any leakage. The up and renewal of the water may be done conveniently with the garden hose. and allow them to stand for a week.

be heaped to the water-level height at the points where the plants are to be placed. . Loam Leaf-mould Road If the it scrapings i part part part first ingredient cannot be obtained may be omitted and double the quantities of (broken loam and leaf-mould substituted. compost consisting of: Pond mud The soil may be a 2 parts I i . A layer of drainage material tile or brick rubbish) should be spread pond floor. considerably below The water may be run off and renewed at if fortnightly intervals.WATER the IN THE GARDEN I93 hardy nympheas. leaves . . or even less often it shows no tendency to become fouled. their The down plants may then be this mounds. The water may then be admitted and allowed to to upon the on which the compost should stand for a couple of of days in assume the temperature the atmosinserted phere. Twice a year the ponds must be thoroughly cleansed to remove decayed vegetable matter. . which by time will have the water- settled level.

and the enthusiastic flower-lover will not grudge the subsequent labour of tending them. the sight of only three or water-lilies is four good. I lection of miniature in know one such person who grows a colnympheas in tubs sunk limited his example the ground with most gratifying success. The matter-of-fact gardener all this may question whether think worth while for the purpose of growing a few water plants. so. Goldfish will do well even under somewhat unfavourable conditions of stagnation. purpose. fill the bottom with rubble.that when is the tub bedded upon it the rim will stand .194 GARDEN PLANNING and rubbish which are certain to accumulate at the bottom. The and to may be best plan is to excavate a deep hole. say twice the depth of the tub. The in introduction of animal life is useful restraining undesirable vegetable growth. Where space is followed. healthy one's in flower in own garden sufficiently interesting to constitute ample recompense for initial some small trouble and outlay. and are equally useful for the water-snails particularly. I trouble is it is. Indeed.

—Tub for water plants' The hard The soil circular outline of the tub is the only objection on the score of appearance. and to grow in it small water-side plants. These expedients. if suitably . Fig. which. bit hole A centre- must be made fitted tub and a bottom of the with a plug long enough to give in the good hand-hold. 54. best way to mask it is to pack some boggy around and between the tubs. A piece of perforated its zinc should be nailed over the hole at side. simple enough to put into practice. are all that for is necessary to provide an occasional change of water. to under prevent coarse debris running through and choking the drainage material below.WATER IN THE GARDEN I95 just above the level of the ground.

in shallow water on a deep bed of soil. tainer as its roots spread through the into the surrounding ground. The lotus has a rich tropical effect. The calla has in been mentioned. If possible rain-water The nympheas water. and is easily the native will thrive flag. and air from the water plants. The English arrowcalled "bull- head is a bold. handsome. . will spread over the rims and their outline. quite easy for the supply to dribble from a hose. particularly are intolerant of hard When introducing fresh water it should be run in slowly if it is sensibly colder than the atmosphere. and desirable plant. the waste plug being loosened water to escape slowly at the same time. otherwise the plants may be chilled and checked It in is in their growth. Typha yellow —the reed-mace (commonly rush") — estabhshed. though only semiaquatic. without unduly excluding should be used. Besides the nympheas there to permit the foul are many other interesting plants if not as conspicu- ously beautiful in that may be grown already the water garden. and is best planted in a tile consoil.196 GARDEN PLANNING hide light chosen. and is perhaps best kept the water garden.

who loves his flowers and values a completely artistic general effect in his garden. But. It is as interesting to some people to grow a cabbage themum. and. the 197 . I would say nothing to deter the enthusiast from taking up vegetable culture if his tastes are lie in that direction. as a chrysan- There are gardens and gardens. when you can buy good vegetables cheaply. is usually content to leave vegetables alone. In is town and suburban gardens I think he well advised.CHAPTER XIV The Vegetable Garden The owner of a small plot. leaving this consideration out of the question. given a pure atmosphere and sufficient space. it is doubtful whether the results commensurate with the trouble involved. because the atmospheric conditions of cleanliness may them not be favourable to the growth of culinary plants in that state which fits for food.

198

GARDEN PLANNING

vegetable garden

may
The

find its legitimate place

and usefulness.
the
general

reader

who

has studied

have applied to the designing of a flower garden will have noted
principles I

that

I

advocate placing the principal flower

borders near the north boundary, wherever

that

may

come, and that

I

gave good reasons

for running the

principal path alongside or

between them. Generally this path starts from the house and terminates somewhere at the remote end of the garden. If the vegetable ground Is to occupy its usual place at
the end of the plot, the main path
tinue
into

may
the

con-

and through

it.

On

other

Fig. 55.

— Borders

through a vegetable garden

hand.

It

may be more

convenient to approach

the vegetable plot by an offshoot from the

THE VEGETABLE GARDEN
main path.
In either case
I

I99

advocate the use
referred.

of a device to

which

I

have already

This consists in continuing the flower borders

on both

sides of the

path through the vegein

table plot, in the

way shown

the illustration.

The

result

is

to extend the principal garden

vista In length, thus

increasing the sense of
screen,

space, and, at the

same time, to

more

or

less,

the part devoted to vegetables.
true that these borders absorb a certain
of space, but that

It

is

amount

must be allowed

for

in fixing the

dimensions of the vegetable plot.

To complete the scheme it only remains to add a transverse hedge or other barrier at the near end of the vegetable plot and the thing is done. These supplementary borders, if
preferred,

may

be reserved for flowers intended

and some part for raising seedlings, striking cuttings, and other utilitarian purposes. I have in mind a charming suburban garden
for cutting,

arranged in this way, in which the kitchen
plot with
its

borders of bold perennials, backed

by

espaliers,

and edged with herbs,
are

is

not the

least interesting part of the garden.

But there
dener

many

other touches the gar-

may

give to his vegetable ground to

200
bring
it

GARDEN PLANNING
into

harmony with the garden

as a

whole.

A

bower-like structure can be

made

to support a colony of scarlet runners, whose
coral flowers will give a piquant note of colour

to an uninteresting corner, the while

it

provides
bold,

the gardener with succulent food.

The

handsome

foliage

of

the

rhubarb,

and the

rambling growth of the vegetable marrow are

good to look upon, and did they not contribute to our table they would assuredly be grown
for

their

beauty alone.
in

And what

is

more
?

graceful than the fairy foliage of the asparagus

Bearing these points
gardener
to dispose
it

mind, therefore, the
he
I

may make
them

picturesque capital out
if is

of his kitchen garden tenants
to advantage.

careful

do not wish to be understood, however, that any steps
in that direction are to

taken
to the

be in opposition

common-sense

principles of vegetable

culture.

The gardener with

a heart attuned to vege-

tables will find places for a few fruit trees,

which are always useful in the garden picture. The abundant blossom of his cherry, apple,

and plum
year

trees

is

a valuable asset at a time of

when

flowers are scarce,

when

the borders

THE VEGETABLE GARDEN

20I

have scarcely awakened from their winter What is more beautiful than a spray sleep.
of
rose-flecked

apple

blossom

arching

the

path, or, later, the sun-kissed fruit showing
its

And
trees

ruddy spheres amidst the darkening foliage? if the flower garden is to invade the

vegetable plot,

why

not the converse?

Fruit

upon the

grass plot

have just

as

much

value as the che tnut or laburnum, both for
flower and shade, and against a north wall

they will cover

much

uninteresting brick and

mortar, and yield their crop without detracting

from the usefulness of the border
growing.

for flower-

Even the boundary hedge between flower and vegetable plot may be made of espaliers,
or such easily trained fruit bushes as loganberry, wine-berry,

and blackberry.
no
diffi-

The gardener
culty
in
is

of resource will find

putting

these

hints

into

practice.

There

nothing new in them.

The

associa-

tion of flowers

and vegetables

in the kitchen

garden was

common

in the walled-in gardens

of a century ago;

but the practice was not

introduced with quite the same objects as
those here detailed, because in those days the

202

GARDEN PLANNING
itself,

vegetable ground was a thing by

and

no one thought of blending
ground.

it

with the flower

Apart, however, from this question of har-

monizing the two main departments of the garden, I would advance the plea for neatness,
order,

and picturesque

effect in the

kitchen
by-

garden.

The

soil

should be constrained

edgings to keep

it off

the paths, and for this

purpose there

is

possibly no better material
laid

than ordinary builder's bricks
plants will

on edge.

Just inside the brick line a row of parsley

make

a fresh, massy, green band,

and elsewhere the other herbs may help to outline the garden divisions and give finish to the beds; at the same time all will be conveniently accessible.

Let us now look into the more practical
details

of the

kitchen garden design.
to

It

is

good
as

practice

subdivide

the

plots

into

narrow paths between, Such beds may have dimensions determined by the space available
separate

beds
in

with

shown

Fig.

55.

and by the owner's intentions
crops to be grown.

as regards the

In a small vegetable ground annexed to a

THE VEGETABLE GARDEN
garden of the
size

2O3

under consideration, a width most cases would be a good dimension to adopt, the length of the bed running transversely and being determined by the width of the ground from path to
of twelve feet in

boundary fence. The transverse paths need not be more than eighteen inches wide, and may be of cinder, if no better material is available. The object is to give easy access to the bed and to permit the use of the barrow without having to run it over loose soil, and thus to lighten
labour.

At the same

time, this orderly subdivision
its

of the ground improves

appearance, giving

a business-like aspect to the garden tating systematic cropping.

and

facili-

A
and

space
off,

should
for

be

reserved,

preferably

screened
for

the deposition of rubbish,

the storage of manure, flower-pots, and other accessories which careless gardeners are too prone to leave about in odd
stakes,
places.

