HARNESSING INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITIES IN SUPPORT OF THE DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILIZATION AND REINTEGRATION OF FORMER COMBATANTS

Prepared by the ECHA Working Group on Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration

Submitted to ECHA on 19 July 2000

convened a Working Group. funded by UNDP. In addition to these five dimensions. 1 The ECHA Working Group on DDR would like to acknowledge the work undertaken by its consultant. please refer to the “Background Paper for ‘Harnessing Institutional Capacities in the DDR of Former Combatants’”. with particular attention to the issue of demobilization. In particular. especially when the Security Council is not engaged. The disarmament.. This discussion identified one of the core problems as the need to define a clear leadership and coordination framework in the context of DDR. and to develop ways of mobilising the broad range of expertise and resources available both within and outside of the United Nations system. 2. demobilization and reintegration of former combatants in countries emerging from conflict encompasses at least five distinct dimensions: political. ECHA took this initiative on the basis of a discussion paper prepared by OCHA. clarifying “the process by which agreement will be reached on the assignment of tasks in specific situations”. the United Nations Executive Committee on Humanitarian Affairs (ECHA) established a Task Force on Disarmament. The following paper contains the findings. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS The following broad conclusions and considerations are based on the comprehensive review of the assignment of responsibilities in a DDR context: 1. Every dimension of the DDR process needs to be integrated closely into the whole. in the research and development of this paper. as well as operational matrices that outline potential responsibilities and capacities of UN and non-UN agencies in a DDR operation. INTRODUCTION At its meeting on 14 September 1999. and recommendations of the ECHA DDR Working Group with regard to these questions of leadership and coordination in the context of DDR1. conclusions. in turn. II. which addressed the United Nations system's capacity to respond to requests for support in DDR operations. humanitarian and socio-economic. It is also essential that gender-related issues are considered and mainstreamed in DDR programming and planning. and formally submitted by the Task Force to ECHA on 19 July 2000 as a final document. security.“Harnessing Institutional Capacities in Support of the DDR of Former Combatants” Prepared by the ECHA DDR Working Group for Final Submission to ECHA 19 July 2000 I. comprised of experts from each relevant agency. 2 For more detailed information regarding the consultations and research undertaken to prepare this report.2 This paper was considered and approved by the ECHA DDR Task Force on 12 July 2000. DDR strategies and approaches should include concepts enshrined in international law. Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) to be chaired by UNDP in order “to develop guidelines on the institutional division of labour of DDR as well as a broad strategy for DDR”. the Praxis Group Ltd. military/technical. it is essential to address DDR operations from a rightsbased approach. 1 . The Task Force. which was asked to draft a paper with focus on the assignment of responsibilities in DDR efforts.

including through innovative funding arrangements. including the introduction of DDR considerations into the negotiation of a settlement. NGOs and the private sector. and above all. 5. the role of the international community is to provide support. and to engage accordingly with relevant actors and partners outside of the UN system. While this finding is fundamental and underlies the international community’s efforts in DDR. the building of political and popular support for weapons collection programs and other peaceful alternatives to violence. the productive reintegration of the former combatants into civil society. The DDR process itself consists of a large number of complex and interrelated tasks. The foundation of a successful process of DDR is the commitment of the parties in the conflict to this process. Each of these activities has to be developed with an eye to its implications in terms of the five dimensions outlined above. 8. The United Nations system may not always be required to take the lead. There is a clear need for the capacity to provide guidance and leadership. including regional organizations. III. These three 2 . 7.“Harnessing Institutional Capacities in Support of the DDR of Former Combatants” Prepared by the ECHA DDR Working Group for Final Submission to ECHA 19 July 2000 3. can make further contributions to the DDR process. It is widely acknowledged that the main responsibility for the planning and execution of a DDR process should rest with the parties. It is essential to explore how other partners beyond the parameters of the UN system. together with renewed political will to address them. The diverse nature and the complexity of the DDR process require an equally diverse range of competencies on the part of the contributing actors. the purpose of this paper is to focus on clarifying the UN’s process of assigning responsibilities in the DDR context to better support the efforts undertaken by the parties. The availability of resources plays a key role in determining the success of a DDR process. please refer to Table 1 of this document. military oversight of disarmament and demobilization. civilian support to demobilization and reinsertion into either a new army or civilian life. For a more detailed and operational overview of these interrelated tasks and agency capacities to address these. so that individual capacities and competencies are best integrated into a concerted effort. There may or may not be a government in place. There are considerable variables in the backdrop against which support to a DDR process may be requested. Further awareness by Member States of these needs is essential for progress. The United Nations system needs the flexibility to respond adequately under any of these scenarios. 4. or it may be asked to lead only certain aspects of DDR support. There may or may not be a United Nations peacekeeping operation. 6. both UN and non-UN. RECOMMENDATIONS These findings create the basis for three categories of recommendations to facilitate the clarification of leadership and coordination in a DDR context and to ameliorate the UN’s capacity to respond to a DDR operation in partnership with external agencies.

