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Report

Reports are used for many purposes. They are to provide information about natural and nonnatural phenomena, to document, to organize and store factual information on a topic, to classify and describe the phenomena about a whole class of things living and non living, to describe the way things are. Reports can be used in textbooks, encyclopedias, scientific magazines, historical texts, factual reading books, reference books, classroom lesson, environment program, TV documentaries, magazines etc. a report text has its own generic structure. It has two components namely (1) general classification, (2) description. Reports are principally not the same as descriptions although they can be used interchangeable. A.Generic Structure of Report:

1.General Classification : tells what the phenomenon under discussion is 2.Descriptions : tells what the phenomenon under discussion is like in terms of: Parts (and their function), Qualities and Habits or behaviour Notes: 1. Difference between reports and descriptions: Repots classify and describe a whole class of things e.g. Houses. By contrast, descriptive texts talk about on specific person, place or thing e.g. My houses. In short, reports deal with general classification and description of a thing while descriptions describe a particular thing. 2. The description can cover the facts about various aspects of the object (colour, shape, habits, behaviour etc), giving examples, comparing and contrasting, describing components and their functions. B. Generic Features of Report

1. Report texts usually used Simple Present Tense, and seldom use past tenses (if the thing is extinct) 2. The language is neutral or should be objective: no expression of opinions, no reference to the reader (not using I, we or you). 3. Frequent use of Passive Sentence. 4. Use of be: is, am, are, was, were for the classification. 5. Use of verb have: have, has, had, in order to give detail description. 6. Use of action verbs related to the topic, especially when describing behaviours. 7. Use of adjectives in describing especially the qualities. 8. Often accompanied by photos, diagrams, maps and illustrations.

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Report!

What is Apiculture?

General

Classification

Apiculture is also called a bee-farming, the cultivation of bees on a commercial scale for the production of honey. Royal jelly and bee pollen are the other products of it. There are many species of bee. Some of them are Apis Cerana, Apis Dorsata, Apis florae and Apis Malifera. Among those species, Apis Malifera is the most productive and the easiest to be cultivated. Description A bee colony consists of one queen, a lot of worker bees and some drones, stingless male bees in a colony of social bees (especially honeybees) whose sole function is to mate with the queen. Each group has its specific duty. The queen, for example, only lays eggs, the drones have duty to copulate the queen, and the workers have to take care of the queen, drones and larvae. They are also responsible for seeking flowers and nectar.

Description To obtain good production, the farmers have to be able to provide the most productive flowers nearby the cultivation or they have to travel through forests, bushes, and plantations to find them. The best flowers can produce ample material for bee products. Many people like to consume honey because it is believed to give benefit for health, The Holy Koran says that the bee stomach produces some liquid that is very beneficial for human health.

Read this report text! Volcanoes General Classification A volcano is a mountain which is formed by the eruption of material from the earths interior through a central opening or groups of openings. Volcanoes are scattered over the world. Volcanoes can be divided into three categories based on volcano forms and type of volcanic activities. They are Shield, Composite and Explosion volcanoes Description A shield volcano is formed chiefly of layers of basalt (a dark, heavy lava). A few shield volcanoes are composed of andesite ( a related, less dense type of lava). Description

A composite volcano has more frequent and violent explosive eruptions than shield volcanoes do. Lava may be extruded from either central crater or fissures on a volcanos sides. Description Explosion volcanoes are composed of inclined layers of pyroclastic debris and contain no lava. During the eruption, debris is ejected from the crater. Most explosion volcanoes are formed during one period of eruption

To make it clear, please remember the concept of Report text below! REPORT Social Function:

To describe the way things are, with reference to a range of natural, man-made and social phenomena in our environment. Schematic Structure:

General statement/ classification: introduces the topic of the reports Description : provide details of topic such as physical appearance, behaviour, landform and uses (typically organized in paragraph)

Notes: 1. Simple Present Tense is mostly used in the report text either in active sentences or in passive sentences. 2.The use of Relational process, such as: is, consist of, function as, derive from, to be classified into, to be identified as etc. 3.The use of special nouns that denotes the characteristics of the thing such as: features, forms, functions, species etc. 4.The use of special technical terms such as: the parts of the body (e.g: brain, vein, vascular), the parts of the tree (e.g: stem, root, leaf, branch), the parts of machine (e.g: gear, screw, bolt etc). 5.No temporal sequences are used. If there is (e.g: first, second, third, the last etc). it only indicates numbering not an event. Sources: Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

Analytical Exposition
An analytical exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to persuade the listeners or readers that something is the case. To make the persuasion stronger, the speaker or writer gives some arguments as the fundamental reasons why something is the case. This type of text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Analytical expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of analytical exposition usually has three components: (1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3) Reiteration or conclusion. A.Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition 1. Thesis : Introduces the topic and shows speaker or writers position; Outlines of the arguments are presented. 2. Arguments : It consists about Point and Elaboration Point, states the main argument Elaboration, develops and supports each point of argument 3. Conclusion : Reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or writers position B. Generic Features of Analytical Exposition 1. An analytical exposition focuses on generic human and non human participants. 2. It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc. 3. It uses emotive and evaluative words 4. It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. .has polluted etc. 5. It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense. 6. Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly , Finally, etc.