The box edgings one finds in old gardens "as prim and square-cut as a Puritan pastor" are charming to look at, but they are

charged, and probably rightly so, with harbour-

204 GARDEN PLANNING .

particularly as it affects . When its the whole plot it wide in relation to length. am not sure that I would not put up with the havoc of these marauders to enjoy the solid green outlines and the air of old-world methods these edgings suggest. this If is made sufficiently clear The method of doing by the diagram. There are other modes of associating the vegetable garden with is the flower ground. is space and other conditions suit. and in that event the treatment may be based upon the design here being to retain illustrated. as before. is hedge. compara- In selecting the site for the kitchen garden the question of aspect must not be overlooked. may be convenient to reserve a strip of ground along one or both sides for kitchen garden purposes. the object. tively short.THE VEGETABLE GARDEN ing snails 205 and other animals which prey upon Still I our culinary plants. a certain decorative quality without detriment to practical requirements. since the additional being in a transverse direction. because in the case under consideration there would be little two. there off no objection to cutting the flower the kitchen from garden entirely by a separating gained by blending the vista so obtained.

and for that reason the north side of a garden having an east or west aspect would be the best position for the kitchen garden. A thatched roof of straw or reeds would convert it into an almost picis turesque feature.206 GARDEN PLANNING In that part of the flower garden adjacent. In gardens of irregular shape it is some- times possible to cut off a triangular or awkplot. may be a very simple structure. . wardly shaped piece for the vegetable form to the thereby giving better Examples of this mode of treatment will be found in the plans which follow. In the actual making of the ground the gardener must follow the directions already given for trenching and manuring. the case just considered the hedge shadow must be reckoned with. but it is well not to disfigure it with corrugated iron or other unsightly material. is a great convenience. which might be used also as a potting-shed. and there no reason why it should not support a graceful flowering climber. other things being favour- With a north or south aspect the point able. would not arise. rest. If the garden is of any considerable It size a tool shed.

applies only to the small garden." because I know that it is possible to have a garden gay with interesting flowers from ber without glass. and I can realize the pleasures that come to the man who carefully tends its crowd of occupants. white paint alter. such a structure that was not an eyesore.CHAPTER XV Glass At the risk of creating consternation in the minds of those enthusiasts who adore their little glass houses. should say "Don't. in which I have never seen Its it. the greenhouse with the garden My remark. Yet I admit its utility. of course. 207 March to Novem- . alone condemns so its but that we can Not rigid. itself. spidery lines and glinting glass panes. My quarrel is with the thing If I were advising the owner of a small I garden plot on the question of installing a greenhouse. I must say that I cannot reconcile beautiful.

. preferably a "lean-to" or "three-quarter-span" pattern. in if On to the gardener desired chrysanthemums. but I should not expect him to achieve a very notable result in the I garden picture. If possible — i. respecialize garding it as a compromise. 3. would therefore ask the would-be gardener to consider whether he really wants a greenhouse. and if he decides in the affirmative. I would tender him such advice as the following: 1. or wall. place will it be possible to screen it where it from view. 2. doU's- house pavilions designed to evoke the admiration of the uninitiated.208 GARDEN PLANNING the other hand. it struc- If unrealizable. ridge-roofed. I would concede the point. and put it against a boundary fence These patterns are infinitely pref- erable to the high-pitched. where it and thus that is will lose merge into the main some of its identity. so that does not become a conspicuous object in the vista as seen from the house. or some other flower or flowers for which a greenhouse is a necessity.. if the aspect is suitable put the greenhouse against one of the house walls. Select a simple and unpretentious design.e. ture.

and the inexperienced buyer is tempted to buy the largest he can get for the . but they all have the same family likeness on paper. stock houses which are occasionally are not offered all to a confiding public. snugly on the ground. and contrive that all roads an element in the picture. They bad. no one can deny.GLASS 209 4. picked out with lines of peacock blue. but something in between. and place If. They are blinded inconsistencies itself. The humble garden frame It sits is another matter. in the vegetable plot. in spite of the gardener decides to in some part of his capital then let him beware of the cheap. invest "glass. By observing these hints he may succeed in taking the sting out of his glass box." jerry-built. not grass colour nor eau-de-nil. and does not take Its usefulness is on its airs. hardly realize the to crime the they commit. The gardeners who paint their greenhouses white. Paint the outside woodwork a pleasant shade of green. all. by the glpry of the structure and think not of it as For the same reason they give it a place of honour in the centre of the garden's width. shall lead to it.

therefore. It has the is generally applied to a glass house forming a permanent annex advantage over an unwarmed detached greenhouse of borrowing warmth from the house in winter. The buy. Joints give and parts warp out of structure. or the cheapest for a given size. to do without than to install a cheap affair that will do duty only is for a few seasons. infrequently finds one on the north side of for protecting pot plants . best guarantee of quality the reputation of the firm from price and which you The term "conservatory" to the house. If tasteand of sufficient size. sense. and is useful fully kept from frost. the decay comes sooner and proceeds more rapidly. it forms an exOne not cellent approach to the garden. glass. or of unsound quality. and is an framed of wood of small scantling. Better. The greenhouse at its best if we neglect the is but a skeleton If easy prey to weather influence.2IO GARDEN PLANNING is sum he prepared to spend. shape. "and then the deluge" in a literal Once a house becomes leaky it is almost hopeless to attempt to make it sound again.

prefer the to be a piece of good plain with clear tracting glass. ornamental finlals. If for purposes of privacy Is desirable that the glass be translucent Is better to use white prismatic or ground glass. therefore. Leaded glass Is In which the prevailing tint Is a pale green not objectionable." . and col- oured glass panes. In the form of chevaux-de-frise. and in this con- nection well to take and abide by the expert advice of the established greenhouse builders. Builders Indulge In flights of fancy In connection with the conservatory. the The conwater servatory floor should be tiled and sloped to a gutter to carry to outside the spilled in spraying the plants. only fitted for sheltering a few ferns. Much benefit will be had from a perusal of the book "Gardening Under Glass. A heating system it is is essential. and Is. where it 211 gets no sun.GLASS the house. I know of woodwork glazed nothing more disbeams it It than to enter a conservatory into Is which the sun casting contrasting of blue and yellow light indifferently upon flowers and foliage. will these at- The man structure however. tractions (?) to of taste. sell They hope by or let the house.

I have shown.CHAPTER XVI Fences and Hedges I have already pointed out how insistently the boundaries of a small garden declare them- Whichever way we turn the vista is by a wall or fence. therefore. help us and for his guidance. but it is worth while to . but he who builds his house has the matter in his own hands. that by adopting a rectilinear treatment they can be made to harmonize with the garden lines. however. I may offer some suggestions on the subject of fencing. and whatever expedients weadoptto render these artificialfrontiers whether by growing greenery inconspicuous over them or trees and shrubs against them we cannot entirely keep them out of sight. All walls are much alike. The suburban gardener very often has to take things as he finds them. But that will not selves. closed — — much if the fence itself is an eyesore. I must make a passing reference to walls.

not be painted or destroyed. The former implies both design and surface. oak is unquestion- ably the best for a fence. suflfi- As regards the fence there ations — appearance are two consider- and durability. stances a height of five feet is suflicient. material. Of the woods of its long life available. the latter.FENCES AND HEDGES 213 make the wall high enough to permit of grow- ing vines upon it when it receives full sun. should charm of colour will be Who has not seen and admired the pearly grays and opalescent tints of an ancient park fence. not only on account under its all conditions of weather. are cleft. so as to If the pales show the natural figure of the wood. the efi"ect will be better and the life Under ordinary circumof the fence longer. It but on the score of appearance. A height of six feet in most cases would be cient for the purpose. . but with open country around and no likelihood of intruders less height may be desirable. and noted it how admirably harmonized with the natural growth at its foot? I know of nothing which better accords with flower and foliage than the weathered surface of an old oak fence.

214 GARDEN PLANNING .

FENCES AND HEDGES particularly if 215 there is an attractive landscape of beyond. its appearance is improved. The construction should be simple. The closed pattern has sawn oak posts and arris rails and cleft pales. pattern is an adaptation heads to top rail. The character the immediate environment should determine both the height of the fence and its design. by the addition of raised the posts and a more substantial The latter should be "weathered" is to throw off the rain. The practice of allowing the posts to stand line of the fence. is breaking the a good one. The designs illustrated should be sufficient guide as to the type of fence best suited to a small garden. because is elaborate fencework likely to usurp attention and to detract from the glory of the flower ground. as shown. If shaped at the top between the posts. Paled fences should always have a pHnth . The "windowed" of the park fence. The half-open fence with lattice top just the thing on which to train creepers. or a combination of both. which may be open or closed. above the top skyline.

though he may omit the latter if ground. Wire fences are not desirable purpose. One is disadvantage of painted fences that the paint has to be renewed from time to time. The pales will need painting either (a with a tar solution tar. If the gardener cannot afford the cost of oak. is If oil paint used. but are permissible to for a permanent wished when It is mark the garden boundaries whilst a hedge . the colour important. Perhaps the subdued green of a sagey tint. his he must use pine or other boarding for pales. Oak fences should be put together with cop- per or galvanized nails. preparation of Stockholm oil not coal tar) or with good is paint. and to act as a barrier against burrowing animals. but certainly he should have oak posts he stops the pales just clear of the and pUnth boards.2l6 GARDEN PLANNING board to protect the lower end of the pales from moisture. and that Involves the temporary removal of creepers and other plants which may have been trained over them. ordinary iron nails cause unsightly inky stains. It is difficult to select a tint which harmonizes well with flowers and is best a foliage.