Planning Capacity: A robust analytical and planning capacity at the country level is essential in order to ensure that the support activities developed by the international community reflect the needs and competencies of the national institutions responsible for the DDR process.“Harnessing Institutional Capacities in Support of the DDR of Former Combatants” Prepared by the ECHA DDR Working Group for Final Submission to ECHA 19 July 2000 categories are: A) Strategic Directives. In the latter case.). To ensure a comprehensive approach. The following guidelines are recommended to strengthen coordination and the assignment of DDR responsibilities in 1) the context of no Security Council engagement. Rights-based Approach: There are concerns important to the international community. particular attention should be paid to the rights and well being of children in armed conflict. the appropriate Executive Committee (ECHA. as well as to the needs of vulnerable groups such as female combatants. ECPS. all have to be undertaken simultaneously in a very short timeframe. 3. Support to DDR activities should not be undertaken to the exclusion of other elements of humanitarian and development assistance. The identification of implementation partners and the mobilization of resources. responsibility for HQ level support for each DDR programme should be assigned to either the HQ Task Force for that peacekeeping operation where such an operation is deployed. if required. Guidelines for Coordination: Adherence to the principles and directives noted above requires effective coordination and integration of agency mandates and competencies. 4. families of demobilized soldiers. B) Guidelines for Coordination. and enshrined in international law that need to be reflected in the planning and design of DDR activities. A. or. DDR programmes and strategies targeting children and other vulnerable groups need to be planned and implemented in close coordination with the overall DDR programme. 5. Headquarters Support: Depending on the situation. front-loaded investment of people and money in the start-up phase of a DDR support operation (for example. External Partners: For this purpose. as appropriate. the decision on which Committee takes responsibility should be taken by the DSG. etc. and disabled/chronically ill soldiers. B. and C) Strengthening UN Capacity. Strategic Directives: It is recommended that the following strategic directives could contribute to the effective planning and delivery of DDR support: 1. it is essential that effective partnerships with organisations beyond the confines of the United Nations system need to be developed and strengthened. Agencies intending to take a major part in the DDR programme should make available qualified staff to the planning unit. 2. and 2) Security Council engagement: 3 . The planning capacity should be located in the office of the SRSG or RC/HC. the establishment of a multi-sectoral Country Team DDR Task Force as appropriate). as well as the realities on the ground. While the dignity of all needs to be protected. Holistic Approach: The holistic approach advocated by the Working Group requires an extensive. alternatively.

Overview of Potential Partners in Support of DDR-Related Tasks” and “Table II . If the Government invites any agency to act as lead agency. but the United Nations system is providing support to a DDR process 1. 4 . ECPS. In situations where the HC and RC are not the same person. both UN and non-UN. the HC and/or RC will ensure effective Country Team collaboration with the lead agency as required. this person should take the lead for the overall coordination responsibility for DDR. 3 It is essential that the DDR Task Force should include non-UN agencies with relevant expertise to ensure a comprehensive and coordinated approach among all relevant actors. etc.Overview: DDR Related Competencies and Experiences” attached to this document. involved in the DDR process. in consultation with the In-Country Task Force on DDR. who. Scenario 2: Where the Security Council is engaged and/or a peace-building or peacekeeping operation is deployed 1.“Harnessing Institutional Capacities in Support of the DDR of Former Combatants” Prepared by the ECHA DDR Working Group for Final Submission to ECHA 19 July 2000 Scenario 1: Where the Security Council is not engaged. The distribution of labour among the members of the Task Force should be decided on the basis of competence and comparative advantage. taking into account the resources available. Lead responsibility for guiding DDR efforts falls to the head of such a mission. and for mobilising the requisite support for the DDR activities. and reports through the appropriate departments at Headquarters. the lead agency should not replace the HC and/or RC’s overall guiding role. If a Humanitarian Coordinator and/or Resident Coordinator (HC and/or RC) is present. • • • 2. Other non-operational actors like OSRSG/CAC or entities such as DDA where they do not have a field presence should be involved in an advisory capacity in the Task Force’s work from headquarters. If the Government appoints a lead agency for the DDR process other than the HC and/or RC. 3 For more information regarding agencies’ capacity and experience. but rather act as primus inter pares among the members of the Country Team reporting to the HC and/or RC. • The HC and/or RC should establish a Country Team DDR Task Force.) designated to lead at HQ level. and no peace-building or peacekeeping operation is deployed. drawing upon representatives of the United Nations system organisations already in country with relevant experience and capacity. exercises authority over all United Nations entities in the field. in accordance with the Secretary-General’s guidance on this issue. will decide which official should lead on DDR. the HQ committee (ECHA. including children and vulnerable groups. please refer to “Table 1.