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analytical

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Corruption and Indonesian Culture Thesis: Corruption has happened for many years and today it becomes a bad culture in Indonesia for three reasons Argument 1:

Most adult Indonesian or foreigners have known and admitted that corruptions happen in many places. The daily newspapers, news programs on TV and radio have reported corruptions are done everywhere, almost in all departments or public services of this country. Corruptions

happen in health, education departments and banks. When we manage to get some documents in public service offices, we usually need much money to pay. Manipulations happen everywhere Argument 2:

The actions to eliminate corruption are weak. The ever stronger culture seems not to come to an end when the responsible institutions who have to reinforce the justice today commit corruption. This is the worst. Corruptions happen in police department, courts where judges, public prosecutors, lawyers make deals to do corruption. All of us also heard in the end of 2004, Probosutejo reported that he had bribed the Supreme Court, or called Mahkamah Agung which becomes the highest level where the justice can be obtained. Perhaps you have to try to come to the local courts and see what happen there. You will see practices of bribery and other kinds of corruption. Therefore, we can say that corruptions becomes our culture. Do you like it? Argument 3:

The citizens have no goodwill to fight against the corruption. They create the situations in which people have opportunities to do corruptions. The citizens like to break the rules because they are not disciplined. For example, in the street when they drive a car or ride motorcycle, they do not have the driving license or necessary documents. Then, they are caught by the local policemen. To avoid more difficulties, they like to bribe the officer. The officer let them go then. In other words, the citizens and officers are the same, doing corruption together. If only the people were critical, disciplined, and obey the rules, and willing to report any wrong behaviors, this country will not be number one corrupting country in the world. Reiteration/ conclusion:

Conclusion Based on the reasons, we can conclude that corruption is becoming a bad culture in Indonesia if it is not ended soon by all of us. It seems that there must be more severe penalty for the Corruptors. Do we still care about the future of this country? Written by Cahyono

More information: 1. Emotive language adds strong description to the facts and so help to create an extremely subjective tone of the text. It plays a role in persuading the readers toward the writers opinion e.g. Most adult Indonesian, 2. Evaluative language is another way to persuade people agree with the writers opinion e.g. This is the worst, Its true, Its important, Its clear, I believe, It is obvious that etc.

Read the following text of Analytical Exposition! The Importance of English Thesis { I personally think that English is the worlds most important language. Why do I say

that?

Argument 1 { Firstly, English is an international language. It is spoken by many people all around the world, either as a first or second language.

Argument 2 { Secondly, English is also the key which opens doors to scientific and technical knowledge, which is needed for the economic and political development of many countries in the world. Argument 3 { Thirdly, English is a top requirement of those seeking jobs. Applicants who master either active or passive English are more favorable than those who do not. Conclusion { From the fact above, it is obvious that everybody needs to learn English to greet the global era. Notes: 1. Enumerations such as Firstly, secondly, thirdly etc are sometimes given to show the list of given arguments 2. Present Tense: I think, English is international language, Everybody needs to learn English etc.

To make clear understand these notes: ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose : to analyze Text A Arguments Reiteration Language Emotive Words that Words that to or persuade by presenting explain how and Organization arguments why : thesis Conclusion : etc) etc) etc)

or Features worried, (e.g. firstly,

words (e.g. qualify statements link arguments (e.g.

alarmed usual, Probably However, therefore

Sources: Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung

Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

What is an Explanation text?


An explanation text explains the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or non natural/ sociocultural phenomena. In addition, An explanation text gives you a step by step explanation. The explanation sequence contains a sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. This explanation is written in paragraphs. The concept of an explanation text: Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation and working of natural or socio cultural phenomena Text Organization/ structure: 1. A general statement to position the reader (introductory paragraph) 2. A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs 3. Closing or concluding statement/ paragraph (optional) Language Features: Focus on generic, non-human participants The use of general and abstract nouns The use of action verbs The use of simple present tense The use of passive voice The use of conjunctions of time and cause The use of noun phrases The use of complex sentences The use of technical language Read the example of an explanation text below!

Tsunami A general Statement: A tsunami is a very large sea wave that is generated by a disturbance along the ocean floor. This disturbance can be an earthquake, a landslide, or a volcanic eruption. A tsunami is undetectable far out in the ocean, but once it reaches shallow water, this fast-traveling wave grows very large. Explanation: Tsunamis occur when a major fault under the ocean floor suddenly slips. The displaced rock pushes water above it like a giant paddle, producing powerful water waves at the ocean surface.

The ocean waves spread out from the vicinity of the earthquake source and move across the ocean until they reach the coastline, where their height increases as they reach the continental shelf, the part of the Earths crust that slopes, or rises, from the ocean floor up to the land. Closing: Tsunamis wash ashore with often disastrous effects such as severe flooding, loss of lives due to drowning, and damage to property. Now read the other example of explanation text! Petroleum products, such as gasoline, kerosene, home heating oil, residual fuel oil and lubricating oils, come from one source. Crude oil is found below the earth surface, as well as under large bodies of water, from a few hundred feet below the surface to as deep as 25.000 feet into the earth interior. Crude oil is obtained by drilling a hole through the earth, but sometimes more dry holes are drilled than those producing oil. Pressure at the source, or pumping, forces the crude oil to the surface. Crude oil wells flow at varying rates, from ten thousands of barrels per hour. Petroleum products vary greatly in physical appearance: thin, thick, transparent, or opaque. Their chemical compositions are made up of only two elements: carbon and hydrogen, which form compounds called hydrocarbons. Other chemical elements found in the union with the hydrocarbons are few and are classified as impurities. Trace elements are also found, but these are of such minute quantities that they are disregarded. The various petroleum products are refined from the crude oil by heating and condensing the vapors of crude oil. These products are called light oils such as gasoline, kerosene, and distillate oil. Sources: Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

Hortatory Exposition
A Hortatory exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to explain the listeners or readers that something should or should not happen or be done. To strengthen the explanation, the speaker or writer needs some arguments as the fundamental reasons of the given idea. In other words, this kind of text can be called as argumentation. Hortatory exposition text can be

found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Hortatory expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of Hortatory exposition usually has three components: (1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3) Recommendation. A.Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition

1. Thesis : Statement or announcement of issue concern 2. Arguments : Reasons for concern that will lead to recommendation 3. Recommendation : Statement of what should or should not happen or be done based on the given arguments B.Generic Features of Hortatory Exposition

1.A Hortatory exposition focuses on generic human and non human participants, except for speaker or writer referring to self. 2.It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc. 3.It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. .has polluted etc. 4.It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense. 5.Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly , Finally, etc.