The intermediate maining upright. 8 gauge) galvanized iron telegraph wire is the most suitable.FENCES AND HEDGES is 217 coming to maturity. Fig." which should be galvanized. — Stretching wire fencing The ordinary (No. At the points where the wires start and end the posts should be stout and well strutted. but re- should be firmly planted to ensure their Barbed wire is an invention of the enemy and should never be admitted into the garden. It may be attached to the stretching post by "screweyes. 58. or by the . posts may be lighter. to enable sufficient tension to be put on the wire to make it taut.

59- — Open wooden fencing tackle. When the wire is taut. in is This should be done stretching manner illustrated.2l8 GARDEN PLANNING it simple expedient of passing through holes made with a knot in a carpenter's gimlet and twisting the protruding end. the end should be . but if the gardener cannot the use of this appliance. The best managed with a block and the Fig. he command may make shift with an extemporized lever in the manner shown.

appearance much improved by adding down. good types of open fence are shown in the next illustration.FENCES AND HEDGES 219 knocked up with a hammer close to the hole and turned two or three times round a stout nail. and the side and top rails of the same halved. Ordinary the iron cut nails may be used with advantage. Temporary fences may be made of rough unbarked cedar or other timber that may be readily and cheaply procurable. makes them hold all In setting out a fence care should be taken . their purpose made separately and nailed being to protect the end grain of the post from the weather. before the final tightening. The lattice or "rustic" fence is short-lived. and in long lengths Its its diagonal is pattern is monotonous. the posts being of unbarked cedar. In the all-rail pattern the post heads are on. out of is Kinks and bends in the wire may be rubbed it with the hammer handle whilst it under tension. is a top rail of halved timber flat side A better type that next illustrated. and they call for no special Two description. as their "rusting-in" better.

and some words of guidance in its proper Ready-made trellis is so make it at home when the ordinary diamond pattern is wanted. two fixed as levels to T pieces being at each end work from. The tops of the posts should be Fig. use may be useful. — Larch fencing adjusted in line by sighting. one of the stretch.220 GARDEN PLANNING to keep a straight line from point to point. The spacing of the posts will depend upon the design and character of the fence and the length of timber purchased for the rails. by using a stretched cord as a guide for fixing the posts. and less is better. but ten feet is the maximum advisable. Trellis all — Trellis naturally falls into this sec- tion. 60. it cheap that does not pay to . Of iron fencing there are patterns for purposes. and I need not speak of them.

securing them by fillets nailed thereto. raw edge at the and leads to the premature All trellises decay of the colour. The top is practice of leaving a slovenly. as there little very strength or stiffness in the trellis itself.FENCES AND HEDGES In erecting a screen of trellis 221 a well-framed is support should be provided. trellis. for its it there that the rain finds way in and starts the process of decay. . The rule should be to support all the edges by allowing them to butt against the centre of the frame. 6r. should be oil painted with two or three coats of good well worked into the angles at the Fig. — Construction is of trellis screen crossings.

Hedges — We may consider hedges as serve to liv- ing fences. and it has a character of its own which raises it far above the machine- made I article. but where much treUis looks better arranged with the laths vertical and horizontal. and blessed with sufficient leisure. A trellis of this kind will not require to be painted. need hardly add that the interlacing may the be omitted and the laths joined up in ordinary way. If the gardener is handy with his tools. He must design his squares of sufficient size to admit of bending the laths without difficulty.222 GARDEN PLANNING to be so it is The diagonal pattern has come comit mon that most gardeners accept without used question. I know of no better back- ground for a wide herbaceous border than a . They not only mark the garden boundary and the subdivisions of the garden. he may try his hand on "woven trellis. but they materially assist us in the garden picture. 57." using cleft oak laths and working on the plan illustrated in Fig. using either oak pegs or galvanized nails. and he should pin them at their crossings with oak pegs.

FENCES AND HEDGES well-grown hedge. and grows rapidly. provided no wall is 223 available. from cold or rough Thorn ing to is of less rapid a thoroughly its business-like spines. Also something additional should be allowed to keep the flowers outside the radius of the roots of the hedge plants. because we cannot trim at frequent intervals. Moreover. suffer and is happy and does not ordinarily winds. and thus reduce the velocity of that which passes Of hedge plants commonly beats privet. growth but makes hedge. through. in use nothing it is When properly cared for it very effective as a screen. As wind-screens hedges are superior to fences filter because they allow air to over them. it thrives in almost every kind of alike in shade or sunshine. and. Also there must be allowance for lateral growth beyond the width to which we intend to train the hedge. owrarely break through first If well trained full attempt to from the so as to make the bottom and close. and we must allow for this in our plan- ning. occupy more width than fences. however. cattle it. Hedges. soil. .

viburnum. hedges of many of beautiful flowering shrubs. The hardy orange {Citrus trifoliata) makes a dense. medflowering quince. elder. deutzia. In planting a hedge the ground should . save only the question of cost. Sweetbrier makes its a charming hedge and it is stands exposure well. hemlock. sweet- brier. diervilla. There are pictur- esque possibilities in such a hedge that are worth exploiting. berberis. There is no reason why we the should not make Lilac. but gardens. philadelphus. neces- sary cat. impenetrable hedge and is evergreen in the South but sheds its leaves in the North. and spirea are all suitable and attracsoils in tive subjects.224 it will GARDEN PLANNING exclude even the "harmless (?). althea. snowberry. lar. blackthorn. box and are all arbor-vitse admirable. ribes." Of evergreens. in which several of the above subjects the South are associated together. but slow in growth. warm fuchsia and hydrangea may be added to the list. rose. where unsuited to town viscous foliage would collect and retain the sooty constituents of the atmos- phere. and in the light. I see no objection to a mixed hedge.

filled When the bottom is well in with growth. The tops of the plants should not be touched until they reach A shows the section to be worked to in the first instance.62. need not exceed two the prescribed height. and the nurseryman will always advise on this point.— Sections of hedge The best method is to trim to a wedge shape. or rounded . without which the be an and might develop into an eyesore. 62 B. 62 feet.FENCES AND HEDGES be trenched 225 and manured and the plants The spacing will vary with the subject. involves periodical first trim- ming. and dressed flat as in Fig. The training of a hedge carefully lined up. for a hedge which is efficient barrier. the top may be cut to a uniform height. tapering from bottom to top on both sides equally. In the instance this should be directed to encouraging the lower never growth. ^'s. Fig. or have sprung above it. and the plants have obtained the maximum height. The width at bottom. hedge can eventually to be restricted to five feet in height. and to leave the top quite sharp.

shown in the illustration below. for which a tem- porary support would be required. may be bridged over by training the adjacent plants into an arch.226 if GARDEN PLANNING Subsequently the sides preferred. The gardener should never forget that his hedge makes considerable demands on the soil. and he must therefore not expect that flowers will thrive in close proximity to it. to accommodate throughpaths. it is In long lines of hedging the desirable to top line plants at intervals by allowing the hedge to grow above the general Fig. are miniature hedges. wherefore he should allow sufficient width in all borders which Box Edgings — These skirt a line of hedging. 63. — Hedge tops level. as trimming them into some definite form. may be trimmed break vertically. The objection that they encourage and harbour . Gaps in the hedge.

— Planting edging box straight or for curved. The or best dwarf form is Buxus sempervirens be planted in April tri- var. and the box plants inserted in a close line. A narrow. It should May. handsome appearance. though If it pleases the eye of the gardener the top angles may be rounded. 64.FENCES AND HEDGES insect pests 227 may will be dismissed by the practical avail man. The is best time cHppIng first at the end of May or during the week in June. but are not suitable for gardens . whilst the the plants in line. the soil being drawn up against them with a board held the right hand. The best shape in cross-section is squaretopped with battered or vertical sides. clean-cut trench of angular section should be got out. whether is it Y\g. Ivy Edgings — These have a bold. and to maintain a clean line. in left forearm holds to Box edging should not be allowed to a greater height than six Inches. suffruticosa. who himself of the fact to search out the intruders and destroy them. grow and the clipping should be done with care so as to preserve the height uniform.

— Many other plants are in use such as the ground myrtle. as a reminder to the gardener who is casting about for some- thing different. town gardens they are apt to become coated with soot. As the mowing and trimming involve considerable labour it will not commend itself to the gardener of limited leisure.. An annual clipping in April or May will soon produce a neat Other Edgings for edgings. and pachysandra. however. ensure the best effect it should be trimmed with mathematical accuracy. and the temperature is safe. The Verge — This To makes an admirable edgit is ing where space permits. I need only refer to them by name. and where not subject to unfavourable conditions. nor are they reliable in the North as they winter-kill. no special difficulty in management. . It only necessary to insert the plants soil.228 GARDEN PLANNING and in of restricted size. euonymus. such as the drip of trees. but as they present. etc. and have no special features to commend them. excellent effects is may be obtained with ivy. effect. and to peg them down to the which in time they will cover with abundant growth. Where space admits.