with the participation of UN and non-UN partners active in the DDR programme. 4 5 . These include: • Staff and Organisational Capacity: The competence of the SRSG. parallel financing from bilateral programs or regional organisations. the decision regarding to whom this should be entrusted will have to be made. together with some recommendations for its enhancement.“Harnessing Institutional Capacities in Support of the DDR of Former Combatants” Prepared by the ECHA DDR Working Group for Final Submission to ECHA 19 July 2000 • • • • This reflects the fact that the political nature of DDR comes to the fore where the Security Council of the General Assembly is engaged in a conflict area. gaps remain. Coordination: As noted. Several of these proposals have already been endorsed by the Security Council (S/PRST/2000/10). C. As to the actual non-military demobilization component of the DDR process. be they inside or outside of the United Nations system. Internal rosters of staff qualified to support DDR programs should be developed. Training activities for the United Nations system and its partners need to be increased. the • • Further guidance with regard to the role of peacekeeping in DDR. It should be noted that the issue of financial support and funding mechanisms for countries in a post-conflict phase is a significant constraint that can not be addressed within the parameters of this paper. and IASC exist at the Headquarters level to coordinate humanitarian. taking into account the competencies and track record of potential implementing agencies. but should be noted as an outstanding issue that needs to be addressed and resolved to strengthen the UN/non-UN’s response in a DDR operation. Strengthening UN Capacity: Several measures can and should be undertaken to strengthen the capacity of the United Nation’s system to ensure that it can support DDR in the most effective and efficient manner. special trust funds. effective coordination at both the Headquarters and Country level is an essential component of the DDR process.4 The effective coordination of DDR programmes in the field may be enhanced if the RC/HC is also appointed Deputy SRSG. ECPS. in consultation and with active support from DPKO. UNDP should be asked to take the lead on these activities. the RC/HC and the Country Team are key to the successful planning and delivery of a DDR support operation: all organisations of the UN system should be mindful of this in selecting and assigning their staff for DDR support activities. It is also recommended that each individual agency ensures the development of its own capacity to effectively assume responsibility in a DDR operation for those areas within its mandate and expertise. development. As an example. are offered in the Secretary-General’s report on this topic (S/2000/101). cash or in-kind contributions from national institutions. However. voluntary funding raised through consolidated appeals. and political initiatives. Recommendations regarding this decision should be formulated by the In-Country Task Force on DDR and endorsed by the SRSG or RC/HC. In these situations the SRSG will convene and chair an In-Country Task Force for DDR. and following appropriate consultations with Headquarters. It should be noted that mechanisms such as ECHA. Financial Support: Financial support for DDR activities comes from a wide range of sources: assessed contributions.