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Hortatory

Exposition!

A Campaign of the Importance of Reading Thesis: Reading habit is poor among Indonesians because most people havent realized the importance of reading Argument 1

Reading is important to transform knowledge and technology. By reading, one knows the world. He or she will understand what he doesnt see by himself or herself. The lines of the paragraphs in an article contain pieces of knowledge. The knowledge is needed to improve the quality of humans life. Technology transformation from other country can only be done by reading a lot various sources of literature. Valuable books in libraries and bookstores mean nothing if they are not read. Argument 2

Realizing the importance of reading will make someone motivated to read. When we know that something is very important because it can give us valuable information, we will try to get or do

the thing. For example, a businessman who always follows latest information or news, will know what to do in his/ her business. He will make a good decision to make a transaction. Most people in all developed countries have realized the importance or reading and they have good reading habits. In bus and train stations, vehicles, waiting rooms, parks, people like reading. They enjoy reading which gives them valuable knowledge and inspiration. Argument 3

A good understanding toward the importance of reading can be achieved by well organized and effective campaign. To plant an understanding in a generations minds is not an easy job. It needs a hard work from all components of the nation, especially the government. A serious campaign which is organized by the central and local government can help common people wake up and stand to face the real competition. The campaign can be done through various kinds of mass media such as TV, radio, booklets, bulletins, newspapers, magazines. It can also be conducted by teachers, parents and all people who care. Recommendation Therefore, a nation-wide effective campaign of the importance of reading by all components of the nation should be done, facilitated by the government, to face the tighter competition. The world has forced globalization. Those people with little knowledge will be left behind. To speed up the better change in this country, a good reading habit is really important. Written by Cahyono KD

Read this text of Hortatory exposition! Corruption Thesis (Announcement of issue concern)

Do you know what the meaning of corruption is? What is the relation between money and corruption? Well, corruption is common everywhere in the world, even in the United States. Its just a matter of intensity. However, it is quite shocking when one reliable survey claims Jakarta as the most corrupt place in Indonesia. Argument 1

The survey has made me sad, actually, because I stay and earn a living here in the capital. As most people know, Tanjung Priok port smuggling is not a new thing at all. Entrepreneurs who want to minimize their tax payments tend to do such a thing more often. They even bribe the officials. Argument 2

Well, I think the measures taken so far to overcome the problem by punishing the corruptors is

still not far enough. We have to prevent the younger generations from getting a bad mentality caused by corruption. Recommendation I believe we should start at the earliest stages in school and I think everyone should be involved in the effort to eradicate corruption. We must not make any distinction. Adapted from: The Jakarta Post, February 2005

To make it clear, please remember the concept of Hortatory exposition below: HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose : to persuade the readers or listeners that something should or should not be the case. Text A Arguments Recommendation Organization thesis

Language Features: The use of emotive words (e.g. worried, alarmed etc) The use of words that qualify statements (e.g. usual, probably etc) The use of words that link arguments (e.g. firstly, However, therefore etc) The use of compound and complex sentence The use of modals and adverbs (e.g. may, must, should, etc) The use of subjective opinions using pronouns I and we Sources: Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

Descriptive
Descriptive texts are the texts which are used to describe about a particular place, person or thing. Descriptions are almost the same as report text. A descriptive text focuses on a specific thing and its specific features. A report usually deals with things in general. Descriptions can be used in textbook, encyclopedias, scientific magazines, historical texts, factual reading book,

magazines A. 1. 2. Generic Identification Description of Structure : identifies the Features : describes of phenomenon features in Descriptive to order be of

etc text described importance

Parts/ things, it is about physical appearance Qualities, it can be the degree of beauty, excellence, value or worth Characteristic, it can be prominent aspects that are unique

NOTES:

1. Difference between descriptive and reports can be seen as follow: descriptive texts talk about one specific person, place or thing, e.g. My Car and reports classify and describe a whole class of thing, e.g. Cars (in general). In short, reports deal with general classification and description of thing while descriptive texts describe a particular thing. 2.The description can cover the facts about various aspects of an object (parts, colour, shape, habits, behaviour, personalities etc B.Generic Features of Descriptive

1.Descriptive texts usually use Simple Present Tense 2.Frequent use of Passive sentences. 3.Use of be (is, am, are, was, were) for the identification and showing qualities 4.Use of verb Have (have, has, had) in order to give detail description of the objects features. 5.Use of action verbs related to the topic, especially when describing behaviours or personalities (for persons) 6.Use of adjectives in describing especially the qualities.

Now read these texts of Descriptive! Lesser Slow Loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus) Identification: The Lesser Slow Loris is a Mammal which can clampo onto branches for long period of time. To help it do this, the Loris has a network of blood vessels, called rate mirabile in its forearms and shanks. Description of physical features:

It is a small mammal which is 7-10 in long (175-250 mm) and can weigh as musch as 12 ounces or 340 grams. Being nocturnal the Loris has large round eyes. The Loris has no tail but has broad

grasping feet. On its second toe it has a sharp claw. It also has an enlarge thumb and a reduced index finger. The Lesser Slow Loris is a plump animal with soft, thick fur ranging in color from light browngrey to deep reddish-brown with a dark stripe down the back and neck. It has a long snout with comb like front teeth which are used in grooming. Description of habitat, floor and behaviour It is found in Southern Asia, Vietnam, Borneo and Sumatra. As it is tree-living, it is restricted to tropical rain forest. The diet of the Loris is made up fruit and leaves, tender shoots, insect, birds, small mammals and reptiles. It is nocturnal and sleeps by day rolled up in a ball. Description of interesting features:

The Loris is a solitary animal which belongs to the family of Lorisidea bush baby and potto. It is very slow but deliberate climber. An interesting fact about the Lesser Slow Loris is that it has a single-note whistle. Read This Text of Descriptive ! Around Bali Identification: Bali, the fabled Island of the Gods has been enchanting visitors for centuries with its rich cultural traditions and spectacular panoramas. description: Bali offers many things, from lofty, mist enshrouded volcanoes and cool mountain lakes down through terraced rice fields to a golden strand lapped by azure waters, every square inch of Bali offers a fresh and unforgettable image. description: No less enchanting are its people. Some 2,7 million souls whose artistry and piety are recognized throughout the world. Balinese Hinduism, a complex fusion of Indian cosmology, Tantric Buddism and homegrown mythology, is the primary faith of Balis inhabitants, and so deeply woven into the fabric of their daily lives that the line between the spiritual and the material is blurry at best. Sources: Aswandi and Fauriz Zuchri. 2008. Reading and Writing: Modul Pendidikan dan Latihan Profesi Guru. Universitas Negeri Surabaya Nugrahani, Arifiyati and Fernando. 2006. Learning to Use English 2: An English Course for SMA and MA Students Year 2. Jakarta: PT Piranti Darma Kalokatama

Narrative
A narrative is a type of spoken or written text that tells a story of one character or more who face certain situations. There are various kinds of narratives such as fairy stories, mysteries, science fictions, romance, horror, etc. This type of text can be found in short story books, magazines, novels, movies etc. Narrative is popular because they present a plot which consists of complications and resolutions. They make people feel curious and anxious with the ends of the stories. The generic structure of narrative usually has four components (but the one is optional): (1) Orientation, (2) Complication (3) Resolution and (4) Re-orientation (it is optional). A.Generic Structure of Narrative

1. Orientation : sets the scene and introduces the participants (characters) of the story, the time and place the story happened (Who, what, when and where) 2. Complication : a crisis arises. A series of events in which the main character Attempts to solve the problem 3. Resolution : the crisis is resolved, for better or worse 4. Re-orientation: it is optional. The ending of story. It sometimes contains the solution B. Generic Features 1.A narrative focuses on specific participants. 2.There are many action verbs, verbal and mental processes 3.Direct and indirect speeches are often used 4.It usually uses Past Tense 5.Linking words are used, related with time 6.There are sometimes some dialog and the tense can change 7.Descriptive language is used to create listeners or readers imagination 8.Temporal conjunctions are also used. Now read this text of narrative!

When Love is Blind Orientation: There was once a beautiful girl living in a city. She was known as Shinta, a nice and friendly girl. She studied at a popular senior high school in the city. She always followed the trend of young people life style. She got dressed as how the trend was at the time. In her idea, western modern life was the ideal model for all people. She thought that everybody should be free to do anything he or she liked. She had a handsome boyfriend, Deo. Having a boy or girl friend was like a must for the young people in the city. Parents advice to get away from western culture was considered as old-

fashioned. Shinta loved his boyfriend very much. On Saturday evening they made a date, going to a theatre, caf or party. Shintas parents were worried about her. They have warned her but she ignored them. She thought, Though my parents dont agree with me, the show must go on. I love him very much. Whatever happens to me, I will face it. Yes love was blind. She got blind. Since then, she often quarreled with her father and mother. She became uncontrolled. She more often went out at night with the boyfriend. But, her parents could do nothing but only wait, see and pray. Complication: Days went by. One morning, Shinta got a serious stomachache and wanted to throw up. She got dizzy; she went to the bathroom and threw up some contents of her stomach. Shinta was very worried. Am I getting pregnant? she asked herself. Her worries grew stronger until she decided to buy a pregnancy tester in a shop. She tested her urine. And what a shock! The tester showed a positive pregnancy. Shinta got fainted in her room for some minutes. She was very afraid that her mother knew what happened. Shinta tried to hide her pregnancy. Her face got pale every day and looked unhealthy. She tried to contact Deo. Knowing her girlfriend got pregnant; he was also frustrated and didnt want to admit that he was the father of the baby. He tried to avoid meeting Shinta. He was not responsible for the consequence. He asked her to abort the baby, but she refused. The stomach became bigger and bigger, but she was successful to hide it from others sight. She was very depressed, and more and more. Four months later, in one evening, when she could no longer be able to keep the burden, she decided to do abortion. In her bedroom, she took a chair and jumped from it to the floor. When her feet touched the floor, a bloody clod of a red fetus covered with placenta was dropped, cried and move several seconds, then stopped moving. The blood was running out of her skirt, making the floor wet. Shinta could see what happened in front of her eyes, didnt know what to do. She tried to stand up. But then she got unconscious. The next day, in the morning when she didnt get out of the room, Shintas mother called her name several times. No answer made the mother open the room door and looked inside. She saw blood everywhere in the floor and walls. The horror was shocking her when she found her daughter lying near the dead small fetus. She was upset but could control herself.

Resolution: Shintas mother quickly took her to the hospital. But, its too late. On the way Shinta died before she got a help. On the same day, the news about Shinta spread throughout the city. Written by Cahyono

To

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concept

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narrative

below:

Purpose: To To deal Text Orientation Complication Resolution Language


with

amuse actual or

imaginative

or experiences of

in

entertain different ways Narrative

Organization

Features

of

Narrative

Focus on specific and individualized participants The use of material process (action verbs) The use of some behavioral and verbal processes The use of relational and mental processes The use of past tenses The use of temporal conjunctions and circumstances

Sources: Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

News item
News Item is used to inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important. We often find it in a newspaper because the passage often tells the readers about great, important, interesting, tragic, entertaining or fresh incident or events that all people should know about it Study the notes on news item below! Social function/ aim or purpose of the text: To inform the readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.