CHAPTER XVII Tile and Other Artificial Edgings a wider application than the These nave living plant edgings just noticed. to permit in a it good curve Edgings if necessary. and indifi'erent. are offered for sale. The case is different qualities where which soil and gravel meet. Tile — These special may be just plain tiles roofing tiles. stability. and they are When turf and tutes soil or turf and gravel come into juxta- position the clean-cut edge of the turf consti- a good enough edging. bad. and. lastly. to enable to keep in place. flexibility. distinguish The good resis- should a edging are durability (both as regards tance to weather influence and it accidental to be laid fracture). good. Of the former I have little to say beyond pointing out that they are usually too thin to resist 229 . or edging with a "fancy" margin. moderate cost. a necessity in a well-kept garden. of which many patterns.

Blue brickware (slaty blue). it When spect. and the porous kinds are subject to fracture by Special edging tiles are frost. Hard brickware (red). and the gardener The first brittleness may decide as he thinks best. there is little to choose. made of the following materials: Porous brickware (red). and the last on account of its unpleasant colour. In is my opinion the it is edging not a feature desirable to emphasize with . If price is a consideration. a ing tile district. though it has the advantage of toughness and Between the other two materials strength.— Edg- himself to simple designs. Stoneware (brown). Both are durable and unobjectionable in colour.230 GARDEN PLANNING the wear and tear of every-day usage. though prices may vary according to Fig. comes to selecting the best confine pattern he cannot be too circum- and he had tile 65. is undesirable on account of its and liability to fracture by frost. he would find the hard brick- ware the least expensive.

off by a chance blow of the Perhaps the strongest pattern jection is the so-called is "cable" design. and will show unpleasant gaps where some of the projections have been broken spade. and used in various ways. but to that there that it is the obof a it barefaced imitation something which never quite succeeds in simulating. Generally speaking. its an excellent edging. Used in this . cost. 23 is The plain is scallop edge the least (See Fig.) Even that apt to suffer in use. as I — The commend: builder's red common is have already mentioned. makes capable of being flat. I combined with lower Brick Edgings brick. 65. the edging some- thing one had better do without. which has the advantage of durability. these tile is tiles when laid in curves. face level with the gravel. offensive. and as a substitute for it greater substance.ARTIFICIAL EDGINGS decoration. and which in the reality would be a most inappropriate thing as a permanent feature in the garden. and stability. it Laid top sur- becomes the margin of the path and at the same time an efficient barrier to the soil of the border. are unsightly Moreover.

B. and at the serves the original line. as indicated in the illustration (A). well-burnt ones. not easily damaged. also useful as a division as it between turf and gravel. Otherwise it may be set on edge to stand about half soil as in its width above the gravel and is little to choose between these using to in Another and less it in the form of a concealed edging the way shown at C. in precludes the trimming the turf same time absolutely pre- In purchasing bricks for edgings the gardener should see that he gets hard. need for much labour edge. be laid endwise to the This form of edging is using half-bricks. carried round curves it should it is line. — Brick edgings When and unobtrusive edging. There two modes of familiar method is employ Fig. either wire-cut or pressed. 66. Moulded bricks . This makes a very neat it.232 GARDEN PLANNING it way may be associated with a box edging.

however. which may be adapted as an edging with good effect. averages about Fig. may also be worked it in any section desired. which brings materially higher in cost than the common tile. brick. side. but still cheaper than the edging Stone Edgings plentiful — In districts where stone is and cheap. and in . Its price plinth brkk fifteen dollars a thouit ^'^^'"^ sand.ARTIFICIAL EDGINGS 233 have a hollow on one unsuitable. or we may use roughly dressed. it edging. and it has the may be used as an It advantage of being obtainable in long lengths.-The quite an ideal edging. shown in the and makes 67. which makes them is There if is. cost is not an important consideration. as illustration. It is the "plinth" It has one of its edges bevelled. a kind of brick which preferable to the ordinary rectangular brick. The illustration on page 234 indicates some simple and suitable sections. Sometimes the gardener is in a position to buy cheaply old stone paving. Slate has been suggested for edgings. brick.

68. districts of The practice flint common in some whitening edgings gives them too much prominence. and on is that account I do not favour it. it is if used in pieces at efficient. flints should be bedded deeply. with equally good effect. apart from its abundance and ubiquity. colour is durable and but its unpleasing. and I cannot com- mend it for the flower garden on that account. and on the score and stability it edging is the of appearance It leaves little to be desired. it is For the vegetable ground quite admirable. . When a bed or border of flints or brickbats. Fig. In districts where other natural stone is common it may be used in rough pieces in the same way as flints. least one inch thick. to be raised above the general level the edging may be built up There is no special virtue in the flint. and the should be large ones.234 districts GARDEN PLANNING where it is cheap. — Stone edgings (sections) The least expensive kind of common flint.

it is hardly good for more required to last longer tar solution or creo- If must be dressed with a soted. encourages the growth of fungous Unprepared wood than two seasons. and the presence of wood in the at all soil is it times to be condemned. . It has its usefulness as a temporary expedient when we wish to make our gravel paths before we lay the permanent edging. into the In putting down edgings of every kind they should never be allowed to stand to a greater height out of ground than is necessary to form a barrier against rolling earth clods. and it is sometimes used in kitchen gardens. is Its appearance never good.ARTIFICIAL EDGINGS 235 artificial Wood Edgings edging that — The last is form of I shall notice the board edging. because life. nail The best way to secure wood edgings is to them to stout square pegs driven firmly soil.

mostly consisting of plans actually executed. and accompanied by a I scale of feet.CHAPTER XVIII Garden Plans In the following examples of small suburban plot gardens. I have applied the principles set forth in the foregoing pages. My primary 236 . sonal taste all equally good. and for clearness have included only -the details as are needed to indicate scheme of the garden. so that perinclination and may be allowed Considera- considerable scope. These be closely followed whenever the conditions are the same as shown in the examples plans. so long as the main principles of planning are observed. is Each plan drawn to such general scale. tions of economy may dictate the omission or modification of certain details. may It should be understood that for a given set of factors there are many possible arrangements. which the gardener will decide for himself.

central grass space by lengthening the associated borders. In all these examples the following points have been observed: 1. Trees are placed so as not to cast shadows on the borders. and only hold good for an aspect not greatly differing from that shown by the arrow is with which the plan the marked. much the better. 4. .GARDEN PLANS object in presenting these plans is 237 to elucidate the subject of garden design in a concrete form. But. Thus the plan (Fig. Grass is confined to compact areas. It should be noted that is each plan that it will made for a special aspect. Principal borders are in full sun. If so they should prove of use in individual cases. and with care to preserve due scale between de- same aspect. with means of access to them at more than one point. 2. given would serve for plots of similar proportions and dimensions. the plan tails. 78) might be appHed to a plot of twice the length shown. for plots of larger or smaller size. 3. and its and leaving the features at such end the same as shown on the plan. The summer house entrance is in shade or partial shade.

thus Pergolas. is Path space is reduced to a minimum. thus Glass. ignored. except only where they may serve some useful purpose. the two areas are not of equal size. When grass space is divided. No curves or angles other than right angles are introduced into the garden lines. The vista from the summer house made as interesting as possible. so far as consistent with achieving a pictur- esque 7. thus . 84 and loi. as in Figs. is 9. effect. GARDEN PLANNING Symmetry is in the main features of the plan 6. 8. Shaded Hatched and vegetable spaces Unshaded Arches. I have adopted the following conventional all indications in the plans: Full black Beds and borders Grass House Paths.238 5. drives.

and succeeding plans. 26 feet by 20 feet. 42 feet by 20 feet. . and at its far end terminates at an arbour. the upper caption pertains to the leftthe lower caption to the right-hand diagram. The north-west boundary fence might be raised with trellis to give increased surface for growing climbing plants. SE. The space at the angle ot the path might carry a tub or sundial. — Note: In this hand diagram. —Size. Fig.GARDEN PLANS 239 Fig. 70. 69. The path at its near end Aspect. nearly due E. Aspect. The path terminates at a summer house and gives access to a small yard. communicates with the kitchen yard. in which a toolshed is shown. Size.

Size. carry a vase or tub. 6s feet 6 inches by Aspect. approximately NE. — feet.?!• is . and contains a small tool-shed. The back entrance screened by the summer house. The e. gate Fig.240 GARDEN PLANNING Size. 72. N. 45 feet 6 inches by 20 Aspect. Fie. devoted to vegetables and screened ofi by a .xpansion in the path might.- g2 feet. is — About one third of the plot hedge and a summer house. and the yard offers accommodation for garden requisites.

Thewhole of this plot is laid Fig.GARDEN PLANS 241 spaM is given to vegetable ground. s8 feet by 20 feet. . Aspect. 74. Fig. against the fence is shady. 73. E. 69 feet by 15 feet Half the Aspect. approximately S at the division. a glass house being placed The eastern border continues through the kitchen plot. —Size. and out ts flower ground. The southern border should be planted with shade-loving subjects.—Size.

. The small detached grass area might be planted with trees to make a shady corner. —Size. Aspect. Fig. and bulbs might be planted in the grass. . plot Is screened off for use as vegetable ground. N.. 64 feet by 22 feet. A sundial is shown in the gravel space facing the back entrance. and a flower vase in the square expansion of the path.— Size. 67 feet by 25 feet. This aspect admits of flower display close to the house-back. 76. 75. Aspect. NW. About one third of the and borders are carried through it.242 GARDEN PLANNING Fig.