While this question surmounts the mandate of the ECHA Working Group and the purpose of this paper. The DDR Resource Centre in UNDP should also house information regarding the programs. As such. other intergovernmental.org/erd/ddr. the Working Group recognizes that the issue of overall coordination expands beyond the parameters of DDR activities and affects conflict/post-conflict issues and interventions as a whole. it is essential that agencies and organisations assume responsibility for developing their own institutional knowledge and capacities to respond effectively as a partner in a DDR operation and to contribute to the overall process. non-governmental and private sector actors have played a major role. experience. Such information could include lessons learned. This would be established as part of the existing coordination mechanism. housed in UNDP. the Working Group proposes the establishment at HQ of a backstopping body for DDR operations with the same membership as the In-Country Task Force on DDR. have much to contribute to DDR support. such as the Task Force established for each operation. 6 . • External Partners: While the organisations of the United Nations system. and capacities of external organisations to facilitate the search for competent DDR partners. and does not by itself provide a forum where some of the key political and development actors who are crucial to successful DDR can participate. which is housed in UNDP5. In all of the DDR operations that were successful thus far. regional. evaluations. the agencies involved in any aspect of a DDR operation should regularly provide relevant information to the centralised DDR Resource Centre. • 5 For more information regarding the DDR Resource Centre. please refer to the following website: http://www. It is.undp.“Harnessing Institutional Capacities in Support of the DDR of Former Combatants” Prepared by the ECHA DDR Working Group for Final Submission to ECHA 19 July 2000 composition of the IASC is very much oriented towards humanitarian concerns. Information and Lessons Learned: Much in the area of DDR is relatively new. therefore. they do not by themselves have sufficient capacity or resources to work without partners. it is essential that the UN and its partners ensure that lessons observed become lessons learned through the regular exchange and dissemination of information to serve as a basis for ameliorating the UN system’s individual and collective response in a DDR operation. It is also recommended that UN and non-UN agencies involved in DDR operations undertake joint monitoring. including the World Bank. In order to address this. and lessons learned exercises. Additionally. important that contacts with these external actors be nurtured. At the same time. To achieve this. evaluations. coordination at the Headquarters level should be noted as an outstanding issue that needs to be addressed and resolved. and case studies prepared by individual agencies in the context of particular DDR operations.

design specifications Cantonment Special measures for vulnerable groups. disarmament Mobilization of resources for specific aspects of DDR Advice and guidance to parties in conflict Introducing child protection considerations B. female and child combatants Demobilization incentives Reintegration options Veterans’ benefits C. BUILDING POLITICAL AND POPULAR SUPPORT FOR DDR Advocacy of peace and reconciliation. This table does not reflect an analysis by the ECHA Working Group on DDR of the agencies’ capacities and experiences in this regard. incl. MILITARY OVERSIGHT OF DEMOBILIZATION PROCESS Collection and destruction/disposal of arms Establishing secure armoires 6 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X This Table has been compiled based solely on information provided by the agencies regarding their own capacities and experiences. 7 . NEGOTIATING THE DDR ASPECTS OF CONFLICT RESETTLEMENT Establish management and coordination structures Establishment of cease fire Definition and identification of combatants Definition and identification of combatants’ arms Disarmament provisions Design program of assistance in cantonment areas Identification of cantonment areas.“Harnessing Institutional Capacities in Support of the DDR of Former Combatants” Prepared by the ECHA DDR Working Group for Final Submission to ECHA 19 July 2000 TABLE I OVERVIEW OF POTENTIAL PARTNERS IN SUPPORT OF DDR-RELATED TASKS6 UN/OCHA UN/DPKO UN / DDA UN / DPA Reg/SubReg. Organiz Bilateral Agencies X X X X X X X X X X X X X X OSRSG/ CAC ** UNICEF UNHCR NGO Comm. X X X UNDP World Bank WHO ICRC X X X X X X WFP FAO IOM X X X GTZ X X ILO CORE DDR-RELATED TASKS A.

INTO NEW CONSOLIDATED ARMY Support Services X X X X X X X X X X X X 8 NGO Comm. REINSERTION. disabled soldiers and chronically ill X X X X X X X X* X* X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ILO CORE DDR-RELATED TASKS X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X soldiers Support and psycho-social care for combatants with stress disorders Medical and nutritional screening on registration Socio-economic surveys and skills inventories of excombatants Documenting and monitoring case histories of combatants in vulnerable groups Immunization Provision of reproductive health services Recreational activities Weapons collection programme X Mine clearing in areas of cantonment and areas of return X E.“Harnessing Institutional Capacities in Support of the DDR of Former Combatants” Prepared by the ECHA DDR Working Group for Final Submission to ECHA 19 July 2000 OSRSG/ CAC Reg/Sub-Reg. including those held by para-militaries or civilians Supporting internal security. handover to police forces D. incl. female combatants. CIVILIAN SUPPORT TO DEMOBILIZATION PROCESS Preparation and construction of cantonment sites Registration and issue of identification documents Provision of food. Organiz Supporting broad-based disarmament programs. water. sanitation Support to families Support and psycho-social care for child soldiers. UN/OCHA UN/DPKO UN / DDA UN / DPA UNICEF Bilateral Agencies UNHCR UNDP World Bank WHO ICRC WFP FAO IOM GTZ .