Generic structure: Newsworthy event(s): recount the event in summary form Background event(s): elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event Significant language features: Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline Uses of material processes to retell the event. (mental process is .) Use of projecting verbal process in sources stage Focus on circumstances Now read the example of news item text! Jakarta: the spreading of Lapindo hot mudflow post explosion of Pertaminas gas pipe forced the residents of Kedungbendo and Renokenongo villages to evacuate. The mudflow also flooded half of the Tanggulangin anggun Sejahtera housing complex in Sidoarjo. Mudflow of more than half a meter in depth flooded 66, 0448 houses in this complex. The residents were evacuate to Pasar baru, which was previously a shelter for 2, 605 families whose houses were flooded by mudflows, said Syaiful Illah, a deputy regent of Sidoarjo, yesterday (16 november 2006) From Tempos monitoring, the refugees came continuously by trucks, public transportations and motorcycles. They straightaway occupied the market, kiosks and stalls by spreading out mats and pillow for sleeping. Government officials appeared to be busy preparing mass kitchens and supplying rice, instant noodles, cooking oil and other needs. We took the food from Sidoarjo Social Service, said Syaiful Illah. There hasnt been any aid provided by Lapindo. In the mean time, the National team for mudflow relief in Sidoarjo has not been able to block mudflow in the gas pipe explosion Sources: Mufarichah, Yulia, Zumakhsin. 2007. Progress: A contextual Approach to Learning English. An English Textbook for Senior High School. Ganeca Exact: Bandung

News item
News Item is used to inform readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important. We often find it in a newspaper because the passage often tells the readers about great, important, interesting, tragic, entertaining or fresh incident or events that all people should know about it Study the notes on news item below!

Social function/ aim or purpose of the text: To inform the readers, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important. Generic structure: Newsworthy event(s): recount the event in summary form Background event(s): elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances Sources: comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the event Significant language features: Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline Uses of material processes to retell the event. (mental process is .) Use of projecting verbal process in sources stage Focus on circumstances Now read the example of news item text! Jakarta: the spreading of Lapindo hot mudflow post explosion of Pertaminas gas pipe forced the residents of Kedungbendo and Renokenongo villages to evacuate. The mudflow also flooded half of the Tanggulangin anggun Sejahtera housing complex in Sidoarjo. Mudflow of more than half a meter in depth flooded 66, 0448 houses in this complex. The residents were evacuate to Pasar baru, which was previously a shelter for 2, 605 families whose houses were flooded by mudflows, said Syaiful Illah, a deputy regent of Sidoarjo, yesterday (16 november 2006) From Tempos monitoring, the refugees came continuously by trucks, public transportations and motorcycles. They straightaway occupied the market, kiosks and stalls by spreading out mats and pillow for sleeping. Government officials appeared to be busy preparing mass kitchens and supplying rice, instant noodles, cooking oil and other needs. We took the food from Sidoarjo Social Service, said Syaiful Illah. There hasnt been any aid provided by Lapindo. In the mean time, the National team for mudflow relief in Sidoarjo has not been able to block mudflow in the gas pipe explosion Sources: Mufarichah, Yulia, Zumakhsin. 2007. Progress: A contextual Approach to Learning English. An English Textbook for Senior High School. Ganeca Exact: Bandung

What is Anecdote?

An anecdote is a type of spoken or written text that deals with past incidents. The function is to retell an account or story of unusual or amusing incident. The incident happened in the past. The purposes are sharing with others an usual or amusing incident and entertaining others. The generic structure of anecdote text usually has five components and one is optional: (1) Abstract, (2) Orientation, (3) Crisis, (4) Reaction and (5) Coda (optional) A. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. Abstract : Signals the RETELLING of an unusual or amusing incident 2. Orientation : Sets the scene 3. Crisis : Provides details of the unusual incident. 4. Reaction : Reaction to the crisis 5. Coda (optional) : Reflection on or evaluation of the incident B. Generic Features 1. It uses exclamation, rhetorical question and intensifiers (e.g. really, very, quite etc). They are used to point up the significance of the events. 2. It usually uses Simple Past Tense. 3. Past continuous tense is sometimes used 4. Use of temporal sequencers to show the sequence of story. They are: Before After When While until During As At that time At that moment After that After then Firstly Secondly Finally Now read an example of anecdote below! Guess what happened when there was fisherman who threw a big fish back into the water and keep only that small one? It is unusual incident, isnt? One morning, a man was crossing a narrow bridge. When he saw a fisherman under him on the shady bank of the deep smooth river he stopped to watch him quietly. He saw that the fisherman took it off the hook and caught a big fish. But he threw it back to water. Then he put his hook and line in again. After a minute he caught rather big fish. Again, he

threw it back into the river. Then the third time, he caught a small fish. He put it into his basket and started to get ready to go. The man on the bridge was very surprised, so he spoke to the fisherman. He asked why did he threw those beautiful big fishes back into the water and just kept only the small one. The fisherman looked up and answered, I only have a frying pan Oh poor fisherman!

To get better comprehension about anecdote text, here is the summary: 1. Social Function : to share with others an account of unusual, uncommon or amusing incident. 2. The text organization or generic structure of anecdote is a. ABSTRACT : signals the retelling of unusual, uncommon or amusing incident b. ORIENTATION : introduction or sets the scene c. CRISIS : provides details of unusual, uncommon or amusing incident d. INCIDENT : reaction to the CRISIS e. CODA : (OPTIONAL), a reflection or an evaluation of unusual, uncommon or amusing incident 3. The language features of anecdote text are: a. using exclamation (e.g great!, what a bad day!, a very strange incident! etc) b. using of rhetorical questions (e.g what do you like to do when you make wrong thing? , oh no, it is a stupid thing, isnt?) c. using intensifiers (e.g very, so + adjective , much etc) d. using material processes (e.g protected, employed, spoke etc) e. using temporal conjunctions (e.g then, afterwards, ever since, while, before, after etc). NOTES: Exclamations, rhetorical questions and intensifiers are used to point up the significant of the events or incidents. And Material processes and temporal conjunctions are used to tell what is going on or happened. Material processes are verbs that show us what happened and what someone do or what is done. Temporal conjunctions are conjunctions that show the time sequence of events.

Sources: Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung

Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

What is Recount Text?