77. Aspect. A raised circular bed occupies the centre. . which communicates by steps with a detached grass space. Fig. and privacy to th» space beyond.GARDEN PLANS 243 e o Fig. Size. The summer house. and shrubs screen the diagonal piece of fence. 116 feet by 40 feet. The end space is devoted to a sunken alpine garden. NNE. The dividing hedge gives a sense of enclosure to the formal garden. A low rubble wall retains the borders to north and south-west. planted for shade. SW. trees. 78. A feature is made of a formal group of beds facing the summer house. a sundial occupying the centre of the group. 87 feet by 30 feet. from which a pleasant vista down the plot if — obtained. The path terminates in an alpine garden. Aspect.-— Size. The roofed space at the house-back is a veranda.

Aspect. 60 feet by 26 feet.244^ GARDEN PLANNING Fig. . and it lends itself end coming as a surprise. THis to a pleasing arrangement. expanding at end to 44 feet. the pocket at the —Size. is not an uncommon shape for suburban plots. 79- NE.

.

81. average. 68 feet 6 inches by 29 feet. SW.246 GARDEN PLANNING Size. details are sufficiently indicated in the plan. The . — Aspect. Fig.

A small vegetable ground occupies the extreme end of the plot. . The front grass area might be reserved for croquet. average.GARDEN PLANS 247 Fig. 82. SE. Aspect. —Size. 146 feet by 49 feet." A yard witli outbuildings separates the flower garden into two almost equal spaces.

NW. causes a diverging shape. Aspect. feet. average. —Size. . A curved The details of the plan will sufficiently explain themselves.248 GARDEN PLANNING Fig. 148 feet by 54 roadway. 83.

GARDEN PLANS 249 Fig. 113 feet by 36 feet. In this case Aspect. average. the garden boundaries are of unusual shape. but they do not preclude a good arrangement— in fact.—Size. .| 84. SW. . this may be made a picturesque and interesting garden <f the suggestion contained in the plan be carried out.

and made an interesting feature. E. A simple rectangular pl<» Size. Fruit trees were retained in the positions shown. 156 feet by 60 feet.250 Fig. 85. In this and other examples it should be noted that a trellis screen is introduced to give privacy t0 — the kitchen quarters . built on orchard ground. Aspect.. with detached house.

plot devcfted entirely to flower garden. 95 feet byyo feet.GARDEN PLANS 251 Fig. Size. A slightly diverging . 86. — Aspect. average. E.

Aspect. and group of rose beds. pergola. . A comer plot with separate entrance to the kitchen quarters. a sundial. rock garden. 87. . In this case the house is placed as far as possible from both thoroughfares. E. The features include a summer house. 129 feet by O4 feet.252 GARDEN PLANNING Fig.—Size.

W. Aspect. 94.GARDEN PLANS 253 Fig. The slope to the north-east necesThe terrace wall at its highest part sitates terracing on two sides of the house. The house is set parallel with north and west fence lines. . The whole makes a compact and interesting garden. 88.feet by 78 feet. Fruit trees are planted in is concealed by the rockwork of the alpine garden. Size. — the south-east comer. averiige.

254 GARDEN PLANNING Size. 89. nearly W. A dial is placed in the expansion of the path to the east. Fig. — . The circular bed and borders on the principal grass space are intended for roses. The enclosed formal garden south of the house is an interesting feature as seen from the drawing room window. Aspect. A kitchen garden is included. 116 feet by 87 feet.

1 24 feet by 92 feet. E. : Figs. 90. slightly converging plot. — A Note In none of the foregoing plans has any provision been made for a tennis tawn. average.GARDEN PLANS Fig. without destroying the value of the garden as a picturesque flower ground. one half laid out as flower ground. Size. With plots of larger size the grass space might be utilized for tennis by keeping it free of trees. In most cases the space is insufficient. 91 to 97 inclusive show examples of the in fore-courts or gardens situated between house and the thoroughfare. some cases being . the remainder as fruit and vegetable garden. Aspect.

19 feet by 30 feet. and admits of a group of small beds on t the trass. groui) of flowering shrubs occupies a'central position on the grass. 92. Fig. The group of beds on the . This plan shows the simple treatment I advocate for a small fore-court. E. Size. Size. a:. The position of the entrance gate permits of borders on either side of the path. — — A Fig. 40 feet by 40 feet. Fig. Aspect. makes 94. 20 feet by 18 feet 6 inches.Till arrangement which gives ample border space. W. Aspect. Aspect. a pleasing and distinctive feature. An arts . — — Size. It provides ample flower space and is more effective when well planted than if the design were more complex. S.. 93- gravel Fig. and others constituting the principal garden space. Size. Aspect. iia^jci-L. 20 feet by 19 feet. 91. W.256 GARDEN PLANNING In supplementary to the principal garden.

Aspect. arranged so as to obtain variety in detail. A fore-court larger than the average. Size. 9550 feet. and a screening effect for the sake of privacy. SI feet by Fig. Aspect. Fig. A not uncommon type of front garden.GARDEN PLANS Size. treated with no regard — to symmetry. S. — . 96. 73 feet by 15 feet. nearly W.

With a good screen of trees or shrubs along the front boundary this garden would not be unduly overlooked. Aspect. — . 97. S. 59 feet by 32 feet. A front garden of ample width. Size. A sundial might be placed in thi central expansion of the path. It should be noted that the side yard is masked by trees and the summer house by transverse borders.258 GARDEN PLANNING Fig. admitting of treatment for picturesque effect.

and for the purpose of making the lawn on the north side. 98. The house had been built before the garden was designed. will give the reader some idea of how to treat spaces of larger area than those already illustrated.GARDEN PLANS 259 The following four examples of existing gar- dens. — . and made to face due south. Fig. The diagonally running broad walk constitutes quite a valuable feature. the circumstances permitted of obtaining a good result. The separation of the kitchen garden into three separate plots was by the owner's wish. planned by the author. whence a pleasant oudooK over an adjoining golf course was too-valudble to be sacriaceci or marred by a foreground of vegetables. A plot of about one acre. The formal group of beds in tne south-west comer is a rose garden. . Thus it was necessary to work in contradiction to one of the rules laid do\TO in this book Fortunately.

99. This was a plot of irregular shape. with its background of fruit trees. certain latitude permitted Fig. though with a by the circumstances. and with concessions to the expressed wishes of the owners.26o GARDEN PLANNING planning has followed the general The principles already expounded. — . in some of the details. three or four of which were preserved. Note the vista through the kitchen garden. The line of this hedgerow followed the sloping path between the steps to the east of it. through which ran an old hedgerow with several standing elm trees.

100. notably the enclosed space south of the house.GARDEN PLANS 261 Fi«. —In this example certain details of the garden were determined before tEe design was made. . which is cut off from the fore-court by the tradesmen's passage.

A town site. in which the owner wished to make a feature of the alpine garden. loi. This was done by a substantial trellis in the position indicated on the plan. it was necessary to screen the garden from passers-by along the east boundary.262 GARDEN PLANNING Fig. the space devoted to vegetables was to be small and out of sight. to which considerable space has been given. The basement areas precluded borders along the house walls. It being a comer site. On the other hand. .

Nevertheless the garden maker has a very ample to spread out over real concern in the planting operations. however. or be utterly marred.CHAPTER XIX Planting The practical aspect of planting It consists is for the working gardener. both as regards nourishment and external environre- ment. do not enter into the question of garden design. roots by pressure. The hole should be of the right depth and of size accommodate the roots when its bottom. sufficient to dig a hole not and thrust in the roots. This implies a knowledge of the It is quirements of each kind of plant. and the soil thrown in should be carefully compacted around the These details. plants in the soil in of placing the such a way that they at once find conditions suitable for growth. it is because in the placing of the plants that his garden picture may achieve its highest development. 263 .

— is 2. scarlet geranium. The most striking characteristic of the is colour. I. scarlet sage. 4. brilliant It is gamut a question of colour at com- whether we should not ever attempt to associate vividly contrasting colours. for if the mass of each colour is . and coleus. but the trail of it still lingers in many gardens.264 Flowers GARDEN PLANNING — In planting a 1. and the success any piece of planting will depend to a large extent upon the skill and good taste with which the colours are managed. the canons of good taste were lost sight of in the new-born enthusiasm for vivid contrast in primary colours. In the days when the old-fashioned flowers were deposed to make room for that unfortunate quartet. Succession. The vogue for these flowers has now somewhat declined. Habit. bed or border it necessary to consider the flowers in respect to Colour. Period of bloom. 3. and gardeners continue to plant as if the acme of good effect depended upon the accom- flower undoubtedly of plishment of a series of garish contrasts in the most mand. canna.