OSRSG/CAC contributes to technical expertise and undertakes advocacy on behalf of other partners involved with DDR. UN/OCHA UN/DPKO UN / DDA UN / DPA UNICEF Bilateral Agencies UNHCR UNDP World Bank WHO ICRC WFP FAO IOM GTZ . REINTEGRATION: LONG-TERM Integrated and balanced programs for demobilised soldiers. ** Even though not operational. as recommended in the Secretary General’s report on the role of peacekeeping in DDR. 9 NGO Comm. tools). cash.. it may be necessary to review the possibility that assessed funding could be used to support their initial stages. returning refugees and internally displaced Credit Land (and land reform) Professional and vocational training Public works job creation Income generation programs.“Harnessing Institutional Capacities in Support of the DDR of Former Combatants” Prepared by the ECHA DDR Working Group for Final Submission to ECHA 19 July 2000 Reg/Sub-Reg. REINSERTION: SHORT-TERM. micro-enterprise Participation of private sector. incl. hiring incentives Business and legal advice Children Programmes Veterans programs and outreach X X X X X* X* X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ILO CORE DDR-RELATED TASKS X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X * Please note: If they are to be effectively undertaken. Organiz OSRSG/CAC F. clothing. food and food coupons. housing and housing materials G.g. INTO CIVILIAN LIFE Job counseling and referral Health counseling Medical and dental care General Education Family reunion and/or services Specific measures for vulnerable groups Vocational Training Transportation Departure packages (e.

peacekeeping and military observer operations. ensuring that DDR implementation meets political objectives Lead department for peacekeeping operations. Conventional Arms Branch Core function EXPERIENCE UN/DDA Advocacy for small arms collection and removal. contributions by bilateral donors Albania (Weapons for Development). 10 .g. including reintegration. Sierra Leone) in peacekeeping and all kinds of peace operations 7 This table was prepared based on the information provided to the Working Group by the individual agencies. provides political leadership in prenegotiations and negotiations of peace accords.“Harnessing Institutional Capacities in Support of the DDR of Former Combatants” Prepared by the ECHA DDR Working Group for Final Submission to ECHA 19 July 2000 TABLE II7 OVERVIEW: DDR-RELATED COMPETENCIES AND EXPERIENCE OF UN SYSTEM ORGANIZATIONS AND SOME KEY IMPLEMENTATION PARTNERS ENTITY CORE DDR COMPETENCIES FUNDING POSTCONFLICT UNIT Regional Centres for Peace. supports UN Peacebuilding offices in the field UN/OCHA OSRSG/ CAC Coordination of financing and implementation for humanitarian elements. policy and technical advocacy. Angola/UCAH. Liberia/HACO SRSG visits conflict areas. advocates inclusion of child protection measures in peace accords. preparation. meets with leaders to obtain child protection commitment. but only for others guidance in design of DDR plans Budgets for peacekeeping Core function operations. recently provided DDR-related advice in Sierra Leone. Central America (workshops). this component is usually funded from voluntary sources (and implemented with humanitarian and development partners) Voluntary contributions through Core function CAP process. and direction of UN operations. within framework of a DDR operation (through Humanitarian Coordinator mechanism) Advocacy for child protection in Mobilises resources through armed conflict. assessed contributions for coordination of humanitarian components of SC peace operation None Responsible for the planning.. and child protection staff (e. (PRE-REFORM) Mozambique/UNOHAC. conduct. while occasionally seed money has been provided for demobilization and reintegration. advice on design of weapons collection programs Trust fund for Practical Disarmament Measures. “Practical Disarmament Measures” UN/DPA UN/DPKO Focal point for post-conflict Peacebuilding in UN system. SRSG reports to DPKO Has special fund for political missions under UN regular budget Involved in preparations for all SC Peacebuilding.