In our life, time goes by until some of us die. We surely go through this life passing the time. During the whole of life, we have many happened experiences that we left behind. Sometimes we remember those experiences and sometimes we forget about them. In fact, we keep some of the events in our memory. They become our unforgettable experiences. Some are nice and some are bad experiences. What is Recount? A recount is a type of spoken or written text that deals with past experiences. The function is to retell some events that happened in the past for certain purposes; to inform and or to entertain the listeners or readers. A recount text has a generic structure, having three components (one is optional). They are: (1) Orientation, (2) Events and (3) Reorientation ( optional). Recounts are principally not the same as Narratives although both talk about past events. Narratives deal with problematic events which lead to a crisis or turning point which in turn finds a resolution while recounts do not have to come to a serious crisis or complication. A. Generic Structure of Recount Text 1. Orientation : an introduction that provides the setting and introduces participant 2. Events : account that tells what happened, in a sequence Event 1 Event 2 Event 3 Etc 3. Reorientation (optional) : Closing of events B. Generic Features of Recount text 1. The recount focuses on a sequence of events all of which relate to a particular occasion 2. It introduces specific participants 3. frequent uses of Simple Past Tense 4. Past continuous tense is sometimes used 5. Temporal sequencers are also used in the sentences to show the events. They are listed below: Before After When While until During As

At that time At that moment After that After then Firstly Secondly Finally Etc Now read this text! Title How could I Hide my face? Orientation: One afternoon a month ago, I was very hungry. As I didnt cook anything to eat lunch, I decided to go to a caf about a hundred meters from my boarding house. Events: I changed my trousers and shirt then left for the caf by myself because my roommate hadnt come yet from the school. As soon as I got to the caf, I ordered the meal with fresh vegetable soup that seemed very delicious in the hot day, and also a glass of tea. When they were served, I ate up eagerly the meal and soup and drank the tea. I was satisfied and it was the time to pay. I grabbed my trousers pocket and I was shocked. My hands didnt feel there was any wallet there. I felt so embarrassed that I didnt dare to see the faces of the customers. My body stayed still on the chair and began sweating. I tried to control myself in front of the people. I collected my courage to come to the cashier to say something. Feeling uneasy, I told her that I left my wallet in the other trousers at the boarding house and promised to take it and come back soon. Some customers looked at me. I thought I must hide my face. She nodded and said it was not a matter. Reorientation: Finally, I ran to the house and got back with the money. I gave it to her and came out of the caf. What a relief! It should not happen again to me Read this Recount text! Last Idul Fitri Last Idul Fitri on the first day following Romadhon, all the family woke up early to break our fast. First we prayed together and then we ate the special meal prepared by mum and our aunties. Around 10 am some family members came to visit, and later after lunch we visited all our neighborhood friends. We each asked to be forgiven for any transgressions in the past year.

On the second and third day, we went to our grandparents house. We asked for their forgiveness also, and spend a relaxing time visiting other relatives and nearby tourist sites such as the beach and few temples. note: this passage tells us about a past events of writer that is told chronologically

To make it clear, please remember the concept or recount below: RECOUNT

Recounts tell the reader what happened. They retell a past event e.g. a visit to a farm two months ago. Recounts begin by telling the reader who was involved, what happened, where this event tool place and when it happened. This is called the orientation. The sequence of events is then described in some sort of order e.g. time. There may be a reorientation at the end which summarizes the event. Writing recount: When writing a recounts you should: Focus on individual people, i.e. use the words, I, or we Use words which indicate when, (e.g. after lunch) and where the events took place (e.g. in the afternoon) Write it in the past tense Use action verbs e.g. helped, walked, enjoyed Sources: Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung Mufarichah, Yulia, Zumakhsin. 2007. Progress: A contextual Approach to Learning English. An English Textbook for Senior High School. Ganeca Exact: Bandung Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

Commentary Text
A commentary text is not a summary of an issue. This text consists of 90 % from the writers idea or opinion. A commentary text structure consists of three (3) components. They are: 1. Title 2. General Statement 3. Stepped explanation Now read the example of a commentary text! TV Films Must Be Censored There are too many movies on TV featuring vulgarity, violence, superstition and indecency. Scenes depicting violence may inspire high school students to do likewise in a brawl, for example. Films selected for broadcast should inspire viewers to be persistent in their struggle for better life, and should not feature mentally disturbed people. They should present the beauty of Indonesia and the diversity of its traditional culture. Most importantly, TV films should have plausible plots. Given the above explanation, it is necessary to subject all TV movies to tight censorship as otherwise these films will only create a permissive and violent society. Rahmadhi Pandaan, Pasuruan Read also a commentary text below! Title: : Cheating with Mobile Phones General statement: As police expand their investigation into cheating in the state run college entrance exam by using mobile phones, people deplore the low morality among the growing generation and many also condemn the absurdity of the current education system that drove student to do such a thing. Strong blame should also be laid on local authorities who failed to prevent such a misdeed, long anticipated in the overdeveloping information technology environment of this country. Explanation: About 100 students in Gwangju have been "confirmed" as having been involved in the cheating, some transmitting the answer, some receiving them, others coordinating the illicit communications outside testing places. It is unfortunate that dishonest means were used by students who wanted to get a higher score in the state test and enter a college that is beyond their academic ability.

But what dismay us are that such scandals as this and other scandals will continue to take place around us until and unless the nation is freed from its obsession with college diplomas. To make better understanding about a commentary text! See the model of text below! Filthy Terminal The Kampung Rambutan bus station is very poor condition. Street vendors are found virtually everywhere in this terminal. The restaurant inside the bus station carelessly tosses out its dirty water as it pleases. The garbage is everywhere. The whole place stinks. The whole station is the very picture of filth As every public transportation, vehicle that enters this station has to pay a fee, there is, in fact, a source of money to pay people to keep the terminal clean.