265 they will cancel each other at anything finest colour effects but short range. The schemes feeling. however. most people who are not colour blind can recognize a good colour effect when they see it. that a goodly proportion of gardeners mistakes.PLANTING large. which offer a much wider opportunity for broad. and by the number of different colours available. the beauty of which will appeal only to the near spectator: there we of may strive for a more insistent note . not surprising. On and the contrary. therefore. Here we may make a subtle harmony of subdued tints. construction is not so much a matter of rule as of is and a sense for colour universal. rich. telling display. it is it is by no means a somewhat rare gift. make Fortunately. It is not desirable that every square its foot of soil should cry aloud at the top of voice. The are to be sought rather in harmonies. both for of and conspicuously close inspection and harmonious colour for distant effect. though they may be powerless to originate one. The treatment of a bed or border must to some extent be governed by circumstances.

or to contrast in the mass with yellow. It is with the crimson. They are always difficult to deal with in a harmonized scheme. The reddish mauves also coma bine well with this coloured foliage. with the such as mauve. or primrose yellow. orange. like the is common pyreth- somewhat daring but generally pleasing contrast. with a view to producing a vivid note in the general picture.266 GARDEN PLANNING colour. combination of gentian blue with a pale green foliage plant. scarlet. . warm tints that one can concolour effect. and reinforce Lilac. The pure blues which we get In the gentian and delphinium are best kept away from the mauve and purple blooms. purple. The rich scarlet which we will have in the lychnis and Oriental poppy furnish the other element of such a contrast. and perhaps had best be reserved with which we for the few vivid contrasts may punctuate here and there our colour picture. mauve. A rum. violet harmoniously lavender. trive the greatest wealth of Rose. for a rich concordance. and form another group equally suitable Whites are generally best paler colours. associated pinks. and yellow each associate other.

even when only two all hardly possible to enumerate elements are used. new and For those I who cannot trust their colour sense list have compiled a short in a suitable of examples which if may used be relied upon to yield good results environment. Snapdragons of both colours Crocus Daffodil .^_^ Coloi White and Mauve White herbaceous phlox Mauve White and Yellow White and Pink White and Pale Blue Scarlet violas Iceland poppies of both colours White violas Herbaceous phlox Iberis sempervirens and Blue Campanula Carpatica Lychnis Chalcedonica Delphinium Scarlet and Crimson Geum Pyre thrum Delphiniums of both shades Sweet-william Deep Blue and Pale Blue Crimson and Rose Herbaceous phlox Mauve and Yellow Galega officinalis Anthemis Aster Solidago tinctoria Crimson and Yellow Purple and Yellow---.PLANTING It is r 267 the combinations of colour. Hardy Flower Examples . for a Those who have an eye effect will good colour experiment for find themselves. and continually charming harmonies and contrasts.

or furnishes a good background contrast for them. so that a plant's ally in own foliage is gener- harmony with little its flowers." puzzled to determine what tint predominates This surely is most precise advice on how not to achieve a good . As a might be expected. "Nor have I any preference for one stood. One authority. brown or purple foliage with yellow and orange. nature rarely makes mistake. Magenta crimsons and bluish pinks should not be placed in juxtaposition to pure crimsons or scarlets. is shown by the wide differences of view that writers have adopted.268 GARDEN PLANNING associated with vivid Gray foliage should be colours such as crimson. whose opinions one would imagine were the outcome of some defect of vision. scarlet. Rose-pink and rosy mauve harmonize with silvery gray. and we may have this combina- tion in one plant as in Stachys lanata. says. but I have very decided notions that the various colours should be so completely in the entire commingled that one would be arrangement. How the subject of colour is under- by those who ofi"er guidance in the matter. and pure blue. even colour over another.

determining the best method painting gun-carriages so as to render them inconspicuous at a distance. edged with mauve violas. Were I planting a bed with flowers of two I contrasting colours should adopt the simple plan of using a broad edging of one colour with a central mass of the other. and yellow paint In spots. blue. or of purple blue edged with yellow Cantefbufy bells. . and well describes the 269 common every- but Ineffective method of arranging a mixed bed or border. The result entirely real- ized its originator's Intentions. a kind of stippling of the surface with the primary colours In equal proportions. An some years of since.PLANTING colour scheme. In This I accordance with theory. A bed of white violas. consisted in using red. thing It else. in which everything kills should be an axiom in garden practice instructive experiment tried for to contrast or harmonize colour In masses. and because is mention I here It demonstrates how entirely mistaken the writer whose dictum have just quoted. the quite It resultant tint a neutral gray. The coloured and is spots were mutually destructive. or /^ pinks.

102.GARDEN PLANNING with the yellowish-green foliage of the pyrethrum. always pro- — AT' her- '. best The way is to use large masses of each colour. vided the rules of harmony be observed. comes to planting a long Indiscriminate mixis herbaceous border. illustration. as already seen. rangemeht of baceous border Here are two typical series: . and with them to regard as a kind of in construct a consecutive harmony. ture of colours. but of irregular shape. which we floral may spectrum which colour succeeds colour.would entirely satisfy my sense of a When it good colour effect. each harmoniously its neighbour on either These colour masses should not be in simple compartments divided by transverse lines. mode of plant- and formal parallel rows are / \ almost equally ineffective. the same principles apply. The sequence Fig. as shown in the related to side. of colours may be varied within limits. the least effective ing.

bright scarlet. adopting the proportions for masses if the border is a long one. White is is so telling at always be used with restraint. white. crimson. white being an element which may be omitted without detriment to a good result.PLANTING (i) Purple. 271 mauve. in which one or more colours are suppressed. yellow. white. full blue. who wrote "The Laws of Contrast of Colour. pale yellow." says: "An objection might be addressed to me that the green of the leaves . pink. (2) Deep red. or the scheme may be may be varied by changing the sequence of colours. pale blue. In some cases a more limited scheme advisable. white. orange. scarlet. colour values. pale blue. may well be neglected. The these affect foliage of the plants colour arrangements may or may not the results. yellow. deep blue. takes a subordi- nate place. The same different order may be repeated. however. and reuil. pale yellow. orange. rose. a colour that any time that it should Yellow also which we use in may be overdone. Geneither it speaking. Chev- the famous Director of the Gobelins Dye Works. erally by reinforcing the or by toning them down.

devoting a special section of his book to horticulture. and to be convinced of it.272 GARDEN PLANNING as a which serves the efl"ect ground to the flowers destroys it is of their contrast. There are. not only because of the retiring character of most greens. but not so. are not negligible." I believe that in the garden picture we hardly appreciate the colour effect of the foliage of our plants. The student sult Chevreuil of colour in the garden may conhas an- with advantage. the gray and yellow — greens which. surrounding objects produce but feeble impressions. sensation in He alyzed colour a masterly way. for when the eye is fixed upon two well-defined objects simultaneously. trees. it is sufficient to fix upon a screen of green silk two kinds of flowers (of contrasting colour) and to look at them from a distance of about ten paces. however. and on that account they may become useful as colour factors in certain schemes. and though his conclusions were . by reason of their contrast with the others. and shrubs and thus become part of the general background. but because they — the merge into the other larger masses of green grass.

they still 273 hold good 2. texture of foliage. or time of flowering in relation to leaf production (some plants. In referring to "freedom of growth" I I do not wish it to be understood that of the plant. but also those special characters which distinguish one plant from another. It is only when we know these details that we are in a position I it is to use the plant to best advantage.). as the daphne. By habit I mean not only shape. size. put forth their flowers before their leaves. is Character in the plant one of its greatest charms to those who regard it not merely as a means for producing blossom. form of flower head. etc. and by no means an unim- portant one. have that already pointed out how important our garden plants should be allowed freedom of growth to develop their individual characters. forsythia. It may consist in mode of branching. colour of foliage.PLANTING formulated half a century ago. in their scientific and artistic applications. is The habit of the plant it is the next point to be considered. condemn those necessary pruning operations which make for the welfare I refer solely to the growing of . and general appearance. denseness or sparseness of blossom. it is well known.

One or more bold clumps of flower brought to the front at intervals gives a character to the border that would be unobtainable in other way. prides himself on a tidy may resent the intrusion of a massy his clump upon It till path or grass edge. Though the rule should be to put the taller and more robust plants to the back. and will within bounds by Ill-judged mutilathe poor intruder becomes a It Is maimed and the wreck. it is essential to the best results from a picturesque point of view that this rule should be broken occasionally. a stiff Is border made and formal to detail. some conventional form To make effect is the point clear I may is instance a herbaceous border in which the best general produced when there no rigid sys- tem of grading the plants in height. any The gardener who garden keep tion. The next point to see that each plant has sufficient elbow-room develop without .274 plants in a GARDEN PLANNING way to develop their special habit. plants by this kind of gardening that are Is shorn of their beauty. by here and there reversing irregular it. instead of pinching and cutting them into foreign to their nature.

Plants which throw up long narrow spikes of flower may keep company room — — with others having a tufted habit. be separated by others of more moderate growth. with a knowledge of plant habit we may associate bushy plants with those which tend to legginess to use a term well known to the gardening fraternity and thereby conceal the uninteresting view of a sheaf of bare stalks. glaucous. and the former will have space above to expand their foliage unhindered. Again. by evergreen or earlywe may use the boldwith those foliaged association . of the habit of each it the to gardener allots just sufficient grow centrifugally without check from Thus the taller plants may its companions.PLANTING hindrance from its 275 neighbours. or bronze foliage be placed may where they kinds of will reinforce others whose flowers are best these special set off by contrast with Shrubs and foliage. plants which flower in advance of their leaves may be supported plant for leafing plants. to their mutual advantage in the general effect. armed with the knowledge plant. This does not imply a starved bed or border. Those with silvery. only that. Again.

and an even row. would be monot- onous. but not quite tall in the same degree. it is a gain to the gardener and no spire fault of the planting. and in consequence its bfest conditioned for producing maximum If. for the plants will sil- houette against the background. importing informality into the In the back row. We may group the plants in the centre and reserve the margin for others of smaller and more uniform size. Though we may plan on geometrical lines. The final result of care in these particulars will be a natural. In beds and groups of beds the same principles apply. we should. informal effect. to bring of He should suffer He may even confor them about. instanced. in which every individis. even when all are tall. . like the painter. or some pretty trailer ignores the edging. such accidents. in reason.276 of Sparse GARDEN PLANNING and inconspicuous habit. and its at home is in surroundings. as I have some vigorous plant pushes forward beyond the boundary. ual plant appears to be. variety of height is desirable. contri- bution to the aggregate picture. like soldiers on parade. the special purpose garden.

will give us flowers from Febru- . . from this source. the garden By consulting a list maker may select his plants and so dispose them that. as the spring-blooming kinds fail. others will succeed for the summer months to be followed in their turn by the autumnblooming kinds. harmony will be in bloom at the same Not only should they start approxias far as possible. is Succession the very keynote of good afford gardening.PLANTING endeavour to soften them. It only by making ourselves acquainted sure that those with the flowering period of our plants that we can be for the we bring together purpose of constructing a contrast or colour time. nor can we tolerate empty spaces seedsman's in our borders. length. well arranged. but their periods of bloom should. for we cannot to shorten the period during which flowers are possible.277 Our plants will do that 3. coincide in mately simultaneously. it is By judicious selection possible to contrive that there shall be few failures 4. This system of succession. for us is if only we allow them. because the effect will be measured in duration by the period of the flower which lasts the shortest time.

because they alone come within the purview of the garden designer. In other words. habit. My references have been confined to hardy plants. The effects to be obtained from annuals and bedding-out plants belong to the routine of garden management. particularly demands some when the bor- ders are laid out for a broad colour effect. and succession. period. the distribution of early. middle. im- plying that each separate colour group must contain plants of which some will always be in flower. .278 GARDEN PLANNING ary to mid-November. but the same principles apply as regards colour. thus covering the maxi- mum period during which we It are likely to be able to enjoy our gardens. and late-flowering plants must in intimate asso- be over the whole space and ciation. nicety of method.