CG/roundtable processes or through co-financing with donors Voluntary funding.“Harnessing Institutional Capacities in Support of the DDR of Former Combatants” Prepared by the ECHA DDR Working Group for Final Submission to ECHA 19 July 2000 ENTITY UNICEF CORE DDR COMPETENCIES Advocacy for child protection in armed conflict. Sudan. reinsertion and reintegration phases Public health advice in the design of the programme. Angola. including the reduction of the presence of small arms in communities of return. Bosnia Herzegovina 11 . family reunification. UNDP Small Arms Trust Fund Emergency Response Division Mozambique DDR severance pay scheme. design and implementation of reintegration programs for children leaving armed forces. Uganda UNDP Voluntary contributions. promotion of immediate demobilization of child soldiers. Mali light arms collection. FUNDING Voluntary contributions. Rwanda. Guatemala funding of reintegration activities in support of DDR. Angola support to national reintegration efforts. Cambodia. Liberia. Mozambique. technical and financial assistance to governments’ DDR programs. Facilitating re-absorption of military medics in civilian health services. Republic of Congo. Central America. epidemiological surveillance. Guatemala and South Africa Mozambique. including ex-combatants. focus on the demobilization. technical and/or financial support for Rwanda. advocacy for “human dignity” of returnees Lead agency support. DR Congo. etc. prevention of child soldier recruitment Formulation and implementation of demobilization initiatives aimed at creating a sustainable environment in communities of return and facilitating the socio-economic reintegration of excombatants and their families. prevention of their recruitment. Somalia Civil Protection Programme (DDR and small arms component). Kosovo. Chad. cantonment areas. reintegration programs for entire communities. Guinea Bissau. Sierra Leone. Djibouti. Facilitate measures to address small arms questions. Ensuring public health in cantonment areas. including CAP process Post-Conflict Unit WHO Division of Emergency and Humanitarian Action Lead agency for DDR in Uganda. Cambodia. Sierra Leone. UNDP Resources. DRC and Bosnia-Herzegovina. UNHCR Voluntary contributions Reintegration and local Settlement Section Reintegration programs for major refugee and IDP crises world-wide have often benefited former soldiers WORLD BANK Bank’s own resources. health care delivery. including reproductive health and psycho-social care for soldiers and dependants. Mozambique. Reintegration of former child soldiers. Reintegration of ExCombatants and arms collection. including resources through CAP POST-CONFLICT UNIT Office of Emergency Programmes EXPERIENCE Lead role in DDR of child soldiers: Angola.

Uganda. their dependants. demobilization and reintegration. Daghestan. Tajikistan. Sri Lanka. Mozambique. planning and implementation of encampment. social reinsertion. Cambodia. reintegration Mozambique. Mozambique (GTZ Open Reintegration Fund). Sierra Leone. Afghanistan.“Harnessing Institutional Capacities in Support of the DDR of Former Combatants” Prepared by the ECHA DDR Working Group for Final Submission to ECHA 19 July 2000 ENTITY FAO CORE DDR COMPETENCIES Resettlement and Reintegration of excombatants. counseling and referral services Overall scenario planning for DDR. Philippines. Central America Angola. Guinea-Bissau Most prominent experiences: Namibia. transport. Northwest Somalia Own funding through voluntary government contributions None. Angola (1992. Timor. promotion of employment. Food aid for disarmed military personnel. post-conflict issues often addressed by the International Federation of Red Cross Movements Balkans. Operations Department ILO Funding as implementing agency or through voluntary trust funds Funding as implementing partner in CAP framework. including demobilised soldiers and their dependants. e. Uganda. logistic support for transportation. profiling and data base development. Cambodia. consultancies to national coordination bodies. Angola. Mozambique. support to national reintegration authorities Humanitarian support to people affected by conflict. Sierra Leone. Guinea Bissau. Liberia. Chechnya. Angola. IOM Reintegration Fund Focus Program on Crisis and Reconstruction Emergency and PostConflict Unit IOM GTZ ICRC Resettlement and reintegration of former combatants. FRG bilateral resources Emergency and Refugee Aid Division Eritrea.. Guinea Bissau. Liberia. Colombia 12 . East Timor. including through CAP Funding as implementing agency in CAP framework. reintegration grants projects. and reintegration into civil society. Mali Funding as implementation partner. Somalia. Tajikistan (broader beneficiary target group). Support for employment and socioeconomic integration of ex-combatants. FUNDING Funding through UNDP or voluntary trust funds. including establishment and management of assembly areas. and integration of excombatants in target groups for agricultural assistance projects. setting up of information. Haiti. pre-discharge orientation. vulnerable groups and other affected civilian populations in context of comprehensive DDR programs. WFP Office of Humanitarian Adviser. Kosovo. Colombia.g. communication and logistic support. DR Congo (with World Bank funding). WFP resources POST-CONFLICT UNIT Special Relief Operations Service EXPERIENCE Philippines(specific projects for excombatants). transport and settling-in packages. family reunification and "tracing" services. registration. Guatemala. support to return. including training Support to cantonment. 1995-1998). Sierra Leone (Employment for Peace Program). Cambodia.