Sources: Anwar, Aisyah, Sophian Fanany, Desmal Dardjis. 2006. English Grade XII, Science and Social Programme. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara Prasetyaningsih, Purwati, Sri, Endang, Yani, Wiannastiti, Melania. 2005. English For A Better Life : English for Language Students. Bandung : Pakar Raya Pakarnya Pustaka

What is Discussion text?


A discussion text is a kind of text to present at least two points of view about an issue. The function is to explore various perspectives before coming to an informed decision. Besides, to present information and opinions about more than one side of an issue (for points and against points) The structure usually consists of three components. They are: 1. Issue, an opening statement presenting the issue 2. Arguments for (pro) and arguments against (contra) or statement of different point of view about an issue (point and elaboration), and 3. Conclusion or recommendation a discussion text focuses on generic human and generic non-human participants. Language features: 1. The use of general nouns e.g. abortion, formalin, alcohol, smoking, cloning etc 2. The use of relating verbs e.g. is, am, are etc 3. The use of thinking verbs e.g. think, feel, hope, believe etc

4. The use of additive connectives e.g. in addition, furthermore, besides etc. 5. The use of contrastive connectives e.g. although, even if, nevertheless etc 6. The use of causal connectives e.g. because, because of, due to etc 7. The use of modalities e.g. must, perhaps, should etc 8. The use of adverb of manner e.g. hopefully, deliberately etc Now read this example of discussion text! The Advantages and the Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy Issue: Nuclear energy is commonly offered as an alternative to overcome the crisis of energy. The debate of whether the use of nuclear energy is an appropriate choice has not come to an end. Some people agree with the utilization of it because of its benefits. Some others, however, disagree because of its risks to the environment. Argument pro: Those who agree with the operation of nuclear reactors usually argue that nuclear energy is the only feasible choice to answer the ever-increasing energy needs. In their opinion, the other sources of energy: oil, coal, and liquid natural gas are not renewable and safe, while nuclear energy can be sustainable when produced in a safe way. Argument "contra": However, people who disagree with the use of nuclear energy point out that the waste of nuclear products can completely destroy the environment and human lives. A meltdown in a reactor, for example, usually results in the contamination of the surrounding soil and water. Take for example, the blow up of the nuclear reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Russia twenty years ago. The serious contamination imperiled people and the environment severely. conclusion: It is obvious that nuclear energy should be avoided because it really endangers the environment but what about a less polluted energy instead of nuclear energy? Is there any alternative energy to overcome the crisis of energy?

To make you clear about discussion text, read the Short Description about Discussion Text! Social Function: To present (at least) two points of view about an issue.

Generic structure: 1. issue consists of statement and preview 2. arguments for (pro) and against (contra) or statements of different point of view consists of point and elaboration 3. conclusion or recommendation significant language features: focus on generic human and non human participants use of material processes (e.g has produced, have developed, to feed, etc), relational processes (e.g. could have, cause, are), and mental processes (e.g . feel, think, etc). use comparative, contrastive and consequential conjunction Resources: Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

Procedure Text
Procedure is the set of steps which should be completed in the right sequence to get the goal. In our daily life, we often have to perform some steps to make or get something done. For example, early in the morning, you help your mother prepare cups of tea for all members of your family. In making cups of tea, you have to follow certain procedure in order to get a nice drink. Most of our daily activities are related with procedures. That is why, you should understand what a procedure text is, how to make and use it. The generic structure of procedure has three principal components namely (1) the goal, (2) materials and (3) steps. A. Generic Structure of procedure 1. Goal : Title of the text (especially for a recipe) 2. Materials : Optional, not for all procedural texts 3. Steps : a series steps oriented to achieving the Goal B. Generic Features 1. The use of Simple Present Tense, often in an imperative form e.g. Add some sugar, prepare it,. 2. The use mainly of temporal conjunction (or numbering to indicate sequence especially in written text) a. As the sentence introducers (sequencers) especially in spoken text: First Firstly Second Secondly Then Thirdly After that Afterwards

Finally Lastly e.g. Firstly, prepare some water! b. As time introducers, especially in written text before After When While until During e.g. While you are boiling the water, grind the chilies, onions and salt Now read this text! Goal: How to activate a Handphone Nowadays, we need a handphone to connect to our colleagues. We can get it easily in the shop. When we buy it we shall get a handphone, a SIM card, a battery and a charger steps: This is the way to activate the handphone: First, open the cover of the handphone Second, insert the SIM card after being installed Third, insert the battery inside Fourth, close the battery with a cover of handphone Fifth, connect the lead from the charger to the bottom of the phone. Sixth, connect the charger to an AC wall outlet. Charging the battery supplied with the phone may take four up to six hours. Seventh, when the battery is fully charged, the bar stops scrolling. Disconnect the charger from the AC outlet and the phone. Then, we are ready to make a phone call. Read this procedure text again! Goal: How to boil an egg Do you know how to boil an egg? Well, this is the way! steps First, heat a saucepan of water on the stove. Then put the egg in the boiling water. After that, heat it until it boils. Next, cook it for three minutes. Dont leave the eggs until it gets burnt. Now, the egg is ready to serve. Finally, serve it with pepper powder and salt To make it clear, please remember the concept of procedure below: Purpose:

Procedures help us do a task or make something. They can be a set of instruction or direction Text Organization: Title Goal Materials and equipment needed (optional) Steps Language Features: The use of imperative Include technical terms Use words that tell the reader how, when and where to perform the task

Sources: Cahyono, Kristiawan Dwi and Eka Purnama.2006. Communicative Competence 2B: A course in Acquiring English Communicative Competence, For Senior High School Level, Grade XI Semester 2. Jombang: CV Karunia Agung Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year I, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

Review Text
A review text is a flexible genre which may vary according to the nature of the creative work being worked on, the intended audience, and the aspects of the work considered worth commenting on. The purpose of review text is to analyze and evaluate some creative works, and to inform people about its strengths and weaknesses. The basic structure of a review text consists of four parts or components, they are: 1. Title Briefly identifies the subject of the review in some interesting way, and generally is linked to the reviewers name. 2. Identification of the work Identifies: The name of the creative work which is the subject of the review. What kind of work it is (such as film, movie, novel, research investigation, books, cassette etc) Its author(s), publisher or producer, and date of production. Not all these details are necessary.