CHAPTER XX Further Considerations Garden Making in The in the impress of art should be as much in evidence in the minor details of the garden as more important and more obvious ones. Much -79 of the detail will It is have to be filled in on the ground. the I have endeavoured to formulate simple rules for the guidance of I have not only stated the "how" but also "why. Carelessness in small matters may go a long skill way to undo the results of thought and devoted to the main features. in the . Although the construction of a garden plan on paper is a necessary preliminary to the practical operations on the site." believing that thereby my' advice will carry more weight and be the better understood and remembered. In the foregoing pages the garden designer. it will only carry the garden maker a certain way toward the desired result.

study his work as it proceeds. in which a flame nasturtium {Tropcsolum speciosum) had taken possession of a large straggling elder tree. in the plant- have already dealt with colour ing of beds and borders. when every leaf was vivid carmine. but there are other places in which the garden duce charming effects. and wreathed it about . In summer the foliage told as light green against dark. and had festooned it with graceful sprays. I remember also a similar effect in a Scottish garden. but he should be alive to possibilities. for I minor embellishments and do not mean that he should seek for an overelaborated result.286 GARDEN PLANNING finishing touches that he may add distinction to the picture. therefore. but the effect in autumn. and should neglect none of the various openings which for artistic I may present themselves work in a small way. and he should. was indescribably beautiful. geous pieces of colour One work maker may introof the most gorI have ever seen firs was the result of planting Virginia creeper at in the fore- the foot of a clump of small court of a country residence. it In a short time had clambered up amongst the dark foliage. looking for opportunities effects in detail.

281 result in The that happy accident. effects of There are colour effects of contrast and colour harmony. golden elder. and we may employ either or both according to circumstances. if the component plants be selected for variety of tint and texture. favourite box elder {Acer negundo). This nasturtium cannot be found in America. strikes a charming A like effect Is obtainable with common habit. An irregular belt of the beautiful palmate- leaved Japanese maples on the near side of a mass of shrubs makes a glorious expanse of quiet but sufficiently conspicuous colour. the but a single specimen. but none the less worthy of being noted and subsequently repeated with deliberate intent. which should be its cut to the ground every year to preserve bushy . well placed. but the trumpet vine offers a near substitute. duce a cheap and commonplace note of colour. proeffect. Reds always come so well against a mass of dark foliage that we can never make a mistake in contriving effects like those just described.GARDEN MAKING with masses of case was a scarlet. often repeated. and if The its gold-leaved variety.

crocus. not commingled as so often done. but their colour must be seen against a solid background of green foliage to yield its best effects. The daffodil. They should be arranged large groups of is one colour. may be naturalized. and snowflake are suitable for in the purpose. the polyanthus or lily-of-thevalley. particularly where there are banks. open foliage like the thorn. effects may be contrived in the formal parts of the garden by the judicious use of bulbs in this way. scllla. In a half-shady corner. and laburnum. have already referred to the planting of Some surpassingly beautiful less bulbs in grass. Subjects like the horse chestnut are sufficiently dense in foliage to constitute their I own background. and gardening will prove a a costly delightful feature in spring.282 GARDEN PLANNING flowering trees afford us abundant opin The portunity for constructing colour masses the vertical plane. It . Though subtropical is and troublesome hobby. This applies particu- larly to trees with loose. a semi-tropical effect may be secured on a small scale by selecting Given a position not too suitable plants. closely related with formal surroundings. almond.

as and I should plant such trees sumach. verbascum. using Success will depend upon with which the materials I are em- ployed. and bold-foliaged plants like acanthus. The beauty of a pseudo-tropical garden made on these lines would consist in the variety and special character of it everything being hardy. Aralia There buria adiantifolia.GARDEN MAKING is 283 only hardy plants. rhubarb. coltsfoot. should prefer a sheltered position. should staghorn and Saltsbe a colreeds of hardy bamboos. donax). lection spiiiosa. polygonum. Arundo conspicua and A. crown im(particularly — perial. I ferns. the foliage. and many others which need not enumerate. Solomon's seal. yuccas. and would not involve a tithe of the trouble and expense of a subtropical garden. Of smaller plants I should select those which afford a suggestion of exotic form funkia. pampas grass. the skill worth while to attempt such an effect. I would introduce kniphofia for its colour value. and rodgersia. Ailanthus. The graceful habit and beauty of flower of our hardy climbers make them valuable material . Bocconia cordata.

particularly of such subjects as Boston ivy {Ampelopsis tricuspidata) ^ which hugs the . The oft-repeated fallacy that growth of this kind causes damp walls has already been refuted. In my opinion nothing helps to bring its the house into harmony with garden sur- roundings so effectually as the treatment of its walls with creepers. It doubtless accounts for the studied neglect of this part of the garden picture. particularly those which full tend toward a and informal habit. With so many charming examples houses of climber- covered remarkable that the gardener so often overlooks the possibilities of creating a beautiful picture on the house walls. trees and subjects for the house and shrubs. walls and for special effects amongst for the gardener. because of the height surfaces.284 GARDEN PLANNING For the pergola. they are indispensable. all There should be creepers to flower at aspect. clus- tering in rounded masses as they ascend and benignly concealing the angles and straight lines of the brickwork. seasons and for every Of purely foliage ones I should not be lavish. As walls they have their and extent of the wall around us it is best opportunity for full development. arches. fences.

too familiar to need description." affording us a means of adding interest to a lawn. and preferably in association is with other shrubs. jasmines. But white may be used in a if it way to produce an admirable effect It is be the right kind of white. and throws up a fine. tells more strongly than any colour. honeysuckle. clematis. be used in the mass. I and wistaria we cannot be too prodigal. of know There are certain plants and shrubs which have a special claim to be treated as "specimens. One of the best of these is the yucca. which hardy and evergreen. It should be placed where it will be sheltered from cold winds. 285 But of the climbing roses. bold spike of creamy flowers. and I essential that it no more beautiful feature for a garden than a dense group of Lilium candidum. . The pampas grass is another equally valuable It is plant. its pure white petals softened and modified by the yellow anthers and their reflections.GARDEN MAKING walls in a thin sheet of uniform surface. for have already referred to the necessity not overdoing the whites in the garden. White and scat- tered whites have a tendency to degrade the colours with which they are associated.

The former may be latter with alpines. clothed with creepers. should never be allowed to be bare. It was a hollow on a chalky hillside. and the con- . and had become overgrown with the hazel Native ferns were planted freely about stems. before taken in hand. arching and if possible background so freely. A rough spiral path was In the carried from the floor to the brink of the dell. may in with ferns. and. earlier which had been excavated at some period. grass. or the rough rubble walls which with advantage may take their place. for the it should have a foliage creamy plumes it produces Terrace walls. whether the brick or masonry kinds so dear to the architect. had supported a straggling growth of hazel. which thrive best shade they have protection from cold winds. threading its way through the thicket. native orchids were planted. its graceful. the Shady corners. Soil had gravitated to the fine bottom. An interesting feature in an English garden was called an "Orchid Dell" by the owner. grass. and spaces be planted if unsuitable for flower-growing.286 GARDEN PLANNING it best placed in an isolated position where will have space to throw out foliage.

wild anemone. necessary but unbeautiful.GARDEN MAKING ditions 287 common of the proved favourable to their welfare. pottlng-shed. some quick-growing climbers upon it. . A stable building. In spite of our best efforts to beautiful at every point. the flowers losing nothing in partial shade. and primrose woods were added. being confined mainly to the steep banks. The bluebell. or other structure. by being wild The was entered through joy a natural arch I of traveller's this —the clematis. unfortunately. is In progress of well to erect a training temporary one of trellis. It will make the garden happen at times. offends the eye. The dell effect in spring was beautiful. it should be the gardener's care to conceal Much may and whilst development be done by planting trees and shrubs. garage. that ugly objects intrude into the picture. and it. mention as an instance of what may be done to beautify what by many would be regarded as a piece of waste ground suitable only as a dumping place exact the garden for garden is rubbish. possible An on almost counterpart spots most of of America. but they take time to grow to sufficient the natural screen It Is size.