3. Evaluation of the work The reviewer describes particular aspects of the work, and offers their opinion regarding them, their quality, effectiveness, and so forth. 4. Conclusions/ recommendations The reviewer summarizes their assessment of the value of the work, and makes recommendations regarding how others should regard the work. Now read an example of review text of a film! If you like a war film, "We Were Soldiers" is the film to see. It is starred by Mel Gibson and directed by Randall Wallace. Mel Gibson plays the leading role as Lieutenant Colonel Hal Moore. This film is about American heroism in Vietnam war. Lt. Col. Hal Moore leads a battalion of US army in Vietnam. Most of his troops are young men that are innocent to war. His mission is to seize a strategic valley named La Drang or the valley of death. To motivate his young troops, he said, "I swear when we go into the battle I will be the first to step on the field and I will be the last to step off. I will leave no one behinddead or alive. We will come home together". All the troops go to the battle with braveness. The 400 US army fight with 2000 Vietnamese soldiers. Even though he fails to take control the valley, he can show his loyalty to his country and to each other. This multi-million production has some breathtaking scenes. It is a film full of suspense. The special effects and stunts are spectacular and create an atmosphere of tension. Dont miss watching it. The text above is called a review text. This text analyses and evaluates about a film.

Now read an example of review text of a book! Title : Science through the Ages Title in Indonesian : Sains dari Masa ke Masa Author : Janice VanCleave Published by : Pakar Raya, Bandung Price : Rp. 20.000,00 You will discover the answer to the above questions and many other fascinating questions when you take a journey through science history with Janice VanCleave as your guide. Packed with fun facts, activities and experiments, Janis VanCleaves Science through the Ages introduces you to the amazing stories behind some of the greatest scientific discoveries of our time. Each chapter provides easy-to-follow instructions for hands on experiments, as well as clear explanation that reveal the many science has helped people- from ancient times right up through today! You will find out how to use Stone Ages tools to make art, build a simple telescope, look at your own blood vessels, construct a stethoscope, create a model of Galileos gas thermometer and much more. As with all of Janice VanCleavess books, the contents or materials are safe,

inexpensive and easily found around the house. So take a time traveling tour of discovery and get ready for hours and hours of fascinating science fun at home or in classroom. The text above is called a review text. This text analyses and evaluates about a book. The other topic of review text can be a new launching album of a music band, novel, tools etc. To make better understanding about review text, now read again the concept! Purpose: to summarize, analyze and respond to art works or To critique an art work or event for a public audience Text organization/ generic structure of the text: 1. Orientation Background information on the text 2. Interpretative recount Summary of an art work (including characters and plot) 3. Evaluation Concluding statement: judgement, opinion or recommendation 4. Evaluative summation The last opinion consisting of the appraisal or punch line of the art work being reviewed. Language features: The use of complex and compound sentences The use of adjectives and phrases of appraisal The use of metaphorical expressions The use of noun phrases Sources: Prasetyaningsih, Purwati, Sri, Endang, Yani, Wiannastiti, Melania. 2005. English For A Better Life : English for Language Students. Bandung : Pakar Raya Pakarnya Pustaka Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XII, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga

Spoof
Spoof has a social function. It retells an event with a humorous twist. The generic (schematic) structure of a spoof text is below: 1. Orientation : sets the scene 2. Event(s) : tell what happened 3. Twist : provide the punch line

language features: focus on individual participants use of material processes circumstances of time and place use of past tense Notes: Material processes are verbs that show activities which can be seen, e.g. write, eat, walk etc Material processes consist of DOING and HAPPENING. DOING : create, make, build, develop, send, throw, strew, pour, dissolve etc HAPPENING : move, fall, rise, come, go, soften, harden, melt etc See the example of a spoof text below: The plane was late and detectives waited at the airport all morning. They expected a valuable parcel of diamonds from South Africa. A few hours earlier, someone had told the police that thieves would try to steal the diamonds. When the plane arrived some of detectives waited inside the main building while others waited on the airfield. Two men took the parcel off the plane and carried into the Custom House. While two detectives kept guard at the door, two others opened the parcel. To their surprise, the precious parcel was full of stones and sand! Read the other example of spoof text! Green, Pink and Yellow Orientation: Can you name the colors in English? Yes, you are right. They are blue, red, yellow, green, white, brown, purple, black and so on. I have a funny story about the colours. Do you want to know it? ok let me tell you. Events: One day, an English teacher talked about colours to his students. After he had been explaining, he asked his students, Who can make a sentence using the word, Green, Pink and Yellow? James, the smartest student in the class quickly raised his hand and answered, When the yellow morning Sun comes, I see a beautiful girl wearing a pink clothe walking through the green grass. Excellent. James, you are a very good student the teacher said. Twist: Me, me Sir. Johny, the lazy student in the class said while raising his hand. And then he said, I heard telephone ringing green, green, then I pink up the receiver and I said, Yellow, who is speaking there? Now read again the concept of spoof text!

Purpose : to tell an event with a humorous twist Text organization orientation : (who were involved in the story, when, and where) Events : (tell what happened in chronological order) Twist : (provide the funniest part of the story) Language features: The use of action verbs (e.g. walked, laughed, ran away etc) The use of connectives (e.g. first. Then, finally etc) The use of adverbial phrases of time and place (e.g. in the garden, two days ago) The use of the simple past tense (e.g. he walked away from the village)

Resources: Practice and progress, L.A Hill Sudarwati and Eudia Grace.2007. Look Ahead: An English Course for Senior High School Students Year XI, Science and Social Study Program. Jakarta: Erlangga