but I could not hope to exhaust I the subject within the limits of this chapter. but not so the beds. built substantially of stout materials. well-composed. and other parts of the garden devoted to flower . I regard it as equally important that the details should be as carefully studied. Though I have emphasized the importance of studying the general effect. and interesting picture.288 GARDEN PLANNING In certain cases there for the may be insufficient room trellis natural screen. borders. and as something to examine and plant. and variety of form and colour. Each garden provides its own particular set of problems. and of treatment adapted for securing a broad. seen in two ways — as a pleasant place afford- A garden is ing a sense of space. tions might enumerate a vast number of suggesand expedients for creating beauty in the garden details. repose. In time the outlines of the garden become so familiar to the owner that they only feebly imin detail for its interest of flower press him. and then the should be a permanent structure. and the main point for the garden maker is to be alive to opportunities for interesting work and to avail himself of them to the utmost.

and the reserve . and thus are places of perennial interest. and regard such problems. or to providing a means of growing some specially interestwhich I Include planting — as work — in ing kind of plant. which is perhaps the best practice. so far as they Involve constructive coming within the province of the garden designer.GARDEN MAKING display." that quality which of stamp his work with the character Is thoroughness. Most garden owners are only too delighted to offer plants to their friends. I think. for raising just a place and pricking out It seedlings. or to the creation of some pleasing effect in colour. may is be placed wherever a con^ venlent spot associated available. but most often It with a kitchen garden. 289 The latter are ever changing with the seasons and growth of the plants. Whether his efforts are directed to the removal or concealment of some eyesore. the result will be of value to the will garden as "finish. Is This. A reserve plot It a useful adjunct to any it is is garden. but if space permits may be made to serve the further purpose of growing flowers for cutting. sufficient reason for attention to the smaller I garden problems.

hardy perennials for nearly all the may so be to easily raised from seed in the reserve garden.290 garden the is GARDEN PLANNING the place distribute surplus stuff without in beds. . It from which they may making gaps also conduces to economy. and raise it is a source of much interest them.

Taking the typical suburban division. and so giving progressive octhe gardener for cupation ahead. 291 . never tearing down. it is pointed out that the land is surrounding the dwelHng divided into three parts —the service portion. by Mr. The service portion including the drives. Given a proper general plan to start with the details may elaborated step by step. all of which are here reproduced. the "front lawn.CHAPTER XXI The Evolution While equally it of an Ideal Lot is may be quite true that there it but also one ideal plan for any given place true is that the development of that particular plan fact that is may be by gradual growth — be often overlooked. always adding." and the living area. Stanton. walks. C. in for several years This has been splendidly illustrated an article in the Garden Magazine with the accompanying progressive plans.

should be determined first as these things are fundamental to the comfort of the occupants and affect the every-day activities. This arrangement allows about as much land on the southern side that side of the house. the "sunny" we wish to develop.292 GARDEN PLANNING (all the garage. This has been enough to provide a setting for the house. and to bring it far enough away from the street with its dust and noise. etc. the accompanying plan. and by delivery wagons coming to the house. in order that may be hidden from the rest of the estate. has been placed on it the shady side of the house. and so that it may be In readily shut from view of the living area. to its beauty). but which we do not expect will add much of all. The front lawn area is that portion of the property that your fellow townspeople see as they walk by on the street. etc. as it is possible to have. This area is to be kept as compact it as possible to save space. While this large made only part is comparatively simple to develop. there .. the clothes-yard. and so that people in the garden and on the piazza will not be bothered by the noises of the kitchen. those parts which are necessary to the proper functioning of the estate.

they are liable to be so tall . private living area. is and we can take our choice. The great trouble with walls and hedges is that when they are tall enough to hide the inside from prying eyes. any terraces. These would be the piazzas. without shutting out any fine views we may be will is. so we strive to hide from the points that will be the most used. fortunate enough to have. etc. however.THE EVOLUTION OF AN IDEAL LOT are enough 293 ways of doing it to allow for plenty of originality in the design. impossible to shut an objectionable piece of landscape from sight of all it points of the property. The plan shows the places where the screens are to come that views. It hide most of the undesirable of course. It is in the planning of our own skill.. the places where we intend to put seats. used must be kept in Whatever harmony with the house. On the specimen plan (page 295) the spots that command block the fine views in the distance have been marked so that them out. etc. by the use of hedges. shrubs. fences. that there are unlimited opportunities to show individual First we must that try to secure a certain amount of privacy. walls. we will not by any chance The privacy can be secured trees.

One should be rest careful in planning a border of this sort not to make it so large that it cramps the it is of the garden. when it is properly designed. which allow it to be wider in some places than in others. all " framed. its The shrub border used in this plan has outhne composed of long. and depend on the variety of material used to give the best The house is made to harmonize with its sur- . shrubs. the average place nothing can equal "mixed border" of trees. trees supply the shade and a shrub border is for privacy. sweeping curves. On small lots better to have the outhne of the bed effects. and three (preferably elms) the front lawn and the side- The good views and several of them walk. have been saved. 103 to 105). and perennials as a screen. are Methods of carrying out the rough outline shown (Figs.294 GARDEN PLANNING For the that they will obstruct our good views. a straight line. " Two trees shade the house. in and give a chance to frame "surprises" into some of the bays which one cannot see until directly opposite them. In (Fig. 104) tall and act as screens. as it allows such a great latitude in the choice of material.

103 Stage I ^The General Beginning shown on the following pages 295 Two progressive elaborations are .Fig.

Stage II —Simple massing of screen planting and lines are Fig. 104 garden features. (The view beginning of kept open) 296 .

—A garden of features developed upon the the plan 105 lines of shown on page 299 297 . Stag£ III.Fig.

enclosed on three so that it sides by shrubs. note this point: it should not be placed where its bright colors will distract the eye from any bit charming of scenery beyond. as they could be banked in around the seat there. base. but rather . These are at the corners for the best and may be placed so that they directly touch the house or there may be room left be- tween for a path. by small raised terrace opposite. where it is one of the many cases better to err on the side of underThis is doing rather than overdoing. it is It has been placed will get the sunshine during the greater part of the day.298 GARDEN PLANNING its roundings by plantings near usually grouped effects. berry hedge is A Japan bar- used to keep animals and people from walking on the front lawn. and should grow well in the shade. and as fairly near the house. In this plan the flower garden consists of a small informal border of perennials. the way. but rather let one or two larger ones do the work. one can enjoy its beauty from there or from the This terrace. would be a good place to make a "surprise" of a bed of hardy ferns. In locating the garden. or for the air to circulate. Do not plan too many small beds for the foundation planting.

One would not grocer's want the using the turnstile in the corner. A feature is made same of the hemlock hedge. and to bring it far as a screen for the enough out into the lawn to make it serve Hving area. A stepping-stone walk between the hedge and a bed of flowering shrubs gives a chance for various surprises (fancy ferns. except that a low wall replaces the barberry hedge along the street front. 105) of carrying out the general idea has the service portion and the front much the same. but boy to get into the habit of it would be very handy to anybody hurrying out in that direction. or . Another method wall lawn area (Fig. possibly a seat. tion planting has been placed and the large corner bed of the foundaaway from the house to allow for a walk between. and a grove of the material. and leads one out to the terrace in the rear where there is a good seat. Here one the may either admire the view in the rear. the shade trees are arranged a little differently. wild flowers.THE EVOLUTION OF AN IDEAL LOT placed where it 299 will attract the it eye to itself in- wander to some unsightly object beyond the boundary and which you are stead of letting powerless to hide. or a bird-bath).

cardinal principles involved are thus itemized: Keep the drive as short as possible. By such means is variety obtained in our garden enclosures. or a "half-barrel" in the centre of the lawn. except where doing so will bring it too much into prominence in the scenery. is The garden enclosed on two sides by a wall. For this purpose we may choose either a wall. Any flower bed is better if it is enclosed. Looking is from the house. a well-designed fence. but very gradual and easy. on the third a hedge. When making curves. the group of trees or shrubs. a hedge. 4. the good view in the rear en- hanced by the groups of cedars.300 GARDEN PLANNING sunken garden straight ahead. by and on the fourth by the retaining wall of the terrace. These curves should not be abrupt. For the small place plan a straight drive. Some 1. and by the two deciduous trees on the terrace. to have as a 3. 2. such knoll. it is the rule some apparent reason for them. or com- . shrubs. but where the length is more than one hundred feet it is usually better to make it curved. or a Keep lawns open! Especially avoid planting one shrub. or making a flower bed.

Do not so plant that a small place is tirely surrounded or it will be hot and stuffy in sumsmaller than it mer. do not plan to hide the entire base of the house. Remember that the more "surprises" one it can develop on an estate the larger 8. and will appear 7. much need. 3OI The small informal border if it is of flowers set into 5. Usually the vegetable garden would be il placed in the service portion of the place.THE EVOLUTION OF AN IDEAL LOT binations of these. serving the dual purpose of supplying fruit and shade. In designing the foundation planting. there no reason It is why it cannot open off the living area. Fruit trees. apple and pear. will seem. fruit 6. take care that the en- kept picked up fpom the lawn. but it is well kept and can be subdued to is its propel relation. nOfERTY LIBRABT N. a real delight to many gardeners to have a chance to look over a well- kept vegetable garden. and do not rely on young forest trees that grow big. but. may be enclosed on three sides one of the bays of the shrub border. as gUmpses of the stone work are necessary to give the impression of strength and stability that are not attainable to sit when the house seems upon a mass of waving greenery. especially may be used in the living area. C State Colkm . is if they be so used.

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